Suppressive effects of whey protein hydrolysate on sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms.
In this study, orally administered whey protein hydrolysate (WPH), obtained by enzymatic treatment of whey protein, suppressed sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms in a dose-dependent manner. WPH also inhibited glucose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms. These findings suggest that WPH contains a bioactive peptide that inhibits glucose uptake from the intestinal tract and thereby suppresses sucrose-induced hyperglycemia. PMID: 31611487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Effects of storage temperature, storage time, and Cary-Blair transport medium on the stability of the gut microbiota.
In conclusion, storage time and storage temperature significantly affect the gut microbial composition in fecal samples. Given the low cost, inhibitory effect on bacterial changes, and potential utility in bacterial isolation, Cary-Blair medium containers are suitable for large-scale or hospital-based microbiome studies, especially if direct freezing at -80°C is unavailable. PMID: 31611489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Induction of signal transduction pathways related to the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans in the host environment.
Authors: Matsumoto Y, Azami S, Shiga H, Nagamachi T, Moriyama H, Yamashita Y, Yoshikawa A, Sugita T Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans, a human pathogenic fungus, infects immunocompromised humans and causes serious diseases such as cerebral meningitis. C. neoformans controls the expression of virulence factors in response to the host environment via various signal transduction pathways. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in C. neoformans infection will contribute to the development of methods to prevent and treat C. neoformans-related diseases. C. neoformans produces virulence factors, such as a polysacc...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Utility of an adverse drug event database based on the narrative accounts of patients with breast cancer.
Authors: Kikuchi K, Miki A, Satoh H, Iba N, Sato-Sakuma R, Beppu H, Sawada Y Abstract Patient narratives of adverse drug events (ADEs) often differ from the symptoms listed on the package inserts of pharmaceutical products using common ADE terminology and could be a source of great comfort to patients with the same disease. To explore this idea, we analyzed written narratives obtained from 48 patients with breast cancer using the NPO Corporation Database of Individual Patients' Experiences, Japan (DIPEx-Japan). Our analysis aimed to determine the utility of an "Adverse Drug Event Database" for use in clin...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Repositioning of an anti-depressant drug, agomelatine as therapy for brain injury induced by craniotomy.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of agomelatine against craniotomy induced brain injury. The craniotomy was performed by a variable speed micro-motor dental driller of 0.8 mm drill bit. The present study, in addition to blood-brain permeability, brain water content (edema) and histological examination of the brain, also estimated locomotor activity, oxidant, and antioxidant parameters. Results show that the craniotomy induced increase in the blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content (edema), oxidative stress (lipid peroxide and nitric oxide) and impaired antioxidant mechanisms (superoxid...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Cur2004-8, a synthetic curcumin derivative, extends lifespan and modulates age-related physiological changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Authors: Kim BK, Kim SA, Baek SM, Lee EY, Lee ES, Chung CH, Ahn CM, Park SK Abstract Curcumin, a compound found in Indian yellow curry, is known to possess various biological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Cur2004-8 is a synthetic curcumin derivative having symmetrical bis-alkynyl pyridines that shows a strong anti-angiogenic activity. In the present study, we examined the effect of dietary supplementation with Cur2004-8 on response to environmental stresses and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Dietary intervention with Cur2004-8 significantly...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Detection of Trichophyton spp. from footwear of patients with tinea pedis.
Authors: Ishijima SA, Hiruma M, Sekimizu K, Abe S Abstract The prevalence of tinea pedis (also known as athlete's foot) in Japanese workers as well as contamination of their footwear by pathogenic filamentous fungi were investigated. Health checks by a dermatologist at a factory located in the Kanto region (Japan) led to a clinical and morphologic diagnosis of tinea pedis in 9 of 19 workers. Scales obtained from the feet and dust obtained from the protective footwear (safety shoes) worn daily in the factory were obtained from these nine subjects and tested using a mycological culture technique. Scales obtained from...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Effects of naringenin on vascular changes in prolonged hyperglycaemia in fructose-STZ diabetic rat model.
