[Current concepts in diagnostics and therapy of diabetes mellitus].
er A Abstract In Germany approximately 7.2 % of the population currently suffer from diabetes mellitus. A further increase in the prevalence is expected in the coming years. Many therapy options, sometimes even without a risk of hypoglycemia, are now available. The foundations of a sufficient therapy of type 2 diabetes are, however, still lifestyle measures, such as weight reduction, optimized nutrition and increased physical activity. Optimization of cardiac and cerebrovascular risk factors is also an essential component of management of diabetes in order to reduce or even avoid secondary complications. ...
Source: Der Radiologe - April 10, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Adolf C, Freibothe I, Seißler J, Lechner A Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Diagnostic accuracy of dual energy CT angiography in patients with diabetes mellitus].
In this study 30 diabetic patients with suspected or known PAD were retrospectively included in the analysis. All subjects underwent DE-CTA (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) prior to invasive angiography, which served as the reference standard. Blinded analysis included assessment of the presence and degree of peripheral stenosis on curved multiplanar reformatting (MPR) and maximum intensity projections (MIP). Conventional measures of diagnostic accuracy were derived. RESULTS: Among the 30 subjects included in the analysis (83 % male, mean age 70.0 ± 10.5 yea...
Source: Der Radiologe - March 27, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Schabel C, Bongers MN, Ketelsen D, Syha R, Thomas C, Homann G, Notohamiprodjo M, Nikolaou K, Bamberg F Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Techniques for quantification of liver fat in risk stratification of diabetics].
d K Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Fatty liver disease plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Accurate techniques for detection and quantification of liver fat are essential for clinical diagnostics. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a simple approach to quantify liver fat content. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Liver fat quantification using chemical shift-encoded MRI is influenced by several bias factors, such as T2* decay, T1 recovery and the multispectral complexity of fat. PERFORMANCE: The confounder corrected proton ...
Source: Der Radiologe - March 25, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Kühn JP, Spoerl MC, Mahlke C, Hegenscheid K Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Inflammatory spinal disease: Spondyloarthritis : Importance of imaging].
Abstract Conventional radiography of the pelvis and lumbar spine is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Sacroiliitis is classified according to the modified New York grading criteria; however, to improve the early diagnosis of SpA, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed as MRI enables the detection of early inflammation, such as subchondral bone marrow edema of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ), which defines sacroiliitis. Sacroiliitis and HLA-B27 are considered to be equivalent criteria for the diagnosis of SpA. In equivocal findings in the SIJ, an evaluation of the...
Source: Der Radiologe - March 19, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Schueller-Weidekamm C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study : Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods].
n J Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m(2) were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months...
Source: Der Radiologe - March 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bongers MN, Stefan N, Fritsche A, Häring HU, Nikolaou K, Schick F, Machann J Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Does treatment of patients with chronic back pain and proven Modic type 1 alterations using vertebroplasty make sense?]
PMID: 25773114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - March 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Weber MA Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Classification of normal labral variants and labral injuries.]
l M Abstract The glenoid labrum is an important stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. Labral injuries affect the stability of the shoulder joint to varying degrees depending on the localization, the extension and the structures involved. Because of the complex anatomy and the high variability of the glenoid labrum, in-depth knowledge concerning normal variations and labral injury patterns is required as well as high-resolution imaging with intra-articular contrast in order to discriminate anatomical variants from pathological findings. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) and alternatively computed tomography (CT) a...
Source: Der Radiologe - March 7, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Waldt S, Brügel M Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[The shoulder.]
