Indications that a Northern New Mexico petroglyph was inspired by traumatic nightmare.
Artists in aboriginal and modern societies often use dreams as inspiration for their created images. It is a reasonable assumption that some prehistoric images were also inspired by dreams. A variety of anthropological approaches indicate this assumption to be a logical probability. Another way to approach this possibility is to apply modern understandings of dream science to petroglyph images with phenomenology similar to dream-based art. Focusing on Mesa Pietra, a petroglyph site in Northern New Mexico, the argument is made for at least one petroglyph being inspired by dream—specifically, a nightmare image produced...
Source: Dreaming - June 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A brief self-report measure for frequent distressing nightmares: The Nightmare Experience Scale (NExS).
Both nightmare frequency and nightmare distress have been described as cardinal features of the nightmare experience. However, most previous research has either neglected nightmare distress or measured it separately from nightmare frequency. Based on current nosology of nightmare disorder and recent research findings, the current work conceptualizes the two as representing a single construct, frequent distressing nightmares. Four studies are presented involving a total of 819 university students aimed at the development and examination of a brief scale, the Nightmare Experience Scale (NExS), for measuring frequent distress...
Source: Dreaming - June 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Impact of fearful attachment style on nightmares and disturbed sleep in psychiatric inpatients.
This study used an archival data set of 1,092 patients from an inpatient psychiatric hospital to explore the relationships between adult attachment style, nightmare frequency, disturbed sleep due to nightmares, and difficulty falling asleep due to fear of nightmares. Expanding on previous research conducted by Belfiore and Pietrowsky (2017), this study examined whether fearful attachment style and trait neuroticism predicted disturbed sleep due to nightmares above and beyond trait neuroticism alone. In addition, this study examined whether fearful attachment style and trauma history predicted disturbed sleep due to nightma...
Source: Dreaming - June 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nightmares in mental disorders: A review.
In conclusion, this review highlights the importance for clinicians to investigate for the presence of chronic nightmares along with other sleep difficulties (most commonly, insomnia and sleep apnea), to consider the potential influence of nightmares on the course of the primary mental disorder, and to be prepared to grant access to treatments targeting nightmares. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Dreaming)
Source: Dreaming - June 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relationships between video game play factors and frequency of lucid and control dreaming experiences.
Lucid and control dream states have been linked to a variety of positive psychological outcomes, but are uncommon and difficult to induce. Delineating connections between lucid and control dreaming and immersion in other virtual environments could aid in understanding the nature of those dream states and developing more effective induction training. Video game play takes place in immersive virtual environments and has been linked to more frequent lucid dreaming (Gackenbach, 2006, 2009). The current research sought to identify connections between specific genres of video game play and lucid and lucid/control dream experienc...
Source: Dreaming - May 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Can learning to lucid dream promote personal growth?
A lucid dream occurs when a dreamer knows that he or she is dreaming while continuing to dream. Many people practice lucid dreaming to promote personal growth, including enhanced creativity and self-esteem. However, such benefits are evidenced by anecdotal reports and correlational studies rather than controlled experiments. Further, this existing evidence is confounded by the fact that most lucid dreaming procedures involve two supporting practices—dream journaling and a mindfulness exercise called reality checking—that may be independently associated with personal growth. Our study asked whether successfully ...
Source: Dreaming - May 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the Nightmare Proneness Scale.
The current study examined the validity of the Nightmare Proneness Scale (NPS; Kelly, 2018) as measuring a personality disposition that predisposes individuals to experience frequent nightmares. The NPS and measures to estimate its convergent and discriminant validity were administered to a sample of 140 university students. The convergent validity of the scale was supported through significant correlations with nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, nightmare effects, general psychological distress, neuroticism, and trauma symptoms. Discriminant validity was demonstrated through nonsignificant correlations with feminine...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring attitude toward lucid dreams: A six-item scale.
In recent years, the interest in lucid dreaming (dreaming with the conscious knowledge that one is dreaming) was stimulated by blockbuster films like “Inception” and the media interest in studies indicating that lucid dreaming can be beneficial. However, systematic studies regarding the attitude toward lucid dreams are lacking. An online survey was completed by 1,380 persons (777 women and 603 men), whose mean age was 51.63 ± 14.13 years. The six-item scale measuring attitude toward lucid dreams showed high internal consistency. The attitude toward lucid dreams was highly correlated with the general atti...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The mediational roles of sleep disorders and nightmares in the relationship between trauma and dissociation.
