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New Swallowing Evaluation Using Piezoelectricity in Normal Individuals
This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the piezoelectric waveform latency, hyoid bone movement, surface electromyogram (sEMG), and the pharyngeal transit time (PTT) during swallowing. Forty-one healthy subjects were divided into three age groups: younger (20–39 years, n = 8), middle-aged (40–59 years, n = 9), and older (60–79 years, n = 24). Motion analysis of the hyoid bone using videofluorography (VF), waveform analysis of the front neck using piezoelectric films, and sEMG of the suprahyoid muscle group were performed simultaneously. Latencies...
Source: Dysphagia - October 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Electromyography of Swallowing with Fine Wire Intramuscular Electrodes in Healthy Human: Amplitude Difference of Selected Hyoid Muscles
We examined selected hyoid muscles using fine wire intramuscular electromyography (EMG) during swallowing of four food consistencies. Thirteen healthy adults were studied using videofluorography and EMG of the anterior belly of digastric (ABD), geniohyoid (GH), sternohyoid (SH), and masseter (MA; surface electrodes) while ingesting thin liquid (three trials) and solid food of three consistencies (banana, tofu, and cookie, three trials each). After rectification, integration, and normalization, peak EMG amplitudes for each muscle in each trial were measured. Hyoid displacements were measured in two dimensions. Data were ana...
Source: Dysphagia - October 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Swallowing Disorders in Sjögren’s Syndrome: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life
Abstract This epidemiological investigation examined the prevalence, risk factors, and quality-of-life effects of swallowing disorders in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). One hundred and one individuals with primary or secondary SS (94 females, 7 males; mean age 59.4, SD = 14.1) were interviewed regarding the presence, nature, and impact of swallowing disorders and symptoms. Associations among swallowing disorders and symptoms, select medical and social history factors, SS disease severity, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were examined. The pre...
Source: Dysphagia - October 19, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Recline Exercise: Comparisons with the Head Lift Exercise in Healthy Adults
Abstract The aim of this investigation was to examine the comparative effectiveness of the new Recline Exercise (RE) and the traditional Head Lift Exercise (Shaker Exercise) on submental muscle activity, tongue strength, and perceived exertion in 40 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.5 years, SD 2.6 years). Both groups participated in a 6-week exercise regimen. Outcome variables evaluated pre- and post-exercise included: duration and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity during swallowing measured via surface electromyography (sEMG); anterior and posterior isometric lingual pressures mea...
Source: Dysphagia - September 19, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Comments on Selected Recent Dysphagia Literature
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - September 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Biomechanical Study of Hyoid Bone and Laryngeal Movements During Swallowing Comparing the Blom Low Profile Voice Inner Cannula and Passy-Muir One Way Tracheotomy Tube Speaking Valves
Abstract The aim of this prospective, consecutive, cohort study was to investigate the biomechanical effects, if any, of the Blom low profile voice inner cannula and Passy-Muir one-way tracheotomy tube speaking valves on movement of the hyoid bone and larynx during swallowing. Ten adult patients (8 male, 2 female) with an age range of 61–89 years (mean 71 years) participated. Criteria for inclusion were ≥18 years of age, English speaking, and ability to tolerate both changing to a Blom tracheotomy tube and placement of a one-way tracheotomy tube speaking valve with a fully deflated tracheot...
Source: Dysphagia - September 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Relationships Among Rheological, Sensory Texture, and Swallowing Pressure Measurements of Hydrocolloid-Thickened Fluids
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among three categories of measurements (rheological, sensory texture, and swallowing pressure) from fluids thickened to two different viscosities with 15 different hydrocolloids. Fluids at viscosities of 300 and 1500 cP (at 30 s−1) were targeted because these are the viscosities corresponding to the barium standards used in radiographic dysphagia diagnosis. Within the low viscosity (nectar) fluids (300 cP), the sensory properties thickness, stickiness, adhesiveness, mouth coating, and number of swallows were highly positively correlated with ...
