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Effect of calcium phosphate nanocomposite on in vitro remineralization of human dentin lesions
The objective of this study was to investigate the remineralization of human dentin lesions in vitro via restorations using nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) or NACP and tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) for the first time. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 19, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Michael D. Weir, Jianping Ruan, Ning Zhang, Laurence C. Chow, Ke Zhang, Xiaofeng Chang, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H.K. Xu Source Type: research

Antibacterial properties of nano-silver coated PEEK prepared through magnetron sputtering
We aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of nano-silver-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK) produced through magnetron sputtering and provide a theoretical basis for its use in clinical applications. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 19, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Xiuju Liu, Kang Gan, Hong Liu, Xiaoqing Song, Tianjie Chen, Chenchen Liu Source Type: research

Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass
Over the past decade, functionalization of dental adhesives to combat degradation of the dentin hybrid layer was intensively studied. The degradation of the hybrid layer is attributed to the hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation of hydrophilic resin components and exposed collagen fibrils lacking the protection of polymerized resin [1]. Strategies to prevent the degradation of the hybrid layer and, thus, to increase the longevity of composite restorations, include the inhibition of endogenous proteases and the stimulation of dentin mineralization [1]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 15, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Marta Rizk, Lisa Hohlfeld, Loan Tao Thanh, Ralf Biehl, Nicole L ühmann, Dirk Mohn, Annette Wiegand Source Type: research

Aspects of adhesion tests on resin –glass ceramic bonding
This study aimed to compare and contrast two resin –ceramic bond strength tests, the tensile bond strength and the four-point bending tests. The effects of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching time and storage condition on bond strength were also studied. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Andrew Chi Ho Wong, Tian Tian, James Kit Hon Tsoi, Michael Francis Burrow, Jukka Pekka Matinlinna Source Type: research

Biocompatibility and bond degradation of poly-acrylic acid coated copper iodide-adhesives
Despite significant progress to improve the survival of composite restorations, their long-term durability remains a concern. Bacterial proliferation due to marginal breakdown, and hydrolysis of both resin-based polymers by salivary esterases and demineralized collagen by endogenous proteases have been extensively investigated in the last few decades [1]. Agents with anti-bacterial and anti-proteolytic properties such as benzalkonium chloride [2], glutaraldehyde [3], chlorhexidine digluconate [4], and methacryloyloxydodecyl pyridinium bromide (MDPB) [5] have been proposed. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Adi ALGhanem, Gabriela Fernandes, Michelle Visser, Rosemary Dziak, Walter G. Renn é, Camila Sabatini Source Type: research

Effects of low-dose Bisphenol A on calcium ion influx and on genes of proliferation and differentiation in immortalized human gingival cells in vitro: The role of estrogen receptor beta
The objective of this study was to investigate an assumed mechanistic interrelationship between both low-dose BPA-modulated Calcium ion (Ca2+) influx and cell behavior, and the estrogen receptor β (ERβ), in oral mucosal cells. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 9, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Matthias Ehrenmann, Pascal Tomakidi, Elmar Hellwig, Simon Daniel Schulz, Olga Polydorou Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 5, 2017 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Implications of resin-based composite (RBC) restoration on cuspal deflection and microleakage score in molar teeth: Placement protocol and restorative material
To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 5, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lauren E.J. McHugh, Ioanna Politi, Rami S. Al-Fodeh, Garry J.P. Fleming Source Type: research

Glass-ceramic coating material for the CO2 laser based sintering of thin films as caries and erosion protection
Tooth-preserving preventative measures such as composite-based fissure sealing materials are moderately effective. They have been shown to offer effective protection against caries in the first 48 months, however beyond that period it is also clear that this protection is no longer effective [1]. In fact, the failure rate is 30 –55% after 5 years [2,3]. A reason for the failure rate is an insufficient adhesive bonding between the filling material and the tooth surface. Therefore tooth decay can often form below the sealing material itself. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Marin Dean Biland žić, Susanne Wollgarten, Jochen Stollenwerk, Reinhart Poprawe, Marcella Esteves-Oliveira, Horst Fischer Source Type: research

