Predicting Adverse Drug Effects from Literature- and Database-Mined Assertions
ConclusionsThe presented workflow, based on free-access databases and an association-based inference scheme, provided novel C –E relationships that have been validated post hoc in case reports. With refinement of prioritization schemes for the generated C–E inferences, this workflow may provide an effective computational method for the early detection of potential drug candidate ADEs that can be followed by targeted ex perimental investigations. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

What Future Healthcare Professionals Need to Know About Pharmacovigilance: Introduction of the WHO PV Core Curriculum for University Teaching with Focus on Clinical Aspects
AbstractAdverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause serious health problems, as shown in studies about drug-related hospitalizations. To build knowledge of and raise awareness about ADRs among healthcare professionals, more education in the field of ADRs and pharmacovigilance (PV) is needed. No standard exists for teaching PV at universities for medical, pharmacy, dentistry and nursing students, so a core curriculum needs to be developed to teach important aspects of PV to students. In September 2016, a stakeholders ’ meeting was initiated on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) and organized by the Netherlands ...
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prescription Opioid Fatalities: Examining Why the Healer Could be the Culprit
AbstractPrescription opioid use has increased rapidly in developed countries, as have fatalities and other related adverse events. This review examines the intrinsic characteristics of opioids, including their mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, to determine how the use of a regonised pharmacological remedy for a medically confirmed ailment could result in an accidental fatality. Opioids trigger biological processes that inhibit their own therapeutic effect. Prolonged use of opioids can result in activation of pronociceptive systems, leading to opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance,...
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

18th ISoP Annual Meeting “Pharmacovigilance without borders” Geneva, Switzerland, 11–14 November, 2018
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

MOdified NARanjo Causality Scale for ICSRs (MONARCSi): A Decision Support Tool for Safety Scientists
ConclusionAnalysis suggests that the MONARCSi model could potentially be a useful decision support tool to assist pharmacovigilance safety professionals when evaluating drug-event causality in a consistent and documentable manner. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Safety of Biologics, Including Biosimilars: Perspectives on Current Status and Future Direction
AbstractIn recent years, marketing of highly innovative and costly biologics improved the management of high-burden diseases such as autoimmune diseases, cancers, and chronic renal failure. Several widely prescribed biologics have recently lost or will shortly lose their patents, thus opening avenues to the marketing of a growing number of biosimilars worldwide, which are products similar in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy to already licensed reference products, thus allowing for potential savings in pharmaceutical expenditure. Numerous debates about the interchangeability between biosimilars and reference products ...
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Safety Profile of Benznidazole in the Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease: Experience of a Referral Centre and Systematic Literature Review with Meta-Analysis
ConclusionBenznidazole had a poor tolerability profile, with a high incidence of TDs, especially in adult patients and women. Optimised dosing schedules and/or new drugs are urgently needed. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comment on “Using Human ‘Experiments of Nature’ to Predict Drug Safety Issues: An Example with PCSK9 Inhibitors”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ibuprofen and Paracetamol: Acceptably Safe for All?
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reply to Ward and Colleagues ’ Comment on “Using Human Experiments of Nature to Predict Drug Safety Issues: An Example with PCSK9 Inhibitors”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply to Katsuhiro Toda’s Comment on “Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case-Control Analysis”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comment on “Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case–Control Analysis”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacoepidemiologic Evaluation of Birth Defects from Health-Related Postings in Social Media During Pregnancy
ConclusionsTwitter data capture information on medication intake and birth defects; however, the information obtained cannot replace pregnancy registries at this time. Development of improved methods to automatically extract and annotate social media data may increase their value to support regulatory decision making regarding pregnancy outcomes in women using medications during their pregnancies. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Surveillance of Drug Safety During Pregnancy: Insight in Current International Activities, Future Intentions and Need for Support of National Pharmacovigilance Centres
ConclusionCurrent activities of national PV centres concerning drug safety during pregnancy are limited. The majority of PV centres are, however, willing to improve or implement activities. Programmes should be set up in order to support and stimulate PV centres with these activities. The aim of all these activities is to increase knowledge about the safety of drugs during pregnancy. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacoepidemiologic Evaluation of Birth Defects from Health-Related Postings in Social Media During Pregnancy
ConclusionsTwitter data capture information on medication intake and birth defects; however, the information obtained cannot replace pregnancy registries at this time. Development of improved methods to automatically extract and annotate social media data may increase their value to support regulatory decision making regarding pregnancy outcomes in women using medications during their pregnancies. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Surveillance of Drug Safety During Pregnancy: Insight in Current International Activities, Future Intentions and Need for Support of National Pharmacovigilance Centres
ConclusionCurrent activities of national PV centres concerning drug safety during pregnancy are limited. The majority of PV centres are, however, willing to improve or implement activities. Programmes should be set up in order to support and stimulate PV centres with these activities. The aim of all these activities is to increase knowledge about the safety of drugs during pregnancy. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Authors ’ Response to Silverman and Colleagues’ Comment on “Review of Case Narratives from Fatal Overdoses Associated with Injectable Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potential Risk Window for Opioid Overdose Related to Treatment with Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Challenges and Opportunities for the Traceability of (Biological) Medicinal Products
This article provides an overview of the current situation regarding the traceability of medicinal products, with a focus on drug safety and biologics. Limited traceability of biologics, in particular with regard to the batch number, is associated with incomplete recording of exposure information in clinical practice. The current pharmaceutical barcode standards in the EU do not support the automatic recording of dynamic product information, such as batch numbers and expiry dates, by means of electronic barcode scanning in clinical practice. New barcode requirements, such as the 2D DataMatrix with encoded batch numbers and...
Source: Drug Safety - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Review of Case Narratives from Fatal Overdoses Associated with Injectable Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence
ConclusionsVivitrol adverse event reports suggest the need to investigate two  months following the last medicine injection as a period of particular concern for overdose. A registry study would best quantify risk. Providers should report suspected post-discontinuation overdoses to government authorities. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cohort Study of Psychiatric Adverse Events Following Exposure to Levonorgestrel-Containing Intrauterine Devices in UK General Practice
ConclusionStatistically significant associations of levonorgestrel exposure with anxiety and sleep problems were observed. Substantive differences in baseline characteristics of the treated groups make robust conclusions difficult but the results strongly suggest that additional studies are warranted. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Review of Case Narratives from Fatal Overdoses Associated with Injectable Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence
Introduction 3rd Paragraph. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Risk of First Hospitalization for Heart Failure in Patients with No History of Heart Failure: A Population-Based Case-Crossover Study
ConclusionBoth traditional NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of heart failure leading to hospitalization in patients without a related history of heart failure. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