PMID: 25716555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - February 27, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Helmberger T, Kramer J Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Imaging in syndrome complex diabetes mellitus : Current standards and future perspectives.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent multisystemic disorder with numerous potential complications and substantial socioeconomic consequences. In many cases, the patient history, physical examination and laboratory tests are not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of complicating disorders. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Imaging modalities, such as sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are of major significance in the evaluation of complicating disorders of diabetes according to current guidelines. Examples include assessment of c...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 26, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Hetterich H, Schafnitzel A, Bamberg F Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Prognostic value of cardiovascular MRI in diabetics.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Despite an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes mellitus they are a heterogeneous population with very different individual manifestation of diseases; therefore, a profound stratification is recommended. STANDARD METHODS: Clinical examinations and blood biomarkers are typically used in diabetic patients to determine the risk for developing cardio-cerebrovascular events. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Cardiac as well as whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including cardiovascular sequences are established methods for clinical diagnostics. Their signi...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 22, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Schlett CL, Bertheau RC, Kauczor HU, Weckbach S Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Clinical or radiological diagnosis of impingement.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Shoulder impingement syndrome is a clinically common entity involving trapping of tendons or bursa with typical clinical findings. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Important radiological procedures are ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography. Projection radiography and computed tomography (CT) are ideal to identify bony changes and CT arthrography also serves as an alternative method in cases of contraindications for MRI. These modalities support the clinically suspected diagnosis of impingement syndrome and may identify its cause in primary diagnosis...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 22, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Kloth JK, Zeifang F, Weber MA Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Acute stroke: strategic battle for the best treatment option.]
IQ PMID: 25711146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - February 22, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Kühn AL, Grunwald IQ Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Pulmonary manifestations of connective tissue diseases.]
Abstract Systemic autoimmune diseases are responsible for about 25% of all deaths due to interstitial lung disease; therefore, an early identification of patients with pulmonary manifestation changes the management. Detection, differential diagnostic classification and staging of the pneumological pattern of findings are largely based on high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). The main differential diagnostic challenges are interstitial manifestations which present with radiological-histopathological phenotypes of interstitial pneumonia. The most common form of interstitial pulmonary reaction form of connecti...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Rehbock B Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Traumatic bone and cartilage injuries of the shoulder.]
CONCLUSION: The radiological report has to correctly identify injuries and describe their extent but the use of classification schemes is strongly dependent on local procedural practices. PMID: 25680394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - February 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Scheurecker G Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Systematics of glenohumoral and acromioclavicular arthritis.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: A common risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) of the glenohumeral joint is instability and is often observed as a sequel to dislocation. Altered biomechanics will ultimately result in joint degeneration including osteophyte development at the lower margin of the humerus, glenoidal cartilage loss and surface deformity. An OA of the glenohumeral joint is often coexistent with soft tissue derangement of the shoulder. In advanced stages defects of the rotator cuff and OA of the glenohumeral joint may accelerate disease progression. Degenerative changes of the acromioclavicular joint ...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Seifarth A, Roemer F Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Systematics of shoulder instability.]
z A Abstract Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities.For diagnostics plain radiographs ("trauma series") are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposit...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 13, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Kreitner KF, Mähringer-Kunz A Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Cystic lesions of the pancreas.]
e C Abstract Due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen, the incidence of cystic pancreatic lesions as an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients is increasing; however, most of these lesions are less than 2 cm in size at the time of diagnosis making a correct classification difficult. A more differentiated understanding of the pathophysiology of these lesions has been developed during recent years. Technical improvements in imaging techniques have resulted in an increase in image resolution and has enabled radiologists to differentiate betwee...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 4, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Buerke B, Schülke C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Response criteria for malignant melanoma : RECIST and irRC.]
Abstract In the field of oncology the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) currently represent the most commonly used and validated radiological response criteria for objective treatment monitoring of conventional chemotherapy. For therapy monitoring of classical cytostatic and cytotoxic tumor therapies RECIST has been tested and successfully validated in many clinical studies. However, with the introduction of novel molecular drugs limitations of these size-based criteria became obvious due to response patterns which are not reflected by RECIST. Thus, for a comprehensive evaluation of modern immu...
Source: Der Radiologe - February 1, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Spiro J, Maintz D, Persigehl T Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma by CT.]
