Heightened Neural Sensitivity to Social Exclusion in Boys with a History of Low Peer Preference During Primary School
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): J. Susanne Asscheman, Susanne Koot, Ili Ma, J. Marieke Buil, Lydia Krabbendam, Antonius H.N. Cillessen, Pol A.C. van LierAbstractPeer preference among classmates is a highly influential factor in children’s social development and not being preferred by peers has long-term consequences for children’s developmental outcomes. However, little is known about how a history of low peer preference during primary school is associated with neural responses to a new social exclusion experience in childhood. In this functi...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examining Individual Differences in Reading and Attentional Control Networks Utilizing an Oddball fMRI Task
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): C. Nikki Arrington, Jeffrey G. Malins, Rebecca Winter, W. Einar Mencl, Kenneth R. Pugh, Robin MorrisAbstractThe aim of the current study was to develop an fMRI task capable of characterizing individual differences in reading and attentional domains. Forty-nine students with a range of reading and attentional control abilities completed an event-related fMRI oddball task consisting of printed word and false font stimuli. Reading network activation was assessed by contrasting printed words with false font stimuli. Left infer...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural dynamics underlying coherent motion perception in children and adults
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Catherine Manning, Blair Kaneshiro, Peter J. Kohler, Mihaela Duta, Gaia Scerif, Anthony M. NorciaAbstractMotion sensitivity increases during childhood, but little is known about the neural correlates. Most studies investigating children’s evoked responses have not dissociated direction-specific and non-direction-specific responses. To isolate direction-specific responses, we presented coherently moving dot stimuli preceded by incoherent motion, to 6- to 7-year-olds (n = 34), 8- to 10-year-olds (n&thinsp...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abnormal alpha modulation in response to human eye gaze predicts inattention severity in children with ADHD
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jialiang Guo, Xiangsheng Luo, Encong Wang, Bingkun Li, Qinyuan Chang, Li Sun, Yan SongAbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by problems in directing and sustaining attention. Recent behavioral studies indicated that children with ADHD are more likely to fail to show the orienting effect in response to human eye gaze. The present study aimed to identify the neurophysiological bases of attention deficits directed by social human eye gaze in children with ADHD, focusing on the relationship b...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Flux of life
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Uta FrithAbstractDevelopmental cognitive neuroscience is flourishing but there are new challenges and new questions to be asked. I argue that we need a bigger picture and an evolutionary framework. This brings some challenges, such as the need to rewrite the old story of nature and nurture, and the need to systematically investigate innate predispositions. While brain imaging has provided some splendid insights and new puzzles to solve, its limitations must not be ignored. Can they help us to find out more about the extent ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - June 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning with individual-interest outcomes in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Manuela Schuetze, Ivy Y.K. Cho, Sarah Vinette, Keelin B. Rivard, Christiane S. Rohr, Ten Eycke Kayla, Adelina Cozma, Carly McMorris, Adam McCrimmon, Deborah Dewey, Signe L. BrayAbstractRecent work has suggested atypical neural reward responses in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly for social reinforcers. Less is known about neural responses to restricted interests and few studies have investigated response to rewards in a learning context. We investigated neurophysiological differences in reinforc...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic and environmental influences on MRI scan quantity and quality
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Michelle Achterberg, Mara van der MeulenAbstractThe current study provides an overview of quantity and quality of MRI data in a large developmental twin sample (N = 512, aged 7-9), and investigated to what extent scan quantity and quality were influenced by genetic and environmental factors. This was examined in a fixed scan protocol consisting of two functional MRI tasks, high resolution structural anatomy (3DT1) and connectivity (DTI) scans, and a resting state scan. Overall, scan quantity was high (88% of p...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered Development of Hippocampus-Dependent Associative Learning following Early-Life Adversity
We examined whether violence exposure in childhood influenced hippocampus-dependent associative learning and whether differences: a) were broad or specific to threat cues, and b) exhibited developmental variation. Children (n = 59; 8-19 years, 24 violence-exposed) completed an associative learning task with angry, happy, and neutral faces paired with objects during fMRI scanning. Outside the scanner, participants completed an associative memory test for face-object pairings. Violence-exposed children exhibited broad associative memory difficulties that became more pronounced with age, along with reduced recru...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Error processing in the adolescent brain: Age-related differences in electrophysiology, behavioral adaptation, and brain morphology
We examined age-related differences in event-related potentials known to be associated with error processing, namely the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe), as well as their relationships with task performance, post-error adjustments and regional cingulate cortex thickness and surface area. We found that ERN amplitude increased with age, while Pe amplitude remained constant. A more negative ERN was associated with higher task accuracy and faster reaction times, while a more positive Pe was associated with higher accuracy, independently of age. When estimating post-error adjustments from trials fol...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The local properties of bold signal fluctuations at rest monitor inhibitory control training in adolescents