Different PEEK qualities irradiated with light of different wavelengths: Impact on Martens hardness
To assess the impact of irradiation on Martens hardness parameters of different PEEK qualities filled with titanium dioxide (TiO2), namely PEEK/0%, PEEK/20%, and PEEK/>30%. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Nina L ümkemann, Marlis Eichberger, Bogna Stawarczyk Source Type: research

The influence of Y-TZP surface treatment on topography and ceramic/resin cement interfacial fracture toughness
The preferential use of ceramics for fixed dental prostheses is widespread in dentistry today. All-ceramic (metal-free) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) are considered a reliable alternative material to metal-ceramic FDPs in daily dental clinical practice. Besides its aesthetic quality – perfectly capable of substituting the dental substrate – dental ceramics also have high chemical stability, biocompatibility [1] and superior mechanical properties. These characteristics result in great longevity of all-ceramic dental prosthesis and make its use in dentistry more advantageous over other tooth colored materials, s...
Source: Dental Materials - June 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: P.N.G. Paes, F.L. Bastian, P.M. Jardim Source Type: research

Comparison of three and four point bending evaluation of two adhesive bonding systems for glass-ceramic zirconia bi-layered ceramics
To quantify the adhesion of two bonding approaches of zirconia to more aesthetic glass-ceramic materials using the Schwickerath (ISO 9693-2:2016) three point bend (3PB) [1] test to determine the fracture initiation strength and strain energy release rate associated with stable crack extension with this test and the Charalamabides et al. (1989) [2] four point bend (4PB) test. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: C. Gee, J.N. Weddell, M.V. Swain Source Type: research

Monolithic zirconia dental crowns. Internal fit, margin quality, fracture mode and load at fracture
The production methods for dental ceramics have improved greatly over the years [1 –3]. Increased proportion of crystalline particles has led to higher resistance to functional loads, but also changed the optical properties of the material [2,4]. An yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) popularly called “zirconia” has been the most common dental high-stre ngth ceramic for some years. Y-TZP contains only polycrystalline particles in a metastable tetragonal crystal structure, and is the dental ceramic material with the highest fracture strength available today [5,6]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Christian Schriwer, Anneli Skjold, Nils Roar Gjerdet, Marit Øilo Source Type: research

The impact of argon/oxygen low-pressure plasma on shear bond strength between a veneering composite and different PEEK materials
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of low-pressure argon/oxygen plasma with and without previous sandblasting on the shear bond strength (SBS) between dental PEEK compounds and a veneering composite. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Andreas Dominik Schwitalla, Friederike B ötel, Tycho Zimmermann, Mona Sütel, Wolf-Dieter Müller Source Type: research

ADM research guidance papers
In 2014 the Board of the Academy of Dental Materials recognized there was an increasing need to provide written mentorship to young faculty and graduate students doing materials research – but not having experienced mentors. The Academy membership includes more than 200 top academic-based dental materials faculty worldwide. We all regularly receive requests for assistance and guidance from young faculty and students. It is often the case that proposed projects are not well conceiv ed, ignore important literature or anticipate using inappropriate methodology. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 24, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Paulo Cesar, Reinhard Hickel, J. Robert Kelly, Ulrich Lohbauer, David C. Watts Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Long-term stability of an injection-molded zirconia bone-level implant: A testing protocol considering aging kinetics and dynamic fatigue
Based on well-documented clinical outcome, oral implants made from titanium are a valid treatment option in patients care when replacing missing or deteriorated teeth [1]. For patients opposing metals, oral implants made from polycrystalline zirconium dioxide represent the only nowadays available alternative [2]. Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2, zirconia) presents the phenomenon of allotropy, characterized by temperature-dependent crystal structures [3]. When stabilizing the tetragonal phase at room temperature, the polymorphous character of zirconia allows for stress-induced phase transformation toughening (PTT) [4]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 19, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Benedikt C. Spies, Madeleine E. Maass, Erik Adolfsson, Valter Sergo, Tobias Kiemle, Christoph Berthold, Elisa Gurian, Stefano Fornasaro, Kirstin Vach, Ralf-Joachim Kohal Source Type: research

Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on dentin collagen
Ideally, in dentin the adhesive associates intimately with surface and creates a layer which can withstand the mechanical and chemical stress imposed upon it in the oral environment. The hybrid layer where collagen and adhesive intermingle is also considered the weak link, prone to degradation over time by host-derived proteinases and hydrolysis [1,2]. Failure of fillings to perform is often due to failure in this interface [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: P. Meht älä, D.H. Pashley, L. Tjäderhane Source Type: research

Effects of silane- and MDP-based primers application orders on zirconia –resin adhesion—A ToF-SIMS study
Yttria-partially-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (YTZ) has been widely used in prosthodontic reconstructions due to its stable chemical properties, high mechanical strength, and aesthetic appearance. With these properties, it can be applied in both anterior and posterior tooth regions to support physiological chewing functions. However, the chemical stability and toughness of YTZ also indicates its low susceptibility to surface preparation for resin adhesion. YTZ is resistant to most acids, except strong hazardous hydrofluoric acids [1]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Shu-Fen Chuang, Li-Li Kang, Yi-Chuan Liu, Jui-Che Lin, Ching-Cheng Wang, Hui-Min Chen, Cheng-Kun Tai Source Type: research

Microstructural analysis and reliability of monolithic zirconia after simulated adjustment protocols
To investigate the microstructural properties and reliability of zirconia partially stabilized by yttrium oxide (Y-TZP) for use in monolithic form (Vita YZ HT, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany) after different clinical adjustment protocols simulation. One-hundred and sixty two Y-TZP discs of high translucency were divided into 6 groups (n=27), according to simulated adjustments: S-Y-TZP as sintered; G-glazed Y-TZP; DbG-Y-TZP with diamond bur adjustment simulation followed by glaze application; GDb-glazed Y-TZP adjusted with diamond bur; DbDrG-Y-TZP with adjustment simulation with diamond bur and polishing kit (diamond rubber), fol...
Source: Dental Materials - June 13, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Eliseo Pablo Chun, Lilian Costa Anami, Estevam Augusto Bonfante, Marco Antonio Bottino Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 7, 2017 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Comparative evaluation of topographical data of dental implant surfaces applying optical interferometry and scanning electron microscopy
Screw-shaped dental implants have complex designs making topographical and analytical surface characterizations difficult due to uneven, too small, or inaccessible areas. Nevertheless, there is an ongoing need for thorough surface characterization since implant surfaces have been shown to determine primary interfacial reactions with bone, epithelial and connective tissue cells [1 –3], such as macromolecular adsorption/desorption, conformational changes, as well as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation [4]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 3, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: N. Kournetas, S. Spintzyk, E. Schweizer, T. Sawada, F. Said, P. Schmid, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, G. Eliades, F. Rupp Source Type: research

Biomechanical behaviour of craniofacial sutures during distraction: An evaluation all over the entire craniofacial skeleton
This study evaluated anatomy, biomechanics, and acoustic emission (AE) during distraction of the sutural ligament (SL). (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - June 2, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Fabio Savoldi, James K.H. Tsoi, Corrado Paganelli, Jukka P. Matinlinna Source Type: research

Effects of EDC crosslinking on the stiffness of dentin hybrid layers evaluated by nanoDMA over time
Application of collagen cross-linkers to demineralized dentin improves bond durability. While the benefits of cross-linking treatments to bond strength and fatigue resistance have been explored, changes in hybrid layer stiffness with aging have not been examined. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 31, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Zihou Zhang, Mustafa Mutluay, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay, Franklin R. Tay, David H. Pashley, Dwayne Arola Source Type: research

