Interethnic Differences in Serum Lipids
African Americans generally have a healthier lipid profile (lower triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration) compared with those of other ethnicities. Paradoxically, African Americans do not experience a decreased risk of the cardiometabolic diseases that serum lipids are expected to predict. This review explores this mismatch between biomarker and disease among African ancestry individuals by investigating the presence of interethnic differences in the biological relationships underlying the serum lipids –disease association. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - May 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amy R. Bentley, Charles N. Rotimi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Evaluating Health of Emerging Economies Through the Eyes of Heart Valve Disease in  the Transcatheter Era
China and India are the 2 fastest growing major world economies. However, they suffer from great differences in health policies, demographics, and rates of population growth. Whereas China has seen a steep decline in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and a rise in life expectancy, India continues to suffer from a significant burden of RHD due to insufficient distribution of economic prosperity to health care, denser population, and ineffective application of World Health Organization RHD prevention guidelines. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - April 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sameer Arora, Cassandra J. Ramm, Amol A. Bahekar, John P. Vavalle Tags: Review Source Type: research

Youth Engagement for NCD Prevention Policies
Youth are a vital component of global society. Youth, who are considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be anyone between the ages of 15 and 24 years, make up roughly one-fourth of the world's living population [1,2]. Currently, this particular age cohort is the largest in history and in turn has the ability to serve as a catalyst for change that will shape the future of the world's social, economic, and health enterprises [2]. In India, where youth make up 19% of the population, this is especially true and should be acknowledged by the country's government, especially when considering health. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - April 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ishu Kataria, Jennifer L. Cruz Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Is TAVR Ready for the Global Aging Population?
The emergence of the global pandemic of chronic diseases necessitates critical assessment of interventions that can be targeted at both the individual and population levels. Among cardiovascular diseases, the increasing prevalence of valvular heart diseases such as aortic stenosis parallels the rising burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. As an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement, technological innovation has allowed development of minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - April 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Travis Bergmann, Partho P. Sengupta, Jagat Narula Tags: Review Source Type: research

20-Year Trend of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
The World Health Organization and the Government of India have set targets to reduce burden of noncommunicable diseases. Information on population level trend of risk factors would provide insights regarding the possibility of achieving them. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - April 11, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Ambuj Roy, Pradeep A. Praveen, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Ruby Gupta, Ritvik Amarchand, Dimple Kondal, Kalpana Singh, Meenakshi Sharma, Deepak Kumar Shukla, Nikhil Tandon, Kolli Srinath Reddy, Anand Krishnan Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Genetic Effects on the Correlation Structure of  CVD Risk Factors
Plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is highly correlated with several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. It also plays a direct role in CVD, including myocardial infarction and stroke, by impeding the dissolution of thrombi in the blood. Insofar as PAI-1 links CVD's risk factors to its endpoints, genetic variants modulating the relationship between PAI-1 and risk factors may be of particular clinical and biological interest. The high heritability of PAI-1, which has not been explained by genetic association studies, may also, in large part, be due to this relationship with CVD risk fac...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - April 10, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Nuri Kodaman, Rafal S. Sobota, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Matthew T. Oetjens, Jason H. Moore, Nancy J. Brown, Melinda C. Aldrich, Scott M. Williams Tags: Review Source Type: research

Neurological Complications in Subjects With Sickle Cell Disease or Trait
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited single-gene disorder in world, and Africa houses the majority of the patients. In fact, in 2010, 79% of newborns with SCD were in Africa, and this number is expected to increase to 88% by 2050 [1]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - April 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Guida Landour é, Lassana Cissé, Boubacar A. Touré, Abdoulaye Yalcouyé, Toumany Coulibaly, Mamadou Karambé, Adama S. Sissoko, Thomas Coulibaly, Ambroise Wonkam, Cheick O. Guinto, The H3Africa Consortium Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Sex, Ethnicity, and CVD Among Women of African Descent
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for both men and women globally, responsible for approximately 17.9 million deaths each year [1]. CVDs disproportionately affect women and men of color. Black women are more likely to succumb to CVDs than all other Americans and have high rates of other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension [2-4]. These comorbid diseases significantly increase the chances of black women developing CVDs  within a lifetime, adding to the disparity in this population. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Whitney L. Barfield, Cheryl Anne Boyce Tags: Editorial Viewpoint Source Type: research

