Clinical significance of serum soluble TNF receptor II level and soluble TNF receptor II/I ratio as indicators of coronary artery lesion development in Kawasaki disease.
Abstract To investigate the clinical significance of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) II level and sTNFR II/I ratio as indicators of the development of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in Kawasaki disease (KD), we measured levels of serum sTNFR I and II, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and neopterin in 63 patients with KD, including nine patients with CALs and 20 healthy controls. At the time of diagnosis of KD before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, serum sTNFR I and II levels were found to be significantly higher in non-responders to IVIG treatment than in responders. On the contrary, se...
Source: Cytokine - April 3, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Shimizu M, Mizuta M, Usami M, Inoue N, Sakakibara Y, Yamada K, Konishi M, Ohta K, Yachie A Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

SOCS-mediated immunomodulation of natural killer cells.
Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells with an intrinsic ability to detect and kill infected and cancerous cells. The success of therapies targeting immune checkpoints on CD8 cells has intensified interest in harnessing the cytolytic effector functions of NK cells for new cancer treatments. NK cell development, survival and effector activity is dependent on exposure to the cytokine interleukin (IL)-15. The suppressor of cytokine (SOCS) proteins (CIS; SOCS1-7) are important negative regulators of cytokine signaling, and both CIS and SOCS2 are reported to have roles in regulating NK cell response...
Source: Cytokine - March 30, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Keating N, Nicholson SE Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Fetuin-B links nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to type 2 diabetes via inducing insulin resistance: Association and path analyses.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Laboratory models suggested that Fetuin-B impaired insulin action in myotubes and hepatocytes and caused glucose intolerance in mice. We aimed to explore the independent associations and pathways among serum Fetuin-B, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1318 obese adults who underwent serum Fetuin-B test and hepatic ultrasonography scanning was conducted in Xiamen, China. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of serum Fetuin-B level and NAFLD for ...
Source: Cytokine - March 30, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Li Z, Lin M, Liu C, Wang D, Shi X, Chen Z, Liu Y, Yang S, Li X Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Cytokine-mediated therapeutic resistance in breast cancer.
Abstract Therapeutic resistance leading to tumor relapse is a major challenge in breast cancer (BCa) treatment. Numerous factors involved in multiple mechanisms promote the development of tumor chemo/radio-resistance. Cytokines/chemokines are important inflammatory factors and highly related to tumorigenesis, metastasis and tumors responses to treatment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the network of cytokines activates multiple cell signaling pathways to promote tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and migration. Particularly in BCa, cytokines-enhanced the epithelial-mesenchymal transiti...
Source: Cytokine - March 30, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tan C, Hu W, He Y, Zhang Y, Zhang G, Xu Y, Tang J Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Analogous corticosteroids, 9A and EK100, derived from solid-state-cultured mycelium of Antrodia camphorata inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages.
In this study, BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (Der p) at 1-week intervals and were orally administered crude SCMAC extract before the Der p challenge. The mice were sacrificed 72 h after the last challenge to examine the airway remodeling, inflammation, and expression profiles of cytokines and various genes. Then, 30-µg/mL Der p-stimulated MH-S cells with 9A or EK100 were collected for real-time PCR analysis, and the effects of 9A and EK100 on macrophages were evaluated. The crude extract reduced Der p-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, total serum immunoglobulin E levels, and r...
Source: Cytokine - March 29, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Kao ST, Kuo YH, Wang SD, Hong HJ, Lin LJ Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

The association of IL-33 and Foxp3 gene polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in Egyptian women.
Abstract Deregulated immunity is one of the most important factors implicated in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The possible role of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3) in RPL have not been fully investigated. We aimed to evaluate IL-33 rs1929992 and Foxp3 rs2232365 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their serum levels in Egyptian RPL females. Blood samples were collected from 142 RPL patients and 123 women as healthy controls. IL-33 rs1929992 SNP was determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism and Foxp3 rs2232365 SNP was deter...
Source: Cytokine - March 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Zidan HE, Abdul-Maksoud RS, Mowafy HE, Elsayed WSH Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Cytokine profile in autistic patients.