First Conference on Big Data for Pharmacovigilance
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Assessment of Self-Administration of Romiplostim in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura after Receipt of Home Administration Training Materials: a Cross-Sectional Study
ConclusionThe correct administration of romiplostim by most patients/caregivers supports the effectiveness of the HAT pack as an additional risk minimisation tool in the population and setting of this study. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comment on: “Mixed Approach Retrospective Analyses of Suicide and Suicidal Ideation for Brand Compared with Generic Central Nervous System Drugs”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Authors'  Reply to Courtney Suggs and Colleagues’ Comment on: “Mixed Approach Retrospective Analyses of Suicide and Suicidal Ideation for Brand Compared with Generic Central Nervous System Drugs”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methods to Compare Adverse Events in Twitter to FAERS, Drug Information Databases, and Systematic Reviews: Proof of Concept with Adalimumab
ConclusionSocial media posts often express mild and symptomatic ADRs, but rates are measured differently in scientific sources. ADRs in FAERS are reported as absolute numbers, in DIDs as percentages, and in systematic reviews as percentages, risk ratios, or other metrics, which makes comparisons challenging; however, overlap is substantial. Social media analysis facilitates open-ended investigation of patient perspectives and may reveal concepts (e.g. anxiety) not available in traditional sources. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Risks of Opioids in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Review
AbstractAlthough opioids are recommended and frequently used in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), their use is accompanied by serious side effects. In particular, gastrointestinal adverse effects may disturb absorption of essential oral medication like platelet inhibitors. This may cause suboptimal platelet inhibition and increased risk of acute stent thrombosis. Some clinical studies have already demonstrated these negative results. Alternative strategies to optimize platelet inhibition and pain relief in STEMI are being investigated. Clinicians should become more aware of the potential side e...
Source: Drug Safety - August 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer ’s Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case–Control Analysis
ConclusionIn this large, case-control analysis, we did not find any evidence for an increased risk of either AD or VaD related to PPI or H2RA use. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ibuprofen and Paracetamol: Acceptably Safe for All?
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhancing Pharmacovigilance Capabilities in the EU Regulatory Network: The SCOPE Joint Action
AbstractIn November 2013, a team of European regulators initiated the Strengthening Collaboration for Operating Pharmacovigilance in Europe (SCOPE) Joint Action. Funded by the Health Programme of the European Union, and with contributions from the involved Member States, SCOPE gathered information and expertise on how regulators in Member States run their national pharmacovigilance systems to meet the requirements of the pharmacovigilance legislation that came into effect in June 2012. The SCOPE project evaluated then-current practices and developed tools to further improve the skills and capability in the pharmacovigilanc...
Source: Drug Safety - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

