Advances with Neonatal Aerodigestive Science in the Pursuit of Safe Swallowing in Infants: Invited Review
AbstractFeeding, swallowing, and airway protection are three distinct entities. Feeding involves a process of sequential, neurosensory, and neuromotor interactions of reflexes and behaviors facilitating ingestion. Swallowing involves anterograde bolus movement during oral-, pharyngeal-, and esophageal phases of peristalsis into stomach. During these events, coordination with airway protection is vital for homeostasis in clearing any material away from airway vicinity. Neurological –airway-digestive inter-relationships are critical to the continuum of successful feeding patterns during infancy, either in health or dis...
Source: Dysphagia - January 1, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

25  Years of Dysphagia Rehabilitation: What Have We Done, What are We Doing, and Where are We Going?
AbstractAs deglutologists, we strive to use the best evidence available in the treatment of swallowing disorders. Evidence-based medicine is a bottom-up approach that thoughtfully combines the best external evidence with individual clinical expertise and the patients ’ choice reflective of their clinical state and preferences for their specific care plan. Evidence-based medicine is not restricted to randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses; rather, evidence-based medicine includes our ability to discriminate the best external evidence with which to answer clinical questions and then skillfully and appropriately b...
Source: Dysphagia - January 1, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Dysphagia Research Society Accelerating a Priority Research Agenda
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - January 1, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Progression of Dysphagia in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6
AbstractSpinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), an autosomal dominant triplet repeat disease, predominantly affects the cerebellum with a late onset and generally good prognosis. Dysphagia is commonly associated with the outcomes of neurodegenerative diseases such as SCA6. Although the characteristics of dysphagia have been rarely reported in SCA6, our previous study indicated that dysphagia is generally milder in SCA6 than in SCA3, another inherited ataxia with multisystem involvement. However, abnormalities in the pharyngeal phase in SCA6 were indistinguishable from those in SCA3, with no explainable reason. To determine t...
Source: Dysphagia - January 1, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Swallowing Function and Kinematics in Stroke Patients with Tracheostomies
This study demonstrated that stroke patients with tracheostomies had inferior swallowing function and kinematics than those without tracheostomies. A prospective longitudinal study is needed to elucidate the effect of a tracheostomy on swallowing recovery in stroke patients. (Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - December 23, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Danish Patients Hospitalised with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
AbstractCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) are prevalent conditions in the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between CAP, OD, and frailty in patients admitted to a department of respiratory medicine at a regional hospital. The outcome was mortality during hospitalization and within 30 days of discharge and rehospitalization within 30 days of discharge. A total of 154 consecutive patients (54.5% male, mean age 77.4 years (SD 11.51)) hospitalized because of CAP from September 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014 at North Denmark Regional Hospital were included in this study....
Source: Dysphagia - December 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Dysphagia After Eating Raw Fish
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - December 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework
AbstractDysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world ’s population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and defini tions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consulta...
Source: Dysphagia - December 1, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Age-Related Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Esophageal Motility in Patients with Dysphagia
This study assessed the manometric diagnoses of elderly patients with dysphagia compared with diagnoses in younger counterparts. Participants included 116 consecutive patients examined for dysphagia from 2007 to 2014. We divided patients into three groups by age: Group A, 66  years and older (24 men, 23 women); Group B, 45–65 years (18 men, 24 women); and Group C, 44 years and younger (15 men, 12 women). The three groups were compared in regard to symptoms, esophageal motility, and health-related QOL (HRQOL). All patients underwent esophageal manometry examination and completed a self-administered ques...
