Identification of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs associated with dilated cardiomyopathy using integrated bioinformatics approaches.
This study identified IDI2-AS1 and XIST lncRNAs and related pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DCM, thus providing potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for DCM. PMID: 32727980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - August 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Re-tasking the use of pre-existing medications and potential therapeutic options for coronavirus disease (COVID-19): systematic review of clinical studies.
Authors: Marouf BH, Dizaye K Abstract With the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in late December 2019, many clinical studies on a group of the pre-existing medications have been conducted to treat this disease. The purpose of this review was to compile the clinical evidences on the use of the pre-existing medications and potential therapeutic options for the management of COVID-19. We reviewed the literature to highlight the clinical studies on the use of these medications to be available as a scientific overview for further perspectives. Inadequate clinical evidences are available to be affirmed fo...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

High-dose vitamin B supplementation for persistent visual deficit in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.
Authors: Mallone F, Lucchino L, Franzone F, Marenco M, Carlesimo SC, Moramarco A Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of high-doses vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and persistent visual loss after acute optic neuritis (AON). Sixteen patients (20 eyes) diagnosed with RRMS and visual permanent disability following AON were enrolled for the present open, pilot study. Each patient was treated with oral high-doses 300 mg of vitamin B1, 450 mg of vitamin B6 and 1,500 mcg of vitamin B12, as add-on treatment to concomita...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy and safety of Verbascox ® - a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 - and celecoxib for knee osteoarthritis.
Comparative efficacy and safety of Verbascox® - a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 - and celecoxib for knee osteoarthritis. Drug Discov Ther. 2020;14(3):129-134 Authors: Nannoni G, Volterrani G, Mattarocci A, Minoretti P, Emanuele E Abstract The aim of this randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of oral supplementation with Verbascox®, a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in patients with mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients in the ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Malnutrition as an important risk factor for drug-induced liver injury in patients on anti-tubercular therapy: an experience from a tertiary care center in South India.
Authors: Ali N, Gupta N, Saravu K Abstract Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) due to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) leads to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to find the impact of malnutrition on the development of DILI. This was a prospective cohort study (September 2017 to August 2019) in which all newly diagnosed in-patients with tuberculosis above the age of 18 years were included. Those patients with a body mass index (BMI) of
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese medicine to treat COVID-19: the importance of evidence-based research.
Authors: Wang J, Qi F Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in 2019 and spread rapidly around the world, causing a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese medicine has a history of more than 2,000 years in the prevention and treatment of epidemics and plagues. In guidelines on fighting COVID-19, the National Health Commission (NHC) has recommended some traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), including Jinhua Qinggan granules, Lianhua Qingwen capsules, XueBijing injections, a Qingfei Paidu decoction, a Huashi Baidu decoction, and a Xuanfei Baidu decoction. Based on current results, TCM has displayed some ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Devoting attention to the management of community-acquired pneumonia for the elderly.
Authors: Song P Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading contributor to lost disability-adjusted life years worldwide, and this is especially true in the elderly population. In order to reduce the burden of disease, effective management of CAP is crucial to public health in terms of maintaining and promoting the health of the elderly and involves safe drug use, vaccinations, early treatment in the ICU, and health education. Since the long-term mortality of CAP is particularly high in the elderly, biomarkers and a predictive diagnostic model of CAP should be developed in future research. ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Increase of lymphocytes and eosinophils, and decrease of neutrophils at an early stage of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is a favorable sign for advanced malignant melanoma.
Authors: Ohashi H, Takeuchi S, Miyagaki T, Kadono T Abstract The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-1 antibodies had a striking impact on the treatment for advanced malignant melanoma. However, less than half of the patients benefited from those antibodies, and biomarkers that could sensitively differentiate responders from non-responders are urgently needed. Herein, we explored such biomarkers by retrospectively analyzing clinical data from patients with advanced malignant melanoma treated with nivolumab and pembrolizumab. We found that anti-PD-1 antibody was especially effective for those with...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Targeting lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels to suppress cytokine storm in severe COVID-19: Can it be a novel therapeutic strategy?