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Emilie Salvia, Cloélia Tissier, Sylvain Charron, Paul Herent, Julie Vidal, Stéphanie Lion, Mathieu Cassotti, Catherine Oppenheim, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Arnaud CachiaAbstractInhibitory control (IC) plays a critical role in cognitive and socio-emotional development. Short-term IC training improves IC abilities in children and adults. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated the IC training effect during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by high neuroplasticity and the pr...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Flexibility-Related Prefrontal Activation in Preschoolers: A Biological Approach to Temperamental Effortful Control
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Laura E. Quinones-Camacho, Frank A. Fishburn, M. Catalina Camacho, Lauren S. Wakschlag, Susan B. PerlmanAbstractIndividual differences in temperament have been theorized to be supported by differential recruitment of key neural regions, resulting in the distinct patterns of behavior observed throughout life. Although a compelling model, its rigorous and systematic testing is lacking, particularly within the heightened neuroplasticity of early childhood. The current study tested a model of the link between temperament, the b...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Future Considerations for Pediatric Cancer Survivorship: Translational Perspectives from Developmental Neuroscience
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Rebecca M. Jones, Siobhan S. PattwellAbstractBreakthroughs in modern medicine have increased pediatric cancer survival rates throughout the last several decades. Despite enhanced cure rates, a subset of pediatric cancer survivors exhibit life-long psychological side effects. A large body of work has addressed potential mechanisms for secondary symptoms of anxiety, post-traumatic stress, impaired emotion regulation and cognitive deficits in adults. Yet, absent from many studies are the ways in which cancer treatment can impa...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Aims and Scope
Publication date: June 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 37Author(s): (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic trauma impairs the neural basis of empathy in mothers: Relations to parenting and children’s empathic abilities
Publication date: August 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 38Author(s): Jonathan Levy, Karen Yirmiya, Abraham Goldstein, Ruth FeldmanAbstractEarly life stress carries long-term negative consequences for children's well-being and maturation of the social brain. Here, we utilize a unique cohort to test its effects on mothers' social brain, targeting mothers' neural empathic response in relation to caregiving and child empathic abilities. Mother-child dyads living in a zone of repeated war-related trauma were followed from early childhood and mother-child behavioral synchrony was repeatedly observed. At...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Aims and Scope
Publication date: April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 36Author(s): (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Emotion Modulation of the Body-Selective Areas in the Developing Brain
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the brain activity of 25 children (age 6-11), 18 adolescents (age 12-17) and 26 adults while they passively viewed short videos of angry, happy or neutral body movements. We observed that when viewing dynamic bodies generally, adults showed higher activity than children bilaterally in the body-selective areas; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), as well as the amygdala (AMY). Adults also showed higher activity than adolescents, but only in the right hemisphere. Crucially,...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensorimotor mu rhythm during action observation changes across the lifespan independently from social cognitive processes
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Victoria E.A. Brunsdon, Elisabeth E.F. Bradford, Heather J. FergusonAbstractThe observation of actions performed by another person activates parts of the brain as if the observer were performing that action, referred to as the ‘mirror system’. Very little is currently known about the developmental trajectory of the mirror system and related social cognitive processes. This experimental study sought to explore the modulation of the sensorimotor mu rhythm during action observation using EEG measures, and how these...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic Trauma Impairs the Neural Basis of Empathy in Mothers; Relations to Parenting and Children’s Empathic Abilities
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jonathan Levy, Karen Yirmiya, Abraham Goldstein, Ruth FeldmanAbstractEarly life stress carries long-term negative consequences for children's well-being and maturation of the social brain. Here, we utilize a unique cohort to test its effects on mothers' social brain, targeting mothers' neural empathic response in relation to caregiving and child empathic abilities. Mother-child dyads living in a zone of repeated war-related trauma were followed from early childhood and mother-child behavioral synchrony was repeatedly observ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An fMRI study of action observation and action execution in childhood
We examined age-related differences in brain activation by contrasting a group of children (n = 21) and adults (n = 18). Surfaced-based analyses of action execution and action observation revealed that brain activity for action observation and execution in children is similar to adults, though adults displayed greater activity than children within the right superior parietal lobe during action execution and the occipital lobe during action observation compared to control. Further, within-individual measures of overlapping activation between action observation and execution revealed age-related d...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations of structural and functional connectivity in profound sensorineural hearing loss infants within an early sensitive period: A combined DTI and fMRI study
