Infant behavioral reactivity predicts change in amygdala volume 12 years later
Publication date: April 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 42Author(s): Courtney A. Filippi, Jessica F. Sachs, Dominique Phillips, Anderson Winkler, Andrea L. Gold, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S. Pine, Nathan A. Fox (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adolescent Cognitive Control and Mediofrontal Theta Oscillations Are Disrupted by Neglect: Associations with Transdiagnostic Risk for Psychopathology in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): George A. Buzzell, Sonya V. Troller-Renfree, Mark Wade, Ranjan Debnath, Santiago Morales, Maureen E. Bowers, Charles H. Zeanah, Charles A. Nelson, Nathan A. Fox (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Balancing act: Neural correlates of affect dysregulation in youth depression and substance use – A systematic review of functional neuroimaging studies
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Divyangana Rakesh, Nicholas B. Allen, Sarah Whittle (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental Changes in Visual Responses to Social Interactions
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jon Walbrin, Ioana Mihai, Julia Landsiedel, Kami Koldewyn (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Oscillatory Dynamics Serving Abstract Reasoning Reveal Robust Sex Differences in Typically-Developing Children and Adolescents
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Brittany K. Taylor, Christine M. Embury, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Michaela R. Frenzel, Jacob A. Eastman, Alex I. Wiesman, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D. Calhoun, Julia M. Stephen, Tony W. WilsonAbstractFluid intelligence, the ability to problem-solve in novel situations, is linked to higher-order cognitive abilities, and to academic achievement in youth. Previous research has demonstrated that fluid intelligence and the underlying neural circuitry continues to develop throughout adolescence. Neuroimaging studies have predom...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Associations between Peer Attachment and Neural Correlates of Risk Processing across Adolescence
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): J. Susanne Asscheman, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Pol A.C. van Lier, Susanne Koot, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-SpoonAbstractAdolescence is a period of increased risk-taking behavior where individual differences in risk taking may relate to both adverse and positive experiences with peers. Yet, knowledge on how risk processing develops in the adolescent brain and whether this development is related to peer attachment is limited. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in the effects of gonadal hormones on white matter microstructure development in adolescence
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tiffany C. Ho, Natalie L. Colich, Lucinda M. Sisk, Kira Oskirko, Booil Jo, Ian H. GotlibAbstractAdolescence is characterized by rapid brain development in white matter (WM) that is attributed in part to surges in gonadal hormones. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal investigations relating changes in gonadal hormones and WM development in adolescents. We acquired diffusion-weighted MRI to estimate mean fractional anisotropy (FA) from 10 WM tracts and salivary testosterone from 51 females and 29 males (ag...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Erratum to “Neurocognitive reorganization between crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence and white matter microstructure in two age-heterogeneous developmental cohorts” [Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 41 (2020) 100743]
Publication date: April 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 42Author(s): Ivan L. Simpson-Kent, Delia Fuhrmann, Joe Bathelt, Jascha Achterberg, Gesa Sophia Borgeest, Rogier A. Kievit, the CALM Team (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social anxiety and age are associated with neural response to social evaluation during adolescence
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): A.R. Smith, E.E. Nelson, K. Kircanski, B.I. Rappaport, Q. B Do, E. Leibenluft, D.S. Pine, J.M. JarchoAbstractAdolescence is a sensitive period for the development of adaptive social behaviors and social anxiety, possibly due to aspects of brain development. However, research is needed to examine interactions among age, social anxiety, and social dynamics previously shown to influence neural responding. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examines brain function in 8-18 year-olds with varying ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adolescent Development of Inhibitory Control and Substance Use Vulnerability: A Longitudinal Neuroimaging Study
We examined whether substance use risk factors, including psychopathology (externalizing, internalizing) and family history of substance use disorder, were associated with developmental differences in inhibitory control performance and BOLD activation. Among the examined substance use risk factors, only externalizing psychopathology exhibited developmental differences in inhibitory control performance, where higher scores were associated with lower correct response rates (p = .013) and shorter latencies (p 
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Physical activity, aerobic fitness, and brain white matter: their role for executive functions in adolescence
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ilona Ruotsalainen, Tetiana Gorbach, Jaana Perkola, Ville Renvall, Heidi J. Syväoja, Tuija H. Tammelin, Juha Karvanen, Tiina ParviainenAbstractPhysical activity and exercise beneficially link to brain properties and cognitive functions in older adults, but the findings concerning adolescents remain tentative. During adolescence, the brain undergoes significant changes, which are especially pronounced in white matter. Studies provide contradictory evidence regarding the influence of physical activity or aerobic-exer...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Influences of the early family environment and long-term vocabulary development on the structure of white matter pathways: A longitudinal investigation