The WHF Roadmap for Reducing CV Morbidity and Mortality Through Prevention and Control of RHD
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable non-communicable condition that disproportionately affects the world's poorest and most vulnerable. The World Heart Federation Roadmap for improved RHD control is a resource designed to help a variety of stakeholders raise the profile of RHD nationally and globally, and provide a framework to guide and support the strengthening of national, regional and global RHD control efforts. The Roadmap identifies the barriers that limit access to and uptake of proven interventions for the prevention and control of RHD. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Benjamin Palafox, Ana Olga Mocumbi, R. Krishna Kumar, Sulafa K.M. Ali, Elizabeth Kennedy, Abraham Haileamlak, David Watkins, Kadia Petricca, Rosemary Wyber, Patrick Timeon, Jeremiah Mwangi Tags: World Heart Federation Roadmap Source Type: research

The WHF Roadmap for Reducing CV Morbidity and Mortality Through Prevention and Control of Rheumatic Heart Disease
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable non-communicable condition that disproportionately affects the world's poorest and most vulnerable. The World Heart Federation Roadmap for improved RHD control is a resource designed to help a variety of stakeholders raise the profile of RHD nationally and globally, and provide a framework to guide and support the strengthening of national, regional and global RHD control efforts. The Roadmap identifies the barriers that limit access to and uptake of proven interventions for the prevention and control of RHD. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 19, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Benjamin Palafox, Ana Olga Mocumbi, R. Krishna Kumar, Sulafa K.M. Ali, Elizabeth Kennedy, Abraham Haileamlak, David Watkins, Kadia Petricca, Rosemary Wyber, Patrick Timeon, Jeremiah Mwangi Tags: World Heart Federation Roadmap Source Type: research

The Importance of Conducting Stroke Genomics Research in African Ancestry Populations
There is a pronounced health disparity in the burden of stroke between African and European ancestry populations. Compared to European Caucasians, African ancestry populations experience an increased incidence of stroke, a younger age of onset, worse prognosis, and a stronger propensity to the hemorrhagic form of stroke. The contributors to this disparity are multifactorial, but likely include differences between populations in conventional stroke risk factors and socioeconomic factors, and the interplay between these factors and genetic background. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 19, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Huichun Xu, Braxton D. Mitchell, Emmanuel Peprah, Steven J. Kittner, John W. Cole Tags: Review Source Type: research

The Word Heart Federation Roadmap for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
The World Heart Federation has undertaken an initiative to develop a series of Roadmaps to promote development of national policies and health systems approaches, and to identify potential roadblocks on the road to effective prevention, detection, and management of cardiovascular disease in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) and develop strategies for overcoming these. This Roadmap focuses on atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common, clinically significant arrhythmia and, among other clinical outcomes, is associated with increased risk of stroke. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 19, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Adrianna Murphy, Amitava Banerjee, G ünter Breithardt, A. John Camm, Patrick Commerford, Ben Freedman, J. Antonio Gonzalez-Hermosillo, Jonathan L. Halperin, Chu-Pak Lau, Pablo Perel, Denis Xavier, David Wood, Xavier Jouven, Carlos A. Morillo Tags: World Heart Federation Roadmap Source Type: research

