Evaluation of alternate parasite transport systems for the BD MAX ™ enteric parasite panel
Laboratory testing for diarrheal disease is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and yields a low number of positive results for the number of tests performed (Harrington et al., 2015). To decrease turn-around and hands-on time and to increase positivity rates, many laboratories are exploring molecular testing. Available molecular assays for diarrheal disease detect between 1 and 22 targets, and may include bacterial, viral and parasitic targets. These assays each require specific specimen transport systems including: Cary-Blair (CB) and fresh stool. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Barbara A. DeBurger, Sarah Hanna, Joel E. Mortensen Tags: Note Source Type: research

Determining the in vitro susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from eight cities in Guangdong Province through an improved microdilution method
A microdilution method for the antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was established and improved, and the antibiotic resistance of N. gonorrhoeae samples isolated from eight cities of Guangdong in 2016 was determined. The improved microdilution method was compared with the agar dilution method recommend by the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region by testing the susceptibility of 100 clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates. The essential agreement (EA), categorical agreement (CA), very major error (VME), major error (ME) and minor error (MIE) levels of the two methods were analyzed, the acceptable...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xingzhong Wu, Xiaolin Qin, Jinmei Huang, Feng Wang, Ming Li, Zhizhou Wu, Xiaofeng Liu, Junming Pei, Shanghua Wu, Heyong Chen, Yaohua Xue, Sanmei Tang, Mingheng Fang, Yinyuan Lan, Jiangli Ou, Zhenmou Xie, Yuqi Yu, Jieyi Yang, Wentao Chen, Yunhu Zhao, Hepin Source Type: research

Colistin/tigecycline-resistant K. pneumoniae in ICU
A matched 1:2 case –control study was conducted among critically ill patients in order to identify the risk factors of colistin or tigecycline-resistant carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColR-Kp, TigR-Kp) bacteraemia. MIC to colistin and tigecycline were determined by Etest. From 224 bacteraemic patient s, 46.4% and 29.5% were resistant to colistin and tigecycline, respectively. PCR revealed that 199 isolates carried the blaKPC gene. PCR revealed that no isolate carried the mcr-1 gene. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Christina Bartzavali, Aikaterini Spyropoulou, Anastasia Lambropoulou, Nektarios Sioulas, Sophia Vamvakopoulou, Georgios Karpetas, Iris Spiliopoulou, Theofanis Vrettos, Evangelos D. Anastassiou, Fotini Fligou, Myrto Chris Source Type: research

A conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis, as well as a serological marker for the post-treatment patient follow-up
In the present study, a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein, LiHyE, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Results showed that it presented high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) to serologically identify visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, when 40 positive sera and 95 cross-reactive samples were used. rLiHyE also showed the best results of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV to identify tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and VL patients, when 45 leishmaniasis patients' sera and 90 cross-reactive samples were used. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiolo...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Patr ícia A.F. Ribeiro, Daniel S. Dias, Daniela P. Lage, Lourena E. Costa, Beatriz C.S. Salles, Bethina T. Steiner, Fernanda F. Ramos, Mariana P. Lima, Thaís T.O. Santos, Ana T. Chaves, Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli, Ricardo T. Fujiwara, Lílian L. Bueno, Source Type: research

Multicenter study establishing the clinical validity of a nucleic-acid amplification based assay for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
The present study sought to validate the clinical performance of a previously described PCR-based assay for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). A total of 1579 patients were enrolled in 5 locations; samples were classified as BV positive (n=538) or negative (n=1041) based on an algorithm utilizing quantitative Gram-stain analysis of vaginal discharge and clinical evaluation (Amsel criteria); a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach to determining diversity of vaginal microbiota was used to resolve discordant results between BV-PCR and Nugent/Amsel. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Charles P Cartwright, Amanda J. Pherson, Ayla B. Harris, Matthew S. Clancey, Melinda B. Nye Source Type: research

Comparison of clinical performance of commercial urine growth stabilization products
Urine specimens for quantitative culture for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection may be unreliable due to bacterial overgrowth within four hours after collection, at room temperature. Because specimen transportation may take longer than four hours, urine preservatives may reduce overgrowth. Further evidence is needed to support a recommendation for use of preservative and to compare preservative products. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peter Daley, Yuvraj Gill, William Midodzi Source Type: research