Academy of Dental Materials guidance —Resin composites: Part I—Mechanical properties
The objective of this project, which was initiated from the Academy of Dental Materials, was to review and critically appraise methods to determine fracture, deformation and wear resistance of dental resin composites, in an attempt to provide guidance for investigators endeavoring to study these properties for these materials. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 31, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: N. Ilie, T.J. Hilton, S.D. Heintze, R. Hickel, D.C. Watts, N. Silikas, J.W. Stansbury, M. Cadenaro, J.L. Ferracane Source Type: research

Fiber-reinforced composites in fixed prosthodontics —Quo vadis?
Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) materials were introduced to dentistry more than five decades ago [1]. Following extensive research and product development, it took more than twenty-five years until FRCs were first indicated as a reconstruction material for fixed dental prostheses (FPDs) [2 –4]. Early FRC FPDs were used in the design of full coverage crown retainers but the rationale for using indirect crown-retained FRC FPDs were questioned when it became evident that the longevity of the FRC FDPs was not as favourable as porcelain-fused-to-metal FDPs [5]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 25, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Pekka K. Vallittu, Akikazu Shinya, Anja Baraba, Ian Kerr, Filip Keulemans, Cees Kreulen, Lippo Lassila, Hans Malmstrom, Rudolf Novotny, Marleen Peumans, Jansie Van Rensburg, Diana Wolff, Mutlu Özcan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Effect of air-blowing duration on the bond strength of current one-step adhesives to dentin
To evaluate the influence of different air-blowing durations on the micro-tensile bond strength ( μTBS) of five current one-step adhesive systems to dentin. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 25, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jiale Fu, Pipop Saikaew, Shimpei Kawano, Ricardo M. Carvalho, Matthias Hannig, Hidehiko Sano, Denis Selimovic Source Type: research

Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations. A 6-year follow up
The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 22, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jan W.V. van Dijken, Ulla Pallesen Source Type: research

Fracture resistance of molar teeth with mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) restorations
Filled MOD restorations show near-complete recovery of tooth strength relative to the newly prepared, unfilled state. The present study examines the underlying mechanics of this recovery by more closely quantifying the mode of splitting fracture from the cavity base. By understanding the role of specific cavity dimensions on fracture resistance, useful clinical guidelines concerning MOD morphologies are formulated. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Herzl Chai, Brian R. Lawn Source Type: research

Sol –gel-derived bioactive glass nanoparticle-incorporated glass ionomer cement with or without chitosan for enhanced mechanical and biomineralization properties
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is a tooth-colored material introduced by Wilson and Kent [1] in the late 1960s. GIC is set based on a reaction between a fluoroaluminosilicate-based glass powder and an acidic liquid primarily composed of polyacrylic acid. These substances bond chemically to the tooth structure via a carboxyl (from GIC)-calcium (from enamel or dentin) interaction and release fluoride ions for a relatively long period, which is a beneficial anticariogenic property [2,3]. Along with the above advantages, GIC has been used as luting cement, a restorative material or a base and liner before a final direct or indirec...
Source: Dental Materials - May 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Dong-Ae Kim, Jung-Hwan Lee, Soo-Kyung Jun, Hae-Won Kim, Mohamed Eltohamy, Hae-Hyoung Lee Source Type: research

The effects of different opacifiers on the translucency of experimental dental composite resins
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different opacifiers on the translucency of experimental dental composite-resins. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Karine Haas, Gulelala Azhar, Duncan J. Wood, Keyvan Moharamzadeh, Richard van Noort Source Type: research

Genotoxic potential of dental bulk-fill resin composites
To investigate both genotoxicity and hardening of bulk-fill composite materials applied in 4-mm layer thickness and photo-activated for different exposure times. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Tobias T. Taub öck, Danijela Marovic, Davor Zeljezic, Andrea D. Steingruber, Thomas Attin, Zrinka Tarle Source Type: research