The Health Systems Barriers and Facilitators for RHD Prevalence
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important and preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Annesinah H. Moloi, Sumaya Mall, Mark E. Engel, Renae Stafford, Zhang Wan Zhu, Liesl J. Z ühlke, David A. Watkins Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Rheumatic Heart Disease Epidemiology and Health Systems Barriers and Facilitators
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important and preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Annesinah H. Moloi, Sumaya Mall, Mark E. Engel, Renae Stafford, Zhang Wan Zhu, Liesl J. Zuhlke, David A. Watkins Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Identifying Female Community Health Volunteers' Understanding and Motivations About Blood Pressure Control
Health literacy and attitudes of female community health volunteers (FCHV) toward hypertension management in the context of Nepal are not well understood. Therefore, it is important to explore the potential for the effectiveness for blood pressure screening and perceptions on their likely ability to promote a blood pressure reduction at community level. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Dinesh Neupane, Craig S. McLachlan, Shiva R. Mishra, Per Kallestrup Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Availability, Use, and Barriers to Cardiac Rehabilitation in LMIC
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a cornerstone of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease. It is critically important in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where the burden of ischemic heart disease is substantial and growing. However, the availability and utilization of CR in LMIC is not systematically known. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Loheetha Ragupathi, Judy Stribling, Yuliya Yakunina, Valentin Fuster, Mary Ann McLaughlin, Rajesh Vedanthan Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Feasibility of Using Mobile ECG Recording Technology to Detect Atrial Fibrillation in Low-Resource Settings
Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF), a major risk factor for stroke that is on the rise in Africa, is becoming increasingly critical. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Grahame F. Evans, Arianna Shirk, Peter Muturi, Elsayed Z. Soliman Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome in Congenital Heart Defects
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is amongst the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Its prevalence remains unknown in sub-Saharan Africa, and its clinical features are under-reported for people of African descent. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Ambroise Wonkam, Ricardo Toko, David Chelo, Cedrik Tekendo-Ngongang, Samuel Kingue, Sophie Dahoun Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Structure-Based Analysis of Single Nucleotide Variants in the Renin-Angiotensinogen Complex
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and controlling sodium levels in the blood. Hyperactivity of this system has been linked to numerous conditions including hypertension, kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. As such, various classes of drugs have been developed to inhibit this system. These drugs are aimed at preventing angiotensin II from performing its function by inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: David K. Brown, Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Özlem Tastan Bishop Tags: Review Source Type: research

Genomics Research for a New Age
Cardiometabolic diseases are major contributors to mortality and morbidity, and their burden displays global and regional disparities. Gene-environment interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Population differences in genetic structure, ancient environmental pressures that shape the human genome, and early life environmental adversities (e.g., in utero conditions) all contribute to observed disparities in global cardiometabolic diseases. The genetic and sociocultural diversity of global populations presents opportunities for discovering genomic loci that influence cardiometabolic diseases a...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Emmanuel Peprah Tags: Review Source Type: research

Role of Structural Bioinformatics in Drug Discovery by Computational SNP Analysis
With the completion of the human genome project at the beginning of the 21st century, the biological sciences entered an unprecedented age of data generation, and made its first steps toward an era of personalized medicine. This abundance of sequence data has led to the proliferation of numerous sequence-based techniques for associating variation with disease, such as genome-wide association studies and candidate gene association studies. However, these statistical methods do not provide an understanding of the functional effects of variation. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: David K. Brown, Özlem Tastan Bishop Tags: Review Source Type: research

Can We Better Understand the Evolutionary Biology of CVD From Analysis of Ancestral Population Genomes?
Understanding the evolutionary history of human adaptation is essential to understanding human biology today. Humans went through several stages of evolution in the past 40,000 years showing remarkable variations both within and between populations in a number of phenotypic traits, such as pigmentation, height, food preference/diet, heat tolerance and cold stress responses, and susceptibility to communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This diversity that exists in modern-day humans is a culmination of genetic, environmental, and cultural adaptations that have occurred under various selective pressures acting over differ...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Muntaser Ibrahim, Maha Osman, Emmanuel Peprah Tags: Editorial Viewpoint Source Type: research

RF and RHD Research
“The future is already here — it's just not very evenly distributed.”—William Gibson (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: George A. Mensah, Michael M. Engelgau Tags: Perspectives From NHLBI Source Type: research