Abstract Malignant melanomas are a challenge in radiological imaging diagnostics as they may metastasize into every organ and tissue. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are considered the standards in the staging of melanomas. Because of its excellent availability CT, however, remains a widely employed staging modality. Familiarity with the manifold CT morphology of metastasized melanomas as it is described here is essential when interpreting dedicated CT and in addition useful when interpreting PET/CT re...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 30, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Hoffend J Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma.]
Abstract Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the a...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 30, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Stahl T, Loquai C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Dark coloured marks and their shadows.]
PMID: 25628056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - January 29, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Delorme S, Hassel J, Layer G, Hoffend J Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Melanoma : Introduction and special demands on radiology.]
Abstract CLINICAL ISSUE: The incidence of melanoma has rapidly increased in the last decades. Most relevant for patient prognosis is the tumor thickness, hence an early diagnosis is crucial. STANDARD TREATMENT: The basis of treatment is at the primary tumor stage and excision of regional metastases with curative intention. TREATMENT INNOVATIONS: Targeted therapies, such as BRAF and MEK inhibitors have the advantage of a rapid response even in highly advanced stages of the disease. DIAGNOSTIC WORK-UP: For routine diagnostics ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission t...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 23, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Schiller M, Hassel JC Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Systemic treatment of distant metastatic malignant melanoma.]
CONCLUSION: The treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma have considerably improved in recent years. Several highly effective substances have recently become available and the approval of more potent substances is expected this year. PMID: 25609506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - January 23, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Dabrowski E, Dippel E Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet ...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 16, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Breckwoldt M, Bendszus M Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Whole-body staging of malignant melanoma : Advantages, limitations and current importance of PET-CT, whole-body MRI and PET-MRI.]
Abstract Cross-sectional imaging methods are currently the standard methods for staging of advanced melanoma. The former time-consuming and expensive multimodality approach is increasingly being replaced by novel whole-body (WB) staging methods, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) because they offer a complete head-to-toe coverage of the patient in a single examination with an accurate and sensitive detection of tumor spread. Several studies in patients with advanced melanoma revealed that PET-CT is mor...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 16, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Pfannenberg C, Schwenzer N Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[(68)Ga-PSMA as a new tracer for evaluation of prostate cancer : Comparison between PET-CT and PET-MRI in biochemical recurrence.]
PMID: 25583413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - January 14, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Avanesov M, Karul M, Derlin T Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Modern diagnostics of cystic liver lesions and hemangiomas.]
h A Abstract CLINICAL ISSUE: Cystic liver lesions incorporate a broad heterogeneous group of mostly benign but also malignant abnormalities. The radiological aim is the non-invasive diagnosis with the use of different imaging modalities to determine the type of lesion. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: The common generally asymptomatic incidental findings of cystic lesions on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) must be classified on the basis of specific imaging features. Such a differentiation is essential because the clinical consequences and the appropriate therapy can va...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 11, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Pötter-Lang S, Brancatelli G, Bastati-Huber N, Ba-Ssalamah A Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma.]
This article describes the histopathological and radiological features of these lesions and explains the advantages and limitations of various imaging modalities used for the diagnosis and differentiation of these entities. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: The new classification of HCAs according to phenotype and genotype and their imaging features, as well as different enhancement patterns, are described. The correlation between HCA subtypes and their individual management are also discussed. PMID: 25575723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - January 11, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bastati-Huber N, Pötter-Lang S, Ba-Ssalamah A Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Primary liver tumors : Hepatocellular versus intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma.]
Abstract CLINICAL ISSUE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (ICC) are the most commonly occurring and important primary liver tumors. Originating from one pluripotent liver stem cell both tumor entities can occur in a cirrhotic liver and also in patients without cirrhosis. Several risk factors have been identified as causative for both carcinomas; therefore, tumor screening is advantageous, especially for high-risk patients who could be diagnosed in an early stage to allow curative treatment. Surgical resection, interventional procedures and transplantation are available as...