The aim of this study was to test the validity of the “sleep-dissociation” perspective. In addition, and to gain a more comprehensive overview of the trauma–sleep–dissociation complex, we aimed to test in which manner and to what degree trauma sleep disorders and nightmares are related to dissociation. A total of 100 male and 100 female university students with mean age of 24 completed and returned a 160-item questionnaire designed to detect the extent of dissociation, childhood and recent trauma history, sleep disorders, and nightmares. Correlation analyses showed that sleep disorders and nightmare...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Who dreams of the deceased? The roles of dream recall, grief intensity, attachment, and openness to experience.
This research addressed the question of why some bereaved individuals dream of the deceased whereas others do not. Two studies were conducted. In one, participants were 268 U.S. residents (150 men, 116 women, 1 other, and 1 undisclosed), with an age range of 20 to 70 (M = 33.8), who had lost a romantic partner or spouse in the previous 12 to 24 months. The second study had 162 U.S. residents (88 men and 74 women), aged 18 to 63 (M = 32.1), whose dog or cat had died in the previous 6 months. In both studies, participants completed online questionnaires assessing frequency of dreams of the deceased, general dream recall, con...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neural correlate of the impact of dream recall on emotional processing.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dream recall on the neurophysiological correlates of emotional processing. The hypothesis was that dream recall will produce an increased activation of fronto-limbic areas during an emotional task. Thirty-seven women were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups were exposed to a visual task with emotional images (positive vs. negative) presented in two stages (T0 and T1). Between T0 and T1, in the experimental group, women were asked to recall and report a dream; whereas, in the control group, they were asked to report their work experiences. Electro...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Common factors leading to a universal approach to dreamwork: A qualitative analysis.
Using 2 texts that survey the most prevalent current Western Euro-based dreamwork modalities, this qualitative analysis identifies common factors in dreamwork techniques. The results show a clear movement toward experiential and collaborative methods and away from interpretation by the dreamworker. The study found general agreement about the main dreamwork practices among the 14 approaches surveyed, except with respect to the use of associations and others’ projections, which some see as helpful and others see as leading too far from the original dream content. This analysis led to a proposed universal method for wor...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dreaming is imaginative play in sleep: A theory of the function of dreams.
This article presents evidence in support of the theory that dreaming is imaginative play in sleep. Both play and dreaming are innate behaviors of our species that have the adaptive, survival-enhancing effect of stretching our minds beyond what is to imagine what might be. To explain why dreaming can best be conceived as a kind of play, the article draws upon research in evolutionary biology, neuroscience, developmental psychology, anthropology, religious studies, and therapeutic practices. The play theory of dreaming is capable of integrating these various sources of evidence into a clear conceptual framework that can acc...
Source: Dreaming - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Can stimulus-incorporation and emotion-assimilation theorists revive the continuity hypothesis they deprived of cognitive meaning? A reply to Jenkins.
Jenkins’ (2018) attempt to defend the theorists I snidely called concept snatchers (based on a 1978 movie on “The Invasion of the Body Snatchers”) is beside the point: They did not take or steal ideas. They presented their version of the continuity hypothesis “without any mention of the original meaning of the concept . . .” (Domhoff, 2017, p. 15). They buried the original ideas by ignoring them, which is what led to the critique, not simply their adoption of the term. By talking about the everyday usage of the term continuity, Jenkins (2018) exculpated these theorists from a deficiency in the...
Source: Dreaming - December 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dream content corresponds with dreamer’s psychological problems and personality structure and with improvement in psychotherapy: A typology of dream patterns in dream series of patients in analytical psychotherapy.
This qualitative study of patients’ dreams in analytical psychotherapy using the method of Structural Dream Analysis investigated 15 cases and 202 dreams. In total, 5 major dream patterns were identified and that accounted for the majority of the dreams. The clients’ dream series were dominated by 1 or 2 repetitive patterns, which were closely connected to the psychological problems of the dreamers. In addition, typical changes in the dream series’ patterns could be identified that corresponded with therapeutic change. These findings support Jung’s theory of dreams as providing a holistic image of t...