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Mengmeng Su, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Jingjing Zhao, Shuang Song, Wei Zhou, Gaolang Gong, Catherine McBride, Twila Tardif, Franck Ramus, Hua ShuAbstractIn the present longitudinal study, we investigated the joint effect of early family factors and long-term vocabulary development on the structure of reading-related white matter pathways in adolescents. Seventy-nine children participated in this study. Family environment was measured via parental questionnaire between age 1 and age 3. From age 4 to age 10, children&r...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of novelty and emotion on attention-related neuronal and pupil responses in children
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Carolina Bonmassar, Andreas Widmann, Nicole WetzelAbstractFocusing on relevant and ignoring irrelevant information is essential for many learning processes. The present study investigated attention-related brain activity and pupil dilation responses, evoked by task-irrelevant emotional novel sounds. In the framework of current theories about the relation between attention and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system, we simultaneously registered event-related potentials (ERPs) in the EEG and changes in pupil di...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mechanisms of learning and plasticity in childhood and adolescence
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Yana Fandakova, Catherine A. Hartley (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Three-month-old infants show enhanced behavioral and neural sensitivity to fearful faces
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kristina Safar, Margaret C. MoulsonAbstractAn important feature of the development of emotion recognition in infants is the emergence of a robust attentional bias for fearful faces. There is some debate about when this enhanced sensitivity to fearful expressions develops. The current study explored whether 3-month-olds demonstrate differential behavioral and neural responding to happy and fearful faces. Three-month-old infants (n = 69) participated in a behavioral task that assessed whether they show a vis...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Aims and Scope
Publication date: February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 41Author(s): (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The relationship between pubertal hormones and brain plasticity: Implications for cognitive training in adolescence
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Corinna Laube, Wouter van den Bos, Yana FandakovaAbstractAdolescence may mark a sensitive period for the development of higher-order cognition through enhanced plasticity of cortical circuits. At the same time, animal research indicates that pubertal hormones may represent one key mechanism for closing sensitive periods in the associative neocortex, thereby resulting in decreased plasticity of cortical circuits in adolescence. In the present review, we set out to solve some of the existing ambiguity and examine how horm...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Working Together to Orient Faster: the Combined Effects of Alerting and Orienting Networks on Pupillary Responses at 8 Months of Age
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): David López Pérez, Sonia Ramotowska, Anna Malinowska-Korczak, Maciej Haman, Przemysław TomalskiAbstractMultiple visual attention mechanisms are active already in infancy, most notably one supporting orienting towards stimuli and another, maintaining appropriate levels of alertness, when exploring the environment. They are thought to depend on separate brain networks, but their effects are difficult to isolate in existing behavioural paradigms. Better understanding of the contribution of each network to in...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

From Movement to Action: An EEG Study into the Emerging Sense of Agency in Early Infancy
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lorijn Zaadnoordijk, Marlene Meyer, Martina Zaharieva, Falma Kemalasari, Stan van Pelt, Sabine HunniusAbstractResearch into the developing sense of agency has traditionally focused on sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies, but whether this implies the presence of a causal action-effect model has recently been called into question. Here, we investigated whether 3- to 4.5-month-old infants build causal action-effect models by focusing on behavioral and neural measures of violation of expectation. Infants had time to e...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental Divergence of Structural Brain Networks as an Indicator of Future Cognitive Impairments in Childhood Brain Injury: Executive Functions
This study aimed to measure the divergence of the brain networks in paediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) patients and controls, and investigate relationships with executive functioning (EF) at 24 months post-injury. T1-weighted MRI acquired acutely in 78 child survivors of pTBI and 33 controls underwent 3D-tissue segmentation to estimate cortical thickness (CT) across 68 atlas-based regions-of-interest (ROIs). Using an ‘add-one-patient’ approach, we estimate a developmental divergence index (DDI). Our approach adopts a novel analytic framework in which age-appropriate reference networks to calculate the DDI...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Top-Down Knowledge Rapidly Acquired Through Abstract Rule Learning Biases Subsequent Visual Attention in 9-Month-Old Infants
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): D.M. Werchan, D. AmsoAbstractVisual attention is an information-gathering mechanism that supports the emergence of complex perceptual and cognitive capacities. Yet, little is known about how the infant brain learns to direct attention to information that is most relevant for learning and behavior. Here we address this gap by examining whether learning a hierarchical rule structure, where there is a higher-order feature that organizes visual inputs into predictable sequences, subsequently biases 9-month-old infants&rsquo...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural correlates of cognitive variability in childhood autism and relation to heterogeneity in decision-making dynamics