Moving Forward the RHD Agenda at Global and National Levels
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a persistent threat to the health of children and working-age adults in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although at the global level significant progress has been made on RHD mortality since 1990, a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Oceania have been left behind with persistently high mortality rates [1]. More than 30 million people around the world are currently living with RHD [2], and nearly all of them are in countries with weak health systems that offer poor coverage of secondary prevention measures and low access to advanced medical and surg...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David A. Watkins, Liesel J. Z ühlke, Jagat Narula Tags: Editor ’s Page Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Can We Eliminate Rheumatic Fever and Premature Deaths From RHD?
It is estimated that 32.9 million individuals experience rheumatic heart disease (RHD) globally, with about 275,000 deaths occurring each year. The majority of cases occur in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost from RHD is estimated to be about 9.5 million, with the majority being in low- and middle-income countries (this burden is similar to that of acute leukemia). Between 2000 and 2012, the number of deaths from RHD declined by 9% (from 372,000 to 337,000) and DALYs declined 6% (from 14.3 million to 11.9 million) globally [1]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - March 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Salim Yusuf, Jagat Narula, Habib Gamra Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool for Planning RHD Control Programs in Limited Resource Settings
We present a RHD Needs Assessment Tool (NAT) that can be used at country or regional levels to systematically develop and plan comprehensive RHD control programs and to provide baseline data for program monitoring and evaluation. The RHD NAT follows a mixed-methods approach using quantitative and qualitative data collection instruments. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - February 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Liesl J. Z ühlke, David A. Watkins, Susan Perkins, Rosemary Wyber, Jeremiah Mwangi, Joanna Markbreiter, Hlengiwe S. Moloi, Mark E. Engel, Thembikile Shato, Tayla Hermanus, Jantina DeVries, Clancy Read Tags: Innovations and Concepts Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool for Planning Rheumatic Heart Disease Control Programs in Limited Resource Settings
We present a RHD Needs Assessment Tool (NAT) that can be used at country or regional levels to systematically develop and plan comprehensive RHD control programs and to provide baseline data for program monitoring and evaluation. The RHD NAT follows a mixed-methods approach using quantitative and qualitative data collection instruments. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - February 27, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Liesl J. Z ühlke, David A. Watkins, Susan Perkins, Rosemary Wyber, Jeremiah Mwangi, Joanna Markbreiter, Hlengiwe S. Moloi, Mark E. Engel, Thembikile Shato, Tayla Hermanus, Jantina DeVries, Clancy Read Tags: Innovations and Concepts Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Community Health Workers in CVD Prevention in LMIC
Community health workers (CHW) may be effective in tackling the burden of cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This review examines whether CHWs can improve the identification and control of cardiovascular risk factors in LMIC. We searched for studies that used CHW as a basis for cardiovascular risk factor management. Our search yielded 11 articles that targeted cardiovascular risk factor assessment, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, diet and physical activity. There were 4 randomized controlled trials, 3 quasi-experimental studies, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 1 retrospective analysis. (Sou...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - December 15, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aditya K. Khetan, Raghunandan Purushothaman, Tarek Chami, Vittal Hejjaji, Sri Krishna Madan Mohan, Richard A. Josephson, Allison R. Webel Tags: Review Source Type: research

The Need for Brazil to Focus on CVD
Over the last 5 decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in Brazil. This epidemiological scenario is closely related to lifestyle changes due to urbanization, globalization, and population aging along with the increase in life expectancy in the Brazilian population [1]. In 2011, a total of 384,615 deaths were attributed to CVD in Brazil, after correction for under-reporting and poorly defined causes, which correspond to 31% of all deaths. Among CVD deaths, 31% were related to coronary heart disease, 30% to cerebrovascular disease, 14% to hypertension, and 18% to other causes [2]. (Source: C...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Diandro Mota, Ant ônio Cordeiro Mattos, Gustavo Oliveira, Alvaro Avezum Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

