Editorial board
(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - December 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Adenomatous and serrated polyposis syndromes
Conventional adenomas and serrated polyps are the most common neoplastic precursors of colorectal cancer and may occur in a sporadic or syndromic setting. Adenomas are subclassified into tubular, tubulovillous and villous while serrated polyps occur in three distinct histological forms: hyperplastic polyp, sessile serrated polyp and traditional serrated adenoma. In patient's undergoing routine screening or diagnostic colonoscopy, single or multiple histological types of colorectal polyps may be present concurrently in variable numbers. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Amitabh Srivastava Tags: Mini-symposium: Gastrointestinal/Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Pathology Source Type: research

Low-grade variants of triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC): a review
Low-grade triple negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) differ from conventional type TNBC in clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features. Salient features of low-grade variants of TNBC including adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), secretory carcinoma, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGASC) and acinic cell carcinoma (ACC), will be discussed, including those useful in distinguishing these unique entities from more commonly encountered differential diagnoses. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 27, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Paula S. Ginter, Zhiyan Fu, Sandra J. Shin Tags: Mini-symposium title: breast pathology Source Type: research

Mucinous lesions of the breast: potpourri of old and new
Mucinous lesions of the breast encompass a range of benign and malignant entities characterized by extracellular mucin production. Increased sampling of mammary calcifications has identified a range of mucocele-like lesions, which are associated with benign proliferative and atypical intraductal epithelial proliferation ranging in architectural complexity from flat epithelial atypia to ductal carcinoma in situ. Mucinous carcinoma is a unique histologic subtype of breast cancer with a good prognosis. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kamaljeet Singh, Dipti M. Karamchandani Tags: Mini-symposium: Breast Pathology Source Type: research

Syndromic gastric polyposis and hereditary gastric cancers
Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic neoplasms, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1 –3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, some of the less commonly reported syndromes (including polyposis syndrome), also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and char acterization of these syndromes requires a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Till S. Clauditz, Michelle Moore, Namrata Setia, M.P. Kumarasinghe, Gregory Y. Lauwers Tags: Mini-symposium: Gastrointestinal/Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Pathology Source Type: research

Spindle cell lesions of the breast: diagnostic issues
Spindle cell lesions of the breast encompass a broad spectrum of entities. In addition to breast-specific spindle cell lesions, soft tissue and cutaneous spindle cell lesions can also present in the breast. The prognosis and proper management of each entity varies considerably and thus calls for a systemic approach in diagnosis. A simple two-step approach is described in this review, where spindle cell lesions are classified into biphasic (with both spindle and epithelial components) and monophasic (spindle cell only) types, followed by histologic grading. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Joshua JX. Li, Gary M. Tse Tags: Mini-symposium: Breast pathology Source Type: research

The assessment of HER2 status and its clinical implication in breast cancer
Amplification and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer is associated with an adverse prognosis. The introduction of trastuzumab and lapatinib has substantially improved the clinical outcomes of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. The key element of the successful application of anti-HER2 therapies in real-world has been the selection of candidates for treatment based on the level of HER2 positivity of the tumor. HER2 status of breast cancer is clinically assessed by HER2 protein expression with immunohistochemistry (IHC) or HER2 gene amplification with in situ hybridizat...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Yanjun Hou, Hiroaki Nitta, Anil V. Parwani, Zaibo Li Tags: Mini-symposium: Breast pathology Source Type: research

The interpretation of post-neoadjuvant changes in non-neoplastic breast parenchyma: a case report
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care for many women with early breast cancer, depending on the cancer's hormonal and genomic profile. Post-chemotherapy breast specimens are frequently encountered by the breast pathologist and present an interesting challenge in terms of specimen processing and reporting. We briefly review the literature on current recommendations for processing breast cancer specimens following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and present a case that emphasises the care needed in recognising reactive chemotherapy-related changes in non-neoplastic breast parenchyma to avoid over-diagnosing residual mali...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Luke Farmkiss, Katy Valentine Tags: Mini-symposium: Short case Source Type: research

