Giardia-Host Interactions In Vitro: 2015 –2020 Review
This article reviews a collection of recent studies to provide an overview of the advances that have been made over the past 5 years (2015 –2020) in establishing a stronger understanding of the molecular basis ofGiardia-host interactions, with a particular emphasis on the use of in vitro techniques.Recent FindingsThe outcome of pathogen-host association produced several effector mechanisms critical to parasite survival/replication and to control of infection by the host. These included differential gene expression, regulation of the intestinal barrier function (expression/location of tight junction proteins, mucus tu...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - July 23, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Refugee Health During COVID-19 and Future Pandemics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis commentary summarizes recent literature pertaining to healthcare challenges and needs during the current pandemic among refugees and asylum seekers residing in a host country. We conducted a literature review to identify barriers to shielding these structurally marginalized populations from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.Recent FindingsMany populations, including refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers, endure structural vulnerabilities in refugee camps and during their resettlement. These structural vulnerabilities include fear of contacting the healthcare system, cultural differences, ho...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - July 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Contribution of Research in the West Indies and Northeast Amazonia to Knowledge of the 2014 –2015 Chikungunya Epidemic in the Americas
The objective of this review is to describe the contributions of research on chikungunya virus infection gained from epidemic in the West Indies and the Guiana Shield.Recent FindingsPrevalence data were similar to those found in the Indian Ocean or Asia during epidemics. Clinically, there is now a better understanding of the typical, atypical, and severe forms. Several studies have insisted on the presence of neurological forms of chikungunya infection, such as encephalitis or Guillain –Barré syndrome. Cases of septic shock due to chikungunya virus as well as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura were described ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - June 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Biotechnological Application of Animal Toxins as Potential Treatments for Diabetes and Obesity
This article aims to review the applications of proteic and non-proteic venom compounds with a positive effect on these conditions and their mechanisms of ac tion.Recent FindingsPreclinical studies have shown new compounds with effects on molecular targets of clinical interest. Furthermore, some of these venom components have ended up in the development of novel medications such as Byetta.SummaryAnimal toxins constitute a promising source of new treatments. Even though further research is needed to unravel new mechanisms of action and evaluate their safety. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - June 1, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Human Q Fever on the Guiana Shield and Brazil: Recent Findings and Remaining Questions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we report on the state of knowledge about human Q fever in Brazil and on the Guiana Shield, an Amazonian region located in northeastern South America. There is a contrast between French Guiana, where the incidence of this disease is the highest in the world, and other countries where this disease is practically non-existent.Recent FindingsRecent findings are essentially in French Guiana where a unique strain MST17 has been identified; it is probably more virulent than those usually found with a particularly marked pulmonary tropism, a mysterious animal reservoir, a geographical dist...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - June 1, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Mitigating the Impacts of COVID-19 on Global Child Health: a Call to Action
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues to affect individuals, communities, and health systems worldwide. Here, we highlight how COVID-19 threatens to jeopardize the tremendous gains made over the last few decades on improving children ’s health globally.Recent FindingsIn contrast to adults, children with COVID-19 are less likely to develop severe disease requiring hospitalization or die as a direct result of infection. However, the pandemic will likely have other important health impacts disproportionately affe...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Is There Any Relationship Between Helicobacter pylori and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo determine if there is a relationship betweenHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Recent FindingsH. pylori is a bacterium that affects almost 50% of the world population. New information shows that it may have a relationship with metabolic disorders. This relationship might be induced by regulation of adipokines and hormones, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. Contrasting, there has been reported weight gain after the eradication treatment.SummaryThere is a strong relationship betweenH. pylori ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cutaneous Larva Migrans
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarized information regarding a neglected parasitic infection by zoonotic helminths that cause the cutaneous larva migrans, especiallyA. braziliense,A. caninum andUncinaria stenocephala, among other associated or potentially linked to cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), a paratenic infection.Recent FindingsAlthough there has been an increase in the number of publications on CLM over the last decades, this is still a neglected condition among tropical diseases, with not more than 350 papers per year combined in databases such as PubMed. Although the disease is considered a limited d...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 3, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D Status: Can It Affect the Risk of Infection and the Severity of COVID-19 Symptoms?