Source: Dreaming - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Iranians’ beliefs about dreams: Developing and validating the My Beliefs about Dreams Questionnaire.
Several different beliefs about the importance of dreams have been recorded from ancient times to the present. In ancient Iranian culture, dreams had a special importance. Similarly, in modern times, Iranians pay much attention to their dreams. The present questionnaire study of several beliefs about dreams describes the beliefs of 486 Iranian university students in Tehran (men = 253; women = 233) from the Tarbiat Modares and Allameh Tabatabai University about their dreams through administering of the My Beliefs About Dream Questionnaire (MBDQ). The two main objectives of the research were to examine the psychometric prope...
Source: Dreaming - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Virtual reality-enabled treatment of nightmares.
We pilot tested the efficacy of a virtual reality-based imagery rehearsal and rescripting treatment (ReScript) for nightmares. Nineteen community volunteers (Mage = 49 years) who varied in terms of their nightmare distress levels participated in a 4-week-long trial of ReScript therapy. Participants used VR manual controls in an Oculus headset to manipulate 3 scary or threatening images per session with 2 sessions per week. The object was to manipulate these images into less scary or threatening images so as to gain cognitive control over intrusive imagery and to lessen overall anxiety or nightmare distress or nightmare day...
Source: Dreaming - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Lucid nightmares: A survey of their frequency, features, and factors in lucid dreamers.
This article reports the first systematic study on lucid nightmares—terrifying lucid dreams with a lack of dream control. An online survey was completed by 634 participants, of whom 574 had had previous lucid dream experience. According to the reports of lucid dreamers, less than half of them had experienced a lucid nightmare, and only 1% of them could be considered as suffering from lucid nightmares—experiencing them once a week or more frequently. Lucid nightmares appear to be as distressing as ordinary nightmares. Lack of dream control and intense fear are among their most common features, followed by violen...
Source: Dreaming - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When is a continuity hypothesis not a continuity hypothesis? Why continuity is now a problematic name for a continuity hypothesis.
This article suggests that a large part of the present problem lies in Hall’s original choice of the name continuity without any qualification. When Domhoff, and Hall before him, used continuity, they were using it to denote their own particular meaning, thus creating an ambiguity in the word continuity. Domhoff’s title, “Invasion of the concept snatchers . . .” (2017), suggests that something has been taken or even stolen. This article asks the following: What does he own? What could be stolen? It suggests that a name change is advisable to clarify the current and any future language issues. (PsycI...
Source: Dreaming - August 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adaptive nightmares of Holocaust survivors: The Auschwitz camp in the former inmates’ dreams.
This study, based on the testimonies submitted by former Auschwitz concentration camp prisoners to Polish psychiatrists in 1973, is focused on examining the most traumatic dreams of the former inmates—the dreams about the camp, dreamt in the postwar period. These dreams were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. For quantitative analyses, Hall and Van de Castle’s (1966) coding system was applied. The main goal of this study was to test the hypothesis—based mainly on Hartmann’s (2001a, 2001b, 2011) theory—that even such terrifying nightmares can have adaptive and healing potential. This hy...
Source: Dreaming - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pathological narcissism, dream experiences, and personality dynamics.
This study investigated whether narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability are related to the incidence of dreaming about persecutory themes, dream work, and dream–reality confusion and whether these relationships are modulated by superego functions, affective traits, splitting defense, somatoform distress, and hypochondriacal disturbance. The Pathological Narcissism Inventory, Dream Intensity Scale (Diffusion), Dream Motif Scale (Persecution), Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale, International Personality Item Pool (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Healthy Anxiety), Somatoform Dissociation Questionna...
Source: Dreaming - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An integrative model proposal about underlying mechanisms involved in disturbing dream themes: Defense styles, dysfunctional attitudes, interpersonal styles, and dream themes.
The aim of the study was to investigate the psychological processes pointed out by dream contents and themes. For this purpose, a model that indicates mediation roles of interpersonal relationship style and dysfunctional attitudes, on the relationship between immature and neurotic defense mechanisms and disturbing dream themes in addition to direct relationship between these defense mechanisms and disturbing dream themes, was examined. The sample included 610 adults within the age range of 18 to 65. The results of the structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the proposed model fitted the values for a good mo...