Immunohistochemistry and special stains in gastrointestinal pathology practice
Immunohistochemistry and special stains play an increasingly important role in gastrointestinal pathology practice. In neoplastic disorders they are used to confirm the diagnosis, identify prognostic/predictive features, and screen for an underlying genetic syndrome. In nonneoplastic disorders they can identify an infectious organism, clarify the inflammatory infiltrate present, and confirm a tissue deposition. In this review we discuss the most important and topical of these stains, especially ones which require special care in interpretation. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Cheng Liu, Masoumeh Ghayouri, Ian S. Brown Tags: Mini-symposium: Gastrointestinal/Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Pathology Source Type: research

Challenges in pathological assessment of endoscopic resections
Endoscopic resections (ERs) are performed for early (T1) cancers mostly of the esophagus, stomach and colorectum, offering a minimally invasive and tissue-preserving alternative to traditional surgical resection. Proper preparation and handling of these specimens is key to allow accurate histological assessment of parameters which will dictate the curative, or non-curative, nature of the procedure. Many histological features have been identified which correlate with risk of recurrence and/or nodal metastases, thereby dictating the need for further management. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Michelle Moore, Gregory Y. Lauwers, M. Priyanthi Kumarasinghe Tags: Mini-symposium: Gastrointestinal/Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Pathology Source Type: research

When to suspect and how to diagnose syndromic polyps and carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract: focus on Lynch syndrome and colonic hamartomatous polyposis
An estimated 130,000 individuals are diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma each year, and approximately 50,000 will die from this disease, making colorectal carcinoma the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.1 Heritable forms of colorectal carcinoma are common. These heritable conditions may manifest as a polyposis or as colorectal carcinoma. In this review, the pathology of hamartomatous polyps will be discussed with particular emphasis on clues that should alert pathologists to the possibility of a polyposis syndrome. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Rish K. Pai Tags: Mini-symposium: Gastrointestinal/Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Pathology Source Type: research

Essential knowledge, precautions and preventive methods required for reaching an accurate intraoperative frozen diagnosis of gastrointestinal cases
Intraoperative frozen consultation is one of the central components of modern pathology, with a primary purpose to provide on-the-spot diagnosis; a decision that instantly impacts and alters the course of the surgical procedure and patient management. Frozen section diagnosis is a critical and demanding procedure including: gross inspection, specimen orientation, sampling, embedding, freezing, sectioning and staining, followed by microscopic interpretation that must be relayed to the operating team swiftly and precisely. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Jarred Michalski, Michael Mortellaro, Gregory Y. Lauwers, Kun Jiang Source Type: research

Molecular assessment of colorectal cancer through Lynch syndrome screening
Since 2017, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has recommended molecular testing of all patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) to identify those with suspected Lynch syndrome who should be referred to clinical genetics for germline testing. The pathway involves firstly determining the mismatch repair (MMR) expression status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or performing microsatellite instability testing. This may be followed by BRAF V600E mutation testing and then MLH1 promoter hypermethylation analysis depending on the result. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kate Marks, Nicholas West Tags: Mini-symposium: Gastrointestinal/Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Pathology Source Type: research

Developing and maintaining professional standards: a personal view
The influence of medical culture and beliefs on the management of colleagues who pose risks of patient harm resulting from clinical errors or inappropriate behaviours is discussed. The importance of an evidence-based approach to the promotion of an ethos that is both conducive to openness and learning and that allows shortcomings to be identified and addressed is emphasised. A culture based on these principles is regarded as being fundamental to the development and maintenance of high standards of professional practice and conduct. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: William R. Roche Tags: Mini-Symposium: Management Source Type: research

