Leucocytosis and early organ involvement as risk factors of mortality in adults with dengue fever.
Authors: Baitha U, Halkur Shankar S, Kodan P, Singla P, Ahuja J, Agarwal S, Gupta A, Jorwal P, Soneja M, Ranjan P, Kumar A, Baruah K, Biswas A Abstract The clinical profile and risk factors for mortality in dengue fever have evolved over the years. The all-cause mortality in admitted dengue patients is around 6%. We aimed to evaluate the recent change in trends of the clinical characteristics and risk factors for in-hospital mortality in adults with dengue fever. This is a retrospective study on adults with confirmed dengue fever admitted in a medical unit of a tertiary care center in North India. Medical records o...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Patient satisfaction with oral health check-ups at a community pharmacy and their effect on oral self-care habits and dental consultation behavior.
This study aimed to examine the effects of oral health check-ups and information provision at community pharmacies on oral health-associated behaviors as well as patient satisfaction. We conducted oral health check-ups and provided information about oral health self-care to 84 patients at a community pharmacy, and then asked them to complete a questionnaire survey. One month later, we sent them a follow-up questionnaire and received responses from 66.7% (56/84) of the participants. The large majority were satisfied with the salivary test (95.2%) and the information (96.4%) we provided. Most of the participants (89.3%) indi...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Does coronaviruses induce neurodegenerative diseases? A systematic review on the neurotropism and neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2.
Authors: ElBini Dhouib I Abstract The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clinically, respiratory tract symptoms as well as other organs disorders are observed in patients positively diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition, neurological symptoms, mainly anosmia, ageusia and headache were observed in many patients. Once in the central nervous system (CNS), the SARS-CoV-2 can reside either in a quiescent latent state, or eventually in actively state leading to severe acute encephalitis, characterized by neuroinflamm...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum and predictors of severe Plasmodium vivax infections at a tertiary care center in North India.
Authors: Walia D, Arora U, Baitha U, Kumar A, Ranjan P, Soneja M, Verma N, Khan MA, Aggarwal P, Biswas A, Wig N Abstract Traditionally attributed only to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax has recently been reported to cause a significant burden of complicated malaria cases. The present study aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and identify predictors for severe disease. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) aged at least 14 years were included if they were diagnosed with vivax malaria based on rapi...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Approach to acute febrile illness during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Bhatt M, Soneja M, Gupta N Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a febrile respiratory illness that has spread rampantly across the globe and has emerged as one of the biggest pandemics of all time. Besides the direct effects of COVID-19 on mortality, collateral impacts on diagnosis and management of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is a matter of great concern. The overlap in presentation, shunting of available resources and infection control precautions in patients with suspected COVID-19 result in a significant delay in diagnoses and management of AFI. This review highlights the challenges in the...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Analytical methods for the determination of remdesivir as a promising antiviral candidate drug for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Pashaei Y Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is undoubtedly the most challenging pandemic in the current century. A total of 73,953,702 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 1,644,416 deaths were reported globally up to December 17, 2020. Therefore, in the absence of a safe and effective vaccine, it is urgent to identify a novel antiviral drug to effectively treat patients with COVID-19. On October 22, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved remdesivir, a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral activity, for...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Finger sweating levels evaluated by video capillaroscopy system are increased in patients with systemic sclerosis compared to pre-clinical stage patients.
Authors: Tabata K, Jinnin M, Furukawa K, Tani S, Okuhira H, Mikita N, Fujii T Abstract New strategies for early diagnosis and careful follow-up of systemic sclerosis are urgently needed. We unconventionally used a video capillaroscopy system to measure the amount of sweating on finger pads, and investigated its clinical significance. Thirty-three Japanese patients who were diagnosed with typical or pre-clinical stage patients of systemic sclerosis were included in this study. Five healthy subjects were also included. Among twenty-one patients with typical systemic sclerosis that fulfilled ACR/EULAR 2013 classificat...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

COVID-19 in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: Challenges and way-forward.