Authors: Kazama I Abstract In the midst of a pandemic, finding effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the urgent issue. In "chronic inflammatory diseases", the overexpression of delayed rectifier K+-channels (Kv1.3) in leukocytes is responsible for the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm. In our previous basic studies, drugs including chloroquine and azithromycin strongly suppressed the channel activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lymphocytes. These findings suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism by which chloroquine, with or ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Can mesenchymal stem cell therapy be the interim management of COVID-19?
Authors: Bamba C, Singh SP, Choudhury S Abstract COVID-19 pandemic has accounted for ~ 4.3 million confirmed cases and ~ 292,000 deaths (till 12th May, 2020) across the globe since its outbreak. Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available. Severe health deterioration in critically ill patients is characterized by pulmonary edema, severe respiratory distress, cytokine storm ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Prospects for development of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in China within the context of national centralized drug procurement.
Authors: Chen M, Cong L, He J, Yang Y, Xu Y, Tang M, Jin C Abstract Healthcare group purchasing organizations (GPOs) are considered to play an integral role in the healthcare supply chain by keeping prices low and helping all members of the healthcare system achieve their objectives. China has been exploring GPOs in the field of drug procurement since 2015, and there are currently three GPO models in Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Although the three models operate differently and they have each been examined, they have all achieved certain results and demonstrated the ability to control drug expenditures. In 20...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Treat 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) with IL-6 inhibitor: Are we already that far?
Authors: Zhang Y, Zhong Y, Pan L, Dong J Abstract The world is in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) inhibitor (tocilizumab) had been suggested for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients based on the concept of "cytokine storm" in COVID-19. However, we still lack reliable studies to verify "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, IL-6 inhibitor has potential hazards of inducing infectious diseases. The efficacy of IL-6 monoclonal antibody-directed therapy remains to be fully evaluated. PMID: 32378647 [...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Rapid review for the anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir.
Authors: Li Z, Wang X, Cao D, Sun R, Li C, Li G Abstract The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread across China and worldwide. Remdesivir had been proposed as a promising option for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provided a rapid review to critically assess the potential anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 and other coronaviruses based on the most up-to-date evidence. Even though remdesivir was proposed as a promising option for treating COVID-19 based on laboratory experiments and reports from compassionate use, its safety and effect in humans requires high-quality evidence from wel...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Effects of the combined administration of risedronate and menatetrenone on bone loss induced by tacrolimus in rats.
This study suggests that the combined administration of risedronate and menatetrenone improves bone strength in tacrolimus-treated rats by preventing and ameliorating the risedronate-induced suppression of bone formation. PMID: 32378649 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Authors: Park CH, Hiratani K, Natazuka T, Yokozawa T Abstract Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. A number of new therapies have been developed based on the pathogenic factors of diabetic nephropathy such as intensive glycemic control, precise hypertension control, lifestyle modifications including exercise and an energy-restricted diet, and numerous novel agents. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine for patients with diabetic nephropathy has also received increasing attention due to its wide availability, weak side-effects, and proven therapeutic mechanisms an...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Change of serum cytokine profiles by propranolol treatment in patients with infantile hemangioma.
This study aims to prove the hypothesis using patients' sera and membrane array. In this study, the serum cytokine concentrations of five patients with infantile hemangioma were measured using membrane array of 20 angiogenic cytokines. We compared them before and during propranolol treatment to identify the cytokines responsible for the effect of propranolol. Signals for angiogenin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloprot...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Visual improvement in a patient with paracentral acute middle maculopathy treated with prostaglandin E1.
Authors: Steigerwalt RDJ, Nebbioso M Abstract The authors present the use of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) for the treatment of an acute paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). A 78-year-old white female was seen with a sudden loss of vision in her left eye (OS) to 20/200 noted upon awakening. The right eye (OD) saw 20/20. A complete eye exam was done and an ocular coherent tomography revealed retinal thickening and a whitening of the inner nuclear layer in the area of the macula OS. A diagnosis of PAMM in the OS was made. Treatment was immediately started with 70 μg of PGE1 administered over 1.5 hours in the for...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: How far have we reached?
Authors: Ahsan W, Javed S, Bratty MA, Alhazmi HA, Najmi A Abstract The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently affecting more than 200 countries and territories worldwide. It has been declared as pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) and the whole world is suffering from corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, no treatment for SARS-CoV-2 are approved because of lack of evidence, but a number of clinical trials are in process and we are expecting fruitful results very soon. This review focuses on various approaches of treatment and few of the most recent clinica...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A systematic review on anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of prescription Kangen-karyu.