Experimental hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials incorporating a novel surfactant compared with commercial VPS
To formulate experimental hydrophilic (Exp) VPS impression materials incorporating a novel surfactant (Rhodasurf CET-2), and to compare their contact angles (CAs) with commercial materials, before/after disinfection. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Shahab Ud Din, Sandra Parker, Michael Braden, Pete Tomlins, Mangala Patel Source Type: research

Evaluation of alternative monomers to HEMA for dental applications
2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) is the most frequently used hydrophilic monofunctional monomer that can be found in various dental materials such as dental adhesives, resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) or luting composites [1,2]. Depending on the etching process, dental adhesives can be classified into two main categories: total-etch (TEAs) and self-etch adhesives (SEAs) [3 –5]. When using TEAs, the dental hard tissues are typically etched using a phosphoric acid gel prior to the infiltration of an adhesive resin. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 18, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Sven Tauscher, J örg Angermann, Yohann Catel, Norbert Moszner Source Type: research

Titanium dioxide nanotubes addition to self-adhesive resin cement: Effect on physical and biological properties
Self-adhesive resin cements were developed to clinical time by simplifying cementation procedures due to the elimination of the acid etching and application of adhesive steps [1 –3]. Its adhesive properties are attributed to the presence of the modified acidic group’s methacrylate monomers that allows the infiltration and demineralization of the substrate, that result in micromechanical retention and chemical bonding with hydroxyapatite [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 17, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Carla M. Ramos-Tonello, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho, Larisa B. Arruda, Cintia K. Tokuhara, Rodrigo C. Oliveira, Adilson Y. Furuse, Jos é H. Rubo, Ana Flávia S. Borges Source Type: research

Poly(amido amine) and calcium phosphate nanocomposite remineralization of dentin in acidic solution without calcium phosphate ions
Patients with dry mouth often have an acidic oral environment lacking saliva that provides calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ions. However, there has been no study on dentin remineralization by placing samples in an acidic solution without Ca and P ions. Previous studies used saliva-like solutions with neutral pH and Ca and P ions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a novel method of combining poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) with a composite of nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentin remineralization in an acidic solution without Ca and P ions for the first time. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 16, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Kunneng Liang, Han Zhou, Michael D. Weir, Chongyun Bao, Mark A. Reynolds, Xuedong Zhou, Jiyao Li, Hockin H.K. Xu Source Type: research

Effect of blue and violet light on polymerization shrinkage vectors of a CQ/TPO-containing composite
To evaluate the effect of light-curing wavelengths on composite filler particle displacement, and thus to visualize localized polymerization shrinkage in a resin-based composite (RBC) containing camphorquinone (CQ) and Lucirin TPO (TPO). (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 15, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Camila S. Sampaio, Pablo J. Atria, Frederick A. Rueggeberg, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Marcelo Giannini, Paulo G. Coelho, Ronaldo Hirata, Regina M. Puppin-Rontani Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 12, 2017 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Ageing kinetics and strength of airborne-particle abraded 3Y-TZP ceramics
Tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramic, which is partially stabilized by yttria (3Y-TZP), is highly regarded for its combination of excellent mechanical properties and its enhanced aesthetic appearance compared to metals. It is a popular choice for all-ceramic dental restorations [1]. Its high strength and toughness are achieved through tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t –m) transformation. Under stress, parts of the metastable tetragonal grains transform martensitically to the stable monoclinic variants. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 12, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jasna Coti č, Peter Jevnikar, Andraž Kocjan Source Type: research