This article aims to determine the role and effect of vitamin D serum concentration in the prevalence and severity of COVID-19.Recent FindingsSeveral observational studies have demonstrated that suboptimal levels of vitamin D serum concentrations can significantly increase the risk of developing COVID-19 and lead to a more severe symptomatology. One study suggests, however, that supplementation of vitamin D could potentially increase the incidence of mortality in COVID-19 patients.SummaryVitamin D status could have an influential role in the development and progression of SARS-CoV2 infection. Further studies are warranted ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 31, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Re-opening Sudan: the Balance Between Maintaining Daily Living and Avoiding the Next Peak of COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo describe the intersectionality of healthcare and economy, and potential solutions to prevent the next peak of COVID-19 in Sudan.Recent FindingsSudan has recently emerged from a 30-year dictatorship to face the COVID-19 pandemic in the midst of the worst economic crisis. Disease control measures that have been used in developed countries have been difficult to implement in Sudan due to economic, social, and structural challenges. There is a need for integration of data into the disease response plan and for community engagement to help with mitigation efforts. Youth-led community organization...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

An Aspect of Kumbh Mela Massive Gathering and COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewKumbh Mela, a religious gathering of Hindus held in India, is the largest massive gathering event in the world. The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented healthcare crisis in recent times with effects reverberating in all spheres of human lives. India has registered the second highest number of COVID-19 cases. This paper aims to dwell in the religious and social background ofKumbh Mela massive gathering, as well as the ritualistic practices that could potentially entail public health risks in the current situation. It also aims to identify possible preparatory and interventional measures to evade s...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cutaneous Mycobacterial Infections in Returning Travelers
This study mainly aims to elucidate the modes of transmission and on nonspecific clinical manifestations for making an early diagnosis and preventing severe complications.Recent FindingsNon-tuberculous mycobacteria live in our environment. For example,Mycobacterium marinum andMycobacterium haemophilum are acquired through aquatic exposure;Mycobacterium tuberculosis andMycobacterium bovis by consumption of contaminated dairy products, fruits, or vegetables, and rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria are associated with medical tourism and, especially, cosmetic surgery, which is more frequent in women with an average a...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 23, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

A Review of Leishmaniasis: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
This article reviews newer leishmaniasis tests (including rapid diagnostic tests using rK39 antibodies), vaccine candidates, and updated treatment recommendations.SummaryWhile leishmaniasis is a complex disease, learning the prominent clinical manifestations and major parasite species can guide the recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 17, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV): A Silent but Widespread Threat
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is aimed at highlighting recent research and articles on the complicated relationship between virus, vector, and host and how biosurveillance at each level informs disease spread and risk.Recent FindingsWhile human cases of CCHFV and tick identification in non-endemic areas in 2019 –2020 were reported to sites such as ProMed, there is a gap in recent published literature on these and broader CCHFV surveillance efforts from the late 2010s.SummaryA review of the complex aspects of CCHFV maintenance in the environment coupled with high fatality rate and lack of vaccines and therapeut...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Scrub Typhus: an Update*
This article expounds current understanding of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and control.Recent FindingsIt is a zoonotic disease caused by several strains of the rickettsial bacteriumOrientia tsutsugamushi and is spread by the bite of larvae ofLeptotrombidium mites. Until recent times, the disease was confined to rural areas in the “tsutsugamushi triangle,” but now it is reported beyond it also. Pathogenesis involves endothelial injury with consequent vasculitis and systemic inflammatory response. It presents as fever with or without a wide range of complications. Multiorgan dysfunc...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 25, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Myiasis and Tungiasis
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewIn this review, we summarized information regarding two neglected parasitic infestations by arthropods belonging to order Diptera and the order Siphonaptera, causing myiasis and tungiasis, respectively.Recent FindingsAlthough there has been an increase in the number of publications on myiasis and tungiasis, over the last decades, these are still neglected conditions among the tropical disease, with not more 200 papers per year combined, in databases such as PubMed. Besides that, these are problems that disproportionally affect the more vulnerable populations in the world.SummaryBoth myiasis and...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 23, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Arbovirus Rash in the Febrile Returning Traveler as a Diagnostic Clue
