Anomalous incisor morphology indicates tissue-specific roles for Tfap2a and Tfap2b in tooth development.
Abstract Mice possess two types of teeth that differ in their cusp patterns; incisors have one cusp and molars have multiple cusps. The patterning of these two types of teeth relies on fine-tuning of the reciprocal molecular signaling between dental epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during embryonic development. The AP-2 transcription factors, particularly Tfap2a and Tfap2b, are essential components of such epithelial-mesenchymal signaling interactions that coordinate craniofacial development in mice and other vertebrates, but little is known about their roles in the regulation of tooth development and shape. Her...
Source: Developmental Biology - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Woodruff ED, Gutierrez GC, Van Otterloo E, Williams T, Cohn MJ Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

GRDN-1/girdin regulates dendrite morphogenesis and cilium position in two specialized sensory neuron types in C. elegans.
Abstract Primary cilia are located at the dendritic tips of sensory neurons and house the molecular machinery necessary for detection and transduction of sensory stimuli. The mechanisms that coordinate dendrite extension with cilium position during sensory neuron development are not well understood. Here, we show that GRDN-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the highly conserved scaffold and signaling protein Girdin/GIV, regulates both cilium position and dendrite extension in the postembryonic AQR and PQR gas-sensing neurons. Mutations in grdn-1 disrupt dendrite outgrowth and mislocalize cilia to the soma o...
Source: Developmental Biology - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nechipurenko I, Lavrentyeva S, Sengupta P Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Early patterning of ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporters establishes unique territories of small molecule transport in the embryonic mesoderm and endoderm.
This study reveals the early establishment of unique territories of small molecule transport during embryogenesis. A pattern of ABCC4/C5 expression is consistent with signaling functions during gut invagination and germ line development, while a later pattern of ABCB1/B4 and ABCG2 is consistent with roles in the embryonic gut. This work provides a conceptual framework with which to examine the function and evolution of SMT networks and define the specific developmental pathways that drive the expression of these genes. PMID: 33460641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Developmental Biology)
Source: Developmental Biology - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Schrankel CS, Hamdoun A Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

ETS factors are required but not sufficient for specific patterns of enhancer activity in different endothelial subtypes.
Abstract Correct vascular differentiation requires distinct patterns of gene expression in different subtypes of endothelial cells. Members of the ETS transcription factor family are essential for the transcriptional activation of arterial and angiogenesis-specific gene regulatory elements, leading to the hypothesis that they play lineage-defining roles in arterial and angiogenic differentiation directly downstream of VEGFA signalling. However, an alternative explanation is that ETS binding at enhancers and promoters is a general requirement for activation of many endothelial genes regardless of expression pattern...
Source: Developmental Biology - January 13, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Neal A, Nornes S, Louphrasitthiphol P, Sacilotto N, Preston MD, Fleisinger L, Payne S, De Val S Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

The FGF-AKT pathway is necessary for cardiomyocyte survival for heart regeneration in zebrafish.
Abstract Zebrafish have a remarkable ability to regenerate the myocardium after injury by proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is known to play a critical role in zebrafish heart regeneration through promotion of neovascularization of the regenerating myocardium. Here, we define an additional function of FGF signaling in the zebrafish myocardium after injury. We find that FGF signaling is active in a small fraction of cardiomyocytes before injury, and that the number of FGF signaling-positive cardiomyocytes increases after amputation-induced injury. We show that ER...
Source: Developmental Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Tahara N, Akiyama R, Wang J, Kawakami H, Bessho Y, Kawakami Y Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

YAP1 and its fusion proteins in cancer initiation, progression and therapeutic resistance.
Abstract YAP1 is a transcriptional co-activator whose activity is controlled by the Hippo signaling pathway. In addition to important functions in normal tissue homeostasis and regeneration, YAP1 has also prominent functions in cancer initiation, aggressiveness, metastasis, and therapy resistance. In this review we are discussing the molecular functions of YAP1 and its roles in cancer, with a focus on the different mechanisms of de-regulation of YAP1 activity in human cancers, including inactivation of upstream Hippo pathway tumor suppressors, regulation by intersecting pathways, miRNAs, and viral oncogenes. We ar...
Source: Developmental Biology - January 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Szulzewsky F, Holland EC, Vasioukhin V Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Multiple roles for Pax2 in the embryonic mouse eye.
Abstract The vertebrate eye anlage grows out of the brain and folds into bilayered optic cups. The eye is patterned along multiple axes, precisely controlled by genetic programs, to delineate neural retina, pigment epithelium, and optic stalk tissues. Pax genes encode developmental regulators of key morphogenetic events, with Pax2 being essential for interpreting inductive signals, including in the eye. PAX2 mutations cause ocular coloboma, when the ventral optic fissure fails to close. Previous studies established that Pax2 is necessary for fissure closure and to maintain the neural retina -- glial optic stalk bo...
Source: Developmental Biology - January 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bosze B, Suarez-Navarro J, Soofi A, Lauderdale JD, Dressler GR, Brown NL Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