Abstract The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) as severe neurodevelopmental ailments is not known. However, several evidences point to dysregulation of immune system as an underlying cause of ASD. In the present study we evaluated the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, TGF-β, IFN-γ, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-2, 1L-4, IL-6, IL-17 in whole blood samples of 30 ASD patients and 41 age and sex-matched healthy subjects with means of real-time PCR. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17 have been shown to be significantly up-regulated in ASD patients compared with healthy subjects (P 
Source: Cytokine - March 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Eftekharian MM, Ghafouri-Fard S, Noroozi R, Omrani MD, Arsang-Jang S, Ganji M, Gharzi V, Noroozi H, Komaki A, Mazdeh M, Taheri M Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Interferon-gamma in mobilized stem cells: A possible prognostic marker in early post-transplant management in multiple myeloma.
CONCLUSION: IFN-γ in PHSC seems to be an important biomarker of loss of response in MM, suggesting a role in early post-transplant therapeutic management. PMID: 29602156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Martins LNGF, Morita AA, Broto GE, Takakura É, da Silva SS, Tomiotto-Pellissier F, Conchon-Costa I, Pavanelli WR, Panis C, Barbosa DS Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of dendritic cells interferes with TLR-induced IL-12/IL-23 cytokine production in an IL-10 independent manner.
Abstract Dendritic cells produce IL-12 and IL-23 in response to viral and bacterial infection and these cytokines are responsible for successful pathogen clearance. How sequential viral and bacterial infections affect the production of IL-12 and IL-23 is currently not known. Our study demonstrates that in dendritic cells infected with Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), TLR activation with bacterial PAMPs resulted in reduced IL-12 and IL-23 expression compared to non-infected cells. Furthermore, expression of other proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were not inhibited under these conditions. W...
Source: Cytokine - March 26, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Che Mat NF, Siddiqui S, Mehta D, Seaver K, Banete A, Alothaimeen T, Gee K, Basta S Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Intracellular osteopontin negatively regulates toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory response via regulating GSK3 β and 4EBP1 phosphorylation.
Intracellular osteopontin negatively regulates toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory response via regulating GSK3β and 4EBP1 phosphorylation. Cytokine. 2018 Mar 24;108:89-95 Authors: Yang H, Ye X, Zhang X, Li X, Fu Q, Tang Z Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host defense against invading pathogens. By initiating a signal transduction cascade, TLRs lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the inappropriate activation of TLR signaling could result in inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. Osteopontin (OPN) has been reported to be an inflam...
Source: Cytokine - March 24, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Yang H, Ye X, Zhang X, Li X, Fu Q, Tang Z Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

CXCL8 hyper-signaling in the aortic abdominal aneurysm.
JHN Abstract There are indications for elevated CXCL8 levels in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA). CXCL8 is concurrently involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation and angiogenesis, two prominent and distinctive characteristics of AAA. As such we considered an evaluation of a role for CXCL8 in AAA progression relevant. ELISA's, real time PCR and array analysis were used to explore CXCL8 signaling in AAA wall samples. A role for CXCL8 in AAA disease was tested through the oral CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2156A in the elastase model of AAA disease. There is an extreme disparity in aortic wall CXCL8 content between ...
Source: Cytokine - March 24, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Kokje VBC, Gäbel G, Dalman RL, Koole D, Northoff BH, Holdt LM, Hamming JF, Lindeman JHN Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Novel 1,3,4-thiadiazoles inhibit colorectal cancer via blockade of IL-6/COX-2 mediated JAK2/STAT3 signals as evidenced through data-based mathematical modeling.
Abstract We attempted a preclinical study using DMH-induced CRC rat model to evaluate the antitumor potential of our recently synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles. The molecular insights were confirmed through ELISA, qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. The CRC condition was produced in response to COX-2 and IL-6 induced activation of JAK2/STAT3 which, in turn, was due to the enhanced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. The treatment with 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives (VR24 and VR27) caused the significant blockade of this signaling pathway. The behavior of STAT3 populations in response to IL-6 and COX-2 stimulations was f...