Is Multiple Site Colonization with Candida spp. Related to Inadequate Response to Individualised Fluconazole Maintenance Therapy in Women with Recurrent Candida Vulvo-vaginitis?
Although most women on fluconazole maintenance therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis experience a substantial improvement in quality of life, some do not respond to therapy. Is candidal colonization of extragenital sites related to suboptimal response to maintenance therapy? (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gilbert GG Donders, Svitrigaile Grinceviciene, Gert Bellen, Kateryna Ruban Source Type: research

Depression of lymphocyte activity during cutaneous Leshmaniasis: A case report
Skin leishmaniasis includes lesions of different appearance, shape and severity, spanning from alarming diffuse lesions to an asymptomatic course. Moreover, aspecific presentation, as well as challenging differential diagnosis of cutaneous Leishmaniasis, may request more in-depth investigations on the intriguing and complex pathogenesis of such infection. A seven-year case of worsening cutaneous leishmaniasis in the left fronto-parietal region of the scalp, achieving omolateral eyebrow, in a 68 years old male patient, prompted us to address the immunity profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiol...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Giovanni Matera, Carlo Torti, Maria Mazzitelli, Giuseppe Greco, Antonella Rania, Cinzia Peronace, Pio Settembre, Luisa Galati, Aida Giancotti, Angelo G. Lamberti, Giorgio S. Barreca, Marco Rossi, Angela Quirino, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Foc à Source Type: research

The impact of blood culture identification by MALDI-TOF MS on the antimicrobial Management of Pediatric Patients
To assess the impact of MALDI-TOF MS coupled with antimicrobial stewardship on clinical outcomes for pediatric inpatients with bloodstream infections. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sejal Makvana Bhavsar, Tanis C. Dingle, Camille L. Hamula Source Type: research

Norepinephrine augmented in vitro growth of uropathogenic E. coli in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its suppression by silodosin (alpha blocker)
Norepinephrine is secreted under conditions of stress in humans. The ability of bacteria to sense mammalian hormone may have a role in propagation of infection. The present study investigated the effect of norepinephrine on in vitro growth of uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) and the effect of silodosin on norepinephrine-induced changes. The spot urine samples were collected from 56 individuals (14 diabetic patients with UTI, 14 diabetic without UTI, 14 non-diabetic UTI and 14 healthy volunteer controls) for the measurement of urinary norepinephrine concentrations. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dinesh Prasad Gond, Shivendra Singh, N.K. Agrawal Source Type: research

Identification of Malassezia species by MALDI-TOF MS after expansion of database
The taxonomy of Malassezia species is evolving with introduction of molecular techniques, and difficulty is faced to identify the species by phenotypic methods. Among 15 known Malassezia species, the present Bruker database could identify only 2 species. The present study was aimed to improve Matrix Associated Laser Desorption Ionization -Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based identification of Malassezia species. A total of 88 isolates (DNA sequencing confirmed) for database preparation and for the validation of database, 190 isolates confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Poly...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: P Honnavar, A K Ghosh, S Paul, S A Shankarnarayan, P Singh, S Dogra, A Chakrabarti, S M Rudramurthy Source Type: research

A New Dual-Targeting Real Time RT-PCR Assay for Hepatitis D Virus RNA Detection
In this study, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay targeting two genetic segments was established to detect HDV RNA. Utilizing the WHO International Standard for Hepatitis D Virus RNA, the lower limit of detection was 575 IU/ml, and the linearity of quantification ranged from 575000 IU/ml to 575 IU/ml. 384 HBsAg-positive samples collected from China were tested by this method and HDV antibody detection. Eleven samples were positive for anti-HDV IgG which may persist after HDV resolution, six samples were HDV RNA positive and five samples were positive for anti-HDV IgM. (Sour...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yan Wang, Jeffrey S. Glenn, Mark A. Winters, Li-ping Shen, Ingrid Choong, Ya-lun Shi, Sheng-li Bi, Li-ying Ma, Hui Zeng, Fu-jie Zhang Source Type: research