A globin-family protein, cytoglobin 1, is involved in the development of neural crest-derived tissues and organs in zebrafish.
Abstract The zebrafish is an excellent model animal that is amenable to forward genetics approaches. To uncover unknown developmental regulatory mechanisms in vertebrates, we conducted chemical mutagenesis screening and identified a novel mutation, kanazutsi (kzt). This mutation is recessive, and its homozygotes are embryonic lethal. Mutant embryos suffered from a variety of morphological defects, such as head flattening, pericardial edema, circulation defects, disrupted patterns of melanophore distribution, dwarf eyes, a defective jaw, and extensive apoptosis in the head, which indicates that the main affected ti...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Takahashi K, Ito Y, Yoshimura M, Nikaido M, Yuikawa T, Kawamura A, Tsuda S, Kage D, Yamasu K Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Reassembling gastrulation.
Abstract During development, a single cell is transformed into a highly complex organism through progressive cell division, specification and rearrangement. An important prerequisite for the emergence of patterns within the developing organism is to establish asymmetries at various scales, ranging from individual cells to the entire embryo, eventually giving rise to the different body structures. This becomes especially apparent during gastrulation, when the earliest major lineage restriction events lead to the formation of the different germ layers. Traditionally, the unfolding of the developmental program from s...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 19, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Schauer A, Heisenberg CP Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling mammalian trunk development in a dish.
Abstract Mammalian post-implantation development comprises the coordination of complex lineage decisions and morphogenetic processes shaping the embryo. Despite technological advances, a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of these processes and of the self-organization capabilities of stem cells and their descendants remains elusive. Building synthetic embryo-like structures from pluripotent embryonic stem cells in vitro promises to fill these knowledge gaps and thereby may prove transformative for developmental biology. Initial efforts to model the post-implantation embryo resulted in structures with com...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Veenvliet JV, Herrmann BG Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Physiological electric fields induce directional migration of mammalian cranial neural crest cells.
Abstract During neurulation, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) migrate long distances from the neural tube to their terminal site of differentiation. The pathway traveled by the CNCCs defines the blueprint for craniofacial construction, abnormalities of which contribute to three-quarters of human birth defects. Biophysical cues like naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) have been proposed to be one of the guiding mechanisms for CNCC migration from the neural tube to identified position in the branchial arches. Such endogenous EFs can be mimicked by applied EFs of physiological strength that has been reported ...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 16, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mehta AS, Ha P, Zhu K, Li S, Ting K, Soo C, Zhang X, Zhao M Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Interdependent regulation of stereotyped and stochastic photoreceptor fates in the fly eye.
Abstract Diversification of neuronal subtypes often requires stochastic gene regulatory mechanisms. How stochastically expressed transcription factors interact with other regulators in gene networks to specify cell fates is poorly understood. The random mosaic of color-detecting R7 photoreceptor subtypes in Drosophila is controlled by the stochastic on/off expression of the transcription factor Spineless (Ss). In SsON R7s, Ss induces expression of Rhodopsin 4 (Rh4), whereas in SsOFF R7s, the absence of Ss allows expression of Rhodopsin 3 (Rh3). Here, we find that the transcription factor Runt, which is initially e...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Miller AC, Urban E, Lyons EL, Herman TG, Johnston RJ Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