Source: Dreaming - July 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The phenomenology of dream–reality confusion: A quantitative study.
Dream–reality confusion (DRC) is a difficulty or an impossibility to determine whether an event or an experience took place during wakefulness or if it was the content of a dream. The main goal of the present study was to explore characteristics of participants from the general population who often/very often experience DRC in comparison with those who never/almost never experience it. Altogether, 82 participants were investigated with a set of questionnaires. Results of the study indicate that individuals prone to DRC—in comparison with those who rarely or do not at all experience DRC—more often experien...
Source: Dreaming - July 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pilot study: Brief posttrauma nightmare treatment for persons with bipolar disorder.
Previous research on an efficacious cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttrauma nightmares and sleep disturbances (exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy; ERRT) has not tested the treatment in individuals with bipolar disorder. However, research suggests that individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for trauma exposure and development of posttrauma symptoms. The present pilot study sought to examine the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a modified version of ERRT (ERRT-B) on reducing the frequency and severity of nightmares and improving sleep quality for 7 trauma-exposed individua...
Source: Dreaming - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Offender-nightmares: Two pilot studies.
Being the victim of an aggressor in nightmares is quite common for most persons, but there are also nightmares where the dream-self can become the offender. Two studies were conducted in two nonclinical samples of participants with frequent nightmares to investigate the so-called offender-nightmares. Study 1 served to assess the frequency of offender-nightmares in persons with frequent nightmares and the motives and actions in these dreams during a 28-day interval, whereas in Study 2, correlations to personality variables were investigated. The results indicate that the occurrence of offender-nightmares is not negligible; ...
Source: Dreaming - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dream content in pregnancy and postpartum: Refined exploration of continuity between waking and dreaming.
The present study is an extension of previous work on the dreams of pregnant women, with a large sample from pregnancy and postpartum. In total, 143 pregnant women completed dream diaries during 3 distinct periods. Also, 125 nonpregnant women completed a dream diary on 1 occasion. Pregnancy- and motherhood-related oneiric characteristics, as well as negative versus positive dream elements, were coded by 2 independent judges. Results revealed that pregnant women experienced more direct in-dream representations of pregnancy and motherhood than the comparison group. However, no differences in oneiric emotional content were ob...
Source: Dreaming - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dream content and procedural learning in Vipassana meditators and controls.
This study aimed at investigating whether meditators have qualitatively different dreams than do controls, whether meditators incorporate a procedural learning task more often than do controls, and whether dreaming about the task is related to better postsleep performance on the task. Twenty meditators and 20 controls slept for a daytime nap in the laboratory. Before sleeping and upon awakening, they completed a procedural learning task. Dream reports were collected at sleep onset and upon awakening (REM or N2 sleep). Dreams were then scored for qualities associated with meditation practice and for incorporations of the pr...
Source: Dreaming - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The meaningful continuities between dreaming and waking: Results of a blind analysis of a woman’s 30-year dream journal.
This article reports the findings of a new exercise in the “blind analysis” of a long dream series. The study focused on 940 dreams of a woman (“Beverly”) who kept a regular dream journal for 30 years. Four subsets of her dreams (from 1986, 1996, 2006, and 2016) were analyzed using a digital word search template, and then predictions were made about Beverly’s waking life based on the word usage frequencies of her dreams. A total of 26 predictions were made, of which Beverly confirmed 23 as accurate. The correct inferences included aspects of Beverly’s emotional temperament, preoccupation...
Source: Dreaming - June 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Lucid music – A pilot study exploring the experiences and potential of music-making in lucid dreams.
In a lucid dream, the dreamer knows that he or she is dreaming and can thus deliberately carry out actions. The original goal of this study was to investigate musical practice in lucid dreams and its possible effects as well as the quality of the experiences. A total of 5 musicians were interviewed about their lucid dreams in which they had played instruments and sung. However, the interviewees were more interested in pleasure and inspiration than in actual practice and skill improvement. Therefore, the results provide more general information than planned. It could be shown that singing and playing musical instruments mos...