Authors: Paudel P, Park CH, Jung HA, Yokozawa T, Choi JS Abstract Traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines have become prime sources of drug discovery and there is a pressing need to investigate the effectiveness of these traditional medicines for modern drug discovery. Recently, among various traditional formulations, studies on Kangen-karyu (Guan-Yuan-Ke-Li), a mixture of six medicinal herbs (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix, Carthami Flos, Aucklandiae Radix, and Cyperi Rhizoma), have been growing to assess its neuroprotective role. This prompted us to undertake a thorough review of v...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Brain abscess in patients with chronic kidney disease: A case-based approach to management in resource-limited settings.
Authors: Gupta N, Kumar R, Banerjee S, Singh G, Malla S, Ray Y, Ramteke P, George N, Kodan P, Aggarwal A, Kumar P, Jorwal P, Soneja M, Biswas A Abstract The management of patients with brain abscess poses a significant challenge to clinicians in patients with chronic kidney disease. Obtaining a biopsy sample from the affected area is the mainstay in the diagnosis, but it is often unavailable. In most cases, therapy is guided by clinical findings and imaging alone. We discuss three cases of brain abscess- each with a different scenario and discuss the issues faced in management. The first case was a 32-year-old post...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Is GSK3 β a molecular target of chloroquine treatment against COVID-19?
Is GSK3β a molecular target of chloroquine treatment against COVID-19? Drug Discov Ther. 2020 Apr 21;: Authors: Embi MN, Ganesan N, Sidek HM Abstract The recent clinical trial reports pertaining to the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 albeit yet to be validated with larger clinical trials, have sparked much interest globally to evaluate whether this anti-malarial drug can be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition to its anti-viral activity, the anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine may also contribute to its efficacy. Based on our data obtained fro...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Ultra-low price of generic agents in China may weaken patients' drug recognition and compliance.
Authors: Lu S, Cai J, Xu F Abstract Drug quantity purchase in China has reshaped the pattern of drug market with lower price of generic drugs and relatively higher price of original brand-name drugs. However, most Chinese people do not trust the safety and efficacy of the generic drugs that sold at a very low price. Ultra-low price of generic agents may weaken patients' drug recognition and compliance, and affect the implementation of drug quantity purchase policy. PMID: 32295974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Facts and reflections on COVID-19 and anti-hypertensives drugs.
Authors: Marin GH Abstract Based on some publications that associate SARS-CoV-2 infection with the use of anti-hypertensive drug groups such as angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (e.g. enalapril) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (e.g. losartan), many patients from South America, Central America or Spain, have stopped or intend to interrupt their treatments with these drugs. Hence, it may exist ominous consequences due to this drop out. For this reason, it is necessary to quickly warn about this situation and the risks associated with it. PMID: 32213760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Generic selection criteria for safety and patient benefit [IX]: Evaluation of "feeling of use" of sodium hyaluronate eye drops using the Haptic Skill Logger (HapLog ®) wearable sensor for evaluating haptic behaviors.
Generic selection criteria for safety and patient benefit [IX]: Evaluation of "feeling of use" of sodium hyaluronate eye drops using the Haptic Skill Logger (HapLog®) wearable sensor for evaluating haptic behaviors. Drug Discov Ther. 2020;14(1):14-20 Authors: Goto M, Nozawa M, Wada Y, Shimokawa KI, Ishii F Abstract We compared the pharmaceutical properties, such as surface tension, drop volume, nozzle inner diameter, and force to push the drug product out of the container (squeeze force), of purified sodium hyaluronate eye drops preparations of one brand-name (Hyalein) and 11 generic drug...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Development of an algorithm using ultrasonography-assisted peripheral intravenous catheter placement for reducing catheter failure.
This study aimed to develop an algorithm using US-assisted PIV placement to reduce CF rate. Furthermore, to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm, CF rates were compared before and after intervention. A pretest-posttest study was performed. The intervention was PIV placement by 23 nurses undergoing training sessions for the algorithm. Intention to treat, per protocol analyses were applied. Logistic regression analysis was used for factor analysis. The CF rate in the pre-intervention group 35.2% (19/54) did not significantly differ from post-intervention group 33.6% (48/143) (p = 0.831), yet significantly differ from ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. PMID: 32147628 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Polysaccharides of a fermented food, natto, suppress sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo evaluation system and inhibit glucose uptake by human intestinal cells.