Authors: Zaidun NH, Sahema ZCT, Mardiana AA, Santhana RL, Latiff AA, Syed Ahmad Fuad SB Abstract Chronic uncontrolled hyperglycaemia leads to increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting in vascular complications and accelerates the progression of diabetic atherosclerosis. Though varieties of modern drugs used in the treatment of diabetes, the complications of diabetes are increasing. Naringenin (NG), has been reported to have potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic properties. However, the effects of NG as vasculoprotective agent in prolonged hyperglycaemia are not well documented. Thus, this st...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Anti-virulence activities of biflavonoids from Mesua ferrea L. flower.
Authors: Zhang X, Gao R, Liu Y, Cong Y, Zhang D, Zhang Y, Yang X, Lu C, Shen Y Abstract Based on the anti-virulence activity on Salmonella, the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of Mesua ferrea flower was investigated for its chemical constituents. Ten purified compounds were identified and assayed for their inhibitory activity against Type III secretion system (T3SS) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blots experiments. We found the biflavonoids, rhusflavanone and mesuaferrone B, exhibited inhibitory effects on the secretion of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) effector proteins (SipA, ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Neurovascular compression syndrome of the brain stem with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome combined with vestibular paroxysmia and autonomic symptoms.
We describe a rare case of neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) of the brain stem and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) complicated with vestibular paroxysmia (VP) and autonomic symptoms. Moreover, we discuss the case with respect to the available information in medical literature. A 36-year-old man with vertigo and nausea had difficulty standing, and was transported by an ambulance to our hospital. He had VP, opsoclonus, cervical myoclonus, anxiety, and restless legs syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging at hospitalization showed that the dolichoectatic vertebral artery was in contact with the postero-lateral side o...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A case of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome induced by salazosulfapyridine combined with SIADH caused by interstitial pneumonia.
We present a case of a patient with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) caused by salazosulfapyridine combined with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) caused by interstitial pneumonia (IP). A 67-year-old man with a past history of rheumatism (RA) presented with right hemiparalysis and aphasia as the chief complaints. A diagnosis of left embolic cerebral infarction following trial therapy for RA based on computed tomography findings was made, and external decompression was performed. Salazosulfapyridine was newly started on day 7. Dabigatran was started on day 37. On day 41, the pa...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Focus on diagnosis, treatment, and problems of Barr é-Lièou syndrome: Two case reports.
Focus on diagnosis, treatment, and problems of Barré-Lièou syndrome: Two case reports. Drug Discov Ther. 2019;13(4):239-243 Authors: Morinaga Y, Nii K, Sakamoto K, Inoue R, Mitsutake T, Hanada H Abstract Barré-Lièou syndrome is a manifestation of various autonomic and secondary symptoms, such as muscle stiffness, tinnitus, dizziness, and pain in the head, neck, eyes, throat, ears, chest, and back. While thought to be caused by hyperactivation of the autonomic nervous system due to trauma, there is currently no firmly established etiology. This, and the nonspecific nature of ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Additive effects of Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) extract and a lactic acid bacterium (Enterococcus faecalis YM0831) for suppression of sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system.
Authors: Ishii M, Matsumoto Y, Katada T, Sekimizu K Abstract Using a silkworm evaluation system, we previously evaluated various substances that suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. Enterococcus faecalis YM0831, a lactic acid bacterium that inhibits glucose uptake by the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, exhibited hyperglycemia-suppressing effects in the silkworm system. In the present study, we found that Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) extract, a traditional medicine containing α-glucosidase inhibitors, suppressed sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in the silkworm system. Moreover, combined oral administra...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Status of use of protease inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: An epidemiologic analysis of the evidence-practice gap using a health insurance claims database.
This study aimed to clarify the gap between guideline recommendations and contents of practice. We used the health insurance claims database of Japan Medical Data Center. Among patients who had undergone ERCP, those with acute pancreatitis or post-ERCP pancreatitis recorded in claims as disease names were defined as post-ERCP pancreatitis patients. The study period was divided into three terms according to the date of publication of clinical practice guidelines for acute pancreatitis. Among 2,945 patients who had undergone ERCP, 2,847 were eligible for analysis. Of these, 1,375 (48.3%) patients had claims with pancreatitis...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A novel highly concentrated enteral nutrition formula, EN-P05, shows nutritional effectiveness comparable to the approved OSN-001 in gastrostomized rats.