Source: Dysphagia - December 1, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Neck Pain and Acute Dysphagia
AbstractThe acute tendinitis of the longus colli muscle is an unusual diagnosis in the cases of acute dysphagia with cervical pain. Is a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the prevertebral space and can cause pharyngeal swelling with impaired swallow. It is absolutely critical to make the differential diagnosis with deep cervical infections in order to avoid invasive treatments. (Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - November 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Implementing the Free Water Protocol does not Result in Aspiration Pneumonia in Carefully Selected Patients with Dysphagia: A Systematic Review
AbstractThe Frazier Free Water Protocol was developed with the aim of providing patients with dysphagia an option to consume thin (i.e. unthickened) water in-between mealtimes. A systematic review was conducted of research published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search of the EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases was completed up to July 2016. A total of 8 studies were identified for inclusion: 5 randomised controlled trials, 2 cohort studies with matched cases and 1 single group pre-post intervention prospective study. A total of 215 rehabilitation inpatients and 30 acute patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia wh...
Source: Dysphagia - November 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) Using Rasch Analysis
AbstractEarly and reliable screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) symptoms in at-risk populations is important and a crucial first stage in effective OD management. The Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) is a commonly utilized screening and outcome measure. To date, studies using classic test theory methodologies report good psychometric properties, but the EAT-10 has not been evaluated using item response theory (e.g., Rasch analysis). The aim of this multisite study was to evaluate the internal consistency and structural validity and conduct a preliminary investigation of the cross-cultural validity of the EAT-10; floor...
Source: Dysphagia - November 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Pre-pharyngeal Swallow Effects of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Lesion on Bolus Shape and Airway Protection in an Infant Pig Model
In this study, we used geometric morphometrics to understand the effect of bolus shape on penetration and aspiration in infants with and without RLN lesion. We hypothesized (1) that geometric bolus properties are related to airway protection outcomes and (2) that in infants with RLN lesion, the relationship between geometric bolus properties and dysphagia is changed. In five infant pigs, dysphagia in 188 swallows was assessed using the Infant Mammalian Penetration –Aspiration Scale (IMPAS). Using images from high-speed VFSS, bolus shape, bolus area, and tongue outline were quantified digitally. Bolus shape was analyz...
Source: Dysphagia - November 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Supporting Platform for Semi-Automatic Hyoid Bone Tracking and Parameter Extraction from Videofluoroscopic Images for the Diagnosis of Dysphagia Patients
In this study, a software platform was developed that can assist in the VF diagnosis of dysphagia by automatically extracting a two-dimensional moving trajectory of the hyoid bone as well as 11 temporal and kinematic parameters. Fifty VF swallowing videos containing both non-mandible-overlapped and mandible-overlapped cases from eight patients with dysphagia of various etiologies and 19 videos from ten healthy controls were utilized for performance verification. Percent errors of hyoid bone tracking were 1.7  ± 2.1% for non-overlapped images and 4.2 ± 4.8% for overlapped images. Correlatio...
Source: Dysphagia - November 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Impact of Compliance on Dysphagia Rehabilitation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Results from a Multi-center Clinical Trial
AbstractA 5-year, 16-site, randomized controlled trial enrolled 170 HNC survivors into active (estim  + swallow exercise) or control (sham estim + swallowing exercise) arms. Primary analyses showed that estim did not enhance swallowing exercises. This secondary analysis determined if/how patient compliance impacted outcomes. A home program, performed 2 times/day, 6 days/week, for 12 weeks inc luded stretches and 60 swallows paired with real or sham estim. Regular clinic visits ensured proper exercise execution, and detailed therapy checklists tracked patient compliance which was defined by mea...
Source: Dysphagia - November 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Adherence to a Prophylactic Swallowing Therapy Program During (Chemo) Radiotherapy: Impact of Service-Delivery Model and Patient Factors
This study examined patient adherence to a prophylactic swallowing therapy protocol across three service-delivery models: (1) clinician-directed face-to-face therapy, (2) technology-assisted therapy using the telepractice application,SwallowIT and (3) independent patient-directed therapy. The secondary aim explored the impact of patient factors on adherence. Patients with oropharyngeal HNC receiving definitive (C)RT were randomised to receive the Pharyngocise exercise protocol via clinician-directed (n = 26), patient-directed (n = 27) orSwallowIT-assisted (n = 26) models. Adherence was calcula...