Authors: Matsumoto Y, Takahashi M, Sekimizu K Abstract Natto is a well-known traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting soybeans with Bacillus subtilis var natto. Here we found that the water-soluble viscous fraction of natto inhibits sucrose- or glucose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms. The water-soluble viscous fraction treated with DNase I, RNase A, and proteinase K, followed by phenol extraction also suppressed sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms. The enzyme-treated polysaccharide fraction of natto inhibits glucose uptake by Caco-2 cells, human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu for patient with metabolic syndrome.
Authors: Kitazawa T, Park CH, Hiratani K, Choi JS, Yokozawa T Abstract Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk factors include hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine to treat metabolic syndrome has received increasing attention due to its wide availability. In this paper, we report the case of a 68-year-old patient with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, borderline diabetes, ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Usefulness of next-generation DNA sequencing for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection.
In conclusion, NGS is potentially useful for identifying pathogenic bacteria in urine from acute UTI patients but is less applicable in patients who do not meet clinical criteria for sepsis. PMID: 32101813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - February 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

New insights into the molecular basis of lactase non-persistence/persistence: a brief review.
Authors: Kuchay RAH Abstract Lactose, a disaccharide and main carbohydrate in milk, requires hydrolysis in the intestinal tract to release its monosaccharides galactose and glucose for use as energy source by enterocytes. This hydrolysis is catalyzed by the enzyme lactase, a β-galactosidase located in the brush border membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. In most mammals, lactase activity declines after the weaning, a condition known as lactase non-persistence (LNP). Lactase persistence (LP) is an autosomal dominant trait enabling the continued production of the enzyme lactase throughout adult life. Non-pe...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - February 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Association of moderately abnormal behavior and administered neuraminidase inhibitors.
Authors: Sugawara T, Ohkusa Y, Taniguchi K, Miyazaki C, Momoi MY, Okabe N Abstract Our earlier study investigated the incidence of severe abnormal behavior associated with neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs), but some studies have specifically examined the association of oseltamivir use and moderately abnormal behavior. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess associations between moderately abnormal behavior and administered drugs. All cases of patients with influenza who exhibited moderately abnormal behavior were reported to us by physicians of all sentinel clinics and hospitals for influenza throughout Japan. ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - February 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Pulse wave transit time during exercise testing reflects the severity of heart disease in cardiac patients.
Authors: Takayanagi Y, Koike A, Kubota H, Wu L, Nishi I, Sato A, Aonuma K, Kawakami Y, Ieda M Abstract The pulse wave transit time (PWTT) is easily measured as the time from the R wave of an electrocardiogram to the arrival of the pulse wave measured by an oxygen saturation monitor at the earlobe. We investigated whether the change of PWTT during exercise testing reflects cardiopulmonary function. Eighty-nine cardiac patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) were enrolled. We analyzed the change of PWTT during exercise and the relationship between the shortening of the PWTT and CPX parameters. P...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - February 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Functional role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP) in lysosome localization and autophagy.
This study contributes to the understanding of how lysosomes exert their multiple functions, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for diseases caused by lysosomal dysfunction. PMID: 32023558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - February 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Different activities of antitumor immunomodulators to induce neutrophil adherence response.
Authors: Tanaka M, Abe S Abstract Functions of neutrophils, major participant in host defense mechanisms, are known to be regulated by various types of immunomodulators. Capacity of immunomodulators which are reported to show antitumor effect in vivo to induce neutorophil adherence response in vitro was investigated. Several bacterial immunomodulators (OK-432, Corynebacterium parvum, B.C.G.) and components of bacteria cell walls (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipid A, lipoteicoic acid, N-cell wall skelton (N-CWS), muramyl dipeptide (MDP)) and fungal polysaccharides (lentinan, zymosan A, etc.) were tested. Neutrophils p...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Gene disruption of ribosomal protein L5 (RPL5) decreased the sensitivity of CHO-K1 cells to uncoupler carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone.