Authors: Kasumi E, Kuzumaki Y, Sadakata M, Kuzuoka H, Sato N Abstract Enteral nutrition is beneficial support administered as oral supplements or via tube feeding for patients with long-term inability to meet nutritional requirements orally. However, because of the high volumes administered, vomiting and gastroesophageal reflux are often encountered in patients receiving enteral nutrition. EN-P05 is a novel, highly concentrated enteral nutrition formula that was developed to reduce dosing volume and that satisfies the Japanese recommended daily allowance for most vitamins and trace elements, even in patients who re...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy of trazodone for treating paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity presenting after thalamic hemorrhage: A case report.
Authors: Morinaga Y, Nii K, Sakamoto K, Inoue R, Mitsutake T, Hanada H Abstract Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical condition characterized by abnormal paroxysmal surges in sympathetic nervous system activity. PSH is known to occur after severe head injury and hypoxic encephalopathy. Cases of PSH that develop after stroke have been reported worldwide; however, PSH is not commonly reported in the field of stroke research in Japan. Some studies have suggested that gabapentin may improve the symptoms of PSH. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the efficacy of trazodone fo...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Brain abscess in an angiosarcoma patient during a disease-free interval.
Authors: Kuriyama H, Kajihara I, Kanemaru H, Nishimura Y, Igata T, Masuguchi S, Imaoka Y, Makino K, Ihn H Abstract This is the first case of an angiosarcoma patient with brain abscess, and it might be responsible for skin defect and cranial bone necrosis by surgical excision and radiation. Our patient was treated with 10 courses of triweekly paclitaxel therapy, radical radiotherapy (70 Gy), and surgical excision (2 cm margin apart from a lesion) for angiosarcoma. At two years after the operation he was diagnosed as brain abscess. Brain abscess was managed with antibiotic drugs and drainage, his clinical symptoms im...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Rapid temporal improvement of pembrolizumab-induced pneumonitis using the anti-TNF- α antibody infliximab.
Rapid temporal improvement of pembrolizumab-induced pneumonitis using the anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab. Drug Discov Ther. 2019 Jun 28;: Authors: Sawai Y, Katsuya Y, Shinozaki-Ushiku A, Iwasaki A, Fukayama M, Watanabe K, Nagase T Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors are associated with a wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that are typically transient but are sometimes severe or even fatal. No consensus exists for the treatment of severe immune-mediated pneumonitis that is refractory to corticosteroids. Here, we report an autopsy case of pembrolizumab-induced pneumonitis that...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Generic selection criteria for safety and patient benefit [VIII]: Comparing the physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of brand-name and generic diclofenac sodium tapes.
Authors: Nozawa M, Goto M, Wada Y, Yotsukura K, Gannichida A, Ishii F, Shimokawa KI Abstract With respect to diclofenac sodium-containing tape preparations of nonsteroidal antiphlogistic drug, we compared the pharmaceutical properties (pH, elongatedness, water-vapor permeability, adhesive force, and peeling-force) of 11 medicinal drugs (2 brand-name and 9 generic drugs) to obtain evidence for product selection in line with the needs of the patient. The elongatedness of the generic drugs Teikoku (1.39), Yutoku (1.40), and Nippon-zoki (1.43) were significantly higher than the brand-name drug Voltaren® (1.22). The...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of multi-drug resistant coagulase negative cocci in non-hospital environment.
In this study, we investigated the drug resistant phenotype of Gram-positive cocci isolates from environment. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus colonies were isolated on mannitol-salt agar plates supplemented with tetracycline. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was examined. Isolates showed decreased sensitivity to clinically applied antimicrobial agents: tetracycline, kanamycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, teicoplanin, and ampicillin. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant genes in these bacter...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Immediate antiviral therapy for HIV-infected persons faces with various obstacles.