Authors: Bhatt M, Soneja M, Gupta N Abstract Most studies have described worse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been attributed to COVID-19 associated lymphopenia (resulting in lower CD4 count), higher prevalence of comorbidities (established risk factors for severity in COVID-19) and pre-existing lung damage. The problem has been further aggravated by the lack in the access to routine care in HIV patients due to diversion of resources. In this article, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on patients with HIV infection. PMID: 33390569 ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

5-Aminolevulinic acid combined with sodium ferrous citrate (5-ALA/SFC) ameliorated liver injury in a murine acute graft-versus-host disease model by reducing inflammation responses through PGC1- α activation.
In this study, a murine aGvHD model was developed by transferring spleen cells from donor B6/N (H-2kb) mice into recipient B6D2F1 (H-2kb/d) mice. In addition to evaluating manifestations in aGvHD mice, we analyzed the serum ALT/AST levels, liver pathological changes, infiltrating cells and mRNA expression of inflammation-related cytokines and chemokines. 5-ALA/SFC treatment significantly ameliorated liver injury due to aGvHD and decreased the population of liver-infiltrating T cells, resulting in a reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, the mRNA expression proliferator-activated recep...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Development of an in vivo-mimic silkworm infection model with Mycobacterium avium complex.
Authors: Yagi A, Yamazaki H, Terahara T, Yang T, Hamamoto H, Imada C, Tomoda H, Uchida R Abstract In vivo-mimic silkworm infection models with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare were newly established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of anti-M. avium complex (MAC) antibiotics. Silkworms raised at 37°C died within 72 hours of an injection of M. avium or M.intracellulare (2.5 × 107 colony-forming unit (CFU)/larva·g) into the hemolymph. Clinical anti-mycobacterial (tuberculosis) antibiotics were evaluated under these conditions. Clarithromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, amikacin, a...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - December 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Lymphoma versus thymoma: A diagnostic challenge.
We describe the case of an 18-year old patient presenting with fever and an anterior mediastinal mass suspected to have a T-cell lymphoma where an initial biopsy from the mass had features of a thymoma. The patient was kept in close follow up for 2 months when there was a recurrence of symptoms and a repeat bone marrow evaluation revealed a T-cell lymphoma. PMID: 33116034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Althaea officinalis improves wound healing in rats: a stereological study.
Authors: Mohsenikia M, Rafiee S, Rozei LS, Ebrahimi A, Zahmatkesh-Meimandi F, Aref NM, Nematollahi P, Mirlohi MS, Soleymani A, Zaree H, Ashkani-Esfahani S Abstract Althaea officinalis (AO) is reported to have the ability to activate fibroblasts as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Herein, we investigated the effects of this herbal medicine on wound healing in rat models by using stereological methods. In this experiment, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups randomly (n = 12): the control group with no treatment, the gel-base treated group, 5% and 10% AO-gel treated groups. The tre...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus: a systematic review of literature.
Authors: Fazal F, Gupta N, Mittal A, Ray A Abstract Diagnosis and management of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are scarcely described in the published literature. The aim of this systematic review was to delineate the triggers of HLH in patients with HIV and understand the role of steroids in the management. We conducted a comprehensive search of English medical literature via the Medline ⁄ PubMed database using different synonyms of "HIV" AND "HLH". The review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018099987). The titles an...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Is amiloride a promising cardiovascular medication to persist in the COVID-19 crisis?
Authors: Adil MS, Narayanan SP, Somanath PR Abstract In the ongoing coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19) crisis that caused immense suffering and deaths, the choice of therapy for the prevention and life-saving conditions must be based on sound scientific evidence. Uncertainty and apprehension are exacerbated in people using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to control their comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. These drugs are reported to result in unfavorable outcome as they tend to increase the levels of ACE2 which mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Amiloride, a prototypic inhibitor of epi...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

The in vitro and in vivo anti-virulence activities of Cinnamomum bejolghota by inhibiting type three secretion system effector proteins of Salmonella.
This study is designed to investigate the anti-virulence potential of the C. bejolghota bark extract against Salmonella Typhimuriumin in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The results suggested that the polar fraction Fr.M1 inhibited the secretion of effector proteins SipA, SipB, SipC and SipD without affecting bacteria growth and the translocation of SipC into MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, Fr.M1 alleviated inflammatory symptoms of mice in Salmonella-infected mouse model. Overall, the results provide evidence for medicinal usage of C. bejolghota bark to treat diarrhea in Myanmar. PMID: 33116038 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Effects of the linagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on bone fragility induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese mice.