Source: Dreaming - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The dreams of monks: Studies on Chinese Buddhists’ dream content.
The present study is a comparison of dream content between monks and nonreligious respondents, aiming to understand the unconscious of monks, and to further explore the influence of religion on our human mind. The authors interviewed participants to collect dreams and then explored similarities and differences through content analysis. A total of 127 participants reported their dreams, 65 monks and 62 nonreligious respondents. Results suggest a significant difference in dream themes between monks and nonreligious respondents. Compared with nonreligious respondents, there were more “prediction” and “revela...
Source: Dreaming - May 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Room, door. . . room”: Oneiric space in L’Avventura and Last Year in Marienbad.
Cinema and dreams inhabit the same psychoemotional realm. This essay was written to explore this connection by marrying studies in dream psychology to avant-garde film theory. To do this, the essay provides a critical analysis of scenes from Michelangelo Antonioni’s L’Avventura (Pennasilico & Antonioni, 1960) and Alain Resnais’s L’Année dernière à Marienbad (Courau, Froment, Dorfmann, Dauman, & Resnais, 1961). Research is built from an instructive critical landscape focusing on the ongoing tensions between the spatial, oneirological explorations of film, as used in J. Al...
Source: Dreaming - May 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Letting go of the ego: Dreams about ego-centered concerns as a function of adversity, Taoist orientation, and locus of control.
This study examined the extent to which dream themes characteristic of ego-centered concerns could be accounted for by Taoist orientation, with consideration of self-perceived adversity and locus of control. The sample contained 242 participants, 111 university students and 131 nonstudent participants. Participants’ incidence of dreaming of ego-centered concerns, Taoist orientation, and locus of control was measured using the Dream Motif Scale; the Ego-Grasping Orientation Scale; and the Internality, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales, respectively. The results suggest that the incidence of dreaming of ego-centered c...
Source: Dreaming - April 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Book preferences and nightmares: The U.K. library study.
Nightmares are defined as disturbing mental experiences that generally occur during REM sleep and often result in awakening. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming would predict that media consumption arousing anxious feelings might increase nightmare frequency. Whereas there is some research on the effect of watching TV and playing computer games on dreams, research examining the relationship between reading and nightmares is scarce. The present study carried out in 3,535 children and adolescents showed that the preference for reading scary stories is positively related to nightmare frequency, whereas preferring fiction (n...
Source: Dreaming - April 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are dreams social simulations? Or are they enactments of conceptions and personal concerns? An empirical and theoretical comparison of two dream theories.
This article compares social simulation theory, which claims that dreaming is a rehearsal for waking social perceptions and interactions, and therefore has adaptive value (Revonsuo, Tuominen, & Valli, 2015), with a neurocognitive theory of dreaming, which claims dreaming is an intensified form of mind-wandering that makes use of embodied simulation, primarily to enact the dreamer’s major conceptions and personal concerns, but has no adaptive value (Domhoff, 2011). The article presents new findings on types of embodied simulations in dream reports, 6.5% of which are not social simulations according to social simul...
Source: Dreaming - April 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using the LIWC program to study dreams.
This article presents the results of an analysis of a large set of dream reports (N = 5,208) using the Linguistic Inventory and Word Count (LIWC) system of Pennebaker, Boyd, Jordan, and Blackburn (2015). The findings indicate that, in comparison with other kinds of texts studied by LIWC, dream reports are distinctive in having high frequencies of the following language categories: focus on the past, first-person singular words, personal pronouns, authenticity, dictionary words, motion, space, and home. The dream reports have relatively low frequencies of these LIWC categories: informal language, focus on the present, assen...
Source: Dreaming - March 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Media use and gender relationship to the nightmare protection hypothesis: A cross-cultural analysis.
Chinese and Canadian people answered surveys in their native languages about their self-construal, media use history, and dreaming experiences. This included reporting a recent dream. The nightmare protection thesis was investigated. Sex was found to be modulated by culture in terms of the relationship between types of media used and negative dream content. This was particularly evident for men in Greater China versus Canada along the self-construal dimension of interdependence. As both cultures reported no difference in independent self-construal, it was argued that it is the role of interdependence that accounts for male...