Authors: Tang Q, Lu H Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ranks eighth in the global burden of disease, making seriously threatens to global health. Given there is not yet a cure for HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy (ART) holds a key role not only in improving the prognosis of the patients, but also reducing the risk of HIV transmission. The immediate initiation of ART has been recommended in domestic and foreign policies and guidelines, yet the implementation of this strategy is not satisfactory. In developing countries and even in some developed countries, i...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A survey on awareness of the "finger-tip unit" and medication guidance for the use of topical steroids among community pharmacists.
In this study, we investigated the adequacy of pharmacists' instructions on the amount of topical steroids to be applied and the way in which they enhance the effect of pharmaceutical interventions. A self- administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed using QLifePro to 300 pharmacists working in insurance pharmacies that filled at least one dermatologist's prescription per month on average in Japan. Out of 300 pharmacists, 196 (65.3%) recognized the Japanese Dermatological Association's 2016 guidelines for the treatment AD, 107 (35.6%) gave instructions using the FTU as an index of external dose of topical steroids...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum and outcome of critically ill hospitalized patients with acute febrile illness and new-onset organ dysfunction presenting during monsoon season.
Authors: Ray A, Mohta S, Soneja M, Jadon R, Wig N, Sood R Abstract Acute febrile illness (AFI) is one of the commonest indications for hospitalization and can present with varying severity including single or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). During monsoon season, there is a spurt of AFI often caused by vector borne diseases leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to determine distribution of etiological causes, differential organ involvement and predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with AFI. It was a hospital based observational study which included patients with AFI wi...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Impact of non-selective beta blockers on portal hypertension and hepatic elasticity in hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis.
Authors: Zaghloul SG, Wahab EA, Seleem WM, Hanafy AS, Gomaa AF, Lakouz K, Amin AI Abstract Portal hypertension and its complications are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Noninvasive assessment of liver stiffness had been an effective tool for assessment of fibrosis progression in chronic liver disease. It was intended to assess liver stiffness measurement (LSM), portal vein diameter (PVD), splenic bipolar diameter (SD), and the platelet count/spleen diameter (PC/SD) ratio in patients who test positive for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to study the impact of non-selec...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Carbon dots have antitumor action as monotherapy or combination therapy.
Authors: Xia J, Kawamura Y, Suehiro T, Chen Y, Sato K Abstract Carbon dots prepared from different sources have been widely studied in various medical applications. Those dots have been reported to be able to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, such as prostate cancer cells. The current study used carbon dots prepared from red beans to determine their effect on 16 cell lines including liver cancer cells, pancreatic cancer cells, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells, and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. In a cellular viability experiment, carbon dots were found suppress cancer cell viability in a time- and d...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Acute mesenteric vein thrombosis after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices in a patient with liver cirrhosis.
Authors: Wang L, Xu X, Hou Y, Shao X, Guo X Abstract Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and PVT is unclear. In this paper, we reported that a male cirrhotic patient developed acute mesenteric vein thrombosis after EIS for secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Immediate anticoagulation therapy was effective and safe in this patient. PMID: 31080203 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Two different scenarios of advanced basal cell carcinomas during the use of vismodegib: Cases of oral administration and administration directly to the stomach.
Authors: Rodríguez-Cerdeira C, Muñoz-Garzón V, González-Cespón JL Abstract No effective therapy exists for locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Vismodegib is a small molecule that is an inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway. An oral treatment to inactivate Smoothened would be a new therapeutic approach to treat advanced BCC. We studied two patients with advanced BCC and analysed variables, including age and sex of the patient, tumour location and size, time of evolution and nature of the tumour (primary or recurrent), type of treatment, route of administration, t...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Antifungal activity of polymeric micelles of silver nanoparticles prepared from Psidium guajava aqueous extract.