In this study, a CCCP-resistant clone was isolated from a random gene trap insertional mutant library of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells which was constructed by infecting a retrovirus vector, ROSAβgeo. Although we expected the isolation of the mutants defective in nuclear genes responsible for mitochondrial functions, the disrupted gene of the isolated mutant that we named R1 cells was identified as one of the alleles for ribosomal protein 5 of large subunit (RPL5). The R1 cells express as much as 80% RPL5 protein compared with the parental CHO-K1 cells, possibly due to enhanced transcription from a remaining wi...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Inhibitions of human parainfluenza virus type 2 replication by ribavirin and mycophenolate mofetil are restored by guanosine and S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine.
Authors: Uematsu J, Sakai-Sugino K, Kihira-Nakanishi S, Yamamoto H, Hirai K, Kawano M, Nishio M, Tsurudome M, O'Brien M, Komada H Abstract The antiviral activities of a nucleoside analog antiviral drug (ribavirin) and a non-nucleoside drug (mycophenolate mofetil) against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) were investigated, and the restoration of the inhibition by guanosine and S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI: equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 inhibitor) were also investigated. Ribavirin (RBV) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) inhibited cell fusion induced by hPIV-2. Both RBV and MMF considerably re...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Investigation of efficacy and safety of low-dose sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors and differences between two agents, canagliflozin and ipragliflozin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We examined glycemic, metabolic, and circulatory parameters at baseline and 24 weeks after administration. All patients completed the study without complications. Compared with baseline, levels of glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function improved significantly at 24 weeks after administration (p
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Safflower seed extract synergizes the therapeutic effect of cisplatin and reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells and RKO-transplanted mice.
Authors: Park CH, Kim MJ, Yang CY, Yokozawa T, Shin YS Abstract Safflower seed is effective against oxidative stress, mediating the activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway in the renal tissues of cisplatin-treated mice. The anticancer activity of safflower in various cancer cell lines has also been reported. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential synergistic anticancer effects of the co-treatment of safflower seed extracts and cisplatin in RKO cells and in BALB/c mice bearing RKO cell-derived human colorectal tumors. In the cellular system, RKO cells were treated with safflower seed extract...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Methanol extract of Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx fruit has anti-motility and anti-biofilm activity against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
In this study, we investigated the antibacterial effect of LCE fruit extract (LCEE) against EPEC. The antibacterial activities of LCEE were examined by bacterial growth, time-kill curve, soft-agar motility, electron microscopy, and 96 well-microplate biofilm assays. We also investigated the bacterial mRNA expression of biofilm-associated genes (fliC, csgA, and fimA) by quantitative real-time PCR assays. LCEE was found to suppress the growth, time-kill curve, and spread of EPEC. It also reduced the biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological analysis using transmission and scanning electron microscopy reveal...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Janus microspheres for enhanced enteral drug delivery: Preparation and orientated attachment to a Caco-2 monolayer.
Authors: Matsumoto A, Watanabe C, Murakami M Abstract Conventional oral preparations generally release incorporated drugs omnidirectionally, including into the lumen, leading to a low bioavailability of drugs that are unstable in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we designed Janus microspheres for efficient mucosal drug delivery as single-sided-release microspheres with the oriented attachment to mucus and evaluated their attachment to and orientation on a Caco-2 (human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cell line) monolayer. The microspheres comprised a mucus-oriented hemisphere of an ammonioalkyl methacrylate copolym...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

FADS2 and ELOVL6 mutation frequencies in Japanese Crohn's disease patients.
Authors: Motoi Y, Ito Z, Suzuki S, Takami S, Matsuo K, Sato M, Ota Y, Tsuruta M, Kojima M, Noguchi M, Uchiyama K, Kubota T Abstract Crohn's disease (CD) development is thought to involve genetic factors related to immune response as well as environmental factors, such as intestinal bacteria and diet, though no clear cause has yet been identified. In our previous study, we found that the concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, and metabolites in erythrocytes differed between CD patients and healthy subjects. These factors related to lipid metabolism are controlled by Δ6 desaturase (fatty acid desaturase...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Feasibility of microbial sample collection on the skin from people in Yaound é, Cameroon.
This study demonstrated that collecting surface skin microbes using our swabbing method is feasible in a developing country. We further showed that even with limited resources, we could collect sufficient amount of skin microbiota from the inhabitants in Yaoundé where no studies of skin microbiome were reported, which can be passed to further metagenomic analysis such as next generation sequencing. PMID: 31956235 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

"4+7" city drug volume-based purchasing and using pilot program in China and its impact.