The dynamics of morphogenesis in stem cell-based embryology: Novel insights for symmetry breaking.
Abstract Breaking embryonic symmetry is an essential prerequisite to shape the initially symmetric embryo into a highly organized body plan that serves as the blueprint of the adult organism. This critical process is driven by morphogen signaling gradients that instruct anteroposterior axis specification. Despite its fundamental importance, what triggers symmetry breaking and how the signaling gradients are established in time and space in the mammalian embryo remain largely unknown. Stem cell-based in vitro models of embryogenesis offer an unprecedented opportunity to quantitatively dissect the multiple physical ...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sozen B, Cornwall-Scoones J, Zernicka-Goetz M Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Returning to kidney development to deliver synthetic kidneys.
Abstract There is no doubt that the development of transplantable synthetic kidneys could improve the outcome for the many millions of people worldwide suffering from chronic kidney disease. Substantial progress has been made in the last 6 years in the generation of kidney tissue from stem cells. However, the limited scale, incomplete cellular complexity and functional immaturity of such structures suggests we are some way from this goal. While developmental biology has successfully guided advances to date, these human kidney models are limited in their capacity for ongoing nephrogenesis and lack corticomedullary ...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Little MH Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling human embryo development with embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cells.
Abstract Early human post-implantation development involves extensive growth combined with a series of complex morphogenetic events. The lack of precise spatial and temporal control over these processes leads to pregnancy loss. Given the ethical and technical limitations in studying the natural human embryo, alternative approaches are needed to investigate mechanisms underlying this critical stage of human development. Here, we present an overview of the different stem cells and stem cell-derived models which serve as useful, albeit imperfect, tools in understanding human embryogenesis. Current models include stem...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Weatherbee BAT, Cui T, Zernicka-Goetz M Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Taste buds are not derived from neural crest in mouse, chicken, and zebrafish.
In this study, we mapped NC cell lineages in three different models, Sox10-iCreERT2/tdT mouse, GFP+ neural fold transplantation to GFP- chickens, and Sox10-Cre/GFP-RFP zebrafish model. We found that in mice, Sox10-iCreERT2 specifically labels NC cell lineages with a single dose of tamoxifen at E7.5 and that the labeled cells were widely distributed in the connective tissue of the tongue. No labeled cells were found in taste buds or the surrounding epithelium in the postnatal mice. In the GFP+/GFP- chicken chimera model, GFP+ cells migrated extensively to the cranial region of chicken embryos ipsilateral to the surgery side...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Yu W, Wang Z, Marshall B, Yoshida Y, Patel R, Cui X, Ball R, Yin L, Kawabata F, Tabata S, Chen W, Kelsh RN, Lauderdale JD, Liu HX Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Sox10-cre BAC transgenes reveal temporal restriction of mesenchymal cranial neural crest and identify glandular Sox10 expression.
We describe two new Sox10-cre BAC transgenes, constitutive (cre) and inducible (cre/ERT2), that contain the complete repertoire of Sox10 regulatory elements. We present a thorough expression profile of each, identifying a few novel sites of Sox10 expression not captured by other neural crest cre drivers. Comparative mapping of expression patterns between the Sox10-cre and Sox10-cre/ERT2 transgenes identified a narrow temporal window in which Sox10 expression is present in mesenchymal derivatives prior to becoming restricted to neural elements during embryogenesis. In more caudal structures, such as the intestine and lower ...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 11, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Deal KK, Rosebrock JC, Eeds AM, DeKeyser JL, Musser MA, Ireland SJ, May-Zhang AA, Buehler DP, Southard-Smith EM Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Kcnb1 plays a role in development of the inner ear.
Abstract The function of the inner ear depends on the maintenance of high concentrations of K+ ions. The slow-inactivating delayed rectifier Kv2.1/KCNB1 channel works in the inner ear in mammals. The kcnb1 gene is expressed in the otic vesicle of developing zebrafish, suggesting its role in development of the inner ear. In the present study, we found that a Kcnb1 loss-of-function mutation affected development of the inner ear at multiple levels, including otic vesicle expansion, otolith formation, and the proliferation and differentiation of mechanosensory cells. This resulted in defects of kinocilia and stereocil...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 11, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Jedrychowska J, Gasanov EV, Korzh V Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Multi-tissue patterning drives anterior morphogenesis of the C. elegans embryo.
Abstract Complex structures derived from multiple tissue types are challenging to study in vivo, and our knowledge of how cells from different tissues are coordinated is limited. Model organisms have proven invaluable for improving our understanding of how chemical and mechanical cues between cells from two different tissues can govern specific morphogenetic events. Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system to show how cells from three different tissues are coordinated to give rise to the anterior lumen. While some aspects of pharyngeal morphogenesis have been well-described, it is less clear how cells...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 10, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Grimbert S, Mastronardi K, Richard V, Christensen R, Law C, Zardoui K, Fay D, Piekny A Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Is zebrafish heart regeneration "complete"? Lineage-restricted cardiomyocytes proliferate to pre-injury numbers but some fail to differentiate in fibrotic hearts.
Is zebrafish heart regeneration "complete"? Lineage-restricted cardiomyocytes proliferate to pre-injury numbers but some fail to differentiate in fibrotic hearts. Dev Biol. 2020 Dec 10;: Authors: Bertozzi A, Wu CC, Nguyen PD, Vasudevarao MD, Mulaw MA, Koopman CD, de Boer TP, Bakkers J, Weidinger G Abstract Adult zebrafish are frequently described to be able to "completely" regenerate the heart. Yet, the extent to which cardiomyocytes lost to injury are replaced is unknown, since only indirect evidence for cardiomyocyte proliferation exists. We established stereological methods to q...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 10, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Bertozzi A, Wu CC, Nguyen PD, Vasudevarao MD, Mulaw MA, Koopman CD, de Boer TP, Bakkers J, Weidinger G Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Stressful development: Integrating endoderm development, stress, and longevity.
Abstract In addition to performing digestion and nutrient absorption, the intestine serves as one of the first barriers to the external environment, crucial for protecting the host from environmental toxins, pathogenic invaders, and other stress inducers. The gene regulatory network (GRN) governing embryonic development of the endoderm and subsequent differentiation and maintenance of the intestine has been well-documented in C. elegans. A key regulatory input that initiates activation of the embryonic GRN for endoderm and mesoderm in this animal is the maternally provided SKN-1 transcription factor, an ortholog o...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 8, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Ewe CK, Alok G, Rothman JH Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Postembryonic screen for mutations affecting spine development in zebrafish.
Abstract The spine gives structural support for the adult body, protects the spinal cord, and provides muscle attachment for moving through the environment. The development and maturation of the spine and its physiology involve the integration of multiple musculoskeletal tissues including bone, cartilage, and fibrocartilaginous joints, as well as innervation and control by the nervous system. One of the most common disorders of the spine in human is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which is characterized by the onset of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine of
Source: Developmental Biology - December 5, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gray RS, Gonzalez R, Ackerman SD, Minowa R, Griest JF, Bayrak MN, Troutwine B, Canter S, Monk KR, Sepich DS, Solnica-Krezel L Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Midline morphogenesis of zebrafish foregut endoderm is dependent on Hoxb5b.
Abstract During vertebrate embryonic development complex morphogenetic events drive the formation of internal organs associated with the developing digestive tract. The foregut organs derive from hepatopancreatic precursor cells that originate bilaterally within the endoderm monolayer, and subsequently converge toward the midline where they coalesce to produce the gut tube from which the liver and pancreas form. The progenitor cells of these internal organs are influenced by the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), which helps direct them towards their specific fates. However, it is not completely understood how the bila...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 5, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Dalgin G, Prince VE Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