The Irish National Histopathology Quality Improvement Programme: an overview
The National Quality Improvement Programme in Histopathology was launched in January 2009 as a matter of priority following high-profile cancer misdiagnosis cases in Ireland. The purpose of the programme is to document and improve the accuracy, consistency and quality of service with the aim of improving patient safety and enhancing patient care. Currently, 32 laboratories participate in the programme and contribute to the dataset. Every year an annual report is composed of anonymised, national data collected from the reporting tool, the National Quality Assurance and Improvement System (NQAIS). (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: J. Conor O'Keane, Sine Phelan, Ann Treacy Tags: Mini-symposium: Management Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - November 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Reflections on interpretative ‘external quality assurance’ in histopathology
Participation in interpretative external quality assurance (EQA) schemes has come to be accepted as a duty of the diagnostic histopathologist. EQA consumes significant resources and with a disciplinary component to most schemes, it is appropriate to ask if they achieve what the name offers. EQA is not an adequate model of good diagnostic practice. Diagnosis is Bayesian: probability evaluations ('priors') integrating the available information (clinical history, endoscopic appearances, imaging, biochemistry etc.) are updated by histological evidence, including consultation with colleagues, and the diagnostic histopathologist...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - October 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: James J. Going Tags: Mini-symposium: Management Source Type: research

Obstructive endometriosis of the sigmoid colon with fistulation into ovarian teratoma
A 44-year-old woman presented to the colorectal surgeons with a six month history of tenesmus and change in bowel habit. Initial investigations suggested a malignant colorectal tumour but biopsies showed squamous metaplasia and no colonic tissue. After further investigation and discussion at multiple multidisciplinary meetings, surgical resection of a large pelvic mass including sigmoid colon, uterus and ovary was performed. Histological examination of this mass showed intra-colonic polypoid endometriosis with fistulation through into an adjacent large cystic space, which was found to be a mature cystic teratoma. (Source: ...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - October 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Frances Dixon, Anil Hemandas, Jenish Patel Tags: Mini-symposium: Short case Source Type: research

Does your diagnostic and clinical expertise conflict with your leadership?
Research evidence demonstrates that more and better medical leadership leads to higher quality patient care and improved clinical outcomes. Well-rehearsed challenges facing the leadership of healthcare systems across the world call for the ability to lead through growing complexity. Evidence suggests this requires different competencies to the well-honed skills which make clinicians so valued in managing clinically complicated problems. Those ‘new’ skills can be learned but that requires a shift in culture within the profession and the system as a whole, starting with recognition of the importance of leadership...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Peter Lees Tags: Mini-symposium: Management Source Type: research

Benefits of a website designed to promote histopathology and support pathologists
In this Management Issue, we present a website, www.apt.virtualpathology.leeds.ac.uk. While the website is entitled “Tips for Academic Pathology Trainees”, it contains information and advice which aims to be pertinent to those with and without academic aspirations. Specifically, it has been designed to a) promote a career in histopathology and b) support pathologists undertaking research, teaching or public e ngagement activities. The website represents a concise, comprehensive set of resources which has had 2000 visits since its launch in January 2019. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - October 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Caroline Anne Young, Alexander Ian Wright Tags: Mini-symposium: Short case Source Type: research

Significant and potentially overlooked causes of unexpected death outside the cardiovascular and central nervous system
Most post-mortem examinations in the United Kingdom (UK) are currently performed at the request of the Coroner to differentiate between natural and unnatural causes of death on balance of probabilities. This has curtailed the remit of the practicing pathologist to only include additional investigations where the results of which would directly influence the cause of death given. The current review discusses sudden unexpected causes of death where additional investigations are required to make the correct diagnosis in certain circumstances. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - October 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Brian Hanley, Dominic Chambers Tags: Mini-symposium: autopsy pathology Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - September 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pulmonary tuberculosis
We present a case of previously undiagnosed and unsuspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) identified on post mortem histology. The presentation of TB in the mortuary is reviewed and we present the key learning points regarding dealing with this infection in the post mortem patient.Trainees should appreciate that although a rare occurrence, pulmonary TB may go undiagnosed until after death, and given its ability to survive in the post mortem patient, the use of personal protective equipment is paramount. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - September 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Hannah Hawrot Tags: Instructive case report Source Type: research