Source: Dysphagia - August 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Physiologic Impact of Unilateral Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) Lesion on Infant Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Performance
Abstract Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in neonates, a complication of patent ductus arteriosus corrective surgery, leads to aspiration and swallowing complications. Severity of symptoms and prognosis for recovery are variable. We transected the RLN unilaterally in an infant mammalian animal model to characterize the degree and variability of dysphagia in a controlled experimental setting. We tested the hypotheses that (1) both airway protection and esophageal function would be compromised by lesion, (2) given our design, variability between multiple post-lesion trials would be minimal, and (3) variability...
Source: Dysphagia - August 19, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Investigations of Shape and Reproducibility of Oropharyngeal Swallowing: Interaction with Bolus Volume and Age
We describe a new approach to the electrophysiological study of swallowing based on computed semi-automatic analyses. Our findings provide insight into some previously uninvestigated aspects of oropharyngeal swallowing physiology, considered in relation to bolus volume and age. The new electrophysiological measures here described could prove useful in the clinical setting, as it is likely that they could be differently affected in patients with different kinds of dysphagia. (Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - August 14, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Feasibility and Outcome of Oro-esophageal Tube Feeding in Patients with Various Etiologies
Abstract The oro-esophageal tube (OE tube) is widely used in dysphagia patients although its success rate for transition to oral feeding is reported only in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of OE tube feeding for patients with dysphagia resulting from various etiologies. The authors reviewed the medical records of 1995 dysphagic patients that had undergone videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in a tertiary hospital from April 2002 through December 2009. Of these, 97 patients were recommended to use OE tube feeding based on the VFSS findings. Follow-up VFSS wer...
Source: Dysphagia - August 13, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Evaluation of swallowing function after supracricoid laryngectomy as a primary or salvage procedure
Abstract The primary functional issues following conservative therapy for advanced laryngeal cancer concern swallowing. Here, we evaluated the recovery of swallowing after supracricoid partial laryngectomy (SCL) in patients with primary or recurrent laryngeal cancer. We evaluated the swallowing recovery in 27 SCL patients through oropharyngoesophageal scintigraphy, and we evaluated their quality of life using EORTC questionnaires. Four patients underwent total laryngectomy during follow-up. Patients who retained their larynges were able to feed without nutritional support and without tracheostoma. The only signifi...
Source: Dysphagia - August 13, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Secondary Voice Restoration After Laryngotracheal Separation (LTS) for Dysphagia with Intractable Aspiration
In this study, we present a modified laryngotracheal separation (LTS) technique that, we believe, offers multiple advantages compared to standard TL. After reviewing the medical records of 35 patients with intractable aspiration who have undergone LTS, we describe the surgical technique and present the postoperative result. In a second surgical procedure about two months following LTS, we aimed to achieve voice restoration by placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. Intractable aspiration was successfully treated in all patients. Placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis during a second operation was successful in 15...
Source: Dysphagia - August 12, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Propagation Curve and Velocity of Swallowing Pressure in Healthy Young Adults
The objective of this study is to construct a propagation curve and determine propagation velocities in young healthy adults examined using a 2.64-mm-diameter high-resolution manometry catheter with 36 circumferential sensors; to explore data reproducibility; and to determine whether the swallowing pressure (SP) propagation velocity correlated with bolus volume. Repeated measures with subjects serving as their own controls. Thirty healthy subjects (average age 25.3 years) swallowed saliva and 2, 5, and 10 mL of cold water to determine the maximum SP from the soft palate to the cervical esophagus. The SP propagati...
Source: Dysphagia - August 7, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Dysphagia Research Society Annual Meeting and Post-Graduate Course
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - August 1, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Identifying Patterns of FEES-Derived Swallowing Trajectories Using Group-Based Trajectory Model
Abstract The present study delineates and visualizes swallowing trajectories along seven swallow trials in dysphagic patients using group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). This model facilitates the recognition of swallowing functional categories, estimates their frequency of occurrence, and enhances the understanding of swallowing dynamics. Two hundred and five dysphagic patients underwent a standardized FEES examination protocol. Five ordinal variables were blindly assessed for each swallow by two observers independently. GBTM analysis was conducted to find and characterize trajectories of FEES responses. For mo...