In conclusion, this study suggests that SNHL in the early sensitive period is associated with diffuse WM alterations that mainly affect the auditory and language pathways. Furthermore, increased rsFC in areas mainly associated with auditory and language networks may potentially reflect reorganization and compensatory activation in response to auditory deprivation during the early sensitive period. (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Introducing article numbering to Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Worth working for: The influence of effort costs on teens’ choices during a novel decision making game
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Holly Sullivan-Toole, Samantha DePasque, Bailey Holt-Gosselin, Adriana GalvánAbstractDecision making requires consideration of both the benefits of a given choice and the costs, which can include risk, delay, and effort. Previous research has examined the developmental trajectory of adolescent decision making regarding risk and delay; however, the effects of effort on adolescent decision making remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we pilot tested a novel, developmentally-appropriate task designed to exa...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The neural association between arithmetic and basic numerical processing depends on arithmetic problem size and not chronological age
This study investigated these unresolved questions by examining basic number processing (symbol-quantity matching) and arithmetic (addition) networks in 26 adults and 42 children. Number processing and arithmetic elicited overlapping activity in the IPS in children and adults, however, the overlap was influenced by arithmetic problem size (i.e. which modulated the need to use procedural strategies). The IPS was recruited for number processing, and for arithmetic problems more likely to be solved using procedural strategies. We also found that the overlap between number processing and small-problem addition in children was ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of early maternal care on adolescent attention bias to threat in nonhuman primates
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Elyse L. Morin, Brittany R. Howell, Jerrold S. Meyer, Mar M. SanchezAbstractAttention bias towards threat using dot-probe tasks has mainly been reported in adults with stress-related disorders such as PTSD and other anxiety disorders, in some cases associated with early life stress or traumatic experiences. Studies during adolescence are scarce and inconsistent, which highlights the need to increase our understanding of the developmental processes that predict attentional biases, given that this is a time of emergence of ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural correlates of word learning in children
In this study, we measured behavioral and brain responses to newly-learned words in children. Two groups of Dutch children, aged between 8-10 and 14-16 years, were trained on 30 novel Japanese words depicting novel concepts. Children were tested on word-forms, word-meanings, and the novel words’ influence on existing word processing immediately after training, and again after a week. In line with the adult findings, hippocampal involvement decreased with time. Lexical integration, however, was not observed immediately or after a week, neither behaviorally nor neurally. It appears that time alone is not always suffici...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene is associated with emotion processing in the infant brain
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kathleen M. Krol, Meghan H. Puglia, James P. Morris, Jessica J. Connelly, Tobias GrossmannAbstractThe neural capacity to discriminate between emotions emerges early in development, though little is known about specific factors that contribute to variability in this vital skill during infancy. In adults, DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTRm) is an epigenetic modification that is variable, predictive of gene expression, and has been linked to autism spectrum disorder and the neural response to social cues. I...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterizing and Decomposing the Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Reading Ability among Adolescents with Task-based fMRI
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kai Wang, Daniel R. Leopold, Marie T. Banich, Andrew E. Reineberg, Erik G. Willcutt, Laurie E. Cutting, Stephanie N. Del Tufo, Lee A. Thompson, John Opfer, Frank J. Kanayet, Zhong-Lin Lu, Stephen A. PetrillAbstractTo better characterize the neural correlates of the full spectrum of reading ability, this fMRI study examined how variations in reading ability correlate with task-based brain activity during reading among a large community sample of adolescents (N = 234). In addition, complimentary approaches tak...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Hardship and Delayed Reward Discounting: Associations with Working Memory and Emotional Reactivity
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Assaf Oshri, Emily Hallowell, Sihong Liu, James MacKillop, Adriana Galvan, Steven M. Kogan, Lawrence H. SweetAbstractProlonged exposure to socioeconomic hardship (SH) is associated with greater delayed reward discounting (DRD), a form of impulsive decision-making that reflects a reduced capacity to delay gratification and a significant correlate of diverse risk behaviors, but the neurobehavioral mechanisms linking SH and DRD are unknown. An emerging hypothesis suggests that cognitive and affective stress associated with po...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corticostriatal connectivity is associated with the reduction of intergroup bias and greater impartial giving in youth
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kathy T. Do, Eva H. TelzerAbstractAlthough prosocial behavior is preferentially directed toward the in-group across many species, prioritizing the outcomes of both the in- and out-group earlier in development can reduce intergroup biases. The current study examined the role of corticostriatal recruitment and connectivity in buffering the effect of intergroup bias on costly giving behavior during childhood and adolescence, a period when other-oriented preferences and associated brain functions undergo significant change. Du...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early-life stress, microbiota, and brain development: Probiotics reverse the effects of maternal separation on neural circuits underpinning fear expression and extinction in infant rats