"4+7" city drug volume-based purchasing and using pilot program in China and its impact. Drug Discov Ther. 2019;13(6):365-369 Authors: Tang M, He J, Chen M, Cong L, Xu Y, Yang Y, Hou Z, Song P, Jin C Abstract In order to deepen the health system reform and improve the mechanism for the formation of drug prices, in January 2019, the General Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China issued the "National centralized drug purchasing and using pilot program", selected 11 cities in mainland China to carry out "4+7" city drug volume based purchasing pilot work...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Centella asiatica (L.) extract attenuates inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity in a coculture of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Authors: Kusumastuti SA, Nugrahaningsih DAA, Wahyuningsih MSH Abstract Insulin resistance in obese condition is related to chronic low-grade inflammation which leads to insulin signaling impairment. Centella asiatica (L.) is an herb that exhibits anti-inflammatory and blood sugar-lowering activity (hypoglycemia). The study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of C. asiatica extract in insulin sensitivity improvement in a coculture of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. A coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with LPS to induce insuli...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - November 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Royal jelly regulates the proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells through the down-regulation of a photoaging-related microRNA.
Authors: Kawano Y, Makino K, Jinnin M, Sawamura S, Shimada S, Fukushima S, Ihn H Abstract Although royal jelly is believed to prevent skin aging, the underlying mechanism is not known in detail. In the present study, we investigated the plausibility of the involvement of microRNAs in the manifestation of this effect of royal jelly. The expression of microRNAs was determined by PCR array analysis and real-time PCR and the number of cells was counted with a cell counter. Using PCR array, we identified four microRNAs that were downregulated by royal jelly in cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - November 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Profile and predictors of hepatitis and HIV infection in patients on hemodialysis of Quetta, Pakistan.
This study aims to analyze the prevalence and to concentrate on the key risk factors that are responsible for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients on HD visiting two dialysis centers in the city of Quetta in southwestern Pakistan. The overall incidence of HBV was found to be 16.1%, the overall incidence of HCV was found to be 43.2%, and two patients (1.6%) were found to be positive for both HBV and HCV. HIV was not found among patients seen at both hospitals during the study period. The main risk factors for development of a viral infection were the ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - November 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Catheter tips are a possible resource for biological study on  catheter failure.
Catheter tips are a possible resource for biological study on catheter failure. Drug Discov Ther. 2019;13(5):280-287 Authors: Takahashi T, Minematsu T, Murayama R, Nakagami G, Mori T, Sanada H Abstract Few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms of catheter failure (CF). Herein, we performed histological and molecular biological analyses of the catheter tip to demonstrate its potential as a resource for biological investigation. Additionally, we searched for risk factors for the development of inflammation and coagulation, which are pathological conditions clarified by biological analys...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - November 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Characteristics of subcutaneous tissues at the site of insertion of peripheral infusion in patients undergoing paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy.
Authors: Murayama R, Oya M, Abe-Doi M, Oe M, Komiyama C, Sanada H Abstract Paclitaxel, a taxane, is frequently administered intravenously as an anticancer agent. When a peripheral intravenous catheter is used for paclitaxel infusion, clinical nurses often observe signs such as slight swelling at the catheter placement site, lack of blood return, and difficulty in continuing the infusion. However, the cause(s) of such phenomena at the puncture site has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to obtain ultrasonography images of subcutaneous tissues and veins of patients undergoing paclitaxel and carboplati...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - November 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A case of overlap syndrome (scleroderma and polymyositis) associated with the development of sudden chest pain due to myocardial damage.
We report a rare case of overlap syndrome (SSc and polymyositis) who presented with sudden chest pain secondary to myocardial fibrosis. Although the etiology of chest symptoms in collagen disease was difficult to identify, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed not myocarditis but myocardial fibrosis in our case. Synthetic judgement of serum brain natriuretic peptide/ troponin T levels and cardiac MRI is useful in the search for the cause of chest symptoms even in patients with collagen diseases. PMID: 31723102 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - November 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Pediatric case of Graham Little Piccardi Lassueur syndrome - A rare entity.
We report a case of a 15 year old girl presenting to us with this rare syndrome. PMID: 31656251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research