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): T. Iuculano, A. Padmanabhan, L. Chen, J. Nicholas, S. Mitsven, C. de los Angeles, V. MenonAbstractHeterogeneity in cognitive and academic abilities is a prominent feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet little is known about its underlying causes. Here we combine functional brain imaging during numerical problem-solving with hierarchical drift-diffusion models of behavior and standardized measures of numerical abilities to investigate neural mechanisms underlying cognitive variability in children with ASD, and the...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Alterations of structural and functional connectivity in profound sensorineural hearing loss infants within an early sensitive period: A combined DTI and fMRI study” [Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 38 (2019) 100654]
Publication date: February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 41Author(s): Shanshan Wang, Boyu Chen, Yalian Yu, Huaguang Yang, Wenzhuo Cui, Jian Li, Guo Guang Fan (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anatomo-functional correlates of auditory development in infancy
This study combining dedicated EEG and MRI approaches in infants highlights the complex relation between the functional responses to auditory stimuli and the maturational properties of the corresponding neural network. (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Always on my mind: Cross-brain associations of mental health symptoms during simultaneous parent-child scanning” [Dev. Cognit. Neurosci. 40 (December) (2019) 100729]
Publication date: February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 41Author(s): Kelly T. Cosgrove, Kara L. Kerr, Robin L. Aupperle, Erin L. Ratliff, Danielle C. DeVille, Jennifer S. Silk, Kaiping Burrows, Andrew J. Moore, Chase Antonacci, Masaya Misaki, Susan F. Tapert, Jerzy Bodurka, W. Kyle Simmons, Amanda Sheffield Morris (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pubertal Testosterone Correlates with Adolescent Impatience and Dorsal Striatal Activity
In this study we investigated task-related impatience of boys between 10 and 15 years of age (N = 75), using an intertemporal choice task combined with measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging and hormonal assessment. Increased levels of testosterone were associated with a greater response bias towards choosing the smaller sooner option. Furthermore, our results show that testosterone specifically modulates the dorsal, not ventral, striatal pathway. These results provide novel insights into our understanding of adolescent impulsive and risky behaviors and how pubertal hormones are related to neural p...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Neural dynamics underlying coherent motion perception in children and adults” [Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 38 (August) (2019) 100670]
Publication date: February 2020Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 41Author(s): Catherine Manning, Blair Kaneshiro, Peter J. Kohler, Mihaela Duta, Gaia Scerif, Anthony M. Norcia (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Individualised MRI training for paediatric neuroimaging: A child-focused approach
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua, Sarah Barton, Katrina Williams, Jeffrey M Craig, Marc L SealAbstractMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in paediatric cohorts is often complicated by reluctance to enter the scanner and head motion-related imaging artefacts. The process is particularly challenging for children with neurodevelopmental disorders where coping with novel task demands in an unfamiliar setting may be more difficult due to symptom-related deficits or distress. These issues often give rise to excessive head motion that can...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Aims and Scope
Publication date: December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 40Author(s): (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms of response-preparation and inhibition in bilingual and monolingual children: Lateralized Readiness Potentials (LRPs) during a nonverbal Stroop task
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Srishti Nayak, Hiba Salem, Amanda TarulloAbstractInhibitory control is a core executive function (EF) skill, thought to involve cognitive ‘interference suppression’ and motor ‘response inhibition’ sub-processes. A few studies have shown that early bilingualism shapes interference suppression but not response inhibition skills, however current behavioral measures do not fully allow us to disentangle these subcomponents. Lateralized Readiness Potentials (LRPs) are centroparietal event-related pote...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibiting errors while they are produced: direct evidence for error monitoring and inhibitory control in children
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Solène Ambrosi, Agnès Blaye, Boris BurleAbstractThe maturation of processes involved in performance monitoring, crucial for adaptive behavior, is a core aspect of developmental changes. Monitoring processes are often studied through the analysis of error processing. Previous developmental studies generally focused on post-error slowing and error-related EEG activities. Instead, the present study aims at collecting indicators of error monitoring processes occurring within trials that i...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurocognitive reorganization between crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence and white matter microstructure in two age-heterogeneous developmental cohorts
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ivan L. Simpson-Kent, Delia Fuhrmann, Joe Bathelt, Jascha Achterberg, Gesa Sophia Borgeest, the CALM Team, Rogier A. KievitAbstractDespite the reliability of intelligence measures in predicting important life outcomes such as educational achievement and mortality, the exact configuration and neural correlates of cognitive abilities remain poorly understood, especially in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the factorial structure and neural substrates of child and adolescent intelligence using t...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Building Functional Connectivity Neuromarkers of Behavioral Self-Regulation across Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder
We examined whole-brain brain functional correlations (FC) and behavioral regulation through connectome predictive modelling (CPM). CPM is a data-driven protocol for developing predictive models of brain–behavior relationships and assessing their potential as ‘neuromarkers’ using cross-validation. The data stems from the ABIDE II and comprises 276 children with and without ASD (8-13 years).We identified networks whose FC predicted individual differences in behavioral regulation. These network models predicted novel individuals’ inhibition and shifting from FC data in both a leave-one-out, and split ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A sensitive period in the neural phenotype of language in blind individuals
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Rashi Pant, Shipra Kanjlia, Marina BednyAbstractCongenital blindness modifies the neural basis of language: “visual” cortices respond to linguistic information, and fronto-temporal language networks are less left-lateralized. We tested the hypothesis that this plasticity follows a sensitive period by comparing the neural basis of sentence processing between adult-onset blind (AB, n = 16), congenitally blind (CB, n = 22) and blindfolded sighted adults (n = 18). In Exp...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - December 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in Anterior and Posterior Hippocampus Differentially Predict Item-Space, Item-Time, and Item-Item Memory Improvement
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Joshua K. Lee, Yana Fandakova, Elliott G. Johnson, Neal J. Cohen, Silvia A. Bunge, Simona GhettiAbstractRelational memory improves during middle childhood and adolescence, yet the neural correlates underlying those improvements are debated. Although memory for spatial, temporal, and other associative relations requires the hippocampus, it is not established whether within-individual changes in hippocampal structure contribute to memory improvements from middle childhood into adolescence. Here, we investigated how struc...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Development of Neural Responses to Hearing Their Own Name in Infants at Low and High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
In this study, we investigated ERPs to hearing the own name in infants at high and low risk for ASD, at 10 and 14 months. We hypothesized that low-risk infants would exhibit enhanced frontal ERP responses to their own name compared to an unfamiliar name, while high-risk infants were expected to show attenuation or absence of this difference in their ERP responses. In contrast to expectations, we did not find enhanced ERPs to own name in the low-risk group. However, the high-risk group exhibited attenuated frontal positive-going activity to their own name compared to an unfamiliar name and compared to the low-risk group, at...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

I know that I know nothing: Cortical thickness and functional connectivity underlying meta-ignorance ability in pre-schoolers
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Elisa Filevich, Caroline Garcia Forlim, Carmen Fehrman, Carina Forster, Markus Paulus, Yee Lee Shing, Simone KühnAbstractMetacognition plays a pivotal role in human development. The ability to realize that we do not know something, or meta-ignorance, emerges after approximately five years of age. We sought for the brain systems that underlie the developmental emergence of this ability in a preschool sample.Twenty-four children aged between five and six years answered questions under three conditions. In the critic...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distinct aspects of the early environment contribute to associative memory, cued attention, and memory-guided attention: Implications for academic achievement
Publication date: December 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 40Author(s): Maya L. Rosen, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlinAbstractChildhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with numerous aspects of cognitive development and disparities in academic achievement. The specific environmental factors that contribute to these disparities remain poorly understood. We used observational methods to characterize three aspects of the early environment that may contribute to SES-related differences in cognitive development: violence exposure, cognitive stimulation, and quality ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Variation in early life maternal care predicts later long range frontal cortex synapse development in mice
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): A. Wren Thomas, Kristen Delevich, Irene Chang, Linda WilbrechtAbstractEmpirical and theoretical work suggests that early postnatal experience may inform later developing synaptic connectivity to adapt the brain to its environment. We hypothesized that early maternal experience may program the development of synaptic density on long range frontal cortex projections. To test this idea, we used maternal separation (MS) to generate environmental variability and examined how MS affected 1) maternal care and 2) synapse densi...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distentangling the systems contributing to changes in learning during adolescence
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Sarah L. Master, Maria K. Eckstein, Neta Gotlieb, Ronald Dahl, Linda Wilbrecht, Anne G.E. CollinsAbstractMultiple neurocognitive systems contribute simultaneously to learning. For example, dopamine and basal ganglia (BG) systems are thought to support reinforcement learning (RL) by incrementally updating the value of choices, while the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes different computations, such as actively maintaining precise information in working memory (WM). It is commonly thought that WM and PFC show more prot...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lasting effects of stress physiology on the brain: Cortisol reactivity during preschool predicts hippocampal functional connectivity at school age
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Sarah L. Blankenship, Morgan Botdorf, Tracy Riggins, Lea R. DoughertyAbstractProlonged exposure to glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as cortisol in humans, has been associated with structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. The majority of research demonstrating these associations in humans has been conducted in adult, clinical, or severely maltreated populations, with little research investigating these effects in young or more typically developing populations. The present study sought to address this ga...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modeling the Evolution of Sensitive Periods