In this study, we investigated the effects of linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on bone fragility induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Non-diabetic mice were used as controls, and T2DM mice were administered linagliptin orally on a daily basis for 12 weeks. In T2DM mice, decreased bone mineral density was observed in the lower limb bones along with low serum osteocalcin levels and high serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP) levels. In contrast, the decreased serum osteocalcin levels and increased serum TRAP levels observed in T2DM mice were significantly suppressed after the administration of linagliptin ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu for patient with lifestyle-induced metabolic syndrome.
We report a case of a 65-year-old patient with hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and hyperuricemia, who showed an improvement in lifestyle-induced metabolic syndrome on the administration of 7.5 g of Kangen-karyu extract per day for 6 months. The levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides were decreased. The systolic/diastolic blood pressure was decreased following administration. Other parameters such as estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptid...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Factors associated with symptoms of depression among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus in Japan.
The objective of this study was to explore the factors associated symptoms of depression among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Japan. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a hospital in Toyota, Japan, from January 2015 to June 2016. Pregnant women who visited the hospital and were diagnosed with GDM in the second trimester were enrolled. We analyzed depression symptoms using the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and considered related factors of depression symptoms, such as dietary intake and daily walking. Dietary intake during the past month was assessed using a...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Can irritable bowel syndrome be detected by ultrasound?
Authors: Okawa Y Abstract Functional gastrointestinal disease is one in which gastrointestinal symptoms persist chronically or recurrently. This disease is challenging because it does not have an organic cause that can be detected in routine laboratory tests. Among them, the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a type of functional gastrointestinal tract disease, include abnormal bowel movements associated with abdominal pain. However, no specific test has been established to definitively diagnose these diseases, including IBS. The traditional Rome IV diagnostic criteria are used to diagnose IBS by ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Stabilizing mast cells by commonly used drugs: a novel therapeutic target to relieve post-COVID syndrome?
Authors: Kazama I Abstract Regardless of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a high proportion of patients struggle with persistent respiratory or systemic symptoms after recovery. This is called "postCOVID syndrome", for which pulmonary fibrosis is one of the pathogenesis. Besides T-lymphocytes and macrophages, mast cells also contribute to the development of cytokine storm and thus stimulate the activity of fibroblasts. Additionally, by the exocytotic release of fibroblast-activating factors, mast cells directly facilitate the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In our previous basic stu...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 in Africa: availability, challenges and implications.
Authors: Oladipo EK, Ajayi AF, Odeyemi AN, Akindiya OE, Adebayo ET, Oguntomi AS, Oyewole MP, Jimah EM, Oladipo AA, Ariyo OE, Oladipo BB, Oloke JK Abstract The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel v...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Association of ACE2 receptor and ACEIs/ARBs with disease severity in COVID-19.
Authors: Sinha S, Sehgal A, Sehgal R Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is found to be associated with various comorbidities which include cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. The impaired regulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been seen in COVID-19 patients, but whether RAAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), are responsible for worsening of clinical conditions remains unknown. Herein, we review the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in disease progression, i...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Review of current clinical management guidelines for COVID-19 with special reference to India.
Authors: Kumar R, Vinod KS, Mittal A, Adhikari SD, Gupta N Abstract The healthcare sector has been overwhelmed by the global rise in the number of COVID-19 cases. The primary care physicians at the forefront of this pandemic are being provided with multiple guidelines (state, national, international). The aim of this review was to examine the existing guidelines for congruence and critically analyze them in light of current evidence. A discordance was noted between the national and state guidelines with respect to indication, duration and dosage of antivirals, steroids/immunomodulators, anticoagulation and convales...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

MicroRNA analysis of NCI-60 human cancer cells indicates that miR-720 and miR-887 are potential therapeutic biomarkers for breast cancer.
This study identified 9 lineage-specific miRNA expression patterns. Moreover, results indicated that miR-720 and miR-887 are expressed at relatively high levels in breast cancer cell lines compared to other types of cancer. Ultimately, matching NCI-60 drug response data to miR-720 and miR-887 expression profiles revealed that several FDA-approved drugs were inversely related to miR-720 and miR-887. Furthermore, the anti-cancer effect of perifosine was significantly enhanced by inhibiting miR-720 and decreased by miR-720 precursor treatment in breast cancer cell lines. 5-Fu treatment was enhanced by inhibiting miR-887 and d...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Phenotypic analysis of human CYP2C9 polymorphisms using fluorine-substituted tolbutamide.