Source: Dreaming - March 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nightmare experience in bipolar I and II disorders.
Some patients with bipolar disorder have traumatic experience, sleep disturbance, and emotional variations, which are related to nightmare reports in clinics. We hypothesized that the nightmare experience might present some uniqueness in different types of bipolar disorder. We invited 200 healthy volunteers and 141 bipolar disorder I (BD I) and 78 bipolar disorder II (BD II) patients who had at least one nightmare lifelong to undergo tests of the Nightmare Experience Questionnaire (NEQ) and the questionnaires measuring mania, hypomania, and depression. Compared with healthy controls, both BD I and BD II patients displayed ...
Source: Dreaming - March 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Metaphoric and associative aftereffects of impactful dreams.
The proposal that impactful dreaming is “involuntary poetry” suggests that some dreams facilitate creative thinking and have aesthetic aftereffects. In two online studies (n = 107 and 117), participants completed three tasks immediately after awakening from a dream: (a) an index of metaphoric creativity, (b) a measure of the interactive combination of associative fluency and restraint, and (c) a version of the Remote Associates Test. Results indicated that, after existential dreams (Studies 1 and 2) and perhaps transcendent dreams (Study 2), participants who reported dissociative absorption provided higher scor...
Source: Dreaming - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Now an invasion by a Freudian concept-snatcher: Reply to Erdelyi.
This article provides a detailed reply to a Freudian-oriented critique of “The invasion of the concept snatchers: The origins, distortions, and future of the continuity hypothesis” (Domhoff, 2017). According to the critique, the continuity hypothesis (the idea that most dreams enact the same concerns present in waking thought) is old hat, going back to the 19th century, and furthermore was a part of Freud’s thinking. This reply suggests that the critic often misunderstands what is said in the original article and that all of his substantive criticisms are wrong. Academic psychologists have rejected every ...
Source: Dreaming - December 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The continuity hypothesis.
A longstanding tradition exists, surveyed by Freud in the opening pages of his Interpretation of Dreams, holding that dream life is continuous with awake life. Contrary to Domhoff (2017), Freud partook of this tradition, and Calvin Hall, who was much influenced by Freud, articulated the idea in 1971 (with A. Bell) as “the continuity hypothesis.” A decade later, with Domhoff’s collaboration, “personal preoccupations and concerns” (and, sometimes, “interests”), extending over years, became the focus of the continuity hypothesis, which Domhoff seeks to make the exclusive defining feat...
Source: Dreaming - December 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Empirical research and literature review of the experimental and systematic study of dreams in the late 19th and early 20th century: The important role of general psychology.
The aim of this work is to bring out the historiographical categorization and periodization of the studies on dreams between the late 19th and early 20th century. The study is divided into different stages: bibliographic research, content analysis, and statistical analysis. For bibliographic research, we selected 315 studies written between 1872 and 1940 and published in PsycInfo, the database of the American Psychological Association. We assigned each work to specific categories (psychological and physical disorders, general psychology, psychoanalytical theory, physiological psychology, and other categories). Each of thes...
Source: Dreaming - December 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nightmares, abjection, and American not-quite identities.
In evolutionary theory, nightmares simulate threats to survival (Revonsuo, 2006). Many nightmares, this article argues, more likely simulate threats to social identity symbolized as threats to survival. In daily life, people experience major identity threats as abjection, a state in which they feel their self-presentation is a charade. Such feelings come from aspiring to an ideal associated with an internalized cultural model that people doubt they can realize as a plausible social identity, often because of their ambivalence about this ideal. Nightmares dramatize these feelings as well as think about and comment on them t...
Source: Dreaming - December 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Theorizing about the continuity between waking and dreaming: Comment on Domhoff (2017).
In his article “The Invasion of the Concept Snatchers: The Origins, Distortions, and Future of the Continuity Hypothesis,” Domhoff (2017) advocated a cognitive version of the continuity hypothesis. This commentary challenges his claim that his deviations from the original continuity hypothesis formulated by Hall and Nordby (1972) are the only way to advance the theoretical framework of the continuity hypothesis. Furthermore, Domhoff’s concepts are not well operationalized; that is, reliable instruments for measuring the occurrence, intensity, and time frame of personal concerns and preoccupations are lack...
