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Mapping the mechanical gradient of human dentin-enamel-junction at different intratooth locations
As one of the most durable biocomposites found in nature, teeth have become a type of representative biomechanical complex that have been studied extensively in the past decades [1 –3]. The remarkable damage resistance and structural integrity of the tooth crown have been primarily ascribed to its unique bilayer structure composed of the hard, wear-resistant, and highly-mineralized cover-layer enamel and the softer, tough, and less-mineralized core-layer dentin [4,5]. These two layers exhibiting dissimilar mechanical properties for dissimilar functionalities are delicately united by the so-called dentin-enamel-juncti...
Source: Dental Materials - November 11, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Zhengzhi Wang, Kun Wang, Wanyin Xu, Xiaoyu Gong, Feiyu Zhang Source Type: research

Physical and chemical properties of model composites containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates
Investigate physical and chemical properties of model composites formulated with quaternary ammonium salt monomers (QAS) at different concentrations and alkyl chains lengths (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - November 10, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Marina Lermenn Vidal, Guilherme Ferreira Rego, Gil Mendes Viana, Lucio Mendes Cabral, Juliana Primo Bas ílio Souza, Nick Silikas, Luis Felipe Schneider, Larissa Maria Cavalcante Source Type: research

CAD-FE modeling and analysis of class II restorations incorporating resin-composite, glass ionomer and glass ceramic materials
To investigate the influence of specific resin-composite, glass ceramic and glass ionomer cement (GIC) material combinations in a “multi-layer” technique to replace enamel and dentin in class II mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) dental restorations using 3D-Finite Element Analysis (FEA). (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - November 8, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Pietro Ausiello, Stefano Ciaramella, Massimo Martorelli, Antonio Lanzotti, Antonio Gloria, David C. Watts Source Type: research

Mechanical behavior of endodontically restored canine teeth: Effects of ferrule, post material and shape
To assess the effect of a ferrule design with specific post material-shape combinations on the mechanical behavior of post-restored canine teeth. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - November 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Pietro Ausiello, Stefano Ciaramella, Massimo Martorelli, Antonio Lanzotti, Fernando Zarone, David C. Watts, Antonio Gloria Source Type: research

Osseointegration of zirconia dental implants in animal investigations: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ceramic dental implants have been commercially available since almost 40 years [1]. Initially made from mono- or polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al2O3), this bulk material was retired from the market for apparent mechanical weakness resulting in a poor clinical outcome [2]. Nowadays, ceramic dental implants are mainly produced from yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), offering improved fracture toughness and flexural strength [3]. Several clinical investigations addressing the outcome of implants made from Y-TZP have been published in recent years. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - November 6, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Stefano Pieralli, Ralf-Joachim Kohal, Emilia Lopez Hernandez, Sam Doerken, Benedikt Christopher Spies Source Type: research

High performance dental resin composites with hydrolytically stable monomers
In modern dentistry, amalgam dental restorations are being phased-out due to safety concerns [1,2]. Meanwhile, resin composite restorations continue gaining popularity for their aesthetic advantages and clinical practicality [3,4]. However, the average service life of the contemporary polymeric restorations is less than eight years. These restorations are typically inundated by frequent fracturing and development of secondary caries [5]. This relatively short service life together with the concerns regarding leachability of the unreacted monomers and degradation products (such as the infamous bisphenol A (BPA) [6,7]) from ...
Source: Dental Materials - November 4, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Xiaohong Wang, George Huyang, Sri Vikram Palagummi, Xiaohui Liu, Drago Skrtic, Carlos Beauchamp, Rafael Bowen, Jirun Sun Source Type: research

3D printed versus conventionally cured provisional crown and bridge dental materials
Rapid and automated prototyping of dental materials and restorations in three dimensions (3D) has had a significant impact in the field of restorative dentistry in recent years [1]. The enormous progress of digital dentistry in the recent decade is undeniable, especially since the advent of CAD/CAM imaging and milling systems, which have literaly created a new modality of clinical dentistry [2]. The most recent wave of technological development in digital dentistry revolves around the field of 3D printing [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 27, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Anthony Tahayeri, MaryCatherine Morgan, Ana P. Fugolin, Despoina Bompolaki, Avathamsa Athirasala, Carmem S. Pfeifer, Jack L. Ferracane, Luiz E. Bertassoni Source Type: research