Death by hanging: examination of autopsy findings and best approach to the post-mortem examination
Hanging is a form of death caused by constriction of the neck by a ligature, where the constricting force is derived from the gravitational drag of the victim's body weight. Death by hanging is common amongst those victims of suicide and the overall rates of death by this mean has increased in the United Kingdom. Hanging deaths are becoming increasingly important to pathologists who may be required to conduct a post-mortem examination on such victims. A crucial aspect of the post-mortem examination in deaths caused by hanging is the detection and documentation of both external and internal injuries. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Brett E. Lockyer Tags: Mini-symposium: autopsy pathology Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 27, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The decomposed cadaver
The examination of a decomposed cadaver is inherently difficult with varying degrees of decomposition encountered and the possibility of predation related damage then masking or hampering assessment of injuries and underlying pathology. These cases should be approached with caution and require a full autopsy examination to obtain the maximum amount of information, be that positive findings or the absence of significant injuries. It is advised that if at any point during the post-mortem examination concerning findings are encountered then the examination should be stopped with further information, clarification or advice so...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: SallyAnne Collis, Christopher Paul Johnson Tags: Mini-symposium: autopsy pathology Source Type: research

An approach to the autopsy examination of patients who die during surgery or in the post-operative period
This article aims to provide the autopsy pathologist with a systematic approach to the investigation of such deaths. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Julian Burton Tags: Mini-symposium: autopsy pathology Source Type: research

Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis
Testicular tumors apart from those in the germ cell family are uncommon and are mostly sex cord-stromal tumors and may pose a major diagnostic challenge. This review focuses on the clinicopathologic features of these uncommon neoplasms, pertinent differential diagnoses, relevant immunohistochemical and molecular findings as well as the recent updates proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Contrast between these neoplasms as seen in the male and female gonad will also be made when warranted. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kristine M. Cornejo, Robert H. Young Tags: Mini-symposium: nephrourology Source Type: research

Deaths related to stroke and cerebrovascular disease
Cerebrovascular disease is a common cause of death and the general histopathologist will often be responsible for the post mortem examination of stroke-related death. The pathological findings vary depending on the type of stroke, its location and aetiology. The underlying pathology is variable and includes atherosclerosis, cardiogenic embolism and small vessel disease alongside many rarer causes. The adequate post mortem examination of stroke is essential to usefully inform clinical teams, coronial services and relatives and requires proper preparation, familiarity with the range of underlying pathological processes, care...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kieren Simon James Allinson Tags: Mini-symposium: nephrourology Source Type: research

The expanding role of renal mass biopsy
Usage of renal mass biopsy has increased in recent years, ranging from selected clinical scenarios to routine implementation in some institutions. Major tasks for the field of diagnostic histopathology include discriminating primary renal cell cancers from other tumors, especially metastases, hematolymphoid tumors, and urothelial carcinoma. Within primary renal cell neoplasms, relevant distinctions include recognizing clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, which despite its resemblance to clear cell cancer is nonaggressive, as well as discriminating oncocytoma from chromophobe carcinoma. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Sean R. Williamson Tags: Mini-symposium: nephrourology Source Type: research

An overview of benign and premalignant lesions of the foreskin
The foreskin is a common surgical specimen encountered by the practising histopathologist. Therapeutic circumcisions are performed to treat both benign and neoplastic foreskin lesions. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) is the precursor lesion of penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The World Health Organisation (WHO) classifies PeIN into two subtypes based on the association with Human Papillomavirus (HPV); these include differentiated and undifferentiated PeIN. These subtypes of PeIN can be differentiated by specific cytological and architectural characteristics. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Alexander Sewell, Jon Oxley Tags: Mini-symposium: nephrourology Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

An update on paraprotein-related renal pathology
Paraproteins are intact monoclonal immunoglobulins (MIg) or isolated MIg heavy or light chains, detected in the blood or urine and caused by a clonal proliferation of B cells or plasma cells. Paraproteins often cause renal injury, referred to here as paraprotein-related renal disease (PPRD), whether the underlying clonal disorder is characterized by high tumour burden requiring treatment or low tumour burden and thus not requiring immediate treatment from the haematological standpoint. For the latter, an important recent update is the introduction of the concept of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance (MGRS), in whi...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - August 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Andreas Kousios, Candice Roufosse Tags: Mini-symposium: nephrourology Source Type: research