Source: Cytokine - March 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Raj V, Bhadauria AS, Singh AK, Kumar U, Rai A, Keshari AK, Kumar P, Kumar D, Maity B, Nath S, Prakash A, Ansari KM, Jat JL, Saha S Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Systems-synthetic biology in understanding the complexities and simple devices in immunology.
Abstract Systems and synthetic biology in the coming era has the ability to manipulate, stimulate and engineer cells to counteract the pathogenic immune response. The inherent biological complexities associated with the creation of a device allow capitalizing the biotechnological resources either by simply administering a recombinant cytokine or just reprogramming the immune cells. The strategy outlined, adopted and discussed may mark the beginning with promising therapeutics based on the principles of synthetic immunology. PMID: 29579544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Soni B, Nimsarkar P, Mol M, Saha B, Singh S Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Increase in serum Interleukin-10 does not alleviate pro-inflammatory MCP-1 production in obese pregnancies.
Abstract Maternal cytokine profiles during pregnancy are characterized by significant deviations, varying substantially between gestational time points and tissues. Obesity, in turn, is linked with low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue and increased concentrations of systemic inflammatory mediators. However, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obese pregnancy has remained elusive. In view of the demonstrations that the obesity is a global epidemic in the population at reproductive age with a strong intergenerational impact, we investigated the relation of gestational immune adaptations and ob...
Source: Cytokine - March 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Polari L, Kumar H, Rautava S, Salminen S, Isolauri E Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Role of selective blocking of bradykinin B1 receptor in attenuating immune liver injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mice.
Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) is able to induce trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome (THS) with multi-system immune injuries. In our previous study, we found kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) activation, including the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), which contributed to immune organ injury in TCE sensitized mice. However, the mechanism of B1R mediating immune dysfunction is not clarified. The present study initiates to investigate the potential mechanism of B1R on liver injury. We establish a TCE sensitized BALB/c mouse model to explore the mechanism with or without a B1R inhibitor R715. We found B1R expressio...
Source: Cytokine - March 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Zhang J, Li N, Yang L, Zang D, Yang P, Wang H, Shen T, Zhu QX Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Transfection of bone marrow derived cells with immunoregulatory proteins.
Abstract In vitro electroporation gene transfer was first performed in 1982. Today, this technology has become one of the major vehicles for non-viral transfection of cells. All non-viral transfections, such as calcium phosphate precipitation, lipofection, and magnetic transfection, have been shown to achieve a transfection efficiency of up to 70% in commonly used cell lines, but not in primary cells. Here we describe the use of electroporation to transfect primary mouse bone marrow-derived cells, such as macrophages (Mφ) and dendritic cells (DCs) with high efficiencies (45%-72%) and minimal cell death. The tr...
Source: Cytokine - March 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Khantakova JN, Silkov AN, Tereshchenko VP, Gavrilova EV, Maksyutov RA, Sennikov SV Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Decreased interleukin-11 levels in the semen of infertile males.
In this study, 120 semen samples from 60 normozoospermic volunteers and 60 infertile males were examined. The semen pH of the normozoospermic group was not significantly different from that of the infertile group. The semen volume, semen density, forward movement percentage, activity, survival rate and normal morphology rate of the sperm of the infertile group were significantly lower than those of the normozoospermic group. The semen IL-11 levels of the infertile group were significantly lower than those of the normozoospermic group. In the infertile group, semen IL-11 levels were positively correlated with sperm motility...
Source: Cytokine - March 21, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Qian L Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Interleukin 35: Inhibitory regulator in monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and activation.
Abstract IL-35, a novel IL-12 family member, is a potent inhibitory cytokine predominantly produced by regulatory T and B lymphocytes that exerts optimal suppression in immune response. However, it remains unclear whether IL-35 plays an inhibitory role on human dendritic cells. In the present study, we focused on the possible immunosuppressive effect of IL-35 on the differentiation, maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). Addition of exogenous IL-35 was able to partially suppress MoDCs differentiation in vitro. Subsequently, LPS was used for the maturation of MoDCs and IL-35 was found to mainly re...