USAID: Standing By on NCD
For more than 50 years, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided steadfast and generous support and leadership for global health. USAID's leadership has contributed to dramatic reductions in maternal and child deaths, broadened the reach of family planning services, transformed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) into a chronic disease, helped to nearly eliminate polio, and delivered lifesaving innovations to millions worldwide. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paul Holmes Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Tackling Chronic Disease in the Gulf Region
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries together form one of the wealthiest regions in the world. Rapid urbanization and modernization has led to unprecedented increases in lifestyle-related disease. World Health Organization (WHO) data show that obesity rates for most of the GCC countries fall within the top 10 globally [1]. The highest is Kuwait at 43%, with the other GCC countries ranging between 33% and 35%; Oman is the exception with a rate similar to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) mean at 22% [2]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cother Hajat Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Community Health Workers: An Underappreciated Asset to Tackle NCD
With continued undernutrition and escalating overnutrition, urbanization, and resource-strapped health systems, nations —particularly those in the low- and middle-income brackets—are facing the harsh reality of a growing double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) [1,2]. The dearth of a skilled health workforce is a principal concern when it comes to tackling these challenges, as health care systems and health care training programs are set up to respond to acute care needs and struggle to deliver prevention and care for chronic conditions [3,4]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jordan D. Jarvis, Ishu Kataria, Mellany Murgor, Lilian Mbau Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Mexico's Commitment to Global Health
In Mexico, cardiovascular disease has been a primary public health concern since the late 1990s because it is the leading cause of premature and preventable death. Containment of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) is a priority for the health sector, given the growing impact on the working-age population. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Erick Alex ánderson, Edgar Illescas, Daniel Sierra Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Chronic Disease in India
Sixteen million people died prematurely (under 70 years) due to noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in 2012 —3.4 million in India alone, the highest in the world. Although total NCD mortality was much higher in China—8.6 vis-à-vis 5.9 million in India—only 36% of it was premature compared to 58% in India [1]. Within a decade, chronic diseases will overwhelm health systems in India—89% of total m ortality would be concentrated in the 30+ year age group (author's calculation from the World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision for 2025 to 2030 using medium fertility variant) [2]. (Source: CVD...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ali Mehdi Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Has There Been Adequate Progress in Addressing the NCD Epidemic in LMIC?
Comprehensive strategies for the successful prevention and control of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) epidemic need to encompass laws and regulations, tax and  price interventions, improvement of the built environment, advocacy, mass media, community- and workplace-based interventions, risk screening, and clinical interventions [1]. Such strategies create an enabling environment that facilitates the adoption and maintenance of healthy behaviors, promotes early detection and management of NCD victims and those at high risk, helps avert the acquisition and augmentation of NCD risk in the population as a whole, and red...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nasheeta Peer, Andre P. Kengne Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

A Global Social Network to Catalyze Solutions for Chronic NCD
When it comes to dealing with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD), we all have our own knowledge, experiences, and personal stories. Yet, these diseases as well as their causes and solutions connect us all together in many complex ways through the social networks we belong to. Defined as a collection of both people and the connections between these people, social networks can employ the power of relationships to solve problems [1]. Each individual's outreach is expanded through social networks, and opportunities for learning are increased [2]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jordan D. Jarvis, Eric Obscherning, Karen Siegel, Sandeep P. Kishore Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

A Platform to Accelerate Global Reductions in Chronic Diseases
Addressing the increasing burden of chronic and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), will demand innovative action that cuts across political, social, and health systems. NCD initiatives remain underfunded and underprioritized at global and national levels, exacerbating vulnerabilities to NCDs' rising human and fiscal toll, for both health systems and households [1]. Private foundations have largely untapped capacity to achieve high impact in effectively addressing NCD, especially in LMIC, by investing in platforms to improve and coordinate action on health challe...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samuel G. Ruchman, Sandeep P. Kishore, Prabhjot Singh Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

The Role of the Private Sector in Tilting Health Systems Toward Chronic Disease Prevention
Over the last century, the global disease burden has undergone a dramatic transformation. Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) —including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes—are now the leading cause of mortality in the world, accounting for 60% of all deaths globally. Although this shift is partially attributable to medical and public health advances addressing infectious diseases in the 20th century, many developing countries face the double burden of persisting communicable disease and rising NCD. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sarah Kunkle, Gillian Christie, Cother Hajat, Derek Yach Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Can the Success of HIV Scale-Up Advance the Global Chronic NCD Agenda?
Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide but have received suboptimal attention and funding from the global health community. Although the first United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) for NCD in 2011 aimed to stimulate donor funding and political action, only 1.3% of official development assistance for health was allocated to NCD in 2015, even less than in 2011. In stark contrast, the UNGASS on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2001 sparked billions of dollars in funding for HIV and enabled millions of HIV-infe...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anton M. Palma, Miriam Rabkin, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Pido Bongomin, Nomthandazo Lukhele, Xolisile Dlamini, Altaye Kidane, Wafaa M. El-Sadr Tags: Review Source Type: research

Combating Chronic Diseases
The complexity of disorders bundled under the term chronic diseases and the association with aging populations and high financial costs make policy makers in many low-  and middle-income countries (LMIC) unenthusiastic about addressing noncommunicable diseases (NSD). Ministries of Health in most LMIC are under-resourced and lack capacity to provide strategic leadership to the whole-of-government efforts required to meaningfully address NSD. The challenge of addre ssing NSD in such settings is made worse by fragile health systems geared mainly to address infectious diseases. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shanthi Mendis Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