Authors: Suwan T, Khongkhunthian S, Okonogi S Abstract In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by green synthesis using Psidium guajava aqueous extract (PE) as a reducing agent and silver nitrate (AgNO3) as a precursor. The obtained AgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 455 nm. The results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrate Ag signal at 88.33% weight. The particle image under scanning electron microscopy is spherical shape. The average size of the freshly prepared AgNPs is 96 ± 4 nm but is dramatically increases during storage due to particle aggregation. Coating A...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Silver nanoparticles fabricated by reducing property of cellulose derivatives.
Authors: Suwan T, Khongkhunthian S, Okonogi S Abstract The aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using cellulose derivatives as a reducing agent. Methyl cellulose (MC), hydroxy ethylcellulose (HEC), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were compared for their reducing property. HPMC presented the highest reducing power, with equilibrium concentration (EC) of 84.6 ± 4.5 µmol Fe2+/g, followed by MC and HEC, with the EC of 62.3 ± 1.4, and 38.1 ± 3.2 µmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Using these cellulose derivatives as a reducing agent and silver nitrate as a...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Paraoxonase 1 gene (Q192R) polymorphism confers susceptibility to coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes patients: Evidence from case-control studies.
Authors: Huo X, Guo Y, Zhang Y, Li J, Wen X, Liu J Abstract Numerous published studies have investigated the relationship between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene Q192R (rs662) polymorphism and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, the results are still conflicting and inconclusive. Potentially eligible articles were searched for in related databases. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the associations. Subgroup analysis was performed based on ethnicity. Ten case-control studies were included. A significant increase in the...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A study on factors determining dose of topical lignocaine during broncho-alveolar lavage by spray-as-you-go technique: A single centre observational study.
Authors: Ray A, Agarwal S, Biswas S, Sinha S Abstract Basic bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures like Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) are often performed without sedation, using lignocaine administered via the working channel of bronchoscope (spray-as-you-go technique) and other routes. Our aim was to evaluate the factors responsible for variation in the total dose of lignocaine administered in individual subjects. We prospectively included consecutive subjects undergoing BAL in an outpatient setting from August 2016 to November 2017 at our centre. The subjects were administered lignocaine via nebulization, nasal gel,...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Infectious versus non-infectious causes of oligoarticular inflammatory arthritis: A prospective study from a tertiary care hospital in north India.
Authors: Gupta N, Chaudhry R, Soneja M, Valappil VE, Malla S, Razik A, Vyas S, Ray A, Khan MA, Kumar U, Wig N Abstract Oligoarticular arthritis (inflammation of upto 4 joints) has a wide range of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. The aim of our study was to identify the features which could help in the differentiation of infectious from non-infectious arthritis. The study was prospective and observational, and included 100 patients with oligoarticular inflammatory arthritis. The final diagnosis was made using standard diagnostic criteria and the patients were categorized into infectious and non-infectious g...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Role of inulin as prebiotics on inflammatory bowel disease.
Authors: Akram W, Garud N, Joshi R Abstract The present review is focused on the prebiotic impact of inulin on the management of the gastrointestinal disorder. Prebiotics can be described as "non-digestible food ingredient stimulating the growth of a certain number of bacteria in the colon, which can improve the host health". In 2004 this definition was modernized to include other areas that may benefit from selective targeting of particular microorganisms: "selectively fermented ingredients that alter the configuration and activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer positive effect"...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A new method to evaluate the enzyme-suppressing activity of a leucine aminopeptidase 3 inhibitor.
Authors: Wu H, Jiang W, Li B, Yang H, Zhao X, Zhang H, Wang S, Peng L, Wang L, Wang X, Dai G, Fang C Abstract The expression of leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3) is associated with the prognosis for and malignant transformation of many types of tumors. Therefore, a LAP3 inhibitor may represent a new strategy for cancer therapy. Evaluating the suppression of enzyme activity by an LAP3 inhibitor is essential. Right now, leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) purified from the porcine kidneys are the only enzymes that can be used to evaluate the suppression of enzyme activity by an LAP3 inhibitor. This approach cannot accuratel...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Study of correlation of level of expression of Wnt signaling pathway inhibitors sclerostin and dickkopf-1 with disease activity and severity in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
This study was done with aim to assess the serum sclerostin and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) level in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to correlate their level with disease activity and bone mineral density. Fifty patients of RA and equal age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated with routine blood tests along with rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibody (anti-CCP2), radiographs and bone mineral density (BMD). Serum sclerostin and DKK-1 levels of both cases and controls was assayed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Synergistic anti-candida activities of lactoferrin and the lactoperoxidase system.