Source: Dysphagia - July 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Hypersialorrhea in Wilson’s Disease
This study confirmed the hypothesis of a multifactorial origin of hypersialorrhea in patients who have been diagnosed in Wilson’s disease. It was essential to evaluate drooling with a multidisciplinary consultation to better identify the underlying mechanisms and to implement strategies for speech therapy and therapeutic adaptation. (Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Swallowing Tablets and Capsules Increases the Risk of Penetration and Aspiration in Patients with Stroke-Induced Dysphagia
Abstract We evaluated the prevalence of difficulties swallowing solid dosage forms in patients with stroke-induced dysphagia and whether swallowing tablets/capsules increases their risk of penetration and aspiration. Concurrently, we explored whether routinely performed assessment tests help identify patients at risk. Using video endoscopy, we evaluated how 52 patients swallowed four different placebos (round, oval, and oblong tablets and a capsule) with texture-modified water (TMW, pudding consistency) and milk and rated their swallowing performance according to the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS). Additionall...
Source: Dysphagia - July 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Esophageal Involvement in Multiple System Atrophy
Abstract The prevalence of esophageal involvement and its impact on clinical manifestations in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) remains unknown. We recruited 16 consecutive patients with dysphagia associated with MSA (MSA group) and 16 consecutive patients with dysphagia associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS group). We assessed the presence or absence of food stagnation within the esophagus using videofluorography. Food stagnation within the esophagus was observed in 16 patients (100 %; 7 severe, 9 mild) in the MSA group and in 4 patients (25 %; 4 mild) in the ALS group (P 
Source: Dysphagia - July 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Speech Pathology Reliability for Stroke Swallowing Screening Items
This study examined speech-language pathologists’ (SLPs) reliability in interpreting screening items. Swallowing screening was completed in 75 individuals admitted with stroke symptoms. Screening items evaluated were lethargy, dysarthria, wet voice unrelated to swallowing, abnormal volitional cough, and cough, throat clear, wet voice after swallowing, and inability to continuously drink with ingestion of 5 and 90 ml water. Two SLPs, each with more than 10 years of experience, made simultaneous independent judgments of the same observations obtained from the screening. Overall, generally high agreement was i...
Source: Dysphagia - July 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Comments on Selected Recent Dysphagia Literature
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effects of Age and Bolus Volume on Velocity of Hyolaryngeal Excursion in Healthy Adults
This study evaluated the effects of age and bolus volume on the velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion during swallowing in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers were grouped into three age bands (young: 20–35 years, middle age: 36–55 years, older: 56 ≥ years). All subjects swallowed 5 and 20 mL of thin liquid during fluoroscopic recording. Fluoroscopic images were extracted for each swallow representing the onset and maximum excursion positions of the hyoid and larynx. Superior and anterior excursion distance (excursion magnitude) and the time difference between rest and ...
Source: Dysphagia - July 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Effect of Bolus Consistency and Sex on Electrophysiological Measures of Hyolaryngeal Muscle Activity During Swallowing
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bolus consistency and sex on the activity of the submandibular hyolaryngeal muscles during swallowing. Twenty young, healthy adults (10 males, 10 females) swallowed four types of bolus material (thin liquid, thick liquid, pudding, and cookie) while being measured with surface electromyography. Measurements of peak contraction amplitude and contraction duration were computed from recorded electromyographic signals. Results from statistical analyses revealed a significant effect of bolus consistency on measures of peak contraction amplitude, but not...