Source: Dysphagia - November 13, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Evaluation of Swallowing Functions in Patients with Sj ögren’s Syndrome
This study aims to evaluate the swallowing functions of the patients with SS. 69 patients with SS (65 females, 4 males) and 40 healthy individuals (33 females, 7 males) were included as study and control groups, r espectively. Mean ages were 52.86 and 48.25 years for study and control groups, respectively. Swallowing functions were evaluated by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). All the patients underwent FEES and were given 3, 5, and 10 ml water, yogurt, and fish-shaped crackers twice, respectively. The presence of bolus control, residue, penetration, and aspiration were evaluated. Additional...
Source: Dysphagia - November 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Acoustic and Perceptual Profiles of Swallowing Sounds in Children: Normative Data for 4 –36 Months from a Cross-Sectional Study Cohort
This study examined the acoustic and perceptual parameters of swallowing sounds in children aged 4–36 months over a range of food and fluid consistencies. Using CA, swallowing sounds were recorded from a microphone as children ate or drank. Acoustic parame ters of duration, peak frequency and peak intensity were determined. Perceptual parameters of swallowing/breath sounds heard pre-, during and post-swallow were rated (‘present’, ‘absent’, ‘cannot be determined’) for each texture. 74 children (35 males; mean age = 17.1 months [SD 10.0] ) demonstrated mean swallow durations of
Source: Dysphagia - November 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Acknowledgment of Reviewers 2015
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - October 31, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Dysphagia Research Society Annual Meeting February 25 –27, 2016
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - October 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Tongue Strength is Associated with Grip Strength and Nutritional Status in Older Adult Inpatients of a Rehabilitation Hospital
AbstractThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether tongue strength observed in older adult inpatients of a rehabilitation hospital is associated with muscle function, nutritional status, and dysphagia. A total of 174 older adult inpatients aged 65  years and older in rehabilitation (64 men, 110 women; median age, 84 years; interquartile range, 80–89 years) who were suspected of having reduced tongue strength due to sarcopenia were included in this study. Isometric tongue strength was measured using a device fitted with a disposable oral balloon probe. We evaluated age, muscle func...
Source: Dysphagia - September 28, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Prevalence of Tracheotomy and Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Patients with Guillain –Barré Syndrome
The objective of this study was to investigate the follow-up course of tracheotomy and gastrostomy in patients wi th Guillain–Barré syndrome. The study subjects were 50 patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome (25 males, 25 females; mean age, 51.1 ± 18.7 years) who were admitted to the Hiroshima City Rehabilitation Hospital during the period from April 2008 to December 2015. We retrospectively reviewed t he medical records to determine the presence or absence of tracheotomy and/or feeding tube, and the timing of withdrawal from these treatments. During the acute phase, 15 patien...
Source: Dysphagia - September 28, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Kinematic Visual Biofeedback Improves Accuracy of Learning a Swallowing Maneuver and Accuracy of Clinician Cues During Training
This study compares the effect of ssEMG and videofluoroscopy (VF) visual biofeedback on hyo-laryngeal accuracy when training a swallowing maneuver. Furthermore, it examines the clinician ’s ability to provide accurate verbal cues during swallowing maneuver training. Thirty healthy adults performed the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure maneuver (vLVC), which involves swallowing and sustaining closure of the laryngeal vestibule for 2 s. The study included two stages: (1) first accurate demonstration of the vLVC maneuver, followed by (2) training—20 vLVC training swallows. Participants were randomized in...
Source: Dysphagia - September 27, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

FIRST, “KNOW” HARM: Response to Letter to the Editor
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - September 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Exploring Current Sensory Enhancement Practices Within Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS) Clinics
This study aimed to explore the use of SES within Australian Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS) clinics providing adult services, via a qualitative methodology. Maximum variation sampling was used to select a cross section of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with a range of experience working within 16 VFSS clinics across metropolitan and regional settings to participate in semi-structured, focus group or individual teleconference interviews. Content analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, with four themes emerging as influencing drivers of SES use, including: Patient factors influence SES use; Clinician fa...