Authors: Kitamura Y, Saeki KI Abstract To investigate the effect of fluorine substitution on tolbutamide (TB) hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2C9, the hydroxylation of TB and its fluorinated derivative 3'-fluoro-tolbutamide (3'-F-TB) by recombinant human CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3 was analyzed. In general, fluorine substitution near the metabolic site may decrease enzymatic oxidation owing to its electron-withdrawing nature. Fluorine substitution reduced the Michaelis-Menten-derived Km of 4'-hydroxylation of TB catalyzed by CYP2C9*1 from 115 (TB) to 77 (3'-F-TB) µM. In the case of TB hydroxylation catalyz...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A successful case of lupus myelitis treated with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and pulse cyclophosphamide therapy.
In conclusion, early and aggressive treatment improves the permanent damage of lupus myelitis. PMID: 32863325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - September 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma by 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis of whole blood.
In this study, we investigated the 1H NMR-based metabolic profiles of whole blood samples that were obtained from healthy individuals and PTC patients, with or without lymph node metastasis. The estimation of the predictive potential of metabolites was evaluated using multivariate statistical analyses, which revealed that the whole blood carries information that is sufficient for distinguishing between PTC patients and healthy individuals. However, PTC patients were not well classified as positive or negative according to the lymph nodes. We did not find a metabolite that could discriminate the presence of lymph node metas...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - August 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Choosing the therapy for neurological infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria.
We report a case of a young girl with neurological infection due to rapidly growing mycobacteria to discuss the factors that should be considered while choosing the therapy for such rare and persistent infections. PMID: 32830168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - August 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A simple artificial diet available for research of silkworm disease models.
This study was performed with the aim of making a very simple recipe of silkworm diet for research purposes, especially screening of drug candidates. We prepared a diet containing mulberry leaves powder and soybean flour at different ratios, fed them to fifth instar silkworm larvae, and observed their growth. We selected the diet with 1:1 ratio of mulberry powder and soybean flour, named MS-11, and used for further experiments. MS-11 diet was available for oral administration of drugs in silkworm hyperglycemic model and infection model. The availability of a simple artificial diet for experiments that require feeding silkw...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - August 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Identification of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs associated with dilated cardiomyopathy using integrated bioinformatics approaches.
This study identified IDI2-AS1 and XIST lncRNAs and related pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DCM, thus providing potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for DCM. PMID: 32727980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - August 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Re-tasking the use of pre-existing medications and potential therapeutic options for coronavirus disease (COVID-19): systematic review of clinical studies.
Authors: Marouf BH, Dizaye K Abstract With the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in late December 2019, many clinical studies on a group of the pre-existing medications have been conducted to treat this disease. The purpose of this review was to compile the clinical evidences on the use of the pre-existing medications and potential therapeutic options for the management of COVID-19. We reviewed the literature to highlight the clinical studies on the use of these medications to be available as a scientific overview for further perspectives. Inadequate clinical evidences are available to be affirmed fo...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

High-dose vitamin B supplementation for persistent visual deficit in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.
Authors: Mallone F, Lucchino L, Franzone F, Marenco M, Carlesimo SC, Moramarco A Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of high-doses vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and persistent visual loss after acute optic neuritis (AON). Sixteen patients (20 eyes) diagnosed with RRMS and visual permanent disability following AON were enrolled for the present open, pilot study. Each patient was treated with oral high-doses 300 mg of vitamin B1, 450 mg of vitamin B6 and 1,500 mcg of vitamin B12, as add-on treatment to concomita...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy and safety of Verbascox ® - a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 - and celecoxib for knee osteoarthritis.
Comparative efficacy and safety of Verbascox® - a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 - and celecoxib for knee osteoarthritis. Drug Discov Ther. 2020;14(3):129-134 Authors: Nannoni G, Volterrani G, Mattarocci A, Minoretti P, Emanuele E Abstract The aim of this randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of oral supplementation with Verbascox®, a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in patients with mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients in the ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Malnutrition as an important risk factor for drug-induced liver injury in patients on anti-tubercular therapy: an experience from a tertiary care center in South India.