Norovirus, Astrovirus, and Sapovirus among immunocompromised patients at a tertiary care research hospital
We estimated the prevalence of astrovirus, sapovirus, and norovirus among patients enrolled in research protocols and receiving medical care at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, a clinical research hospital with a large immunocompromised patient population. We identified patients whose fecal specimens were submitted to the Clinical Center for testing on the Biofire FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel from Sept 15, 2015 through Nov 30, 2016. Among 442 patients with fecal specimens submitted for multiplex testing, 11% had norovirus identified, 2% had astrovirus, and 2% had sapovirus. (Sourc...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shelby Daniel-Wayman, Gary Fahle, Tara Palmore, Kim Y. Green, D. Rebecca Prevots Source Type: research

Evaluation of Apramycin activity against methicillin-resistant, methicillin-sensitive, and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates
We evaluated the in vitro activity of apramycin against clinical strains of vancomycin-intermediate and methicillin-resistant and -suseptible Staphylococcus aureus. Apramycin demonstrated an MIC50/MIC90 of 8/16 μg/mL. No strains had an MIC above the epidemiological cutoff value of 32μg/mL, suggesting apramycin resistance mechanisms are rare in this strain population. The mounting evidence for broad-spectrum in vitro activity of apramycin against S. aureus and other bacterial species suggests that further exploration of apramycin or derivatives as repurposed human therapeutics is warranted. (Source: Diagnostic Microbi...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katherine A. Truelson, Thea Brennan-Krohn, Kenneth P. Smith, James E. Kirby Source Type: research

Lack of correlation of ECV and outcome in an in vivo murine model of systemic fusariosis
The increase in recent years of disseminated infections by Fusarium among immunocompromised patients, has driven to consider fusariosis an emerging infectious disease (Nucci et al. 2014; Tortorano et al. 2014). Approximately 70 taxonomic species, distributed into seven complexes, have been associated to human infections being F. falciforme and F. keratoplasticum from the F. solani species complex and F. oxysporum species complex the commonest (Guarro 2013; Short et al. 2013; Al-hatmi, Meis, and Hoog 2016). (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Patricia Navarro-Rodr íguez, Marcela Guevara-Suarez, Katihuska Paredes, Adriana Celis, Josep Guarro, Javier Capilla Source Type: research

Collaboration between an antimicrobial stewardship team and the microbiology laboratory can shorten time to directed antibiotic therapy for methicillin susceptible staphylococcal bacteremia and to discontinuation of antibiotics for coagulase-negative staphylococcal contaminants
Rapid identification of Gram positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) in positive blood cultures (pBC) may limit exposure to unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotics. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanaya Bhowmick, Thomas J. Kirn, Frances Hetherington, Shandurai Takavarasha, Sarbjit S. Sandhu, Shveta Gandhi, Navaneeth Narayanan, Melvin P. Weinstein Source Type: research

Impact of a stewardship-focused culture follow-up initiative on the treatment of pharyngitis in the emergency department and urgent care settings
A culture follow-up program with an emphasis on symptom assessment may limit antibiotic exposure in patients with Group A Streptococcus on throat culture. A quasi-experimental study of such patients was conducted in our Emergency Department and Urgent Care centers. During the pre-stewardship initiative phase (March 2011 –June 2012), the standard of care for culture follow-up did not include symptom assessment prior to prescribing antibiotics. During the stewardship initiative phase (March 2015–June 2016), culture follow-up was completed with a focus on symptom assessment and antibiotic avoidance. (Source: Diagn...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lisa E. Dumkow, Katie L. Axford, K.J. Suda, Heather M. Draper, Kasey L. Brandt Source Type: research

Comparison of two different antibody assay methods: Elecsys anti-HCVII (Roche) and Vidas anti-HCV (Biomerieux), for the detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in Egypt
The measurement of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is important to screen HCV infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability of two commercially available anti-HCV antibody kits used in routine laboratory testing in Egypt. One thousand nine hundred and thirty one-serum samples were analyzed using two anti-HCV test systems: Cobas e 411 ® Elecsys Anti-HCVII and Vidas® Anti-HCV Biomerieux. Discrepant samples were tested using the recombinant immunoblot assay Innogenetics® INNO-LIA HCV Score. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Gaballah, Marwa Mohammed Esawy Source Type: research