Source: Dysphagia - August 31, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Recognizing the Importance of Dysphagia: Stumbling Blocks and Stepping Stones in the Twenty-First Century
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - August 28, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Electromyography and Mechanomyography Signals During Swallowing in Healthy Adults and Head and Neck Cancer Survivors
This study compared the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained from sEMG and MMG sensors during swallowing tasks, in healthy participants and those with a history of head and neck cancer (HNC), a population with altered anatomy and a high incidence of dysphagia. Twenty-two healthy adults and 10 adults with a history of HNC participated in this study. sEMG and MMG signals were acquired during dry, thin liquid, effortful, and Mendelsohn maneuver swallows. SNR was compared between the two sensors using repeated measures ANOVAs and subsequent planned pairwise comparisons. Test –retest measures were collected on 20 % o...
Source: Dysphagia - August 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Pharyngeal Pressure and Timing During Bolus Transit
We present a study to describe the pressures within and surrounding the moving bolus throughout the pharynx and into the UES. Simultaneous high-resolution manometry (HRM) and videofluoroscopy were performed in ten healthy subjects swallowing ten 10  mL thin-liquid barium boluses. Three events surrounding bolus movement were tracked via videofluoroscopy, and two additional events were found using manometric measures. As the bolus passes through the pharynx, low pressure is created at and below the head of the bolus. A modest pressure increase is seen as the bolus passes through the pharynx, and finally, high pressure i...
Source: Dysphagia - August 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Erratum to: Outcome of Rehabilitation and Swallowing Therapy after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Dysphagia Patients
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - August 23, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Relationship Between the Eating Assessment Tool-10 and Objective Clinical Ratings of Swallowing Function in Individuals with Head and Neck Cancer
AbstractThe Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) represents a validated, easy to administer patient report dysphagia severity scale. Although its ability to detect swallowing impairment has been investigated in other patient populations, the utility of this instrument in individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) has not been studied. The aim of the current investigation was to determine the relationship between patient ratings of swallowing impairment (EAT-10) and objective clinical ratings of swallow physiology in individuals with HNC. Forty-four HNC participants completed the EAT-10 and a standardized videofluoroscopy sw...
Source: Dysphagia - August 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Modulation of Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) Relaxation and Opening During Volume Swallowing
AbstractUES opening occurs following cricopharyngeus deactivation and submental muscle contraction causing hyolaryngeal elevation and UES distraction. During impedance manometry, the inverse of impedance (admittance) can be used to measure bolus presence and infer UES opening. We hypothesized that the temporal relationship between UES relaxation, opening and hyolaryngeal elevation would change with increasing bolus volume. Simultaneous intramuscular cricopharyngeal (CP) electromyography (EMG), surface submental EMG (SM-EMG), and high-resolution impedance manometry were recorded in eight (aged 27  ± 7 ...
Source: Dysphagia - August 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Diagnostic Accuracy of the Modified Evan ’s Blue Dye Test in Detecting Aspiration in Patients with Tracheostomy: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
AbstractOropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) is a common occurrence in patients with tracheostomy. The modified Evan ’s blue dye test (MEBDT) is an easily administered bedside procedure for the assessment of tracheostomised patients. However, studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of the MEBDT reach conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the overall accuracy of the MEBD T in detecting OPA in adults with tracheostomy. The search strategy incorporated searching electronic databases, checking reference lists and citations and retrieving unpublished data. Data of primary studies were ...
Source: Dysphagia - August 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Non-invasive Assessment of Swallowing and Respiration Coordination for the OSA Patient
The objectives of this study are to investigate swallowing and its coordination with respiration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This is a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referred Medical Center. A non-invasive method of assessing swallowing was used to detect the oropharyngeal swallowing parameters and the coordination with respiration during swallowing. The system used to assess swallowing detected: (1) movement of the larynx using a force-sensing resistor; (2) submental muscle activity using surface electromyography; and (3) coordination with respiration by measuring nasal airflow. Five ...