Source: Dreaming - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The ritual of dream interpretation in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
This study is based on the testimonies submitted by former Auschwitz concentration camp prisoners to Polish psychiatrists in 1973. The respondents gave accounts of the daily camp custom of dream interpretation. The method of dream explanation in the camp was not sophisticated. It was a simple way of understanding dreams as future-oriented signs of the dreamer’s fate. However, the custom of interpreting dreams in Auschwitz can be described as a complex and multilevel ritual that had at least 3 dimensions: individual, interpersonal, and social. On the individual level, this ritual was oriented on revealing the inmates&...
Source: Dreaming - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

High thought suppressors dream more of their negative waking-life experiences than low thought suppressors.
Research has found that high thought suppressors dream more of their emotional waking-life experiences than low suppressors, in line with the dream rebound effect. The present study replicated and extended this finding. Participants (N = 62) completed the White Bear Suppression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and answered questions about their most recent dream. High thought suppressors dreamt more of their negative (but not positive) emotional experiences from waking-life than low thought suppressors. They also had poorer sleep quality and higher levels of depre...
Source: Dreaming - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sensory modalities during dreams in migraine: Case-control study using a daily questionnaire.
The migrainous brain is known to have a series of peculiarity in terms of metabolism, performances, emotions, and pain perception. This particularity seems to involve also the oneiric activity. Aimed to increase our knowledge about this topic, the present study tries to investigate migraineurs’ dreams by both an analytic qualitative and a semiquantitative perspectives. With an ad hoc questionnaire compiled each day at the awakening, we explored the frequency of dreams, the involved sensory system (visual, auditory, olfactory, and gustative), and the fragmentation of sleep. We found a higher frequency of dreams among ...
Source: Dreaming - September 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reality testing and the mnemonic induction of lucid dreams: Findings from the national Australian lucid dream induction study.
Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and has a wide range of potential applications. However, research in this area has been limited by a lack of effective and reliable lucid dream induction techniques. The present study provides a thorough investigation into 3 of the most promising cognitive lucid dream induction techniques—reality testing, wake back to bed (WBTB), and the mnemonic induction of lucid dreams (MILD) technique. A sample of 169 Australian participants completed a pretest questionnaire, provided baseline logbook data in Week 1, and practiced lucid dream induction techniques in Week 2. Results showed that ...
Source: Dreaming - September 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sex dreams in married women: Prevalence, frequency, content, and drives.
Although sex dreams (SD) are of common occurrence, studies dealing with them are still restricted. SD had been reported as accompanying nocturnal orgasms in women and they were reported usually as a reflection of their actual experience. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to provide information about SD prevalence, frequency, content, and drives in a group of Egyptian married women. Overall, 211 married women answered a self-report questionnaire including 23 items covering the epidemiology of participants, sexual activity, and SD details. Overall, 106 of the participants (51.3%) experienced the occurrence of SD. ...
Source: Dreaming - August 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive differences in dream content between Japanese males and females using quantitative content analysis.
This study asked the question, “Are there significant content differences between male and female dream reports obtained in dream seminars conducted in Japan?” Each of the 100 female and 100 male research participants contributed 1 recent dream report during dream seminars that were held in Japan between 1990 and 1998 and in 2004. Dream reports were scored using Hall and Van de Castle’s (1966) system of content analysis. Major findings showed that Japanese males dreamed much more of male characters, whereas Japanese females dreamed more equally of female and male characters, a finding in line with Hall&rs...
Source: Dreaming - July 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

German versions of the Nightmare Effects Survey (NES) and the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ): Psychometric properties in a sample of adult chronic nightmare sufferers.
The Nightmare Effects Survey (NES) and the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ), 2 widely used questionnaires in nightmare research, were translated into German and tested in a sample of 86 adult chronic nightmare sufferers. Participants completed the questionnaires together with measures of nightmare- and sleep-related factors and psychopathology and kept a nightmare diary for 3 weeks. Psychometric properties were determined: The German NES showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .898) and split-half reliability (r = .889) and a unifactorial structure (46.33% variance explained). The German NFQ and...
Source: Dreaming - July 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research