Authors: Nakano M, Suzuki M, Wakabayashi H, Hayama K, Yamauchi K, Abe F, Abe S Abstract Candida albicans is a commensal fungus in human mucosal surfaces, including the oral cavity. Lactoferrin (LF) and the lactoperoxidase (LPO) system, which are host protection components in exocrine secretions, each exhibit weak anti-candida activity. We herein examined the effects of the combination of LF and the LPO system on C. albicans. Morphological observations indicated that the combination of LF and the LPO system reduced the mycelial volume of C. albicans and changed the size and shape of cells more than each agent alone....
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Raised neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and serum beta hCG level in early second trimester of pregnancy as predictors for development and severity of preeclampsia.
Authors: Panwar M, Kumari A, Hp A, Arora R, Singh V, Bansiwal R Abstract Early detection and prediction of preeclampsia (PE) may avert serious materno-fetal complications. This prospective nested study was conducted to evaluate the role of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting the development and severity of PE. Four hundred and forty primigravidas, between 16 to 18 weeks of gestation, were recruited in the study. Serum beta-hCG and NLR were measured at the time of recruitment and they were followed and monitored for the development of PE and severe PE...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on diastolic function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Authors: Sobirin MA, Herry Y, Sofia SN, Uddin I, Rifqi S, Tsutsui H Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without an established treatment. Diastolic dysfunction, the hallmark of HFpEF, is associated with altered myocardial bioenergetics. No previous study has examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on left ventricle (LV) diastolic function in patients with HFpEF. We investigated whether CoQ10 could improve LV diastolic function in patients with HFpEF. We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using pretest and posttest control grou...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

End-of-life care conferences in Japanese nursing homes.
In conclusion, the continuation of conferences and enrollment of the nurse with experience in EOL care may promote EOL care in nursing homes, while family enrollment in conferences may decrease EOL care in nursing homes. EOL care conferences in nursing homes should be continuously performed by staff, with an experienced nurse undertaking the task of information sharing before discussing EOL care with the patients' families. PMID: 30880322 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on the Helicobacter pylori ABC transporter glutamine-binding protein GlnH.
In this study, GlnH has been expressed in E. coli and purified to> 98% homogeneity. The recombinant protein was folded according to the circular dichroism (CD) analysis and behaved as a monomer in solution. Crystals of GlnH have been grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P21 with unit cell parameters a = 38.67, b = 93.36, c = 64.13 Å, β = 93.72°. A complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 1.3 Å resolution from a single crystal using synchrotron radiatio...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Role of LDL apheresis in a case of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Authors: Naveen T, Biswas A, Wig N, Soneja M, Jorwal P, Durga CS, Singla P, Chaudhary C, Baitha U Abstract Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a form of primary hyperlipoproteinemia characterized by the presence of high concentrations of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increased tendency to form xanthomas and early onset of coronary artery disease. This disease is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by defects in the gene that encode for the LDL receptor. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a rare occurrence and here we report a case of an 18-year-old girl with familial hypercholesterol...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective properties of Curcuma longa L. extract in bleomycin-induced chronic hepatotoxicity.
Authors: Karamalakova YD, Nikolova GD, Georgiev TK, Gadjeva VG, Tolekova AN Abstract Curcuma longa L. (CLL) extract has previously been reported to alleviate liver damage. The current study examined the antioxidant activity of CLL by which the extract protects the liver against bleomycin (BLM)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The hypothesis was that CLL extract would protect the liver by reducing oxidative stress (induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity), inhibiting lipid peroxidation, lowering biochemical parameters, and decreasing ROS production. Hepatic toxicity was induced by intraperitone...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Discovery of novel bioactive natural products driven by genome mining.