Source: Cytokine - March 20, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Chen X, Hao S, Zhao Z, Liu J, Shao Q, Wang F, Sun D, He Y, Gao W, Mao H Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Different concentration of human cord blood HMGB1 according to delivery and labour: A pilot study.
CONCLUSION: These results could highlight a possible role of HMGB1 during birth time related to mode of delivery and labour. PMID: 29571040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 20, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: D'Angelo G, Marseglia L, Granese R, Di Benedetto A, Giacobbe A, Impellizzeri P, Alibrandi A, Ferro E, Palmara A, Manti S, Arrigo T, Salpietro C, Buonocore G, Reiter RJ, Gitto E Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

TET-2 up-regulation is associated with the anti-inflammatory action of Vicenin-2.
This study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory actions of V-2 are associated not only with increased IL-10 and IL-1Ra expression, but also with TET-2 up-regulation. Further work is required to establish if the effects of V-2 can be definitively linked to TET-2 activity and that these actions are mirrored in a range of relevant cell types. PMID: 29567563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Hassan N, Ali A, Withycombe C, Ahluwalia M, Al-Nasseri RH, Tonks A, Morris K Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Identification of CCL5/RANTES as a novel contraction-reducible myokine in mouse skeletal muscle.
Abstract Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditione...
Source: Cytokine - March 17, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Ishiuchi Y, Sato H, Komatsu N, Kawaguchi H, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M, Nedachi T Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Transcription factor specificity protein 1 modulates TGF β1/Smad signaling to negatively regulate SIGIRR expression by human M1 macrophages stimulated with substance P.
In conclusion, TGFβ1 may be an intermediary between SP/NK1R activation and SIGIRR expression in Sp1 siRNA-transfected macrophages. In addition, Sp1 modulates TGFβ1/Smad signaling and negatively regulates SIGIRR protein production by macrophages after SP stimulation. PMID: 29558695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 17, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Yamaguchi R, Sakamoto A, Yamaguchi R, Haraguchi M, Narahara S, Sugiuchi H, Yamaguchi Y Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Cytosolic tryparedoxin of Leishmania donovani modulates host immune response in visceral leishmaniasis.
In this study, we purified a ∼17 kDa recombinant cytosolic tryparedoxin (cTXN) protein of Leishmania donovani (rLdcTXN) and investigated its immunological responses in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) isolated from VL patients. The protein significantly enhanced the promastigotes count after 96 h of culture showing a direct correlation with parasite growth. Furthermore, stimulation of PBMC isolated from VL patients with rLdcTXN resulted in up-regulation of IL-4 and IL-10 production whereas IL-12 and IFN-γ was significantly down-regulated suggesting a pivotal role of cTXN in provoking the immune suppression d...
Source: Cytokine - March 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Suman SS, Amit A, Singh KP, Gupta P, Equbal A, Kumari A, Topno RK, Ravidas V, Pandey K, Bimal S, Das P, Ali V Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Cytokine and soluble adhesion molecule profiles and biomarkers for treatment monitoring in Re-treated smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
This study aimed to quantify serum inflammatory cytokine and soluble adhesion molecule levels in Re-treated smear-positive PTB patients before and after re-anti-TB drug therapy. Serum samples were collected from 30 healthy controls and 215 Treated active PTB patients at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 months post-re-treatment. Levels of 18 serum cytokines and soluble adhesion molecules were measured by a high-throughput Cytometric Bead Array. At baseline, IL-1, IL-2, IL-12P70, and soluble CD62E levels were significantly higher in PTB patients than those in the healthy controls (p 
Source: Cytokine - March 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Bai XJ, Li HM, Yang YR, Zhang JX, Liang Y, Wu XQ Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Prognostic factors of early death in children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
PMID: 29551450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tang YM, Luo Z Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Serum levels of selected adipocytokines in benign and malignant parotid gland tumor patients.