Source: Dysphagia - July 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Dysphagia Caused by Chronic Laryngeal Edema
Abstract A rare case of a young female with chronic diffuse laryngeal edema causing severe swallowing difficulty is presented. The patient was previously treated with antibiotics and steroids with no improvement. Diagnosis was made with biopsy of the epiglottis under local anesthesia in the office. (Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 7, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Role of the Modified Barium Swallow Study and Esophagram in Patients with Globus Sensation
Abstract Globus sensation (GS) is a common benign finding that is often associated with frequent throat clearing and is commonly a result of laryngopharyngeal reflux. The primary objective of this investigation was to examine the role of the modified barium swallow study (MBSS) with esophagram in the diagnosis and management patients who present with chief complaints of a GS. We hypothesize that these radiographic swallow studies do not add clinically significant information in the investigation of this common complaint. Retrospective chart review of patients with chief complaints of GS between 2000 and 2009 who u...
Source: Dysphagia - June 26, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Videoendoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing After Thyroidectomy: 7 and 60 Days
Abstract Deglutition complaints are frequent after thyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to follow-up on patients with thyroidectomy indication to compare the videoendoscopic evaluation of swallowing on the seventh day (early postoperative, EPO) and on the 60th day after thyroidectomy, (late postoperative, LPO) and to compare patients that evolved with normal laryngeal mobility (NLM) and abnormal laryngeal mobility (ALM). Nasofibroscopic evaluation was performed preoperatively (PRE), on the EPO and LPO. Two groups were compared: ALM and NLM. The majority of people were women, age bracket 46–65, who un...
Source: Dysphagia - June 19, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Measuring Outcomes for Dysphagia: Validity and Reliability of the European Portuguese Eating Assessment Tool (P-EAT-10)
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the European Portuguese version of the EAT-10 (P-EAT-10). This research was conducted in three phases: (i) cultural and linguistic adaptation; (ii) feasibility and reliability test; and (iii) validity tests. The final sample was formed by a cohort of 520 subjects. The P-EAT-10 index was compared for socio-demographic and clinic variables. It was also compared for both dysphagic and non-dysphagic groups as well as for the results of the 3Oz wst. Lastly, the P-EAT-10 scores were correlated with the EuroQol Group Portuguese EQ-5D i...
Source: Dysphagia - June 15, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale: An Anatomically Defined and Image-Based Tool
Abstract The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale was developed, standardized, and validated to provide reliable, anatomically defined, and image-based assessment of post-swallow pharyngeal residue severity as observed during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). It is a five-point ordinal rating scale based on residue location (vallecula and pyriform sinus) and amount (none, trace, mild, moderate, and severe). Two expert judges reviewed a total of 261 FEES evaluations and selected a no residue exemplar and three exemplars each of trace, mild, moderate, and severe vallecula and pyriform s...
Source: Dysphagia - June 6, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Effect of Bolus Consistency on Hyoid Velocity in Healthy Swallowing
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether measures of hyoid velocity increase when swallowing liquids of thicker consistency at a constant volume. A gender-balanced sample of 20 healthy young participants (mean age 31.5) each swallowed 3 boluses of 5 ml volume in 3 consistencies (ultrathin, thin, and nectar-thick barium). Using frame-by-frame tracking of hyoid position, we identified the onset and peak of the hyoid movement and derived measures of velocity (i.e., distance in anatomically normalized units, i.e., % of the C2-4 vertebral distance, divided by duration in ms) for the X, Y, and XY mov...
Source: Dysphagia - June 5, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients
In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue–pharynx–larynx–upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphag...
Source: Dysphagia - June 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Use of Thickened Liquids to Manage Feeding Difficulties in Infants: A Pilot Survey of Practice Patterns in Canadian Pediatric Centers
This study aimed to survey feeding clinicians working in major Canadian pediatric centers to identify current practice patterns for use of thickened liquids in managing feeding difficulties of infants and to justify the need for standardization of this practice. A web-based pilot survey was developed using Fluidsurveys software. The questionnaire contained 37 questions targeting the process of prescribing thickeners, choice of thickener, awareness of issues, and inconsistencies raised in the literature about thickener use and how to address them. A total of 69 questionnaire responses were analyzed using descriptive statist...