Epidemiologic cutoff values to separate wild-type from non –wild-type Campylobacter fetus to ciprofloxacin
The aim of the present study was to propose epidemiologic cutoffs that could be used in routine practice to separate wild-type from non –wild-type Campylobacter fetus to ciprofloxacin. A total of 123 C. fetus isolates obtained from human samples were used for this purpose. Based on the determination of inhibition zone diameter, minimum inhibitory concentration, and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining region in the g yraseA gene, for all tested isolates, the following cutoffs were proposed: ciprofloxacin–wild type if the inhibition zone diameter was ≥22 mm or the minimum inhibitory concentratio...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: L. B énéjat, E. Sifré, C. Domingues Martins, A. Ducournau, A. Buissonnière, E. Bessède, F. Mégraud, P. Lehours Source Type: research

in vitro activity of Oritavancin against biofilms of staphylococci isolated from prosthetic joint infection
We tested the in vitro activity of oritavancin against 185 staphylococci associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI), including 37 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 67 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 59 methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) and 22 methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis (MSSE) isolates. The oritavancin MIC50 for S. aureus and MSSE was 0.03 μg/mL, and for MRSE was 0.06μg/mL; MIC90 for S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 0.12μg/mL for both the methicillin-resistant and -susceptible subgroups. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qun Yan, Melissa J. Karau, Robin Patel Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from patients with bloodstream infections isolated in United States hospitals (2013 –2015) as part of the program to assess Ceftolozane-Tazobactam susceptibility (PACTS) surveillance program
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparators against 2647 Enterobacteriaceae and 355 Pseudomonas aeruginosa non-duplicate isolates collected from hospitalized patients with bloodstream infections in US hospitals from 2013 to 2015.Ceftolozane-tazobactam (95.5% susceptible), amikacin (99.2% susceptible), and meropenem (98.4% susceptible) were the most active against Enterobacteriaceae. For Enterobacteriaceae, 1.4% (n=37) were carbapenem-resistant (CRE) and 10.2% (n=271) exhibited an ESBL non-CRE phenotype. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dee Shortridge, Michael A Pfaller, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K. Flamm Source Type: research

Epidemiological cut-off values to separate wildtype from non-wildtype Campylobacter fetus to ciprofloxacin
The aim of the present study was to propose epidemiological cut-offs that could be used in routine practice to separate wildtype from non-wildtype Campylobacter fetus to ciprofloxacin. A total of 123 Campylobacter fetus isolates obtained from human samples were used for this purpose. Based on the determination of inhibition zone diameter, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining region in the gyraseA gene, for all tested isolates, the following cut-offs were proposed: ciprofloxacin-wildtype if inhibition zone diameter ≥22mm or MIC ≤0.5 mg/L. (Source: Diagnostic Mic...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: L B énéjat, E Sifré, C Domingues Martins, A Ducournau, A Buissonnière, E Bessède, F Mégraud, P Lehours Source Type: research

Detection of colistin-resistant gram-negative rods by using the Superpolymyxin medium
The commercial SuperPolymyxin medium (ELITechGroup, Puteaux, France), currently licensed in Europe, is aimed to screen for either intrinsic or acquired colistin resistance in Gram negatives. It was tested for screening colistin-resistant Gram negative rods from bacterial cultures of 145 colistin-resistant and 86 colistin-susceptible Gram negative rods isolates. It exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% (138/145) and 95.3% (82/86), respectively. The sensitivity for the detection of the 25 isolates carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, and mcr-4) from bacterial cultures was of 10...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aur élie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Catherine André, Véronique Dubois, Patrice Nordmann Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Rapid Polymyxin NP test and its industrial version for the detection of polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
The commercial Rapid Polymyxin NP test was evaluated to detect colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 223 enterobacterial isolates corresponding to 136 resistant (including 38 MCR-like producers), 19 heteroresistant, and 78 colistin-susceptible isolates was tested. The test was performed according to manufacturer ’s instruction and the color of the wells were read after two and three hours of incubation. The results were compared to those of the home-made Rapid Polymyxin NP test, and manual BMD according to EUCAST guidelines was used as the reference method to determine performance of the test. (Source: Di...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aur élie Jayol, Nicolas Kieffer, Laurent Poirel, François Guérin, Deniz Güneser, Vincent Cattoir, Patrice Nordmann Tags: Note Source Type: research