POMME: The New Cohort to Evaluate Long-Term Effects After Prenatal Medicine Exposure
ConclusionsPOMME provides an observatory study on drug exposure and medical care use in children. This innovative cohort would make it possible to assess the risk of the long-term consequences of prenatal medicine exposure. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Social Impact of Suspected Adverse Drug Reactions: An analysis of the Canada Vigilance Spontaneous Reporting Database
ConclusionsFindings from this study support the consideration of direct social issues as ADRs in the detection of drug safety signals. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Switching Patterns in FDA ’s Sentinel System: A New Tool to Assess Generic Drugs
ConclusionsThis developed tool was able to elucidate novel utilization and switching patterns in two case studies. Such information can be used to support surveillance of generic drugs and biosimilars. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Authors ’ Response to Braillon’s Comment on: “Limited Evidence for Risk Factors for Proarrhythmia and Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients Using Antidepressants: Dutch Consensus on ECG Monitoring”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comment on: “Limited Evidence for Risk Factors for Proarrhythmia and Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients Using Antidepressants: Dutch Consensus on ECG Monitoring”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Dose Errors Among Paediatric Patients in Hospital Wards with and without Health Information Technology: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsDose errors occur in approximately 1 in 20 medication orders. Hospitals using CPOE with or without CDS had a lower rate of dose errors compared with those using paper charts. However, few pre/post studies have been conducted and none reported a significant reduction in dose error rates associated with the introduction of CPOE. Future research employing controlled designs is needed to determine the true impact of CPOE on dosing errors among children, and any associated patient harm. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Critical Evaluation of Safety Signal Analysis Using Algorithmic Standardised MedDRA Queries
ConclusionsOur findings demonstrate that algorithmic and temporal assessment increased specificity of case retrieval, though the reduction in the number of terms or incidence seemed excessive for certain aSMQs. Evaluating the day of AE onset and duration improve specificity through identification of outlying events. Identification of drug classes known to cause the aSMQ ’s clinical condition provides face validity for this tool, yet detection of cases associated with novel classes may provide new understanding of these disorders. Improvements in some of the SMQ term lists may improve the performance of SMQs in genera...
Source: Drug Safety - August 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Stevens –Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Association with Commonly Prescribed Drugs in Outpatient Care Other than Anti-Epileptic Drugs and Antibiotics: A Population-Based Case–Control Study
ConclusionsIn this observational study, we observed likely causal associations between Stevens –Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and use of allopurinol, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and 5-aminosalicylates, and potential associations for proton pump inhibitors, fluoxetine, and mirtazapine. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potential Risk Window for Opioid Overdose Related to Treatment with Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Lawyer-Submitted Reports on Signals of Disproportional Reporting in the Food and Drug Administration ’s Adverse Event Reporting System
ConclusionsInclusion of lawyer-submitted reports in FAERS did not meaningfully distort known safety signals for two drugs subject to high-profile tort litigation for other AEs. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - August 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reply to Ward and Colleagues ’ Comment on “Using Human Experiments of Nature to Predict Drug Safety Issues: An Example with PCSK9 Inhibitors”
(Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - July 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Adverse Drug Reactions Among Patients Initiating Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa
ConclusionsThe rates of AEs were lowest among patients receiving a TDF-based second-line regimen. Patients with poorer health at the time of switch were at higher risk of AEs when receiving second-line ART and may require closer monitoring to improve the durability of second-line therapy. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - July 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Assessment of the Utility of Social Media for Broad-Ranging Statistical Signal Detection in Pharmacovigilance: Results from the WEB-RADR Project
ConclusionsOur results clearly suggest that broad-ranging statistical signal detection in Twitter and Facebook, using currently available methods for adverse event recognition, performs poorly and cannot be recommended at the expense of other pharmacovigilance activities. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - July 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Medication Errors: A Characterisation of Spontaneously Reported Cases in EudraVigilance
In the original publication of the article, the trend line for non-EEA cases in figure  4 is incorrect. In this correction, the original Fig. 4 (Fig. 1) and the correct Fig. 4 (Fig. 2) are published. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - July 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Safety Profile of Benznidazole in the Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease: Experience of a Referral Centre and Systematic Literature Review with Meta-Analysis
ConclusionBenznidazole had a poor tolerability profile, with a high incidence of TDs, especially in adult patients and women. Optimised dosing schedules and/or new drugs are urgently needed. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - July 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Changes in Outpatient Use of Antibiotics by Adults in the United States, 2006 –2015
ConclusionsOver the period 2006 –2015 outpatient use of antibiotics decreased substantially among adults. Rapid shifts in use occurring in 2008 and 2013 may reflect the presence of key drivers of change, such as abrupt changes in access to care or perceived antibiotic safety. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - July 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of Serotonin Transporter in Antidepressant-Induced Diabetes Mellitus: A Pharmacoepidemiological –Pharmacodynamic Study in VigiBase ®
ConclusionThe present study suggests a potential role for serotonin transporter in antidepressant-induced type 2 diabetes. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Gabapentin and Pregabalin and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly: A Population-Based Cohort Study in an Electronic Prescription Database
ConclusionIn elderly patients free of cardiovascular disease, an association between new exposure to gabapentin or pregabalin and initiating treatment for AF was found. These results should be confirmed in other studies. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research