Effect of ionizing radiation on properties of restorative materials
To evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on properties of restorative materials. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 25, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Suzane Boa Nova Brandeburski, Alvaro Della Bona Source Type: research

Flowable composites for restoration of non-carious cervical lesions: Results after five years
Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs), which are defined as a loss of dental hard tissue at the cemento-enamel junction, are commonly encountered clinical conditions in dental practice [1]. Prevalence rates have been estimated to be between 2 and 90% and are likely to raise in an ageing population where teeth are increasingly retained for a lifetime [2]. In cases when tooth hypersensitivity occurs, pulp vitality is affected or when plaque retention is promoted, direct restorative treatment of NCCLs may become necessary [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 25, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Fabian Cieplik, Konstantin J. Scholz, Isabelle Tabenski, Sabine May, Karl-Anton Hiller, Gottfried Schmalz, Wolfgang Buchalla, Marianne Federlin Source Type: research

Effect of luting agent on the load to failure and accelerated-fatigue resistance of lithium disilicate laminate veneers
Laminate veneers (LV) are indicated as minimal invasive treatment options as an alternative to full coverage crowns. Since retention of the LV restorations does not rely on mechanical retention principles, durable adhesive luting of such restorations is crucial for long-term clinical success [1,2]. In clinical studies, survival rates of ceramic LVs range between 82 and 96% in 10 –21 years [3–8]. Fractures of ceramic (5.6–11%) and marginal defects (12–20%) are the main reasons for failure [3,4,8–12]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 24, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Marco M.M. Gresnigt, Mutlu Özcan, Marco Carvalho, Priscilla Lazari, Marco S. Cune, Peywand Razavi, Pascal Magne Source Type: research

Incorporation of antibacterial agent derived deep eutectic solvent into an active dental composite
Dental resin composites are the most commonly used materials for dental restorations due to their aesthetic properties, mechanical strength, safety, and reasonable cost [1]. However, in comparison with amalgam restorations, the most significant disadvantage of using a resin composite is a higher risk of secondary caries [2]. If secondary caries occur, the resin composite requires removal and replacement, which results in additional tissue loss. Bacteria around the resin composite are considered the primary cause for the occurrence of secondary caries [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 23, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jing Wang, Xiaoqing Dong, Qingsong Yu, Sheila N. Baker, Hao Li, Nathaniel E. Larm, Gary A. Baker, Liang Chen, Jingwen Tan, Meng Chen Source Type: research

Effect of the ultraviolet light treatment and storage methods on the biological activity of a titanium implant surface
Titanium is mainly used as a material for prosthetic dental implants. It is used for the restoration of missing teeth, as an orthodontic miniscrew or miniplate to provide absolute anchorage for tooth movement in the dental area. Titanium dioxide exhibits favorable biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, and can achieve osseointegration by directly interacting with bones without forming fibrous tissues around the implant [1]. To improve the quality of osseointegration and primary stability for immediate or early loading toward reducing patient discomfort, much effort has been devoted to modifying the surface physicochemi...
Source: Dental Materials - October 21, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Sung-Hwan Choi, Won-Seok Jeong, Jung-Yul Cha, Jae-Hoon Lee, Kee-Joon Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu, Eun-Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Chung-Ju Hwang Source Type: research

Corrosion behavior of titanium in response to sulfides produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis
Dental implants have become a common option to restore the function of lost teeth as modifications and technological advances in its development have contributed significantly to its survival rates [1]. The clinical success of dental implants is dependent on biomechanical factors that determine the integrity of the bone/implant [2 –4]. Since the discovery of osseointegration by Brånemark, titanum and titanium alloys have been used as implant materials, for they possess exceptional mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, superior fatigue strength, tensile strength, and fracture resistance [5...
Source: Dental Materials - October 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Rino Harada, Eitoyo Kokubu, Hideaki Kinoshita, Masao Yoshinari, Kazuyuki Ishihara, Eiji Kawada, Shinji Takemoto Source Type: research