Evaluation of the rapid Polymyxin NP test for detection of colistin susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Thai patients
In this study, we evaluated the performance of the test using a larger number of Enterobacteriaceae, and a larger proportion of isolates with a colistin MIC close to the breakpoint. Out of 339 isolates, the Rapid Polymyxin NP test detected colistin resistance in 13 isolates of E. coli, 213 isolates of K. pneumoniae, 9 isolates of E. aerogenes and 10 isolates of the other Enterobacteriaceae species. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sakda Yainoy, Monchanok Hiranphan, Thanawat Phuadraksa, Warawan Eiamphungporn, Surapee Tiengrim, Visanu Thamlikitkul Source Type: research

Nasal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza
Nasopharyngeal swabs from 148 adult patients with influenza were analyzed by PCR for S. aureus and or S. pneumoniae. We found patients colonized with S. pneumoniae were younger, had lower oxygen saturations and were more likely to require admission to critical care. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aaron Campigotto, Andrew E. Simor, Allison McGeer, Alexander Kiss, Samira Mubareka Source Type: research

Impact of high MIC of fluconazole on outcomes of Candida glabrata bloodstream infection: a retrospective multicenter cohort study
To evaluate the impacts of fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) according to primary antifungal agents on Candida glabrata bloodstream infection (BSI), a multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted in Korea, concerning the time period from January 2010 to February 2016. A total of 197 adult patients with C. glabrata BSI were included in the study, and neutropenia (P = 0.026), APACHE II score (P = 0.004), and fluconazole resistance (HR 3.960, 95% CI 1.395-11.246, P = 0.010) were associated with 30-day mortality in multivariate analysis. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Dong Sik Jung, Ji Yeon Lee, Hyun Ah Kim, Seong Yeol Ryu, Sook-In Jung, Eun-Jeong Joo, Shinhye Cheon, Yeon-Sook Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song Source Type: research

Ceftolozane/tazobactam sensitivity patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputum of cystic fibrosis patients
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a combination intravenous antibiotic with potentially important activity against drug resistant Gram negative organisms. Ceftolozane/tazobactam's in vitro activity was evaluated in 30 samples collected from 23 adult cystic fibrosis patients with extended and pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSAR) in 2015. Testing results demonstrated that 30% of the isolates were susceptible,13% were intermediate, and 57% were resistant. This suggests that ceftolozane/tazobactam may be a useful antibiotic in carefully selected, multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas isolates. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: James D. Finklea, Rita Hollaway, Karen Lowe, Francesca Lee, Jade Le, Raksha Jain Tags: Note Source Type: research

Genetic and biochemical characterization of GES-16, a new GES-type β-lactamase with carbapenemase activity in Serratia marcescens
We evaluated the genetic environment of blaGES-16 found in two carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolates recovered from patients hospitalized at a tertiary hospital located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also compared the kinetics constants for GES-16 and GES-5 against several β-lactams. Both S. marcescens isolates showed identical PFGE pattern and carried the carbapenemase-encoding gene blaGES-16, and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding gene blaOXA-10. The blaGES-16 was inserted at the first position of a defective class 1 integron, composed by a fragmented inte grase gene that lacked its ...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ana Paula Streling, Paula P. Barbosa, Marcelo F. Marcondes, Adriana G. Nicoletti, Renata C. Pic ão, C. Elisa, Elizabeth A. Marques, Vitor Oliveira, Ana C. Gales Source Type: research

In vitro antimicrobial activity of imipenem plus amikacin or polymyxin B against carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of imipenem plus amikacin or polymyxin B against six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa by time-kill assay. Synergism was observed in two isolates for combinations with amikacin. For combinations with polymyxin B, synergism and antagonism also occurred in two isolates. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Camila M. Wilhelm, Luciana de S. Nunes, Andreza F. Martins, Afonso L. Barth Tags: Note Source Type: research