Source: Dysphagia - May 29, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Effect of Radiation Dose on Swallowing: Evaluation of Aspiration and Kinematics
We examined the relationship between (1) radiation dose and swallowing temporal kinematics, and (2) between PAS and swallowing kinematics in these patients. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 41 patients following radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer were analyzed for thin liquid boluses. Timing measures included duration of laryngeal vestibule closure (DLVC), duration to maximum hyoid elevation (DTMHE), duration to cricopharyngeal opening (DTCPO), and pharyngeal transit time (PTT). PAS was extracted for each swallow and considered normal if ≤2. As minimum and mean dose to the geniohyoid increased, DTMHE, DTC...
Source: Dysphagia - May 29, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Dynamic Image Quality Evaluation of Videofluoroscopy Images: Considerations for Telepractice Applications
This study evaluates the extent of change observed in image quality when videofluoroscopic images are transmitted from a digital fluoroscopy system to (a) current clinical equipment (KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation, and b) four different telepractice system configurations. The telepractice system configurations consisted of either a local C20 or C60 Cisco TelePresence System (codec unit) connected to the digital fluoroscopy system and linked to a second remote C20 or C60 Cisco TelePresence System via a network running at speeds of either 2, 4 or 6 megabits per second (Mbit/s). Image quality was tested using the NE...
Source: Dysphagia - May 26, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Comments on Selected Recent Dysphagia Literature
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - May 19, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Acknowledgment of Reviewers 2014
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - May 15, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Temporal and Physiologic Measurements of Deglutition in the Upright and Supine Position with Videofluoroscopy (VFS) in Healthy Subjects
We report temporal swallow measures, physiologic variables, and swallow safety of upright and supine swallowing in healthy subjects using videofluoroscopy (VFS). Twenty healthy subjects ages 21–40 underwent VFS study upright and supine. Subjects were viewed in the sagittal plane and swallowed 5 mL liquid and pudding barium. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, pharyngeal response time, pharyngeal transit time, and total swallow duration were measured. Penetration/aspiration scores and 14 MBSImP variables were analyzed in both positions. All subjects completed swallows supine, although one aspirated on ...
Source: Dysphagia - May 12, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Rotigotine Transdermal Patch Improves Swallowing in Dysphagic Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Abstract Abnormal swallowing, dysphagia, is a potentially fatal symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is characterized by frequent silent aspiration, an unrecognized risk of suffocation and aspiration pneumonia. Several studies have reported that the injection of apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, alleviated dysphagia in some patients with PD. The effects of other antiparkinson medications against dysphagia remain controversial. Rotigotine is another dopamine agonist with non-oral administration, i.e., a transdermal patch. Its noninvasiveness seems to render this medicine even more suitable than apomorphine ...
Source: Dysphagia - May 12, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Penetration–Aspiration: Is Their Detection in FEES ® Reliable Without Video Recording?
Abstract Penetration–aspiration is known as the main finding in deglutition-disordered patients with implications for diagnostics and therapeutic management. Reliable detection of penetration–aspiration is given with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES®) as one of the gold standards in instrumental swallowing evaluation. The advice to implement video recording in FEES® to assure quality in identifying penetration–aspiration is often ignored, especially in bed-side settings. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare reliability and validity in detecting penetration–...
Source: Dysphagia - May 6, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Electromagnetic Sensor-Guided Enteral Access Systems: A Literature Review
Abstract Enteral feeding is the nutritional support of choice for acutely ill patients with functional gastrointestinal tracts who are unable to swallow. Several benefits including reduced mortality and length of hospital stay have been associated with early initiation of enteral feeding. However, misplacement of conventional nasoenteric tubes is relatively common and can result in complications including pneumothorax. In addition, the need to confirm the position by X-ray can delay the start of using the tube. Eliminating these delays can help patients start feeding, and minimise the adverse impact on initiating ...