Cuspal flexure of composite-restored typodont teeth and correlation with polymerization shrinkage values
The relationship between post-gel shrinkage, total shrinkage, and cuspal flexure was examined. Cuspal flexure was measured on restored typodont teeth, which offered a standardized tooth shape for comparison of shrinkage stress effects among restorative composites. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Taylor Enochs, Anne E. Hill, Cassandra E. Worley, Crisnicaw Ver íssimo, Daranee Tantbirojn, Antheunis Versluis Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 19, 2017 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Collagenous matrix supported by a 3D-printed scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells
Spontaneous regeneration capacity of bone tissue is only limited to small defects. Large bone defects as consequence of trauma, osteoporotic fracture, tumors, and congenital deformity require surgical intervention [1]. Allografts and autografts are the main clinical strategies to fill bone cavities. However, autografts are restricted by site morbidity and approachability of the transplantable bone. Also, allografts increase the risk of immune-rejection reactions and infectious diseases transmission [2]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 17, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Farahnaz Fahimipour, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Morteza Rasoulianboroujeni, Mostafa Yazdimamaghani, Kimia Khoshroo, Mohammadreza Tahriri, Amir Yadegari, Jose A. Gonzalez, Daryoosh Vashaee, Douglas C. Lobner, Tahereh S. Jafarzadeh Kashi, Lobat Tayebi Source Type: research

Zirconia surface modification by a novel zirconia bonding system and its adhesion mechanism
Bonding to zirconia has been of great interest over the last 10 –15 years. The aim of this study was to develop a zirconia bonding system and clarify its adhesion mechanism. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 16, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Takahiro Murakami, Shinji Takemoto, Norihiro Nishiyama, Masahiro Aida Source Type: research

Bioactivity and fluoride release of strontium and fluoride modified Biodentine
Biomaterials science aims to develop materials that are ideal mechanically, physically and biologically. Previously, most research effort was directed at the physico-mechanical properties of materials with less attention to biological properties. However, recently that focus seems to be shifting towards developing the bioactive aspect of biomaterials due to interest in minimally invasive procedures [1]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 14, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Hazel O. Simila, Natalia Karpukhina, Robert G. Hill Source Type: research

Cytotoxicity and DNA double-strand breaks in human gingival fibroblasts exposed to eluates of dental composites
Previously, single composite components were used to study cytotoxicity and induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) of dental composite resins. In the present study, cytotoxicity and induction of DNA-DSBs in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were investigated with dental composite eluates consisting of multiple components. The eluates were qualified and quantified. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 14, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Yang Yang, Franz-Xaver Reichl, Jianwei Shi, Xiuli He, Reinhard Hickel, Christof H ögg Source Type: research

Zirconia-incorporated zinc oxide eugenol has improved mechanical properties and cytocompatibility with human dental pulp stem cells
Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement has been used in clinical dentistry for over 100 years as a base material in temporary restoration and cementation due to its low cost, ease of handling, and reasonable sealing, insulating and antibacterial properties [1,2]. In addition, ZOE-incorporated endodontic sealers and temporary ZOE packing have been used in clinical settings to heal dry sockets [3,4]. ZOE is set by mixing zinc oxide (ZnO) powder with liquid eugenol in an acid –base reaction that results in the formation of a zinc eugenolate chelate matrix in which unreacted ZnO acts as a reinforcement [5]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Soo Kyung Jun, Hae-Won Kim, Hae-Hyoung Lee, Jung-Hwan Lee Source Type: research

Chemical affinity of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate to dental zirconia: Effects of molecular structure and solvents
Phosphate ester monomers are frequently used clinically for coupling of Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) to methacrylate-based resin composites. This chemical coupling procedure is simple, noninvasive to ceramic substrates, and results in excellent bonding outcomes [1 –5]. Because phosphate ester monomers contain methacryloyloxy functional groups, they also support the adhesion of methacrylate-based resins to tooth structures [6–8]. Hence, there has been growing interest in developing new phosphate ester monomers for chairside applications in restorative dent istry. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ying Chen, Zhicen Lu, Mengke Qian, Huaiqin Zhang, Chen Chen, Haifeng Xie, Franklin R. Tay Source Type: research