Gleason grading of prostate cancer: a pragmatic approach
The Gleason grading system that was initiated by a surgeon, created by a pathologist and developed by a statistician predated serum PSA testing, systematic 18-gauge needle biopsy protocols and immunohistochemistry. It has undergone a series of modifications, initially by Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group and later by the International Society of Urological Pathologists following consensus meetings in 2005 and 2014. This review focusses on selected areas of practical difficulty such as borderline grades, cores with different Gleason scores, reporting of percentage pattern 4 and minor high-grade p...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Emma Short, Anne Y. Warren, Murali Varma Tags: Mini-symposium: nephrourology Source Type: research

Perinatal pathology
Perinatal post mortems are those performed on fetuses, stillborn infants and infants who die in the neonatal period. The majority are performed following consent being obtained from the parents. Performing these cases requires special knowledge and equipment. The background to these cases and detailed information on what is undertaken and how findings are interpreted will be covered in this review. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Samantha Holden, T ânia Fernandes, Caroline Gannon Tags: Mini-symposium: Paediatric pathology Source Type: research

Paediatric gastrointestinal pathology: selected topics
The spectrum of paediatric gastrointestinal pathology is very wide and encompasses some diseases which overlap with those also seen in adult populations (e.g. chronic inflammatory bowel disease), whilst others are almost exclusive to children (e.g. necrotising enterocolitis). Selected topics in non-neoplastic paediatric gastrointestinal pathology are discussed. In this article, we briefly outline some specific gastrointestinal entities which may rarely be encountered in adult surgical pathology practice, including aspects of inflammation, infection, congenital abnormalities and those related to prematurity. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Denise Hiu-Jun Tao, Bhumita Vadgama Tags: Mini-symposium: paediatric pathology Source Type: research

Placental pathology
This article summarizes the most common pathologic changes in the placenta, devoting the greatest amount of information to the inflammatory disorders and abnormalities of fetal and maternal perfusion. These include acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis/chorionic plate vasculitis, chronic villitis, and changes secondary to maternal vasculopathy and fetal thrombosis. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Zachary J. Dureau, Beverly B. Rogers Tags: Mini-symposium: paediatric pathology Source Type: research

Sudden death in childhood and adolescence
is fortunately rare. However, when it occurs, it can have a devastating effect on the family. Therefore, these cases should be thoroughly investigated, including a complete post mortem examination by a specialist in paediatric pathology. The aim is to identify the cause of death, and potentially prevent future deaths. This review will provide an overview of the epidemiology of sudden death in childhood and adolescence and will outline the wide range of causes of death identified. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mudher Al-Adnani, Simi George, Andreas Marnerides Tags: Mini-symposium: paediatric pathology Source Type: research

Microscopic sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) in an accessory spleen or splenunculus
A 63-year old male underwent a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for a solid, slowly enlarging pancreatic nodule. Associated with the pancreatic tail but separate to the spleen several lymph nodes were also sampled. The pancreatic lesion was confirmed to be a completely excised serous cystadenoma. The spleen was normal and one of the sampled “lymph nodes” was in fact, an accessory spleen or splenunculus. The splenunculus measured 0.8 x 0.5 x 0.3 cm and grossly appeared uniformly tan in colour. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 4, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Stefano Serra, Runjan Chetty Tags: Mini-symposium: Short case Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - July 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Cardiac calcification
We present a case of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to accelerated atheroma in a young man. Histological specimens revealed chronic myocardial ischaemia with severe calcification. The causes of myocardial calcification are reviewed and we summarise the key learning points relating to cocaine use and heart disease. Trainees should appreciate that in cases of accelerated coronary atheroma there may be multiple risk factors involved and that family history of myocardial ischaemia is often a key contributor. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - June 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kathryn Griffin Tags: Mini-symposium: Short case Source Type: research

Sinonasal tract pathology: an updated review of select entities
The sinonasal tract is host to numerous benign and malignant entities that can pose diagnostic challenges to pathologists as a result of limited exposure in daily practice. This review concentrates on certain key characteristics of select entities with focus on differential diagnosis, novel subtypes and/or molecular distinction. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge and shed light on diagnostically challenging and emerging entities in sinonasal tract pathology. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - June 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Ipshita Kak, Bayardo Perez-Ordo ñez Tags: Mini-symposium: head and neck pathology Source Type: research

Pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition that ultimately leads to right heart failure and death, if untreated. The morphological correlate for clinically relevant PH is pulmonary vascular disease that may concern all vascular compartments of the lung: pulmonary arteries, capillaries and veins, but also systemic lung vessels, commonly known as bronchial arteries and vasa vasorum. The recent diagnostic PH classification at the PH World Symposium in Nice, France, redefined five PH groups based on pathophysiological, histological and clinical differences. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - June 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Maria-Rosa Ghigna, Peter Dorfm üller Tags: Mini-symposium: cardiothoracic pathology Source Type: research

Aspects of paediatric cardiovascular pathology
Examination of the malformed heart requires sequential segmental analysis in which the three paired segments of the heart (atria, ventricles, great arteries) are recognized by their most constant feature. Their connections to each other are established with certainty and associated abnormalities are described. The basic anatomy of the commonest congenital heart defect - ventricular septal defect is described in detail. A knowledge of the normal anatomy of the interventricular septum makes understanding the variation in the morphology of ventricular septal defect easier to understand. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - June 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Michael T. Ashworth Tags: Mini-Symposium: Cardiothoracic Pathology Source Type: research

Cystic lung disease
s are a group of rare disorders that can solely involve the lungs or might be part of a multi-organ process. Multidisciplinary assessment, including lung histology, is key to reaching the final diagnosis, as some might be hereditary and linked to a risk of malignancy. Tissue for microscopic examination of the lungs is mainly accessed during surgical treatment for pneumothorax, and can suggest an underlying cystic disease. This multidisciplinary approach is reflected in this review article, with summaries of the clinico-radiological presentation of cystic lung disease and detailed histopathological descriptions of these unc...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - June 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Aur élie Fabre Tags: Mini-Symposium: Cardiothoracic Pathology Source Type: research

Drugs and sudden cardiac death
This article covers the major classes of these drugs that may be encountered and considers some of the pharmacology and pathophysiological effects. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - June 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Martin J. Goddard Tags: Mini-symposium: cardiothoracic pathology Source Type: research

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(Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - May 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Lymphoid neoplasms of the sinonasal tract and their differential diagnoses
Many types of lymphoid neoplasms have been reported involving the sinonasal region including aggressive and indolent B-cell lymphomas, T/NK cell lymphomas and plasma cell neoplasms. They account for a small percentage of all lymphomas but as a whole is the second most common malignancy in the sinonasal region. Clinically and morphologically, they can mimic non-neoplastic and non-hematolymphoid malignant lesions in this region and must be included in the differential diagnoses when a sinonasal lesion is encountered. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - May 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Jiong Yan Tags: Mini-symposium: head and neck pathology Source Type: research

Selected epithelial sinonasal neoplasms: an update
Sinonasal neoplasms comprise 3% of all head and neck cancers and 1% of all malignancies. Malignant lesions are more common than benign ones and generally carry poor prognosis. Patients in most cases are asymptomatic and only present in advanced clinical stage with non-specific obstructive symptoms. Conventional squamous cell carcinomas are the most common carcinomas in the sinonasal tract; however, other there is an array of uncommon high grade malignancies, including poorly differentiated carcinomas, which present a diagnostic challenge due to overlapping microscopic findings in small biopsies. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - May 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Tra Truong, Bayardo Perez-Ordo ñez Tags: Mini-symposium: head and neck pathology Source Type: research

Case report of Rosai –Dorfman disease
This case report discusses the presentation of Rosai –Dorfman disease in a 4 year old female patient, who presented with bilateral level V lymphadenopathy of the cervical neck. The histopathology demonstrated numerous histiocytes, with characteristic emperipolesis. No granulomas or necrosis were identified. Micro-organisms were not identified on spe cial stains, nor on culture. The patient was under observation and spontaneous remission occurred after six months. (Source: Diagnostic Histopathology)
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - May 23, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Laura LE. Whitehouse, Kenneth MacLennan Tags: Mini-symposium: head and neck pathology Source Type: research