A role for Cep70 in centriole amplification in multiciliated cells.
Abstract Centriole amplification in multiciliated cells occurs in a pseudo-cell cycle regulated process that typically utilizes a poorly characterized molecularly dense structure called the deuterosome. We identified the centrosomal protein Cep70 as a novel deuterosome-associated protein that forms a complex with other deuterosome proteins, CCDC78 and Deup1. Cep70 dynamically associates with deuterosomes during centriole amplification in the ciliated epithelia of Xenopus embryos. Cep70 is not found in nascent deuterosomes prior to amplification. However, it becomes localized at deuterosomes at the onset of centrio...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 4, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kim SK, Brotslaw E, Thome V, Mitchell J, Ventrella R, Collins C, Mitchell B Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Temperature-Induced uncoupling of cell cycle regulators.
Abstract The early stages of development involve complex sequences of morphological changes that are both reproducible from embryo to embryo and often robust to environmental variability. To investigate the relationship between reproducibility and robustness we examined cell cycle progression in early Drosophila embryos at different temperatures. Our experiments show that while the subdivision of cell cycle steps is conserved across a wide range of temperatures (5-35 °C), the relative duration of individual steps varies with temperature. We find that the transition into prometaphase is delayed at lower tempe...
Source: Developmental Biology - December 2, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Falahati H, Hur W, Di Talia S, Wieschaus E Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Loss of Smad4 in the scleraxis cell lineage results in postnatal joint contracture.
Abstract Growth of the musculoskeletal system requires precise coordination between bone, muscle, and tendon during development. Insufficient elongation of the muscle-tendon unit relative to bone growth results in joint contracture, a condition characterized by reduction or complete loss of joint range of motion. Here we establish a novel murine model of joint contracture by targeting Smad4 for deletion in the tendon cell lineage using Scleraxis-Cre (ScxCre). Smad4ScxCre mutants develop a joint contracture shortly after birth. The contracture is stochastic in direction and increases in severity with age. Smad4ScxC...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 25, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Schlesinger S, Seo S, Pryce B, Tufa SF, Keene DR, Huang AH, Schweitzer R Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mutations in Drosophila crinkled/Myosin VIIA disrupt denticle morphogenesis.
Abstract Actin filament crosslinking, bundling and molecular motor proteins are necessary for the assembly of epithelial projections such as microvilli, stereocilia, hairs, and bristles. Mutations in such proteins cause defects in the shape, structure, and function of these actin - based protrusions. One protein necessary for stereocilia formation, Myosin VIIA, is an actin - based motor protein conserved throughout phylogeny. In Drosophila melanogaster, severe mutations in the MyoVIIA homolog crinkled (ck) are "semi - lethal" with only a very small percentage of flies surviving to adulthood. Such survivo...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 25, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sallee JL, Crawford JM, Singh V, Kiehart DP Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mef2c factors are required for early but not late addition of cardiomyocytes to the ventricle.
Abstract During heart formation, the heart grows and undergoes dramatic morphogenesis to achieve efficient embryonic function. Both in fish and amniotes, much of the growth occurring after initial heart tube formation arises from second heart field (SHF)-derived progenitor cell addition to the arterial pole, allowing chamber formation. In zebrafish, this process has been extensively studied during embryonic life, but it is unclear how larval cardiac growth occurs beyond 3 days post-fertilisation (dpf). By quantifying zebrafish myocardial growth using live imaging of GFP-labelled myocardium we show that the heart g...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 24, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kula-Alwar D, Marber MS, Hughes SM, Hinits Y Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Dysregulated BMP signaling through ACVR1 impairs digit joint development in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).
Abstract The development of joints in the mammalian skeleton depends on the precise regulation of multiple interacting signaling pathways including the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, a key regulator of joint development, digit patterning, skeletal growth, and chondrogenesis. Mutations in the BMP receptor ACVR1 cause the rare genetic disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in which extensive and progressive extra-skeletal bone forms in soft connective tissues after birth. These mutations, which enhance BMP-pSmad1/5 pathway activity to induce ectopic bone, also affect skeletal development. FOP...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Towler OW, Peck SH, Kaplan FS, Shore EM Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