Fluoride containing bioactive glass composite for orthodontic adhesives – ion release properties
Bioactive glass (BAG) is a material that degrades and dissolves upon contact with a physiological fluid to allow controlled release of therapeutic ions and the formation of an apatite like surface layer [1,2]. It was first developed by Hench in 1969 [3] and was called Bioglass ®(BAG 45S5), which has been in clinical use since 1985. The BAG 45S5 is composed of 46.1 SiO2, 2.6 P2O5, 24.4 Na2O and 26.9 CaO (mol%). The composition of BAGs strongly influences their dissolution kinetics and their ability to form apatite (bioactivity), whereby the concentration of the glass form ers (silica and phosphate) and the degree of pol...
Source: Dental Materials - October 10, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: N.A. Al-eesa, F.S.L. Wong, A. Johal, R.G. Hill Source Type: research

Impact of the heating/quenching process on the mechanical, optical and thermodynamic properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) films
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a heating/quenching process on the optical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of filled (20%_4000) and unfilled PEEK films (0%_2000 and 0%_4000). Heating/quenching was performed to simulate thermoforming as possible method to process thermoplastic polymers for dental application. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 10, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lisa Bodden, Nina L ümkemann, Valerie Köhler, Marlis Eichberger, Bogna Stawarczyk Source Type: research

Surface characteristics of dental implants: A review
Dental implants are used as artificial tooth roots since more than five decades to fix and support prosthetic suprastructures from single crowns to fixed and removable prostheses. The indication ranges from single tooth gaps up to edentulism. Remarkably, since the pioneering work of Br ånemark, Zarb, Albrektsson, Schulte, Schroeder and others in the field of osseointegration [1–7], the material of choice is still titanium or titanium alloy, even though very recently alternative materials have gained increasing interest, first of all zirconia. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 10, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: F. Rupp, L. Liang, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, L. Scheideler, F. H üttig Source Type: research

The effect of internal roughness and bonding on the fracture resistance and structural reliability of lithium disilicate ceramic
Lithium disilicate is a synthetic glass ceramic that is being used in dentistry for many years to restore decayed or worn down teeth. It is a popular restoration material as it results in good esthetic and mechanical properties [1,2]. Additionally it present two major advantages: (1) allow the manufacturing of monolithic restorations, that do not require a veneering layer which is known to be susceptible to chipping [3,4], and (2) that a good adhesion to dental tissues can be established [5,6]. In comparison to earlier glass ceramics like feltspathic and leucite reinforced it has a higher flexural strength [7,8], and compa...
Source: Dental Materials - October 9, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Paul de Kok, Gabriel K.R. Pereira, Sara Fraga, Niek de Jager, Andressa B. Venturini, Cornelis J. Kleverlaan Source Type: research

Differential cytotoxic effects on odontoblastic cells induced by self-adhesive resin cements as a function of the activation protocol
Self-adhesive resin cements were launched considering the possibility to overcome the drawbacks of other types of materials used to cement indirect restorations, allowing for a less critical cementation procedure [1]. In addition to methacrylate monomers and low molecular weight resins found in the composition of resin-based restoratives, self-etching functionalized monomers were also added to the composition to significantly reduce the pH and to demineralize the tooth structure, promoting micromechanical adhesion [2]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Paulo Henrique Perlatti D'Alpino, Gioconda Emanuella Diniz de Dantas Moura, Silvana Coelho de Arruda Barbosa, Lygia de Azevedo Marques, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, F ábio Dupart Nascimento, Ivarne Luis dos Santos Tersariol Source Type: research

Mixed-mode fracture toughness of texturized LS2 glass-ceramics using the three-point bending with eccentric notch test
Here we use the 3-point bending with eccentric notch test (3-PBEN) to investigate the fracture behavior of a pressable and a CAD/CAM lithium disilicate (LS2) glass-ceramics under combined mode-I and mode-II loading. The effect of the bulk texturization in the beams of the pressable LS2 is made visible through the fracture trajectory following the most energetically favorable path dictated by the crystallite alignment. The CAD/CAM LS2 shows an isotropic fracture mode but increasing fracture energy with mode-II contribution, similar to the pressable variant. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Renan Belli, Michael Wendler, Anselm Petschelt, Ulrich Lohbauer Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