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Willem E. Frankenhuis, Nicole WalasekAbstractIn the past decade, there has been monumental progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of sensitive periods. Little is known, however, about the evolution of sensitive periods. Recent studies have started to address this gap. Biologists have built mathematical models exploring the environmental conditions in which sensitive periods are likely to evolve. These models investigate how mechanisms of plasticity can respond optimally to experience during an indiv...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Temporo-frontal activation during phonological processing predicts gains in arithmetic facts in young children
This study suggests that both temporal and frontal cortex activation during phonological processing are important in predicting gains in math tasks that involve the retrieval of facts that are stored as phonological codes in memory. Moreover, these results were specific to younger children, suggesting that phonology is most important in the early stages of math development. When the math task involved subtractions, which relies on quantity representations, phonological processes were not important in driving gains. (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distinct aspects of the early environment shape associative memory, cued attention, and memory-guided attention: Implications for academic achievement
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Maya L. Rosen, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlinAbstractChildhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with numerous aspects of cognitive development and disparities in academic achievement. The specific environmental factors that contribute to these disparities remain poorly understood. We used observational methods to characterize three aspects of the early environment that may contribute to SES-related differences in cognitive development: violence exposure, cognitive stimulation, and ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reinforcement learning across development: What insights can we draw from a decade of research?
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kate Nussenbaum, Catherine A. HartleyAbstractThe past decade has seen the emergence of the use of reinforcement learning models to study developmental change in value-based learning. It is unclear, however, whether these computational modeling studies, which have employed a wide variety of tasks and model variants, have reached convergent conclusions. In this review, we examine whether the tuning of model parameters that govern different aspects of learning and decision-making processes vary consistently as a function o...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prosocial behavior relates to the rate and timing of cortical thinning from adolescence to young adulthood
This study showed that prosocial behavior is associated with regional development of cortical thickness in adolescence and young adulthood. The results suggest that the rate of thinning in these regions, as well as its timing, may be factors related to prosocial behavior. (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental shifts in learned value transfer on cognitive control during adolescence
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Catherine Insel, Mia Charifson, Leah H. SomervilleAbstractValue-associated cues in the environment often enhance subsequent goal-directed behaviors in adults, a phenomenon supported by integration of motivational and cognitive neural systems. Given the interactions among these systems change throughout adolescence, we tested when beneficial effects of value associations on subsequent cognitive control performance emerge during adolescence. Participants (N = 81) aged 13-20 completed a reinforcement learning...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combined effects of age and BMI are related to altered cortical thickness in adolescence and adulthood
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Margaret L. Westwater, Raquel Vilar-López, Hisham Ziauddeen, Antonio Verdejo-García, Paul C. FletcherAbstractOverweight and obesity are associated with functional and structural alterations in the brain, but how these associations change across critical developmental periods remains unknown. Here, we examined the relationship between age, body mass index (BMI) and cortical thickness (CT) in healthy adolescents (n = 70; 14 – 19 y) and adults (n = 75; 25 – 45 y). We al...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The relationship between performance in a theory of mind task and intrinsic functional connectivity in youth with early onset psychosis
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Daniel Ilzarbe, Elena de la Serna, Inmaculada Baeza, Mireia Rosa, Olga Puig, Anna Calvo, Mireia Masias, Roger Borras, Jose C. Pariente, Josefina Castro-Fornieles J, Gisela SugranyesAbstractPsychotic disorders are characterized by theory of mind (ToM) impairment. Although ToM undergoes maturational changes throughout adolescence, there is a lack of studies examining ToM performance and its brain functional correlates in individuals with an early onset of psychosis (EOP; onset prior to age 18), and its relationship with a...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Always on my mind: Cross-brain associations of mental health symptoms during simultaneous parent-child scanning
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kelly T. Cosgrove, Kara L. Kerr, Robin L. Aupperle, Erin L. Ratliff, Danielle C. DeVille, Jennifer S. Silk, Kaiping Burrows, Andrew J. Moore, Chase Antonacci, Masaya Misaki, Susan F. Tapert, Jerzy Bodurka, W. Kyle Simmons, Amanda Sheffield MorrisAbstractHow parents manifest symptoms of anxiety or depression may affect how children learn to modulate their own distress, thereby influencing the children's risk for developing an anxiety or mood disorder. Conversely, children’s mental health symptoms may impact parents...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research