PLGA nanoparticles as chlorhexidine-delivery carrier to resin-dentin adhesive interface
Resin-dentin bonding is achieved through dentin demineralization to expose the underlying collagen-fibrils that facilitate resin-permeation into the filigree of mineral-deficit collagen-meshwork forming the transitional resin-dentin hybrid-interface and resin-tags inside dentinal-tubules [1]. Several endogenous dentin-bound matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and/or bacterial enzymes were identified to participate in the breakdown of naked collagen-fibrils, drastically affecting the mechanical and structural integrity [2,3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 12, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini, Kakran Mitali, Thong Beng Lu, Harish K. Handral, Nileshkumar Dubey, Amr S. Fawzy Source Type: research

Bifunctional dentifrice: Amorphous polyphosphate a regeneratively active sealant with potent anti-Streptococcus mutans activity
The development of tooth is an intricate process and the result of a cumulative and reiterative molecular signaling between dental epithelium and dental mesenchyme [1]. While dental mesenchyme differentiates into the pulp and the dentin segment of the complex tooth organ, the epithelial tissues give rise to the enamel layer producing the dental enamel [2]. Both inorganic matrices, enamel and dentin, are composed primarily of calcium and phosphate linked together by physico-chemical interactions [3]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 9, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Werner E.G. M üller, Meik Neufurth, Maximilian Ackermann, Emad Tolba, Michael Korzhev, Shunfeng Wang, Qingling Feng, Heinz C. Schröder, Xiaohong Wang Source Type: research

Graphene for the development of the next-generation of biocomposites for dental and medical applications
Graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), are 2D carbon-based materials with remarkable physical, chemical and biological properties. Graphene sheets have high specific surface area and mechanical strength. Moreover, they have been shown to influence the differentiation of stem cells and to improve properties of biomaterials. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 8, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Han Xie, Tong Cao, Francisco Javier Rodr íguez-Lozano, Emma Kim Luong-Van, Vinicius Rosa Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effect of self-curing activators and curing protocols on adhesive properties of universal adhesives bonded to dual-cured composites
Several materials have been used to restore the ideal anatomy of severely damaged, fractured or extensively carious teeth, especially those with compromised resistance and retention form, prior to their preparation for indirect restorations. Resin-based core buildup materials are often used for this purpose in clinical dental practice [1 –3]. Different materials such as amalgam, glass-ionomer cements, resin cements, flowable composite materials and regular viscosity composite materials, have been studied and suggested as core buildup materials in the literature. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 6, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Mario Felipe Guti érrez, Elisama Sutil, Pâmela Malaquias, Thalita de Paris Matos, Lucas Marques de Souza, Alessandra Reis, Jorge Perdigão, Alessandro D. Loguercio Source Type: research

Periodontal ligament entheses and their adaptive role in the context of dentoalveolar joint function
The dynamic bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint consists of two adaptive functionally graded interfaces (FGI), the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum that respond to mechanical strain transmitted during mastication. In general, from a materials and mechanics perspective, FGI prevent catastrophic failure during prolonged cyclic loading. This review is a discourse of results gathered from literature to illustrate the dynamic adaptive nature of the fibrous joint in response to physiologic and pathologic simulated functions, and experimental tooth movement. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - May 2, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jeremy D. Lin, Andrew T. Jang, Michael P. Kurylo, Jonathan Hurng, Feifei Yang, Lynn Yang, Arvin Pal, Ling Chen, Sunita P. Ho Source Type: research

Measurement uncertainty associated with chromatic confocal profilometry for 3D surface texture characterization of natural human enamel
Optical surface texture measurement and characterization of dental hard tissues are becoming increasingly used within dentistry as a method for detecting and quantifying early enamel damage resulting from common oral pathologies such as dental erosion [1,2]. When quantifying the micro-texture of enamel surface damage, the earliest signs of wear occur at the scale of an enamel prism. Accordingly, recent research into nanometer scale surface changes of polished human enamel using confocal laser microscopy concluded that optimal characterization of acid mediated surface texture changes requires surface metrology instrumentati...
Source: Dental Materials - May 1, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: F. Mullan, D. Bartlett, R.S. Austin Source Type: research