ADM guidance-ceramics: Fatigue principles and testing
Clinical failure of dental ceramics is usually reported as partial fracture of the restoration (chipping) or as catastrophic fracture of the whole structure. In contrast to metals, ceramics are linear-elastic, brittle materials exhibiting extremely low damage tolerance to failure. Well documented clinical and lab reports have shown this fracture event often occurs at loads far below their fracture strength due to intrinsic fatigue degradation via slow crack growth or cyclic fatigue mechanisms. The presence and development of surface flaws have a dominant role in damage accumulation and lifetime reduction of ceramic structu...
Source: Dental Materials - October 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: J.R. Kelly, P.F. Cesar, S.S. Scherrer, A. Della Bona, R. van Noort, M. Tholey, A. Vichi, U. Lohbauer Tags: Review Source Type: research

Occlusal loading during biting from an experimental and simulation point of view
Occlusal loading during clenching and biting is achieved by the action of the masticatory system, and forms the basis for the evaluation of the functional performance of prosthodontic and maxillofacial components. This review provides an overview of (i) current bite force measurement techniques and their limitations and (ii) the use of computational modelling to predict bite force. A brief simulation study highlighting the challenges of current computational dental models is also presented. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Oliver R öhrle, Harnoor Saini, David C. Ackland Source Type: research

Clinical studies in restorative dentistry: Design, conduct, analysis
When discussing evidence-based medicine or dentistry (EBM/EBD), one aspect which is frequently mentioned is the “pyramid of evidence” (Fig. 1), with randomized controlled (efficacy) trials and their syntheses (in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses) being the “strongest” type of evidence. That is, as in a randomized controlled trial, confounding bias is theoretically eliminated [1]. Confo unding bias is introduced by patients selected to receive one comparator being systematically different from those selected to receive another comparator [2]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - October 6, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Falk Schwendicke, Niek Opdam Tags: Review Source Type: research

Silane adhesion mechanism in dental applications and surface treatments: A review
To give a current review of silane adhesion chemistry, applications of silane coupling agents and related surface pretreatment methods in contemporary dentistry. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 29, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jukka Pekka Matinlinna, Christie Ying Kei Lung, James Kit Hon Tsoi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effectiveness of the DHMAI monomer in the development of an antibacterial dental composite
In dentistry, dental restorative composites are being used more often due to their aesthetics, practical handling and also their ability to adhere to the tooth structure. In the oral cavity, these materials are exposed to a complex environment of bacterial flora, saliva, gingival fluid, and food which lead to their degradation and limit their longevity. It is estimated that only about 60% of composite resin restorations are expected to survive more than 10 years [1]. While, regardless of clinical skills, 70% of dental restorations are being replaced because of restoration failure due to secondary caries in teeth restoratio...
Source: Dental Materials - September 27, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Fatima Zohra Cherchali, Mohamed Mouzali, Jean Bernard Tommasino, Dominique Decoret, Nina Attik, Hazem Aboulleil, Dominique Seux, Brigitte Grosgogeat Source Type: research

Can CAD/CAM resin blocks be considered as substitute for conventional resins?
The research and development of materials appropriate for CAD/CAM applications are one of the most active fields in dental materials [1]. The saltation evolution of CAD/CAM technology has led to a revolution in the forms of materials now used for many dental applications [2,3]. There are in two categories of materials available to the dentist (chairside): glass-ceramics/ceramic blocks and resin-composite blocks (RCBs) [1]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 23, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Badra Hussain, Minh Khai Le Thieu, Gaute Floer Johnsen, Janne Elin Reseland, H åvard J. Haugen Source Type: research

Nanoparticles in dentistry
Nanoparticles having a size from 1 to 100nm are present in nature and are successfully used in many products of daily life. Nanoparticles are also embedded per se or as byproducts from milling processes of larger filler particles in many dental materials. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 23, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Gottfried Schmalz, Reinhard Hickel, Kirsten L. van Landuyt, Franz-Xaver Reichl Source Type: research

Fatigue resistance of dentin bonds prepared with two- vs. three-step adhesives: Effect of carbodiimide
The application of a cross-linker to demineralized dentin is reportedly effective at extending the durability of dentin bonds. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 21, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Zihou Zhang, Dylan Beitzel, Hessam Majd, Mustafa Mutluay, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay, Franklin R. Tay, David H. Pashley, Dwayne Arola Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