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Caitlin S.M. Cowan, Anthea A. Stylianakis, Rick RichardsonAbstractEarly-life stress has pervasive, typically detrimental, effects on physical and mental health across the lifespan. In rats, maternal-separation stress results in premature expression of an adult-like profile of fear regulation that predisposes stressed rats to persistent fear, one of the hallmarks of clinical anxiety. Probiotic treatment attenuates the effects of maternal separation on fear regulation. However, the neural pathways underlying these behavioral...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Associations between cortical thickness and reasoning differ by socioeconomic status in development
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Julia A. Leonard, Rachel R. Romeo, Anne T. Park, Megumi E. Takada, Sydney T. Robinson, Hannah Grotzinger, Briana S. Last, Amy S. Finn, John D.E. Gabrieli, Allyson P. MackeyAbstractAlthough lower socioeconomic status (SES) is generally negatively associated with performance on cognitive assessments, some children from lower-SES backgrounds perform as well as their peers from higher-SES backgrounds. Yet little research has examined whether the neural correlates of individual differences in cognition vary by SES. The current...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ERP Evidence of Semantic Processing in Children with ASD
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Charlotte DiStefano, Damla Senturk, Shafali Spurling JesteAbstract25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain minimally verbal (MV), despite intervention. Electroencephalography can reveal neural mechanisms underlying language impairment in ASD, potentially improving our ability to predict language outcomes and target interventions. Verbal (V) and MV children with ASD, along with an age-matched typically developing (TD) group participated in a semantic congruence ERP paradigm, during which pictures were dis...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infants discriminate the source of social touch at stroking speeds eliciting maximal firing rates in CT-fibers
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Marie Aguirre, Auriane Couderc, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Olivier MascaroAbstractThe evaluation of interpersonal touch is heavily influenced by its source. For example, a gentle stroke from a loved one is generally more pleasant than the same tactile stimulation from a complete stranger. Our study tested the early ontogenetic roots of humans’ sensitivity to the source of interpersonal touch. We measured the heart rate of three groups of nine-month-olds while their legs were stroked with a brush. The participants were s...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differentiation in prefrontal cortex recruitment during childhood: Evidence from cognitive control demands and social contexts
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Nicolas Chevalier, Judith Jackson, Alexia Revueltas Roux, Yusuke Moriguchi, Bonnie AuyeungAbstractEmerging cognitive control during childhood is largely supported by the development of distributed neural networks in which the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central. The present study used fNIRS to examine how PFC is recruited to support cognitive control in 5-6 and 8-9-year-old children, by (a) progressively increasing cognitive control demands within the same task, and (b) manipulating the social context in which the task was...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infant brain responses to social sounds: a longitudinal functional near-infrared spectroscopy study
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Nicole M. McDonald, Katherine L. Perdue, Jeffrey Eilbott, Jaspreet Loyal, Frederick Shic, Kevin A. PelphreyAbstractInfants are responsive to and show a preference for human vocalizations from very early in development. While previous studies have provided a strong foundation of understanding regarding areas of the infant brain that respond preferentially to social vs. non-social sounds, how the infant brain responds to sounds of varying social significance over time, and how this relates to behavior, is less well understo...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unique Infant Neurobiology Produces Distinctive Trauma Processing
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Maya Opendak, Regina M. SullivanAbstractTrauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as critical, with trauma experienced within species-atypical aberrations in caregiving quality as particularly detrimental. Using data from primarily rodent models, we review the literature on the interaction between trauma and attachment in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relationships between Gray Matter Volume and Reading Ability in Typically Developing Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Gabrielle-Ann A. Torre, Guinevere F. EdenAbstractReading is explicitly taught and foreshadows academic and vocational success. Studies comparing typical readers to those with developmental dyslexia have identified anatomical brain differences in bilateral temporo-parietal cortex, left temporo-occipital cortex, and bilateral cerebellum. Yet, it is unclear whether linear relationships exist between these brain structures and single real word reading ability in the general population. If dyslexia represents the lower end of ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mobile EEG in Research on Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Opportunities and Challenges
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Alex Lau-Zhu, Michael P.H. Lau, Gráinne McLoughlinAbstractMobile electroencephalography (mobile EEG) represents a next-generation neuroscientific technology – to study real-time brain activity – that is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and portable. Mobile EEG leverages state-of-the-art hardware alongside established advantages of traditional EEG and recent advances in signal processing. In this review, we propose that mobile EEG could open unprecedented possibilities for studying neurodevelopmental ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pubertal influences on neural activation during risky decision-making in youth with ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders
ConclusionYouth with ADHD/DBD in later stages of puberty, regardless of age, show greater ventral striatal activation in response to rewards. (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental trajectories of white matter structure in children with and without reading impairments