BMP signalling is required for extra-embryonic ectoderm development during pre-to-post-implantation transition of the mouse embryo.
Abstract At implantation, the mouse embryo undergoes a critical transformation which requires the precise spatiotemporal control of signalling pathways necessary for morphogenesis and developmental progression. The role played by such signalling pathways during this transition are largely unexplored, due to the inaccessibility of the embryo during the implantation when it becomes engulfed by uterine tissues. Genetic studies demonstrate that mutant embryos for BMPs die around gastrulation. Here we have aimed to dissect the role of BMPs during pre-to post-implantation transition by using a protocol permitting the de...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sozen B, Demir N, Zernicka-Goetz M Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Zebrafish Cdx1b modulates epithalamic asymmetry by regulating ndr2 and lft1 expression.
In this study, we show that Cdx1b also regulates epithalamic asymmetry in zebrafish embryos by modulating expression of ndr2 and lft1. We first knocked down cdx1b with translation-blocking and splicing-blocking morpholinos (MOs). Most embryos injected with translation-blocking MOs showed absent ndr2, lft1 and pitx2c expression in the left dorsal diencephalon during segmentation and pharyngula stages accompanied by aberrant parapineal migration and habenular laterality at 72 h post fertilization (hpf). These defects were less frequent in embryos injected with splicing-blocking MO. To confirm the morphant phenotype, we nex...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wu CS, Lu YF, Liu YH, Huang CJ, Hwang SL Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Molecular detection of maturation stages in the developing kidney.
Abstract Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled the generation of kidney organoids in vitro, and further maturation of these organoids is observed after experimental transplantation. However, the current organoids remain immature and their precise maturation stages are difficult to determine because of limited information on developmental stage-dependent gene expressions in the kidney in vivo. To establish relevant molecular coordinates, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on developing kidneys at different stages in the mouse. By selecting genes that exhibited upregulation at P0 compare...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Naganuma H, Miike K, Ohmori T, Tanigawa S, Ichikawa T, Yamane M, Eto M, Niwa H, Kobayashi A, Nishinakamura R Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mutations in non-muscle myosin 2A disrupt the actomyosin cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells and cause male infertility.
Abstract Mutations in non-muscle myosin 2A (NM2A) encompass a wide spectrum of anomalies collectively known as MYH9-Related Disease (MYH9-RD) in humans that can include macrothrombocytopenia, glomerulosclerosis, deafness, and cataracts. We previously created mouse models of the three mutations most frequently found in humans: R702C, D1424N, and E1841K. While homozygous R702C and D1424N mutations are embryonic lethal, we found homozygous mutant E1841K mice to be viable. However the homozygous male, but not female, mice were infertile. Here, we report that these mice have reduced testis size and defects in actin-ass...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sung DC, Ahmad M, Lerma Cervantes CB, Zhang Y, Adelstein RS, Ma X Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