CONCLUSIONS: We anticipate that adiponectin may play a potential protective role in salivary gland tumors. Also leptin and visfatin seem to play an important role in salivary gland tumor pathology, although in males and females leptin may act or be regulated in a different manner. The influence of visfatin on salivary gland tumors is probably independent of IL-6 production. PMID: 29549722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Sowa P, Misiolek M, Orecka B, Czecior E, Adamczyk-Sowa M Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Blocking TGF- β type 1 receptor partially reversed skin tissue damage in experimentally induced atopic dermatitis in mice.
Blocking TGF-β type 1 receptor partially reversed skin tissue damage in experimentally induced atopic dermatitis in mice. Cytokine. 2018 Mar 14;106:45-53 Authors: Alyoussef A Abstract Animals with impaired transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling developed spontaneous lethal autoimmune inflammationand autoimmune diseases. Moreover, evidence for modified TGF-β signaling in atopic dermatitis (AD) exists. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether SB-431542, a potent and selective inhibitor of the TGF-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1), could attenuate such a severe...
Source: Cytokine - March 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Alyoussef A Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Berberine inhibits IL-21/IL-21R mediated inflammatory proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes through the attenuation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and ameliorates IL-21 mediated osteoclastogenesis.
Abstract The current study investigated the therapeutic effect of berberine (BBR), an alkaloid derivative against IL-21/IL-21R mediated phosphotidyl inositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling in adjuvant induced arthritic fibroblast-like synoviocytes (AA-FLS) isolated from rats and IL-21 mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone-marrow derived monocytes (BMMs). BBR (15-45 µM) treatment attenuated the gene and protein levels of IL-21R complex. BBR suppressed the levels of IL-21 (20 ng/ml) mediated production of inflammatory cytokines such as: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 1 ...
Source: Cytokine - March 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Dinesh P, Rasool M Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Role of atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 in experimental oral squamous cell carcinogenesis.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that ACKR2 expression regulates inflammation in tumour-microenvironment but the absence of ACKR2 does not impact chemically-induced oral carcinogenesis. PMID: 29550065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: da Silva JM, Dos Santos TPM, Saraiva AM, Fernandes de Oliveira AL, Garlet GP, Batista AC, de Mesquita RA, Russo RC, da Silva TA Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Analysis of cytokines IFN- γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and nitric oxide in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant women with toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil.
This study detected and compared the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and nitric oxide (NO) in amniotic fluid (AF) and serum of pregnancies with acute toxoplasmosis, Southern Brazil. It also was compared the levels of the same mediators in the serum of pregnancies in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis with non-infected. Serological investigation, anti-T gondii IgM and IgG, of the 67 pregnancies was determined by Elisa MEIA. Forty two were uninfected, eight in chronic phase and 17 in acute phase. Among the acute phase, seven agreed to amniocentesis. The cytokines, in serum and in AF, were assessed by sandwich ELI...
Source: Cytokine - March 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Marchioro AA, Colli CM, de Souza CZ, da Silva SS, Tiyo BT, Evangelista FF, Higa L, Conchon-Costa I, Falavigna-Guilherme AL Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Association of VEGFA variants with altered VEGF secretion and type 2 diabetes: A case-control study.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the contribution of altered VEGF secretion, resulting from genetic variation in VEGFA gene into T2DM pathogenesis, hence supporting role for VEGFA as T2DM candidate locus. PMID: 29533820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 10, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Sellami N, Lamine LB, Turki A, Sarray S, Jailani M, Al-Ansari AK, Ghorbel M, Mahjoub T, Almawi WY Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

RANKL/OPG system regulation by endogenous PTH and PTH1R/ATF4 axis in bone: Implications for bone accrual and strength in growing rats with mild uremia.