Authors: Ali N, Gupta N, Saravu K Abstract Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) due to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) leads to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to find the impact of malnutrition on the development of DILI. This was a prospective cohort study (September 2017 to August 2019) in which all newly diagnosed in-patients with tuberculosis above the age of 18 years were included. Those patients with a body mass index (BMI) of
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese medicine to treat COVID-19: the importance of evidence-based research.
Authors: Wang J, Qi F Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in 2019 and spread rapidly around the world, causing a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese medicine has a history of more than 2,000 years in the prevention and treatment of epidemics and plagues. In guidelines on fighting COVID-19, the National Health Commission (NHC) has recommended some traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), including Jinhua Qinggan granules, Lianhua Qingwen capsules, XueBijing injections, a Qingfei Paidu decoction, a Huashi Baidu decoction, and a Xuanfei Baidu decoction. Based on current results, TCM has displayed some ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Devoting attention to the management of community-acquired pneumonia for the elderly.
Authors: Song P Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading contributor to lost disability-adjusted life years worldwide, and this is especially true in the elderly population. In order to reduce the burden of disease, effective management of CAP is crucial to public health in terms of maintaining and promoting the health of the elderly and involves safe drug use, vaccinations, early treatment in the ICU, and health education. Since the long-term mortality of CAP is particularly high in the elderly, biomarkers and a predictive diagnostic model of CAP should be developed in future research. ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Increase of lymphocytes and eosinophils, and decrease of neutrophils at an early stage of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is a favorable sign for advanced malignant melanoma.
Authors: Ohashi H, Takeuchi S, Miyagaki T, Kadono T Abstract The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-1 antibodies had a striking impact on the treatment for advanced malignant melanoma. However, less than half of the patients benefited from those antibodies, and biomarkers that could sensitively differentiate responders from non-responders are urgently needed. Herein, we explored such biomarkers by retrospectively analyzing clinical data from patients with advanced malignant melanoma treated with nivolumab and pembrolizumab. We found that anti-PD-1 antibody was especially effective for those with...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - July 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Targeting lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels to suppress cytokine storm in severe COVID-19: Can it be a novel therapeutic strategy?
Authors: Kazama I Abstract In the midst of a pandemic, finding effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the urgent issue. In "chronic inflammatory diseases", the overexpression of delayed rectifier K+-channels (Kv1.3) in leukocytes is responsible for the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm. In our previous basic studies, drugs including chloroquine and azithromycin strongly suppressed the channel activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lymphocytes. These findings suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism by which chloroquine, with or ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Can mesenchymal stem cell therapy be the interim management of COVID-19?
Authors: Bamba C, Singh SP, Choudhury S Abstract COVID-19 pandemic has accounted for ~ 4.3 million confirmed cases and ~ 292,000 deaths (till 12th May, 2020) across the globe since its outbreak. Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available. Severe health deterioration in critically ill patients is characterized by pulmonary edema, severe respiratory distress, cytokine storm ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Prospects for development of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in China within the context of national centralized drug procurement.
Authors: Chen M, Cong L, He J, Yang Y, Xu Y, Tang M, Jin C Abstract Healthcare group purchasing organizations (GPOs) are considered to play an integral role in the healthcare supply chain by keeping prices low and helping all members of the healthcare system achieve their objectives. China has been exploring GPOs in the field of drug procurement since 2015, and there are currently three GPO models in Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Although the three models operate differently and they have each been examined, they have all achieved certain results and demonstrated the ability to control drug expenditures. In 20...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - June 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Treat 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) with IL-6 inhibitor: Are we already that far?
Authors: Zhang Y, Zhong Y, Pan L, Dong J Abstract The world is in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) inhibitor (tocilizumab) had been suggested for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients based on the concept of "cytokine storm" in COVID-19. However, we still lack reliable studies to verify "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, IL-6 inhibitor has potential hazards of inducing infectious diseases. The efficacy of IL-6 monoclonal antibody-directed therapy remains to be fully evaluated. PMID: 32378647 [...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Rapid review for the anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir.