The type II integral ER membrane protein VAP-B homolog in C. elegans is cleaved to release the N-terminal MSP domain to signal non-cell-autonomously.
In this study, we analyze the C. elegans VAP-B homolog, VPR-1, for its processing and secretion from the intestine. We show that intestine-specific expression of an N-terminally FLAG-tagged VPR-1 rescues underdeveloped gonad and sterility defects in vpr-1 null hermaphrodites. Immunofluorescence studies reveal that the tagged intestinal expressed VPR-1 is present at the distal gonad. Mass spectrometry analysis of a smaller product of the N-terminally tagged VPR-1 identifies a specific cleavage site at Leu156. Mutation of the leucine results in loss of gonadal MSPd signal and reduced activity of the mutant VPR-1. Thus, we re...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 5, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zein-Sabatto H, Cole T, Hoang HD, Tiwary E, Chang C, Miller MA Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Trim-Away mediated knock down uncovers a new function for Lbh during gastrulation of Xenopus laevis.
Abstract We previously identified the protein Lbh as necessary for cranial neural crest (CNC) cell migration in Xenopus through the use of morpholinos. However, Lbh is a maternally deposited protein and morpholinos achieve knockdowns through prevention of translation. In order to investigate the role of Lbh in earlier embryonic events, we employed the new technique "Trim-Away" to degrade this maternally deposited protein. Trim-Away utilizes the E3 ubiquitin ligase trim21 to degrade proteins targeted with an antibody and was developed in mammalian systems. Our results show that Xenopus is amenable to the ...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 4, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Weir E, McLinden G, Alfandari D, Cousin H Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Non-coding RNAs repressive role in post-transcriptional processing of RUNX2 during the acquisition of the osteogenic phenotype of periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells.
In this study, we identified epigenetic markers during osteogenic differentiation, taking advantage of the individual pattern of mesenchymal cells of the periodontal ligament with high (h-PDLCs) and low (l-PDLCs) osteogenic capacity. We found that the involvement of non-coding RNAs in the regulation of the RUNX2 gene is strongly associated with high osteogenic potential. Moreover, we evaluated miRs and genes that encode enzymes to process miRs and their biogenesis. Our data show the high expression of the XPO5 gene, and miRs 7 and 22 observed in the l-PDLCs might be involved in acquiring osteogenic potential, suppressing R...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 2, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Assis RF, da S Feltran G, Salomão Silva ME, Caroline da Rosário Palma I, Rovai ES, Browne de Miranda T, Ferreira MR, Zambuzzi WF, Birbrair A, Andia DC, da Silva RA Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Rethinking embryology in vitro: A synergy between engineering, data science and theory.
Abstract Pluripotent stem cells, in the recent years, have been demonstrated to mimic different aspects of metazoan embryonic development in vitro. This has led to the establishment of synthetic embryology: a field that makes use of in vitro stem cell models to investigate developmental processes that would be otherwise inaccessible in vivo. Currently, a plethora of engineering-inspired techniques, including microfluidic devices and bioreactors, exist to generate and culture organoids at high throughput. Similarly, data analysis and deep learning-based techniques, that were established in in vivo models, are now b...
Source: Developmental Biology - November 2, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gritti N, Oriola D, Trivedi V Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