Source: Der Radiologe - January 11, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Wengert GJ, Bickel H, Breitenseher J, Ba-Ssalamah A Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Possibilities for non-invasive diagnostics of focal hepatic lesions by innovative imaging procedures.]
PMID: 25572854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - January 10, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Ba-Ssalamah A, Herold C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) of liver tumors.]
Abstract METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) is a safe and efficacious, minimally invasive procedure to treat primary and secondary unresectable liver tumors. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), SIRT has proven to be a well-tolerated therapy option even in advanced stages of disease. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In cases of portal vein thrombosis SIRT is the alternative to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). PERFORMANCE: The role of SIRT regarding downstaging and bridging to transplantation is promising and SIRT has also been shown to be highly effective and well-tolerate...
Source: Der Radiologe - December 19, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Duan H, Hoffmann M Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[O tempora, o mores - Unlocking a new area in healthcare training.]
IQ PMID: 25519899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - December 19, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Kühn AL, Grunwald IQ Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Osteolytic diaphyseal tibial lesion with increasing constant dull tibial pain.]
PMID: 25511762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - December 17, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Glemser PA, Lehner B, Weber MA Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis.]
g; K Abstract BACKGROUND: In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. PROBLEM: Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findin...
Source: Der Radiologe - December 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Hering KG, Hofmann-Preiß K Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases.]
CONCLUSION: On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. PMID: 25476404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - December 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Mueller-Mang C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases : Often forgotten.]
Abstract Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are probably more common than diagnosed. Due to their potential reversibility, increased vigilance towards DILD is appropriate also from the radiologist's point of view, particularly as these diseases regularly exhibit radiological correlates in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs.Based on personal experience typical relatively common manifestations of DILD are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), organizing pneumonia (OP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual inters...
Source: Der Radiologe - December 3, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Poschenrieder F, Stroszczynski C, Hamer OW Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Current classification of interstitial pulmonary diseases.]
Abstract BACKGROUND: The consensus classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP, also known as pulmonary fibrosis) in 2002 has undergone a significant revision in 2013. OBJECTIVES: What are the key points of the new consensus statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) from 2013 for the classification of pulmonary fibrosis? MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of the available literature on the subject of pulmonary fibrosis in Pubmed. RESULTS: The interdisciplinary approach (i.e. pulmonology, radiology and pathology) for the diagnosis of lung fibrosis ...
Source: Der Radiologe - November 30, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Vogel-Claussen J, Prasse A Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Therapeutic relevance of HRCT findings from a pneumological viewpoint.]
Abstract The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) technique is an essential component in diagnosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) as it provides important and specialized information and a much greater accuracy than chest X-rays. It contributes to a narrowing down of the differential diagnoses and is also important for planning further invasive investigations, e.g. bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial lung biopsy and surgical lung biopsy, if needed. An accurate diagnosis of ILD is based on a multidisciplinary discussion involving pulmonologists, radiologists and pathologists experienced in ...
Source: Der Radiologe - November 30, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Suchy R, Pfeifer M Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[HRCT technique with low-dose protocols for interstitial lung diseases.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: For optimal visualization of the lung parenchyma a dedicated computed tomography (CT) examination protocol has to be selected. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: High resolution CT (HRCT) is the best technique for non-invasive evaluation of the lung parenchyma. ACHIEVEMENTS: Given the possibility to examine the complete lungs within one breath hold, assessment of disease severity and distribution is easily possible. Various parameters have to be considered to generate optimal image quality and best possible clinical results. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: This review arti...
Source: Der Radiologe - November 28, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Ley-Zaporozhan J, Ley S Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Oncological diseases and postoperative alterations of the bladder and urinary tract.]
r S Abstract In the challenging evaluation of upper urinary tract malignanciesmultidetector computed tomography (CT) has become the standard imaging method. Cross sectional imaging not only allows the detection and visualization of the tumor itself but also provides nodal and metastasis staging in one examination (one-stop-shop). The majority of urothelial carcinomas are located in the urinary bladder. In this case, CT and more recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also deliver decisive information regarding TNM classification. A combination of clinical, histological, morphological and functional parameter...