In conclusion, this study showed for the first time an inverse association between serum PTH and the bone RANKL/OPG system in growing rats with mild CKD. A decrease in the RANKL/OPG ratio, associated with PTH-dependent activation of the anabolic PTH1R/ATF4 pathway, seems to be responsible for the unexpected, beneficial effect of PTH on cortical bone accrual and strength. Simultaneously, impaired biomechanical properties of the femoral neck were observed, making this bone site more susceptible to fractures. PMID: 29529595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - March 9, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Znorko B, Pawlak D, Oksztulska-Kolanek E, Domaniewski T, Pryczynicz A, Roszczenko A, Rogalska J, Lipowicz P, Doroszko M, Brzoska MM, Pawlak K Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

The IL-10-1082 (rs1800896) G allele is associated with a decreased risk of developing premature coronary artery disease and some IL-10 polymorphisms were associated with clinical and metabolic parameters. The GEA study.
o JM, Posadas-Romero C, Vargas-Alarcón G Abstract Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with a protective role in the formation and the development of the atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of the present study was to establish if IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with the development of premature coronary artery disease (pCAD) and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican individuals. Three IL-10 gene polymorphisms [-592C/A (rs1800872), -819C/T (rs1800871), and -1082 A/G (rs1800896)] and IL-10 plasma levels were analyzed in 2266 individuals (1160 pCAD patients and 1106 healthy controls). ...
Source: Cytokine - March 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Posadas-Sánchez R, Angeles-Martínez J, Pérez-Hernández N, Rodríguez-Pérez JM, López-Bautista F, Flores-Dominguez C, Fragoso JM, Posadas-Romero C, Vargas-Alarcón G Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Suppression of dsRNA response genes and innate immunity following Oct4, Stella, and Nanos2 overexpression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Abstract The self-renewal capacity of germline derived stem cells (GSCs) makes them an ideal source for research and use in clinics. Despite the presence of active gene network similarities between embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and GSCs, there are unanswered questions regarding the roles of evolutionary conserved genes in GSCs. To determine the reprogramming potential of germ cell- specific genes, we designed a polycistronic gene cassette expressing Stella, Oct4 and Nanos2 in a lentiviral-based vector. Deep transcriptome analysis showed the activation of a set of pluripotency and germ-cell-specific markers and the d...
Source: Cytokine - March 1, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Farshchian M, Matin MM, Armant O, Geerts D, Dastpak M, Nakhaei-Rad S, Tajeran M, Jebelli A, Shahriyari M, Bahrami M, Fallah A, Yaghoobi V, Mirahmadi M, Abbaszadegan MR, Bahrami AR Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Elevated frequency of IL-37- and IL-18R α-positive T cells in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-37 plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation in RA. IL-37 and its receptors may play an immunoregulatory role in the activation of lymphocytes, especially CD4+ T cells, in RA patients. IL-37 may represent a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 29500054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - February 28, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wang L, Wang Y, Xia L, Shen H, Lu J Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 serum levels in prognosis of hormone-dependent breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the clarification of the prognostic performance of IL6 and IL8 by providing their first prognostic evaluation in the homogenized ER+ breast cancer patient group. IL6 was indicated as a marker of favorable, whereas IL8 was a marker of unfavorable disease outcome. PMID: 29482885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - February 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Milovanović J, Todorović-Raković N, Radulovic M Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Effects of docosahexanoic acid supplementation on inflammatory and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A sub-study of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
go JC Abstract BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids have the potential to decrease inflammation and modify gene transcription. Whether docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation can modify systemic inflammatory and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in HIV-infected patients is unknown. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 84 antiretroviral-treated patients who had fasting TG levels from 2.26 to 5.65 mmol/l and received DHA or placebo for 48 weeks was performed (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02005900). Systemic inflammatory and SAT gene expression was assessed at ba...
Source: Cytokine - February 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Domingo P, Gallego-Escuredo JM, Fernández I, Villarroya J, Torres F, Del Mar Gutierrez M, Mateo MG, Villarroya F, Vidal F, Giralt M, Domingo JC Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Serum levels of irisin predict short-term outcomes in ischemic stroke.
In this study, we determined irisin levels in serum, and investigated their associations with functional outcomes in a 3-month follow-up study in Chinese patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: From September 2015 to December 2016, consecutive first-ever AIS patients admitted to the Department of Emergency of our hospital were identified. Serum irisin levels were measured at admission. Functional impairment was evaluated at discharge using the modified Rankin scale. The levels of irisin were expressed as median and interquartile ranges [IQR]. RESULTS: The irisin level was obtained in 324 pa...