Prevalence of multiple infections and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development at earlier age
Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus are well established infections for gastric cancer development. However, the role of cytomegalovirus alone or in combination with other infections is unclear. In this case-control study the prevalence of different infections was evaluated and their frequency was compared with clinicopathologic features among gastric cancer patients and normal volunteers from 2012 to 2017. Approximately two-third (61.9%) of the gastric cancer patients had at least one viral infection, while viral infection prevalence in normal volunteers was only 4.7% (P = 0.021). (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology a...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sadegh Fattahi, Novin Nikbakhsh, Hassan Taheri, Elham Ghadami, Mohadeseh Kosari-Monfared, Galia Amirbozorgi, Mohsen Asouri, Maryam Pilehchian-Langroudi, Mohammad Ranaee, Ali Akbar Samadani, Mahdi Paryan, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki Source Type: research

Characterization of group B Streptococcus isolated from sterile and non-sterile specimens in China
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) Is a Leading Cause of Invasive Neonatal Infections and Has Increasingly Been Associated with Invasive Diseases in Non-pregnant Adults. We Collected 113 GBS Isolates Recovered from Sterile and Non-sterile Specimens from seven Tertiary Hospitals in China between October 2014 and September 2016. Medical Records Were Retrospectively Reviewed and the Sequence Types, Serotypes, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Isolates Were Characterized and Correlated. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nie Shuping, Lu Xuedong, Jin Zhengjiang, Gao Juyi, Ma Dongli, Deng Jikui, Wu Xianglin, Hu Yan-Wei, Zheng Lei, Wang Qian Source Type: research

Sputum sample collected over a period of 5  h: A reliable procedure for early bactericidal activity studies
Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that an early morning sputum may be sufficient for calculation of early bactericidal activity (EBA). Patients underwent sputum collection randomly (spot, 5  h and 12 h) in consecutive days. The median CFU count in the spot samples group was 5.67 log10 CFU/mL compared to 6.17 log10 CFU/mL in 5 h and 6.23 log10 CFU/mL in 12 h samples. Inter-patient comparison showed low coefficient of variation for both 12 h (11%) and 5 h samples (10%). Intra patient samples analysis demonstrated that the median bacillary load variation (0.037 log10 CFU/mL and 0.022 log10 CFU/mL for 5...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cristina Paula do Nascimento, David Jamil Hadad, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt Castellani, Pedro Sousa de Almeida J únior, Reynaldo Dietze, Moises Palaci Source Type: research

Sputum sample collected over a period of 5hours: A reliable procedure for early bactericidal activity studies
Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that an early morning sputum may be sufficient for calculation of early bactericidal activity (EBA). Patients underwent sputum collection randomly (spot, 5hours and 12hours) in consecutive days. The median CFU count in the spot samples group was 5,67 log10 CFU/mL compared to 6,17 log10 CFU/mL in 5hours and 6,23 log10 CFU/mL in 12hours samples. Inter-patient comparison showed low coefficient of variation for both 12hours (11%) and 5hours samples (10%). (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cristina Paula do Nascimento, David Jamil Hadad, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt Castellani, Pedro Sousa de Almeida J únior, Reynaldo Dietze, Moises Palaci Source Type: research

Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization –Time of flight Mass Spectrometry to identify MLST clade 4 Clostridium difficile isolates
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Previous studies suggest that C. difficile MLST clade 4 strains with higher drug resistance rates constitute the major clone spreading in China. Thus development of a rapid and accurate typing method for these strains is needed to monitor the epidemiology of this clone and to guide clinical treatment. A total of 160 non-duplicate C. difficile isolates recovered from three large teaching hospitals in Beijing were studied. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jing-Wei Cheng, Chang Liu, Timothy Kudinha, Meng Xiao, Shu-Ying Yu, Chun-Xia Yang, Ming Wei, Guo-wei Liang, Dong-Hua Shao, Fanrong Kong, Zhao-Hui Tong, Ying-Chun Xu Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from United States Medical Centers Stratified by Infection Type: Results from the International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) Surveillance Program, 2015 –2016
A total of 18,656 Enterobacteriaceae and 4,175 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consecutively collected from 85 US hospitals and tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods in a central monitoring laboratory (JMI Laboratories). The antimicrobial susceptibility and frequency of key resistance phenotypes were assessed and stratified by infection type as follows: bloodstream (BSI; 3,434 isolates; 15.0%), pneumonia (6,439; 28.2%), skin and skin structure (SSSI; 4,134; 18.1%), intra-abdominal (IAI; 951; 4.2%), and urinary tract (UTI; 7,873; 34.5%). (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Helio S. Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Leonard R. Duncan, Robert K. Flamm Source Type: research

Rapid multiplex PCR for detection of mcr-1 to −5 genes
A rapid (total time (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mathilde Lescat, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann Tags: Note Source Type: research

Combination of conventional culture, vial culture, and broad-range PCR of sonication fluid for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection
We assessed the value of conventional culture, vial culture, and broad-range PCR of the sonication fluid (SF), individually or in combinations, for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We studied 114 consecutive patients (median age:72.5years, males: 28.07%) undergoing removal of a total knee or hip prosthesis. By non-microbiologic criteria, 87 patients had aseptic failure, and 27 PJI. All patients had periprosthetic tissue culture, sonication of prosthesis, and study of SF by conventional and vial culture, and PCR. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Antonios Stylianakis, Georgios Schinas, Pavlos C. Thomaidis, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Dimitrios C. Ziogas, Maria N. Gamaletsou, George L. Daikos, Spyros Pneumaticos, Nikolaos V. Sipsas Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Evaluation of a best practice alert to reduce unnecessary Clostridium difficile testing following receipt of a laxative
This study examined the effect of an alert notifying providers ordering Clostridium difficile PCR when their patient received a laxative within 24hours at four hospitals. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anastasia Bilinskaya, Kellie J. Goodlet, Michael D. Nailor Source Type: research

Combination of conventional culture, vial culture, and broad-range PCR of sonication fluid for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection
We assessed the value of conventional culture, vial culture, and broad-range PCR of the sonication fluid (SF), individually or in combinations, for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We studied 114 consecutive patients (median age:72.5years, males: 28.07%) undergoing removal of a total knee or hip prosthesis. By non-microbiologic criteria, 87 patients had aseptic failure, and 27 PJI. All patients had periprosthetic tissue culture, sonication of prosthesis, and study of SF by conventional and vial culture, and PCR. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Antonios Stylianakis, Georgios Schinas, Pavlos C. Thomaidis, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Dimitrios C. Ziogas, Maria N. Gamaletsou, George L. Daikos, Spyros Pneumaticos, Nikolaos V. Sipsas Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Evaluation of a best practice alert to reduce unnecessary Clostridium difficile testing following receipt of a laxative
This study examined the effect of an alert notifying providers ordering Clostridium difficile PCR when their patient received a laxative within 24hours at four hospitals. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anastasia Bilinskaya, Kellie J. Goodlet, Michael D. Nailor Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a rapid nucleic acid amplification method to detect influenza A and B viruses in human respiratory specimens
Isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods can potentially shorten the amount of time required to diagnose influenza. We developed and evaluated a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, RT-SIBA to rapidly detect and differentiate between influenza A and B viruses in a single reaction tube. The performance of the RT-SIBA Influenza assay was compared with two established RT-PCR methods. The sensitivities of the RT-SIBA, RealStar RT-PCR, and CDC RT-PCR assays for the detection of influenza A and B viruses in the clinical specimens were 98.8%, 100%, and 89.3%, respectively. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sonja Elf, Pauliina Auvinen, Lisa Jahn, Karoliina Liikonen, Solveig Sj öblom, Päivi Saavalainen, Minna Mäki, Kevin E. Eboigbodin Source Type: research