The properties of experimental resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RMGICs) containing novel monomers
Luting cements play an important role in determining the long-term clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations [1]. However, selecting an appropriate material for a particular clinical situation may be challenging due to the wide range available, resulting from recent improvements [2]. Ideally they should have adequate biological, physicomechanical and handling properties [3], and can also be classified according to their bonding durability to, (i) low, e.g. zinc phosphate cements, (ii) medium, e.g. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Amani Agha, Sandra Parker, Mangala P. Patel Source Type: research

A comparative study on the wear behavior of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material and tooth enamel
Tooth wear refers to the loss of hard tissue caused by means other than dental caries or dental trauma [1]. It is a normal physiological process occurring throughout life. Accelerated tooth wear can cause problems, such as dentine hypersensitivity, pulp exposure and even periapical diseases [2]. Lambrechts et al. reported that the wear depth of natural tooth enamel is 15 –40μm a year in normal circumstances, and that this physiological wear is of great importance for the maintenance of the stomatognathic system’s health [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Zhou Xu, Ping Yu, Dwayne D. Arola, Jie Min, Shanshan Gao Source Type: research

Clinical studies in restorative dentistry: New directions and new demands
Clinical research of restorative materials is confounded by problems of study designs, length of trials, type of information collected, and costs for trials, despite increasing numbers and considerable development of trials during the past 50 years. This opinion paper aims to discuss advantages and disadvantages of different study designs and outcomes for evaluating survival of dental restorations and to make recommendations for future study designs. Advantages and disadvantages of randomized trials, prospective and retrospective longitudinal studies, practice-based, pragmatic and cohort studies are addressed and discussed...
Source: Dental Materials - September 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: N.J.M. Opdam, K. Collares, R. Hickel, S.C. Bayne, B.A. Loomans, M.S. Cenci, C.D. Lynch, M.B. Correa, F. Demarco, F. Schwendicke, N.H.F. Wilson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Dimensional changes from the sintering process and fit of Y-TZP copings: Micro-CT analysis
Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) is the most used polycrystalline ceramic for the purposes of prosthetic dentistry [1]. Y-TZP frameworks are made using CAD/CAM technology from the milling of pre-manufactured blocks. Commercially, these blocks are available in two different sintering stages: the pre-sintered and fully sintered stages [2]. In comparison with fully sintered blocks, pre-sintered blocks present the advantage of an easier and faster milling procedure and less wear of the machining tools [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 19, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Carlos Eduardo Edwards Rezende, Ana Fl ávia Sanches Borges, Rander Moreira Macedo, José Henrique Rubo, Jason Alan Griggs Source Type: research

Academy of Dental Materials guidance —Resin composites: Part II—Technique sensitivity (handling, polymerization, dimensional changes)
The objective of this work, commissioned by the Academy of Dental Materials, was to review and critically appraise test methods to characterize properties related to critical issues for dental resin composites, including technique sensitivity and handling, polymerization, and dimensional stability, in order to provide specific guidance to investigators planning studies of these properties. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: J.L. Ferracane, T.J. Hilton, J.W. Stansbury, D.C. Watts, N. Silikas, N. Ilie, S. Heintze, M. Cadenaro, R. Hickel Source Type: research

A consensus-based approach to evidence-based clinical practice
Clinical dentistry is a difficult topic because little is either black or white; instead there are many, many grey areas. Practitioners and dental students know that if you present a case to 6 different dentists you will probably generate six different treatment plans, five of which will be similar and one will likely be radically different. Therefore, it is understandable to search for guidelines that are based on sound science. The modern way is to look for reproducible Scientific Evidence (Evidence Based Dentistry). (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 12, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jean-Fran çois Roulet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Calibration of a lactic-acid model for simulating biofilm-induced degradation of the dentin-composite interface
To verify and calibrate a chemical model for simulating the degradation of the dentin-composite interface induced by multi-species oral biofilms in vitro. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Laikuan Zhu, Yuping Li, Carola A. Carrera, Yung-Chung Chen, Mingyu Li, Alex Fok Source Type: research