Source: Der Radiologe - November 27, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Ong MM, Riffel P, Budjan J, Bolenz C, Schönberg SO, Haneder S Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Infectious diseases and injuries of bladder and urinary tract.]
r S Abstract Urinary tract infections are the most common infectious diseases in Germany. In most cases clarification does not rely on imaging techniques other than sonography and is made mostly based on clinical symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in selected cases to find the cause and detection or exclusion of complications, e.g. recurrent or atypical and complicated courses. The method of choice for clarification of urolithiasis is CT. Using low-dose techniques, detection or exclusion of urinary stones can be achieved with a high sensitivity and specificity as we...
Source: Der Radiologe - November 5, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Budjan J, Riffel P, Ong MM, Bolenz C, Schönberg SO, Haneder S Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[On the 20th European Congress of Radiology in Vienna.]
PMID: 25358265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - November 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Herold C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Intraosseous hibernoma : A possibly not so rare cause of sclerotic bone lesions.]
PMID: 25297000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - October 10, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Weber MA Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Endocrine tumors : Clinical overview.]
Abstract The term endocrine tumor incorporates all neoplasms which originate from the various endocrine organs. Endocrine tumors can be characterized by different criteria: localization, endocrine function, dignity (i.e. tumorigenesis, sporadic or hereditary). These characteristics also determine the clinical outcome. The clinical history, symptoms and physical examination findings (e.g. amenorrhea, skin alterations, striae, virilization, increased blood pressure and flush) direct the diagnostic process of functioning endocrine tumors. Laboratory findings (endocrine parameters) are needed to establish a diagnosis ...
Source: Der Radiologe - October 2, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Leidig-Bruckner G Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Adrenal tumors : Principles of imaging and differential diagnostics.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Adrenal masses are very common and are usually detected incidentally. Less frequently, imaging is performed for the localization of the underlying lesion in the case of endocrine disease. The differentiation between adenomas and non-adenomas is fundamental. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Adenomas show a low density on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and a rapid washout of contrast agents. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) adenomas are characterized by a low signal in opposed phase imaging as compared to in phase imaging. PERFORMANCE: According to the literature a densit...
Source: Der Radiologe - October 2, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Degenhart C Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer.]
This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced s...
Source: Der Radiologe - October 2, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Kratochwil C, Giesel FL Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Endocrine tumors and their therapy.]
PMID: 25260560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - September 28, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Delorme S, Leidig-Bruckner G, Wilhelm T Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors.]
Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Only 2 % of gastrointestinal tumors belong to the group of neuroendocrine neoplasms. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: A wide spectrum of diagnostic imaging modalities is available: apart from ultrasound not only computed tomography (CT) but also magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) play an important role in detection and staging of GEP-NETs. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: The PET-CT technique with somatostatin analogues is used for...
Source: Der Radiologe - September 20, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Schmid-Tannwald C, Schmid-Tannwald CM, Reiser MF, Berger F Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Newly developed dyspnea in a young adult female patient with known bilateral renal angiomyolipoma.]
k T PMID: 25230714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Radiologe)
Source: Der Radiologe - September 19, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Jöres AP, Klink T Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

[Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN).]
Abstract CLINICAL ISSUE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 and 2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. They are characterized by the occurrence of many benign and malignant tumor types. STANDARD TREATMENT: Carriers of a MEN1 or RET gene mutation can be identified before manifestation of the disease. Family screening allows the early diagnosis and therapy of gene carriers. TREATMENT INNOVATIONS: Early thyroidectomy in young patients with MEN2 results in a high cure rate of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as vadetanib and cabozantinib, represents...
Source: Der Radiologe - September 17, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Raue F, Wilhelm T Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research