Source: Cytokine - February 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wu H, Guo P, Jin Z, Li X, Yang X, Tang C, Wang Y, Ke J Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Low level of serum HDL-cholesterol with increased sIL-2R predicts a poor clinical outcome for patients with malignant lymphoma and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.
Abstract Low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been reported in patients with hematological malignancies. However, the proof of decreased HDL-C in hematological malignancies and its association with clinical outcomes remain unclear. We analyzed 140 Japanese patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL). HDL-C, LDL-C and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) were measured. Treatment decisions were determined with established protocols. HDL-C was 0.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l in patients and 1.51 ± 0.35 mmol/l in controls (P 
Source: Cytokine - February 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Komiya I, Tomoyose T, Ouchi G, Yara T, Higa S Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Melanoma exosomes promote mixed M1 and M2 macrophage polarization.
Abstract Macrophages are key participants in melanoma growth and survival. In general, macrophages can be classified as M1 or M2 activation phenotypes. Increasing evidence demonstrates that melanoma exosomes also facilitate tumor survival and metastasis. However, the role of melanoma exosomes in directly influencing macrophage function is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the hypothesis that natural melanoma exosomes might directly influence macrophage polarization. To explore this hypothesis, ELISA, RT-qPCR, and macrophage functional studies were performed in vitro using an established source of melanoma...
Source: Cytokine - February 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Bardi GT, Smith MA, Hood JL Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Ureaplasma isolates differentially modulate growth factors and cell adhesion molecules in human neonatal and adult monocytes.
Abstract Generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pathogenicity of Ureaplasma has often been considered low. Controversy remains concerning the clinical relevance of Ureaplasma infection in the pathogenesis of inflammation-related morbidities. Recently, we demonstrated Ureaplasma-driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in human monocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma may induce further inflammatory mediators. Using qRT-PCR and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed the expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular adhesion ...
Source: Cytokine - February 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Glaser K, Silwedel C, Waaga-Gasser AM, Henrich B, Fehrholz M, Claus H, Speer CP Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Dysregulation of JAK/STAT genes by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in Salmonella-infected monocytes may inhibit its therapeutic potential in human sepsis.
Abstract Murine/LPS models of Gram negative sepsis indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has therapeutic potential. We investigated the unknown effect of VIP on JAK/STAT proteins and genes in human monocytes infected with Salmonella Typhimurium 14028. S. Typhimurium 14028 increased expression of both IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNγR1) on monocytes but co-culture of infected monocytes with VIP (10-7 M) only decreased expression of IFNγR1 (P 
Source: Cytokine - February 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Ibrahim H, Askar B, Barrow P, Foster N Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Association of TNF- α but not IL-1β levels with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection increased the risk of peptic ulcer development.
Association of TNF-α but not IL-1β levels with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection increased the risk of peptic ulcer development. Cytokine. 2018 Feb 15;: Authors: Tourani M, Habibzadeh M, Karkhah A, Shokri-Shirvani J, Barari L, Nouri HR Abstract Peptic ulcer is a lesion in the mucosa of the digestive tract affecting many people all around the world. Recent investigations have indicated that produced inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in response to gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori play an important role in the development of peptic ulcer. With regar...
Source: Cytokine - February 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tourani M, Habibzadeh M, Karkhah A, Shokri-Shirvani J, Barari L, Nouri HR Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

The Drosophila cytokine, GBP: A model that illuminates the yin-yang of inflammation and longevity in humans?
Abstract Our laboratories have determined that the Drosophila cytokine, Growth-blocking peptide (GBP), mediates its biological effects through the Mthl10 G-protein coupled receptor. In this Cytokine Stimulus, we discuss the functional plasticity of the GBP/Mthl10 axis, and we propose that conserved components of this regulatory network may be relevant to human health. PMID: 29456061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - February 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Shears SB, Hayakawa Y Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise inhibits obesity-induced respiratory phenotype.