Source: Dysphagia - May 6, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Comment on “Decreased Tongue Pressure is Associated with Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Dysphagia in the Elderly”
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - May 3, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Dysphagia Across Ages
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - May 1, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Pharyngeal Constriction and Post-swallow Residue
Abstract Pharyngeal constriction has been proposed as a parameter that may distinguish functional from impaired swallows. We employed anatomically normalized pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction, and the ratio of this measure to area at rest, and explored the association between these measures and post-swallow residue using the normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS). Videofluoroscopy data for 5 ml boluses of 22 % (w/v) liquid barium were analyzed from 20 healthy young adults and 40 patients with suspected neurogenic dysphagia. The frames of maximum pharyngeal constriction and po...
Source: Dysphagia - April 29, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effect of Electrical Stimulation of the Suprahyoid Muscles in Brain-Injured Patients with Dysphagia
Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the suprahyoid muscle is effective compared to that of the infrahyoid muscle in brain-injured patients with dysphagia. A total of 132 patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, or brain tumor in 2 university hospitals were allocated to 2 groups: those who received electrical stimulation therapy (EST) on the suprahyoid muscles (SM group, n = 66) and those who received EST with one pair of electrodes on the suprahyoid muscle and the other pair on the infrahyoid muscle (SI group, n = 66). Patients...
Source: Dysphagia - April 27, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Dysphagia Subsequent to Stroke: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis
The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) in patients with dysphagia subsequent to stroke. A systematic search of the literature published by Medline (January 1, 1976 through June 21, 2013), EMBASE (January 1, 1985 through June 21, 2013), and the Cochrane Library (January 1, 1987 through June 21, 2013) was conducted for all relevant articles related to NIBS, dysphagia, and cerebrovascular disorders (CVD). Two reviewers (S.N.Y and S.B.P) independently evaluated the eligibility of retrieved data according to the selection criteria and assessed methodological qua...
Source: Dysphagia - April 27, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Case of Isolated Sudden Onset Dysphagia
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - April 12, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effects of Strengthening Exercises on Swallowing Musculature and Function in Senior Healthy Subjects: a Prospective Effectiveness and Feasibility Study
Abstract Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise Aid (SEA), developed for isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises (against resistance), can help to functionally strengthen the suprahyoid musculature, which in turn can improve swallowing function. An effectiveness/feasibility study was carried out with ten senior healthy volunteers, who performed exe...
Source: Dysphagia - April 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Reliability for Identification of a Select Set of Temporal and Physiologic Features of Infant Swallows
Abstract There is little reported evidence regarding the reliability of temporal and physiologic features of infant swallowing from videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine a reliable set of temporal and physiologic features from infant swallowing that can be measured from analysis of VFSS. Temporal and physiologic features for testing were determined from review of previously reported features of infant VFSS in the literature. Two novel analysts underwent three training sessions to learn and practice visual recognition of the proposed features. The two ...
Source: Dysphagia - April 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effects of Tongue Strength Training and Detraining on Tongue Pressures in Healthy Adults
This study examined the effect of tongue strengthening training and long-term detraining on tongue tip pressure, tongue base pressure, and tongue pressure during effortful swallowing. Ten young healthy volunteers (21–35 years) were participated in this study. Participants received 8-week tongue strengthening exercise 3 days a week with each session lasting 30 min. Measurement of tongue pressure and tongue strengthening exercise were administrated using Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Training intensity was applied at 60 and 80 % of maximal tongue pressure for the first week and the remain...
Source: Dysphagia - April 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Analysis of Hyoid–Larynx Complex Using 3D Geometric Morphometrics
Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone–larynx complex using modern 3D reconstruction tools. The study was conducted on 104 bones from CT scan images of living adult subjects. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from CT scan images using AVIZO 6.2 software package. A study of this complex was carried out using metric and morphological analyses. Characteristics of the hyoid bone and larynx were highly heterogeneous and were closely linked with the sex, height, and weight of the individuals. Height and width of larynx were significantl...
Source: Dysphagia - April 3, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research