A serpin is required for ectomesoderm, a hallmark of spiralian development.
Abstract Among animals, diploblasts contain two germ layers, endoderm and ectoderm, while triploblasts have a distinct third germ layer called the mesoderm. Spiralians are a group of triploblast animals that have highly conserved development: they share the distinctive spiralian cleavage pattern as well as a unique source of mesoderm, the ectomesoderm. This population of mesoderm is distinct from endomesoderm and is considered a hallmark of spiralian development, but the regulatory network that drives its development is unknown. Here we identified ectomesoderm-specific genes in the mollusc Tritia (aka Ilyanassa) o...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 24, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wu L, Lambert JD Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

A transient decrease in mitochondrial activity contributes to establish the ganglion cell fate in retina adapted for high acuity vision.
Abstract Although the plan of the retina is well conserved in vertebrates, there are considerable variations in cell type diversity and number, as well as in the organization and properties of the tissue. The high ratios of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to cones in primate fovea and bird retinas favor neural circuits essential for high visual acuity and color vision. The role that cell metabolism could play in cell fate decision during embryonic development of the nervous system is still largely unknown. Here, we describe how subtle changes of mitochondrial activity along the pathway converting uncommitted progeni...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Brodier L, Rodrigues T, Matter-Sadzinski L, Matter JM Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

The apical cell - An enigmatic somatic cell in leech ovaries - Structure and putative functions.
Abstract Although somatic cells play an integral role in animal gametogenesis, their organization and function are usually poorly characterized, especially in non-model systems. One such example is a peculiar cell found in leech ovaries - the apical cell (AC). A single AC can be found at the apical tip of each ovary cord, the functional unit of leech ovaries, where it is surrounded by other somatic and germline cells. The AC is easily distinguished due to its enormous size and its numerous long cytoplasmic projections that penetrate the space between neighboring cells. It is also characterized by a prominent accum...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gorgoń S, Świątek P Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

There and back again: The mechanisms of differentiation and transdifferentiation in Drosophila blood cells.
E, Honti V Abstract Transdifferentiation is a conversion of an already differentiated cell type into another cell type without the involvement of stem cells. This transition is well described in the case of vertebrate immune cells, as well as in Drosophila melanogaster, which therefore serves as a suitable model to study the process in detail. In the Drosophila larva, the latest single-cell sequencing methods enabled the clusterization of the phagocytic blood cells, the plasmatocytes, which are capable of transdifferentiation into encapsulating cells, the lamellocytes. Here we summarize the available data of the ...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Csordás G, Gábor E, Honti V Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