Source: Dysphagia - August 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Comparative Study Between Two Sensory Stimulation Strategies After Two Weeks Treatment on Older Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
AbstractOropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent geriatric syndrome. Treatment is based on compensatory strategies to avoid complications. New treatments based on sensory stimulation to promote the recovery of the swallowing function have proved effective in acute studies but prolonged treatment needs further research. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the effect of two, longer-term sensory treatment strategies on older patients with OD. 38 older patients ( ≥70 years) were studied with videofluoroscopy (pre/posttreatment) and randomized into two 10-day treatment groups: Group A—transient receptor potenti...
Source: Dysphagia - August 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The Six-Food Elimination Diet for Eosinophilic Esophagitis Increases Grocery Shopping Cost and Complexity
In conclusion, for patients shopping at standard grocery stores, the cost of an SFED is higher, and an SFED requires more items from a second store. These differences disappear at specialty grocery stores, but costs were significantly higher. This cost and logis tical burden can inform patients when selecting dietary therapy. (Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - August 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Drugs Related to Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Older People
AbstractScientific evidence on the impact of medication on the physiology of swallowing is scarce and mainly based on clinical case reports. To evaluate the association between oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and chronic exposure to medication in older patients admitted to the acute geriatric unit (AGU) of a secondary hospital, we performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 966 patients admitted to an AGU from 2008 to 2011. We reviewed (a) diagnosis of OD (assessed with the volume-viscosity swallow test, V- VST); (b) chronic patient medication classified by anatomical, therapeutic, chemical codes; and (c) demographic a...
Source: Dysphagia - August 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer
AbstractPatients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer frequently develop dysphagia. Tissue damage to the oral tongue causing weakness along with decreases in saliva production may contribute to dysphagia. Yet, effects of these variables on swallowing-related measures are unclear. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine effects of chemoradiation on tongue pressures, as a surrogate for strength, and salivary flow rates and (2) to elucidate relationships among tongue pressures, saliva production, and swallowing efficiency by bolus type. Twenty-one patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemorad...
Source: Dysphagia - August 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Treatment Effects for Dysphagia in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review
This study has not been registered. A total of 563 studies were identified from the database searches. After screening and assessment of full articles for eligibility, five studies were included in the review. Three examined electrical stimulation and two examined the use of botulinum toxin. One study testing electrical stimulation was a randomised controlled trial, two were well-designed case series and two were case series lacking experimental control. All studies reported some positive effects on dysphagia; however, treatments that involved the use of electrical stimulation showed larger effect sizes. There is a paucity...
Source: Dysphagia - August 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cervical Osteophytes Increase the Risk for Foreign Body Impaction: A 171-Patient Case –Control Study
Abstract The aim of this study is to define the relationship between anatomical and pathological cervical structures and the impaction of ingested foreign bodies (FBs). The effects of such structures on deglutition have been previously discussed, however their contribution to FB impaction has not yet been examined. This was a retrospective case –control study of 171 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) scans over the period 2008–2014: 57 patients with an esophageal or hypopharyngeal FB; the other 114 comprised the control group, selected using the ‘neighbor control’ method. CT scans were...
Source: Dysphagia - July 26, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity
Abstract This pilot study examined the effect of a new head extension swallowing exercise (HESE) on submental muscle activity and tongue strength in healthy volunteers. Fifteen young adults (10 females and 5 males) were instructed to extend their head backwards as much as possible, and while watching the ceiling, swallowed their saliva every 10  s for a duration of 20 min. Twenty-four treatments were performed over 8 weeks. The outcome variables evaluated at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 12-week follow-up included mean and peak submental muscle activation amplitudes during normal and effortf...