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to describe briefly the general information of arboviruses dengue, Zika, and chikungunya infections and emphasize the clinical manifestations of each, to help identify and make a quick diagnosis of each.Recent FindingsThe most relevant advances in the study of these arboviruses ’ infections have been in the epidemiological distribution, mainly due to international travel, migration, and climate change; in the clinical manifestations of these diseases, the development of clinical decision-making software, which can help improve the management and outcomes of these patient s; a...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Common Dermatologic Conditions in Returning Travelers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTravel medicine practitioners often are confronted with returning travelers with dermatologic disorders that could be of infectious causes or inflammatory or allergic. Some dermatologic processes are the result of exposure to insects or acquired due to environmental exposures. There is a broad range of dermatosis of infectious and non-infectious etiologies that clinicians need to consider in the differential diagnosis of dermatosis in travelersRecent FindingsWith increasing international travel to tropical destinations, many individuals may be exposed to rickettsia (i.e., African tick bite fever, s...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Dermatologic Manifestations of Tick-borne Diseases in Travelers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInternational and domestic travelers may acquire a wide variety of infectious diseases transmitted by exposure to insects. Exposure to ticks may be associated with systemic infections clinically suspected through skin and soft tissue manifestations along with fever, myalgia, headache, and other related symptoms. Cutaneous lesions may include eschars at the site of initial contact, maculopapular rashes, or others as the result of systemic dissemination of viral, Rickettsial, parasitic, and protozoan infections acquired by exposure to different types of ticks.Recent findingsTicks represent the second...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Soil-Transmitted Helminths in the USA: a Review of Five Common Parasites and Future Directions for Avenues of Enhanced Epidemiologic Inquiry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to present a comprehensive look at five intestinal soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) of global health importance that may continue to plague low-income and rural areas of the USA and argue the need for enhanced surveillance of these infections, which primarily affect the nation ’s most vulnerable groups.Recent FindingsHuman STH infections in middle- and high-income countries are at particular risk for being undiagnosed; as common symptoms are non-specific, differentials require a high index of clinical suspicion, and cases are concentrated in areas of poverty where a...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Pediatric Cerebral Malaria
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMalaria is the most important parasitic disease of humankind. Cerebral malaria is malaria ’s deadliest clinical manifestation and has a profound public health impact in endemic areas. In Africa, it is primarily a disease of childhood. Here we review recent updates in research into cerebral malaria pathogenesis, clinical care, treatment, and prevention.Recent FindingsMalaria incidence is declining world-wide, though most of the decreases occurred prior to 2014. Clinically, highly increased brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging is strongly associated with mortality in children with cerebra...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 25, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Host-Pathogen Molecular Factors Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Rhizopus spp. in Diabetes Mellitus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfectious diseases represent up to 12% of all deaths in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). The development and progression of DM generate a chronic inflammatory state with unique characteristics that have been exploited by some pathogens; one of them isRhizopus spp., a fungus considered the causative agent of mucormycosis. This disease has a poor prognosis with high mortality rates, and the apparition of resistant isolates each year has become a worrying concern. DM is an actual and continuing health problem, and for that reason, it is of foremost importance to study the pathogenesis of mucormyco...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiological Attributes of Candida Species in Tropical Regions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlobal burden associated with the growing incidence of fungal infections poses as a serious threat especially in developing countries. Several local surveillance programs have already been established to follow the epidemiological characteristics ofCandida infections; however, these programs often only focused on broadly researched regions, like Europe, North America, and certain Asian countries. Therefore, the need to evaluate epidemiological data is high in less studied regions, for example in the tropical climate zone countries, especially since the number of fungal infections is generally descr...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Malaria in the USA: How Vulnerable Are We to Future Outbreaks?
This article aims to reviewAnopheles mosquito data, vector-borne disease outbreak preparedness, and human travel data from large international gateway cities in an effort to examine risk for localized outbreaks.Recent FindingsThe majority of vector control organizations are widely unprepared for a vector-borne disease outbreak, and multiple mosquito species capable of transmitting malaria continue to persist throughout the USA.SummaryDespite the lack of recent autochthonous cases in the USA, multiple risk factors suggest that local malaria outbreaks in the USA will continue to pose a public health threat due to large numbe...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Poverty, Migration, and Chagas Disease
This article aims to review the different variables involved in the persistence of the different routes of transmission in endemic and non-endemic countries.Recent FindingsDespite the efforts made by the governments of Latin American countries to control Chagas disease under the coordination of the World Health Organization (WHO)/Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), there are still extensive areas where vector transmission is present due to different causes: colonization fronts and land-use change, human migration, deforestation, mining and industrial crops, among others. In the same way, the increase in environmental ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

What Will Happen to Biomedical Research in Low-and-Middle Income Countries in the PostCOVID-19 World?