In silico analysis of inner ear development using public whole embryonic body single-cell RNA-sequencing data.
Abstract The inner ear comprises four epithelial domains: the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, and endolymphatic duct/sac. These structures are segregated at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5). However, these four anatomical structures remain undefined at E10.5. Here, we aimed to identify lineage-specific genes in the early developing inner ear using published data obtained from single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) of embryonic mice. We downloaded 5000 single-cell transcriptome data, named 'auditory epithelial trajectory', from the Mouse Organogenesis Cell Atlas. The dataset was supposed to include otic epitheli...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Yamamoto R, Ohnishi H, Omori K, Yamamoto N Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cloning and characterisation of NMDA receptors in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) in relation to metamorphosis and catecholamine synthesis.
Abstract Bivalve metamorphosis is a developmental transition from a free-living larva to a benthic juvenile (spat), regulated by a complex interaction of neurotransmitters and neurohormones such as L-DOPA and epinephrine (catecholamine). We recently suggested an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor pathway as an additional and previously unknown regulator of bivalve metamorphosis. To explore this theory further, we successfully induced metamorphosis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, by exposing competent larvae to L-DOPA, epinephrine, MK-801 and ifenprodil. Subsequently, we cloned three NMDA receptor subun...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Vogeler S, Carboni S, Li X, Ireland JH, Miller-Ezzy P, Joyce A Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Lamellipodia-like protrusions and focal adhesions contribute to collective cell migration in zebrafish.
Abstract Collective cell migration is a process where cohorts of cells exhibit coordinated migratory behavior. During individual and collective cellular migration, cells must extend protrusions to interact with the extracellular environment, sense chemotactic cues, and act as points of attachment. The mechanisms and regulators of protrusive behavior have been widely studied in individually migrating cells; however, how this behavior is regulated throughout collectives is not well understood. To address this, we used the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP) as a model. The pLLP is a cluster of ∼15...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Olson HM, Nechiporuk AV Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Fine-tuning of the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network by multiple microRNAs controls embryo myogenesis.
g A Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs, which act post-transcriptionally to regulate gene expression, are of widespread significance during development and disease, including muscle disease. Advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics led to the identification of a large number of miRNAs in vertebrates and other species, however, for many of these miRNAs specific roles have not yet been determined. LNA in situ hybridisation has revealed expression patterns of somite-enriched miRNAs, here we focus on characterising the functions of miR-128. We show that antagomiR-mediated knockdown (KD) of ...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Viaut C, Weldon S, Münsterberg A Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Nucleoporin NUP205 plays a critical role in cilia and congenital disease.
We describe a model wherein NUP93 interacting with either NUP188 or NUP205 is necessary for cilia. We thus provide evidence that dysregulation of inner ring nucleoporin genes that have been identified in patients may contribute to pathogenesis through cilia dysfunction. PMID: 33065118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Developmental Biology)
Source: Developmental Biology - October 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Marquez J, Bhattacharya D, Lusk CP, Khokha MK Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

WNT5A-Ca2+-CaN-NFAT signalling plays a permissive role during cartilage differentiation in embryonic chick digit development.
al-Monroy J Abstract During digit development, the correct balance of chondrogenic signals ensures the recruitment of undifferentiated cells into the cartilage lineage or the maintenance of cells at the undifferentiated stage. WNT/β catenin maintains the pool of progenitor cells, whereas TGFβ signalling promotes cartilage differentiation by inducing Sox9 expression. Moreover, WNT5A promotes the degradation of β catenin during mouse limb development. Although these mechanisms are well established, it is still unknown whether the signalling pathway downstream WNT5A is also involved in early chondrogen...
Source: Developmental Biology - October 12, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Farrera-Hernández A, Marín-Llera JC, Chimal-Monroy J Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

Syd/JIP3 controls tissue size by regulating Diap1 protein turnover downstream of Yorkie/YAP.
This study provides mechanistic insights into the recent and perplexing link between JIP3 mutations and organ size defects in mammals, including in humans where de novo JIP3 variants are associated with microcephaly. PMID: 33022230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Developmental Biology)
Source: Developmental Biology - October 2, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Ahmad V, Vadla GP, Chabu CY Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Neurosphere Simulator: An educational online tool for modeling neural stem cell behavior and tissue growth.
Abstract Until very recently, distance education, including digital science labs, served a rather small portion of postsecondary students in the United States and many other countries. This situation has, however, dramatically changed in 2020 in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which forced colleges to rapidly transit from face-to-face instructions to online classes. Here, we report the development of an interactive simulator that is freely available on the web (http://neurosphere.cos.northeastern.edu/) for teaching lab classes in developmental biology. This simulator is based on cellular automata models of neur...
Source: Developmental Biology - September 25, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zupanc GKH, Lehotzky D, Tripp IP Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research

The actin polymerization factor diaphanous and the actin severing protein flightless I collaborate to regulate sarcomere size.
Abstract The sarcomere is the basic contractile unit of muscle, composed of repeated sets of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments. During muscle development, sarcomeres grow in size to accommodate the growth and function of muscle fibers. Failure in regulating sarcomere size results in muscle dysfunction; yet, it is unclear how the size and uniformity of sarcomeres are controlled. Here we show that the formin Diaphanous is critical for the growth and maintenance of sarcomere size: Dia sets sarcomere length and width through regulation of the number and length of the actin thin filaments in the Drosophil...
Source: Developmental Biology - September 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Deng S, Silimon RL, Balakrishnan M, Bothe I, Juros D, Soffar DB, Baylies MK Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research