Unbound monomers do diffuse through the dentin barrier
The use of resin-based dental restorative materials is extensive in contemporary dentistry. However, significant concerns remain regarding their biocompatibility. Several studies dealing with the molecular toxicity of substances released by these biomaterials, have shown that these leachable components can cause significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, leading to irreversible disturbance of basic cellular functions, causing a wide variety of adverse biological reactions, including local and systemic toxicity, pulp reactions, allergic and estrogenic effects [1]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - April 29, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Kods Mahdhaoui, Benjamin Fournier, Mathieu A. Derbanne Source Type: research

Bacterial adhesion not inhibited by ion-releasing bioactive glass filler
Bioactive glasses and surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (sPRG) filler possess cariostatic properties owing to ion release. Many studies investigated potential cariostatic effects; few studies evaluated the surface stability and the structural changes their surfaces undergo in acidic conditions. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - April 29, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Kumiko Yoshihara, Noriyuki Nagaoka, Yukinori Maruo, Hidehiko Sano, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Bart Van Meerbeek Source Type: research

Synthesis of novel chlorhexidine spheres with controlled release from a UDMA –HEMA resin using ultrasound
Since being introduced to Dentistry in the 1950s, dental composites have undergone considerable changes such as; the modification of fillers to enhance the mechanical properties and the optimisation of the polymeric matrix to improve their biocompatibility [1]. Currently available dental composites have exceptional aesthetics and comparable mechanical properties (flexural strength, fracture toughness and tensile strength) when compared with porcelain and amalgam, and superior to that of glass ionomers [2]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - April 26, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Dong Luo, Saroash Shahid, Gleb B. Sukhorukov, Michael J. Cattell Source Type: research

Antimicrobial effect and physicochemical properties of an adhesive system containing nanocapsules
The failure rate of composite resin restorations as a result of recurrent caries was reported between 40 and 70% [1 –3]. The increase of bacterial oral colonization around restorations leads to a pH decrease and consequently recurrent desmineralization process [4]. Post-operative sensitivity is another reason of failure with an occurrence rate around 10% [3]. The sensitivity occurs in deep cavities with a pulpa l involvement that can lead to an acute or chronic inflammation or necrosis of pulp tissue [5,6]. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - April 24, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Bruna Genari, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Denise Soledade Jornada, Melissa Camassola, Rodrigo Alex Arthur, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Silvia Stanis çuaski Guterres, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares, Susana Maria Werner Samuel Source Type: research

Mechanical characteristic and biological behaviour of implanted and restorative bioglasses used in medicine and dentistry: A systematic review
Nowadays bioactive glasses are finding increasing applications in medical practice due to their ability to stimulate re-mineralisation. However, they are intrinsically brittle materials and the study of new compositions will open up new scenarios enhancing their mechanical properties and maintaining the high bioactivity for a broader range of applications. This systematic review aims to identify the relationship between the composition of bioactive glasses used in medical applications and their influence on the mechanical and biological properties. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - April 22, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: F. Lizzi, C. Villat, N. Attik, P. Jackson, B. Grosgogeat, C. Goutaudier Source Type: research

Accelerated fatigue testing of dentin-composite bond with continuously increasing load
Resin composites are now widely used in direct dental restorations. However, as their use becomes more popular, the occurrence of restoration failure has also become more frequent [1,2]. Clinical studies have shown that, on average, composite restorations have a shorter lifetime than amalgam restorations, with one of the main causes of failure being recurrent caries at the tooth-restoration margin [3 –5]. Maintenance of interfacial integrity is therefore essential for a composite restoration to be durable, and all new composite systems should be assessed for their interfacial strength to ensure acceptable clinical pe...
Source: Dental Materials - April 20, 2017 Category: Materials Science Authors: Kai Li, Jiawen Guo, Yuping Li, Young Cheul Heo, Jihua Chen, Haitao Xin, Alex Fok Source Type: research