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Catherine Lebel, Alina Benischek, Bryce Geeraert, John Holahan, Sally Shaywitz, Kirran Bakhshi, Bennett ShaywitzAbstractLeft temporal-parietal white matter structure is consistently associated with reading abilities in children. A small number of longitudinal studies show that development of this area over time is altered in children with impaired reading. However, it remains unclear how brain developmental patterns relate to specific reading skills such as fluency, which is a critical part of reading comprehension. Here, ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in functional connectivity during fetal brain development
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): M.D. Wheelock, J.L. Hect, E. Hernandez-Andrade, S.S. Hassan, R. Romero, A.T. Eggebrecht, M.E. ThomasonABSTRACTSex-related differences in brain and behavior are apparent across the life course, but the exact set of processes that guide their emergence in utero remains a topic of vigorous scientific inquiry. Here, we evaluate sex and gestational age (GA)-related change in functional connectivity (FC) within and between brain wide networks. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we examined FC in 118 human ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Building blocks of joint attention: Early sensitivity to having one’s own gaze followed
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Holly Rayson, James J. Bonaiuto, Pier F. Ferrari, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Lynne MurrayAbstractDetecting when one’s own gaze has been followed is a critical component of joint attention, but little is known about its development. To address this issue, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to record infant neural responses at 6.5 and 9.5 months during observation of an adult either turning to look at the same object as the infant (congruent actor), or turning to look at a different object (incongruent actor). We also us...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

BOLD signal variability and complexity in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Amanda K. Easson, Anthony R. McIntoshAbstractVariability of neural signaling is an important index of healthy brain functioning, as is signal complexity, which relates to information processing capacity. Alterations in variability and complexity may underlie certain brain dysfunctions. Here, resting-state fMRI was used to examine variability and complexity in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Variability was measured using the mean square successive difference (MSSD) of the time seri...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four- to eight-month-olds
Publication date: April 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 36Author(s): Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Francisco LacerdaAbstractDuring the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has previously been demonstrated between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental correlates of the emerging adult self
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Christopher G. Davey, Alex Fornito, Jesus Pujol, Michael Breakspear, Lianne Schmaal, Ben J. HarrisonAbstractThe self-concept – the set of beliefs that a person has about themselves – shows significant development from adolescence to early adulthood, in parallel with brain development over the same period. We sought to investigate how age-related changes in self-appraisal processes corresponded with brain network segregation and integration in healthy adolescents and young adults. We scanned 88 participants ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The functional consequences of social attention on memory precision and on memory-guided orienting in development
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Brianna Ruth Doherty, Alexander Fraser, Anna Christina Nobre, Gaia ScerifAbstractAdults are slower at locating targets in naturalistic scenes containing a social distractor compared to an equally salient non-social distractor, and their subsequent memory for targets in social scenes is poorer. Therefore, adults’ social biases affect not only attention, but also their memory. Six-to-ten year-old children and young adults took part in the current study, employing a combination of behavioural and eye-tracking measure...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Applying microstructural models to understand the role of white matter in cognitive development
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Elizabeth Huber, Rafael Neto Henriques, Julia P. Owen, Ariel Rokem, Jason D. YeatmanAbstractDiffusion MRI (dMRI) holds great promise for illuminating the biological changes that underpin cognitive development. The diffusion of water molecules probes the cellular structure of brain tissue, and biophysical modeling of the diffusion signal can be used to make inferences about specific tissue properties that vary over development or predict cognitive performance. However, applying these models to study development requires ...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evidence for an altered architecture and a hierarchical modulation of inhibitory control processes in ADHD
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Witold Chmielewski, Annet Bluschke, Benjamin Bodmer, Nicole Wolff, Veit Roessner, Christian BesteAbstractInhibitory control deficits are a hallmark in ADHD. Yet, inhibitory control includes a multitude of entities (e.g. ‘inhibition of interferences’ and ‘action inhibition’). Examining the interplay between these kinds of inhibitory control provides insights into the architecture of inhibitory control in ADHD. Combining a Simon task and a Go/Nogo task, we assessed the interplay of ‘inhibitio...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four-to-eight-month-olds
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Francisco LacerdaAbstractDuring the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has been demonstrated previously between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR ampl...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - February 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Aims and Scope
Publication date: February 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 35Author(s): (Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - January 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research