The population structure of clinical Extra-intestinal Escherichia coli in a teaching hospital from Nigeria
Limited information is available regarding the population structure of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in Africa. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, sequence types (STs) and fimH types were determined on 60 clinical ExPEC from Nigeria using a 7-single nucleotide polymorphism quantitative PCR and sequencing of certain genes. Different ST131 clades were identified with a multiplex PCR. The isolates were mostly obtained from urines (58.3%). Not-susceptibility rates were as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%), cefotaxime (68%), gentamicin (55%), ciprofloxacin (62%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (2%)...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jeremiah Seni, Giselle Peirano, Kenneth Okwong Okon, Yusuf Bara Jibrin, Alkali Mohammed, Stephen E. Mshana, Rebekah DeVinney, Johann D.D. Pitout Source Type: research

Simultaneous quantification of systemic azoles and their major metabolites in human serum by HPLC/PDA: role of azole metabolic rate
We describe the development and validation of a novel liquid chromatography assay (HPLC/PDA) for simultaneous quantification of voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, as well as some of their major metabolites, voriconazole-N-oxide and hydroxy-itraconazole, in human serum. Analytes were detected using a PDA system that allows the characterization of the specific UV spectra of each compound. The assay exhibited linearity between 0.25 –16mg/L for all the compounds tested. The accuracy and within- and between-day precision of the assay were in acceptable ranges. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alicia G ómez-López, Laura Alcazar-Fuoli, Leticia Bernal-Martínez Source Type: research

Impact of IFNL4- ∆G genotype on sustained virologic response in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients treated with direct-acting antivirals
In direct acting antiviral (DAA)-treated HCV genotype 1, the sustained virologic response rate with the ∆G/∆G genotype of IFNL4 rs368234815 (86.8%) was significantly lower than with ∆G/TT (95.9%, p=0.03) or TT/TT (98.6%, p=0.01). The SVR odds ratio for ∆G/∆G compared to TT/TT was 0.10 (p=0.03). IFNL4 genotype might predict DAA-response. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lisa I. Backus, Troy A. Shahoumian, Pamela S. Belperio, Mark Winters, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Thomas R. O'Brien, Mark Holodniy Tags: Note Source Type: research

Preliminary Assessment of the Diagnostic Performances of a New Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Serodiagnosis of Human Cystic Echinococcosis
Rapid Diagnostic Tests for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are convenient to support ultrasound diagnosis in uncertain cases, especially in resource-limited settings. We found comparable diagnostic performances of the experimental Hyd Rapid Test and the commercial VIRapid HYDATIDOSIS Test, used in our diagnostic laboratory, using samples from well-characterized hepatic CE cases. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ambra Vola, Francesca Tamarozzi, Rahmah Noordin, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Sam Khanbabaie, Annalisa De Silvestri, Enrico Brunetti, Mara Mariconti Source Type: research

The population structure of clinical Extra-intestinal Escherichia coli in a teaching hospital from Nigeria
Limited information is available regarding the population structure of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in Africa. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, sequence types (STs) and fimH types were determined on 60 clinical ExPEC from Nigeria using a 7-single nucleotide polymorphism quantitative PCR and sequencing of certain genes. Different ST131 clades were identified with a multiplex PCR. The isolates were mostly obtained from urines (58.3%). Not-susceptibility rates were as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%), cefotaxime (68%), gentamicin (55%), ciprofloxacin (62%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (2%)...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jeremiah Seni, Giselle Peirano, Kenneth Okwong Okon, Yusuf Bara Jibrin, Alkali Mohammed, Stephen E. Mshana, Rebekah DeVinney, Johann D.D. Pitout Source Type: research

Simultaneous quantification of systemic azoles and their major metabolites in human serum by HPLC/PDA: role of azole metabolic rate
We describe the development and validation of a novel liquid chromatography assay (HPLC/PDA) for simultaneous quantification of voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, as well as some of their major metabolites, voriconazole-N-oxide and hydroxy-itraconazole, in human serum. Analytes were detected using a PDA system that allows the characterization of the specific UV spectra of each compound. The assay exhibited linearity between 0.25 –16mg/L for all the compounds tested. The accuracy and within- and between-day precision of the assay were in acceptable ranges. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alicia G ómez-López, Laura Alcazar-Fuoli, Leticia Bernal-Martínez Source Type: research