How Can Progress on Global Tobacco Control Inform Progress on NCD?
Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland's appointment as Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 led to a stronger global focus on tobacco control, and eventually, all noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and mental health. Since the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2003, global health has turned toward addressing all NCD. I pose 2  questions. 1) What lessons can we apply from the WHO FCTC development and implementation processes to broader aspects of NCD prevention and control? 2) In retrospect, what could we have done better? I also propose 3 lessons: 1) it takes a broad-based al...
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Derek Yach Tags: Review Source Type: research

Why Did North Karelia —Finland Work?
Successful prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the North Karelia Project and Finland has drawn international attention, particularly as cardiovascular diseases and more generally noncommunicable diseases have become the leading cause of premature mortality in the world. The questions have often been asked about what were the main reasons for success and whether or not the experience could be transferred elsewhere. The main lesson is that the possibilities and potential of cardiovascular prevention are great. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Pekka Puska Tags: Review Source Type: research

Global Chronic Disease
“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.”—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe [1] (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: John Gordon Harold, Neal Kovach, William A. Zoghbi Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Leveraging Digital Health for Global Chronic Diseases
Management of chronic diseases requires effective modalities for screening, prevention, and treatment of these conditions. At the core of chronic disease management is the need to effectively use health information for decision-making. In general, when the right information is  availed to the right person at the right time, the right decisions will likely be made. Digital technologies offer the potential to significantly transform delivery of chronic disease care by putting the power of information in the hands of patients, providers, and decision makers. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Martin C. Were, Jemima H. Kamano, Rajesh Vedanthan Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

And Why So Great a “No?”
Chronic diseases are the dominant issues for global public health in terms of mortality, morbidity, and cost, and they have been identified as such for>40 years. Despite their predominance, however, these diseases —cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, cancer, pulmonary disease, mental health, and dementia—attract little attention in the public health curriculum and even less from the funding community. We explore the rationales that have perpetuated this inability or unwillingness to match need with ef fort. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Henry Greenberg, Stephen R. Leeder, Susan U. Raymond Tags: Review Source Type: research

Chronic Disease Challenges in the Caribbean
The first summit in the world to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD) was convened by leaders of  the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) in 2007. The resulting 15-point Port of Spain (POS) Declaration, “Uniting to stop the epidemic of chronic NCDs,” called for Caribbean governments to take actions and implement policies to prevent and control NCD [1]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Trevor Hassell, Anselm Hennis Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Polypill: Can its Potential Enhancement of Efficacy Trigger New Interest?
Heralded as “one of the boldest claims for a new intervention” [1], the concept of the polypill was first introduced in 2003 by Professors Nicholas Wald and Malcolm Law [2]. Conceived as a pill containing 3 blood pressure–lowering drugs from various classes, aspirin, statin, and folic acid, the polypill w as designed for 2 population types: all individuals with established cardiovascular disease (CVD), and because the relative risk for cardiovascular (CV) events increases linearly with age, all individuals without CVD but older than age 55 years. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jennifer Chao, Sameer Bansilal Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Confronting Global Chronic Disease
Schools of public health were founded exactly 100  years ago in response to the Rockefeller Commission's Welch-Rose Report, which called for creation of new academic institutions that would be responsible for developing the science and evidence base as to how to keep populations healthy and prevent disease, disability, and injury; educate the futu re leaders and practitioners in the field; and work in partnership with policy and practice sectors to translate the evidence into advances in health for all [1]. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Linda P. Fried Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

New Partnerships to Advance Global Health Research for NCD
Strategic partnerships are crucial for advancing health and health research, especially in the global arena [1 –3]. One form of these partnerships is the public-private partnership (PPP) that brings together researchers from the public and private sectors as well as stakeholders from civil society with complementary skills, resources, and a common mission to advance global health. However, it was not until the 1990s that public-private partnerships (PPP) in global health emerged [4]. Since that time, PPPs have proliferated [3] and so have their functions and goals. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - November 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: George A. Mensah Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research