Source: Dysphagia - July 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Reflex Cough and Disease Duration as Predictors of Swallowing Dysfunction in Parkinson ’s Disease
Abstract Patients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD) have progressive and pervasive disorders of airway protection. Recent work has highlighted the relationship between reflex and voluntary cough and swallowing safety. The goal of this study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of several airway protective and disease-specific factors for predicting swallowing safety outcomes in PD. Sixty-four participants (44 males) completed measures of voluntary and reflex cough, and swallowing safety. Clinical predictors included disease severity and duration, and cough airflow and sensitivity measures. ROC and Chi-square ana...
Source: Dysphagia - July 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Steven B. Leder, PhD
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 24, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Analysis of Clinicians ’ Perceptual Cough Evaluation
This study examined the relationships between subjective descriptors and objective airflow measures of cough. We hypothesized that coughs with specific airflow characteristics would share common subjective perceptual descriptions. Thirty clinicians (speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists, and neurologists) perceptually evaluated ten cough audio samples with specific airflow characteristics determined by peak expiratory flow rate, cough expired volume, cough duration, and number of coughs in the cough epoch. Participants rated coughs by strength, duration, quality, quantity, and overall potential effectiveness for ...
Source: Dysphagia - July 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Italian Version of SWAL-QOL
Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Italian SWAL-QOL (I-SWAL-QOL). The study consisted of five phases: item generation, reliability analysis, normative data generation, validity analysis, and responsiveness analysis. The item generation phase followed the five-step, cross-cultural, adaptation process of translation and back-translation. A group of 92 dysphagic patients was enrolled for the internal consistency analysis. Seventy-eight patients completed the I-SWAL-QOL twice, 2 weeks apart, for test–retest reliability analysis. A group of 200 asymptomatic subj...
Source: Dysphagia - July 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Erratum to: Effect of Bolus Viscosity on the Safety and Efficacy of Swallowing and the Kinematics of the Swallow Response in Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: White Paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD)
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

FIRST, DO NO HARM: A Response to “Oral Alimentation in Neonatal and Adult Populations Requiring High-Flow Oxygen via Nasal Cannula”
(Source: Dysphagia)
Source: Dysphagia - July 18, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Submucosal Elastic Laminae of the Middle and Lower Pharynx: A Histological Study Using Elderly Cadaveric Specimens
Abstract Although the pharyngeal wall is well known to have high elasticity, the distribution of submucosal elastic fibers has not been described. Observations of histological sections of the mid and lower pharyngeal walls from 15 elderly donated cadavers were made. We found two distinct submucosal tissue layers with a high content of elastic fibers (tentatively termed the “submucosal elastic laminae”). The inferolateral elastic lamina was restricted to the level from the upper part of the arytenoid to the lower end of the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. It originated from the pharyngeal submu...
Source: Dysphagia - July 18, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A Review of Dysphagia Presentation and Intervention Following Traumatic Spinal Injury: An Understudied Population
Abstract Dysphagia is reported to be a common secondary complication for individuals with traumatic spinal injuries. Different etiologies of traumatic spinal injuries may lead to different profiles of swallowing impairment. We conducted a systematic review to determine the characteristics of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and to describe interventions currently used to improve swallowing function in this population. A comprehensive multiengine literature search identified 137 articles of which five were judged to be relevant. These underwent review for study quality, rating for level of evidence, and data...
Source: Dysphagia - July 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management
Abstract When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant’s typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard in...
Source: Dysphagia - July 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Dysphagia in Children with Down Syndrome
Abstract Aspiration is an often unrecognized comorbidity in children with Down syndrome with serious medical consequences. This retrospective chart review of swallow study reports characterizes oral and pharyngeal phase dysphagia and diet modifications on videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) in a large cohort of children with Down syndrome. A total of 158 pediatric patients (male = 95; female = 63; mean age 2.10 years, SD 3.17 years) received an initial VFSS at a pediatric teaching hospital as part of their medical care. A total of 56.3 % (n = 89) children had phary...
Source: Dysphagia - July 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research