3D printed TCP-based scaffold incorporating VEGF-loaded PLGA microspheres for craniofacial tissue engineering
Vascularization is a critical process during bone regeneration/repair and the lack of tissue vascularization is recognized as a major challenge in applying bone tissue engineering methods for cranial and maxillofacial surgeries. The aim of our study is to fabricate a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded gelatin/alginate/ β-TCP composite scaffold by 3D printing method using a computer-assisted design (CAD) model. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - September 4, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: F. Fahimipour, M. Rasoulianboroujeni, E. Dashtimoghadam, K. Khoshroo, M. Tahriri, F. Bastami, D. Lobner, L. Tayebi Source Type: research

Analysis of temperature increase in swine gingiva after exposure to a Polywave ® LED light curing unit
Light emitting diode (LED) light curing units (LCU) have become one of the most important tools in the clinicians' routine. Although earlier LED LCU generations were considered “cool” lights because they generated less heat than did quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) lamps [1–5], later, more powerful LCU versions were capable of generating as much heat as QTH sources [4,6–8]. Most recently, a new generation of LED lamp has been introduced. Different from the previous ge nerations, these polywave® or “dual-peak” (multi-wave, multi-peak) LCUs emit light a broader wavelength range [9] to act...
Source: Dental Materials - August 18, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Cristiane Maucoski, Driellen Christine Zarpellon, Fabio Andre dos Santos, Leandro Cavalcante Lipinski, Eduardo Bauml Campagnoli, Frederick Allen Rueggeberg, Cesar Augusto Galv ão Arrais Source Type: research

Favorable residual stress induction by resin-cementation on dental porcelain
In this study we explore whether shrinkage stresses generated on photo-polymerisation of the resin-cement are sufficient to induce ceramic surface defect stabilization, and we quantify the transient nature of the induced stresses. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - August 16, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Garry J.P. Fleming, Xu Cao, Dan L. Romanyk, Owen Addison Source Type: research

Antibiofilm properties of model composites containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates after surface texture modification
Investigate antimicrobial properties and surface texture of model composites with different concentration and alkyl chain length of quaternary ammonium monomers (QAS). (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - August 16, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Guilherme Ferreira Rego, Marina Lermen Vidal, Gil Mendes Viana, Lucio Mendes Cabral, Luis Felipe Jochims Schneider, Maristela Barbosa Portela, Larissa Maria Cavalcante Source Type: research

Impact of machining on the flexural fatigue strength of glass and polycrystalline CAD/CAM ceramics
Recent improvements in the mechanical properties of dental ceramic systems and the implementation of computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in restorative dentistry have widely contributed to the increase in the use of all-ceramic restorations as an alternative for satisfying the high esthetic demand of patients [1]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - August 14, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Sara Fraga, Marina Amaral, Marco Ant ônio Bottino, Luiz Felipe Valandro, Cornelis Johannes Kleverlaan, Liliana Gressler May Source Type: research

Impact of thio-urethane additive and filler type on light-transmission and depth of polymerization of dental composites
The vast majority of posterior restorations is performed using direct resin composites, with an annual failure rate of around 2%, resulting in cumulative survival values of as high as 60% after 20 years follow-up [1]. The expansion in use of composites to restore posterior teeth is mainly due to a significant improvement in wear behavior and general mechanical properties, which allowed this material to be applied in high load bearing zones [2]. However, there are still many drawbacks that prevent composite restorations from surviving longer than an average of 10 years [4], failing mainly due to secondary caries and fractur...
Source: Dental Materials - August 11, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Andr é Luis Faria-e-Silva, Carmem Silvia Pfeifer Source Type: research

Impact of head and neck radiotherapy on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems: A systematic review
Head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT) produces a series of toxicities on non-targeted healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, leading to hyposalivation, mucositis, trismus, osteoradionecrosis and radiation-related caries [1 –3]. The latter is marked by a rapid onset and a high potential for generalized dental destruction, affecting approximately 25% of the patients who concluded this treatment, which compromises the overall oral function and the quality of life of cancer survivors [4]. As a consequence, there’s a s trong recommendation for head and neck cancer patients to have their oral health monitored before, dur...
Source: Dental Materials - August 8, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Cristhian Camilo Madrid Troconis, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Tha ís Bianca Brandão, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Mario Fernando de Goes Source Type: research