Authors: Li Z, Wang X, Cao D, Sun R, Li C, Li G Abstract The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread across China and worldwide. Remdesivir had been proposed as a promising option for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provided a rapid review to critically assess the potential anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 and other coronaviruses based on the most up-to-date evidence. Even though remdesivir was proposed as a promising option for treating COVID-19 based on laboratory experiments and reports from compassionate use, its safety and effect in humans requires high-quality evidence from wel...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Effects of the combined administration of risedronate and menatetrenone on bone loss induced by tacrolimus in rats.
This study suggests that the combined administration of risedronate and menatetrenone improves bone strength in tacrolimus-treated rats by preventing and ameliorating the risedronate-induced suppression of bone formation. PMID: 32378649 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics)
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Authors: Park CH, Hiratani K, Natazuka T, Yokozawa T Abstract Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. A number of new therapies have been developed based on the pathogenic factors of diabetic nephropathy such as intensive glycemic control, precise hypertension control, lifestyle modifications including exercise and an energy-restricted diet, and numerous novel agents. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine for patients with diabetic nephropathy has also received increasing attention due to its wide availability, weak side-effects, and proven therapeutic mechanisms an...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Change of serum cytokine profiles by propranolol treatment in patients with infantile hemangioma.
This study aims to prove the hypothesis using patients' sera and membrane array. In this study, the serum cytokine concentrations of five patients with infantile hemangioma were measured using membrane array of 20 angiogenic cytokines. We compared them before and during propranolol treatment to identify the cytokines responsible for the effect of propranolol. Signals for angiogenin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloprot...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Visual improvement in a patient with paracentral acute middle maculopathy treated with prostaglandin E1.
Authors: Steigerwalt RDJ, Nebbioso M Abstract The authors present the use of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) for the treatment of an acute paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). A 78-year-old white female was seen with a sudden loss of vision in her left eye (OS) to 20/200 noted upon awakening. The right eye (OD) saw 20/20. A complete eye exam was done and an ocular coherent tomography revealed retinal thickening and a whitening of the inner nuclear layer in the area of the macula OS. A diagnosis of PAMM in the OS was made. Treatment was immediately started with 70 μg of PGE1 administered over 1.5 hours in the for...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: How far have we reached?
Authors: Ahsan W, Javed S, Bratty MA, Alhazmi HA, Najmi A Abstract The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently affecting more than 200 countries and territories worldwide. It has been declared as pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) and the whole world is suffering from corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, no treatment for SARS-CoV-2 are approved because of lack of evidence, but a number of clinical trials are in process and we are expecting fruitful results very soon. This review focuses on various approaches of treatment and few of the most recent clinica...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

A systematic review on anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of prescription Kangen-karyu.
Authors: Paudel P, Park CH, Jung HA, Yokozawa T, Choi JS Abstract Traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines have become prime sources of drug discovery and there is a pressing need to investigate the effectiveness of these traditional medicines for modern drug discovery. Recently, among various traditional formulations, studies on Kangen-karyu (Guan-Yuan-Ke-Li), a mixture of six medicinal herbs (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix, Carthami Flos, Aucklandiae Radix, and Cyperi Rhizoma), have been growing to assess its neuroprotective role. This prompted us to undertake a thorough review of v...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Brain abscess in patients with chronic kidney disease: A case-based approach to management in resource-limited settings.
Authors: Gupta N, Kumar R, Banerjee S, Singh G, Malla S, Ray Y, Ramteke P, George N, Kodan P, Aggarwal A, Kumar P, Jorwal P, Soneja M, Biswas A Abstract The management of patients with brain abscess poses a significant challenge to clinicians in patients with chronic kidney disease. Obtaining a biopsy sample from the affected area is the mainstay in the diagnosis, but it is often unavailable. In most cases, therapy is guided by clinical findings and imaging alone. We discuss three cases of brain abscess- each with a different scenario and discuss the issues faced in management. The first case was a 32-year-old post...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Is GSK3 β a molecular target of chloroquine treatment against COVID-19?
Is GSK3β a molecular target of chloroquine treatment against COVID-19? Drug Discov Ther. 2020 Apr 21;: Authors: Embi MN, Ganesan N, Sidek HM Abstract The recent clinical trial reports pertaining to the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 albeit yet to be validated with larger clinical trials, have sparked much interest globally to evaluate whether this anti-malarial drug can be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition to its anti-viral activity, the anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine may also contribute to its efficacy. Based on our data obtained fro...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - April 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research