Abstract PURPOSE: Obesity results in decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) reduced lung inflammation and remodeling in a variety of respiratory disease models. Therefore, this study investigated whether AE can attenuate a diet-induced obesity respiratory phenotype; including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), remodeling and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty C57Bl/6 male mice were distributed into four groups: control lean (CL), exercise lean (EL), obese (O) and obese exercise (OE) groups (2 sets of 7 and 8 mice per group; n = 15). A classical model of diet-induced o...
Source: Cytokine - February 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Aquino-Junior JCJ, MacKenzie B, Almeida-Oliveira AR, Martins AC, Oliveira-Junior MC, Britto AA, Arantes-Costa FM, Damaceno-Rodrigues NR, Caldini EG, de Oliveira APL, Guadagnini D, Leiria LO, Ricardo DR, Abdalla Saad MJ, Vieira RP Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Evaluation of the biological activities of the IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, following intravenous versus subcutaneous administration in murine models.
Abstract ALT-803 is a fusion protein complex consisting of an interleukin (IL)-15 superagonist and a dimeric IL-15 receptor alpha sushi domain IgG1 Fc fusion protein. When administered to mice, ALT-803 is capable of inducing natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cell proliferation and activation, and effectively promoting potent anti-tumor responses. Currently, ALT-803 is in clinical trials for treatment of various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In the initial phase of these clinical studies, intravenous (iv) injection was used according to the route used in pre-clinical efficacy studies. In order to evalua...
Source: Cytokine - February 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Liu B, Jones M, Kong L, Noel T, Jeng EK, Shi S, England CG, Alter S, Miller JS, Cai W, Rhode PR, Wong HC Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Effect of tear supplements on signs, symptoms and inflammatory markers in dry eye.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the CGC treatment resulted in the greatest reduction in ocular biomarkers of inflammation, while all 3 treatments reduced symptoms and improved tear stability. These results indicate that subject-perceived symptomatic improvements are not necessarily associated with a reduction in objective measures of inflammation. PMID: 29452970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - February 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Martin E, Oliver KM, Pearce EI, Tomlinson A, Simmons P, Hagan S Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Chemokines beyond chemo-attraction: CXCL10 and its significant role in cancer and autoimmunity.
Abstract Chemokines are mostly known for their chemotactic properties, and less for their ability to direct the biological function of target cells, including T cells. The current review focuses on a key chemokine named CXCL10 and its role in directing the migratory propertied and biological function of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the context of cancer and inflammatory autoimmunity. CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor that is abundant on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells. It has three known ligands: CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. Different studies, including those coming form our laboratory, indicated that aside of attrac...
Source: Cytokine - February 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Karin N, Razon H Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Induction of systemic inflammation by hyaluronan and hsp70 in women with pre-eclampsia.
raçoli MTS Abstract Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a human pregnancy syndrome with abnormal activation of the innate immune response. The study evaluated the involvement of molecular structures called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as hyaluronan (HA) and heat shock proteins (Hsp) on NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes activation in peripheral blood monocytes. Twenty pre-eclamptic women, 20 normotensive pregnant women (NT) and 20 non-pregnant women (NP) were studied. Enzyme immunoassay was employed for the determination of HA, Hsp70 and High mobility group Box 1 (HMGB1) in plasma, as well as for the det...
Source: Cytokine - February 10, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Romão-Veiga M, Matias ML, Ribeiro VR, Nunes PR, M Borges VT, Peraçoli JC, Peraçoli MTS Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

Alteration in the serum concentrations of FGF19, FGFR4 and βKlotho in patients with thyroid cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a disrupted FGF19/FGFR4/βKL signaling pathway may play a role in the development of thyroid cancers. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the neoplastic transition of thyroid epithelial cells. PMID: 29438906 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cytokine)
Source: Cytokine - February 10, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Motylewska E, Stępień T, Borkowska M, Kuzdak K, Siejka A, Komorowski J, Stępień H, Ławnicka H Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research