Authors: Li Z, Zhu D, Shen Y Abstract Microbial natural product is an important source for drug discovery. As more and more microbial genomes are sequenced, bioinformatics analysis shows that there are huge resources of novel natural products. Genome mining is a new strategy of natural product discovery based on gene cluster sequences and biosynthetic pathways. At the same time, it can directly associate the structures of natural products with synthetic pathways, and facilitate the study of biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis. In this paper, the strategies of genome mining, including bioinformatics predicti...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Models for acne: A comprehensive study.
Authors: Kanwar IL, Haider T, Kumari A, Dubey S, Jain P, Soni V Abstract Acne vulgaris (AV) is the familiar chronic skin ailment affecting most of the individuals. This multifarious, disease involves the bacterium gram-positive, anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) which resides on skin microflora, and participated in acne inflammation and acne lesions. The object of this review is to discuss presently available in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the cosmetic formulations that are developed for dealing and prevention of acne formation. These various available models offer new chances for furt...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Quantitation of β-carboline and quercetin in alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) by LC-MS/MS and evaluation of cardioprotective effects of the methanol extracts.
Quantitation of β-carboline and quercetin in alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) by LC-MS/MS and evaluation of cardioprotective effects of the methanol extracts. Drug Discov Ther. 2018;12(6):341-346 Authors: Zhang X, Li P, Guo S, Wang S, Liu D Abstract Plant invasion is one of the major threats to natural ecosystems. The alligator weed grows rapidly within a small span of time and is easily available all over the world. β-Carboline and quercetin are considered as excellent bioactive components of the alligator weed. In our study LC-MS/MS methods were performed for the...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Microparticles for sustained release of water-soluble drug based on a containment, dry coating technology.
Authors: Matsumoto A, Ono A, Murao S, Murakami M Abstract Controlled release microparticles in a sub-gram-scale batch were fabricated using a ball mill, dry coating technique, to coat the water-soluble core material. This process also guaranteed the maintenance of the containment's integrity during the dry coating process. Quinine (average diameter, ca. 10 μm) and carnauba wax were used as the core and coating material, respectively. We evaluated the influence of process time, milling speed, and quinine-to-carnauba wax ratio on the particle size of the coated particles and their in vitro drug release profiles. S...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Tissue-dependent induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after body wall injury in house fly (Musca domestica) larvae.
Authors: Andoh M, Ueno T, Kawasaki K Abstract Injury of the insect body wall, which enables environmental microorganisms to invade into insect tissues, induces innate immune responses including the induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in flies and silkworms. Here, house fly (Musca domestica) larvae and pupae were injured using a needle and the effects on the expression of genes encoding AMPs were examined. The expression of AMP genes including defensin, attacin, diptericin, and sarcotoxin II dramatically increased in both larvae and pupae after injury of the body wall, indicating that innate immune responses ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients: A prospective study from a tertiary care hospital in India.
In conclusion, IFI, especially aspergillosis is grossly under-reported in critical settings. Early suspicion, thorough investigation and timely diagnosis may alleviate patients of significant mortality and morbidity. PMID: 30674771 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

The outcome of combined treatment with ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir, sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin as salvage therapy for Egyptian HCV experienced patients: A single center study.
Authors: Ismail WA, Wadea FM Abstract We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of combination of sofosbuvir with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir ± ribavirin as a retreatment option for experienced Egyptian patients who failed previous sofosbuvir, daclatasvir ± ribavirin therapy. A total of 75 treatment-experienced patients were allocated for the completion of their treatment period according to criteria formed by the national committee for control of viral hepatitis. The enrolled patients were followed up throughout treatment, at the end of treatment and 3 months after the end of the tr...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Two cases of Osteoarticular Mucor menace: A diagnostic and management conundrum.
We present two cases of osteoarticular mucormycosis of pelvis and long bones of the lower limb, one in a patient with burn injury and other one in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, hitherto a rarely reported association. Delayed diagnosis in a setting where tuberculosis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis, challenges in medical and surgical management of these patients are discussed in this report. PMID: 30674773 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research