AbstractScientific research is essential for a nation ’s development and is vital for generating solutions to population’s health. Individual country’s capacities to prevent and respond to public health issues, including health crises, is built with long-term investment in highly qualified professionals, infrastructure, and uninterrupted operatin g funding. Most Latin American countries, especially those at the bottom of the human development list, have limited capacity even though they are hot spots for tropical and other emerging infectious diseases. This weakness deepens these countries’ dependen...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

“Feast-Fit-Fist-Feat”: Overview of Free-living Amoeba Interactions with Fungi and Virulence as a Foundation for Success in Battle
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFree-living amoebae (FLAs) are ubiquitous and can co-habit similar niches and interact with fungi. Herein, we discuss theories on FLAs and the origin, evolution, and conservation of fungal virulence, proposing the “feast-fit-fist-feat” hypothesis that covers the knowledge on FLA-fungi interactions, and could be extended during evolutionarily host escalation. Overall, by bridling this selective pressure, fungi might return to environment and by serendipity, infect superior hosts. The selected traits might grant the fungus with an enhanced capacity to cause damage, or virulence. The funga...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Subcutaneous Mycoses in Travelers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe increase in international travel in recent decades has contributed to the risk of acquiring diseases considered endemic to a region or country and the change in the epidemiology of these diseases. Endemic mycoses that may be acquired by travelers in the short or long term are endemic subcutaneous mycoses such as sporotrichosis and lobomycosis, while endemic systemic mycoses are a group of serious diseases including histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis. Herein, we review the current knowledge and highlight the most important aspects of these fungal infections in travelers.Recent FindingsThe mos...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in Latin America: the Need for Multidisciplinary Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute respiratory infections of viral etiology (ARIVE) constitute one of the most frequent infectious processes among humans. They cause significant morbidity and mortality every year in all age groups and regions of the world. Their etiology is diverse, and seasonal viruses began their journey, at some point, with an episode of expansion before their annual circulation as seasonal agents. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge for Latin America. Understanding dynamics is essential for decision making, to reduce the health, economic, and social impacts of the pandemic.Recen...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings and COVID-19 Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe discuss the risk of COVID-19 in religious mass gathering events including Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages.Recent FindingsThe risk of transmission of respiratory viruses including COVID-19 is particularly high due to the overcrowding conditions at the Hajj and Umrah. The profile of the Hajj pilgrims who tend to be older and with multiple comorbidities corresponds to that of individuals at risk for severe COVID-19. In order to avoid a COVID-19 outbreak with potential spreading to many countries through returning pilgrims, Saudi Arabia suspended the Umrah, and access to the 2020 Hajj was very limited.Su...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The Tokyo Olympic Games and the Risk of COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed the occurrence of outbreaks at past Olympics and discuss the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic at the Tokyo Games.Recent FindingsEvidence for large respiratory tract infection outbreaks at past Olympics is scant. Nevertheless, in order to control the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Tokyo 2020 Olympics were postponed for 2021. Given the high contagiousness of the disease and the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Japan, this decision was appropriate and important in order to safeguard athletes and the public. However, it is a major problem for Japan, involving massive financial losses and a ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: The Placenta and Plasmodium Infections: a Case Study from Blue Nile State, Sudan
The article The Placenta andPlasmodium Infections: a Case Study from Blue Nile State, Sudan, written by Samia A. Omer and Suad M. Sulaiman, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on October 03, 2020, with open access. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The Placenta and Plasmodium Infections: a Case Study from Blue Nile State, Sudan
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSequestration ofPlasmodium-infected cells in the placenta causes significant adverse effects on mothers and their fetuses. With progress in understanding placental malaria and associated adverse consequences, this review addresses the situation in an area with high prevalence, in Blue Nile State, Sudan, where protective interventions are not adequately provided.Recent FindingsSeveral studies have confirmed that malaria infection during pregnancy with parasites in the placenta, even at sub-patent level detected by molecular techniques, can result in maternal morbidity, fetal growth restriction, and ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Genomic Epidemiology and Recent Update on Nucleic Acid –Based Diagnostics for COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe SARS-CoV-2 genome has been sequenced and the data is made available in the public domain. Molecular epidemiological investigators have utilized this information to elucidate the origin, mode of transmission, and contact tracing of SARS-CoV-2. The present review aims to highlight the recent advancements in the molecular epidemiological studies along with updating recent advancements in the molecular (nucleic acid based) diagnostics for COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.Recent FindingsEpidemiological studies with the integration of molecular genetics principles and tools are now main...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Placental Malaria
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPlacental malaria is the primary mechanism through which malaria in pregnancy causes adverse perinatal outcomes. This review summarizes recent work on the significance, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of placental malaria.Recent FindingsPlacental malaria, characterized by the accumulation ofPlasmodium-infected red blood cells in the placental intervillous space, leads to adverse perinatal outcomes such as stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age neonates. Placental inflammatory responses may be primary drivers of these complications. Associated factors cont...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: COVID-19: Biosafety in the Intensive Care Unit
The original version of this article contained mistake where the article category was captured in the author group. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Placenta, Trypanosoma cruzi , and Congenital Chagas Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhy around 5% ofTrypanosoma cruzi–infected pregnant women transmit the parasite to their offspring whereas 95% do not? Answers to this main question are needed in order to improve the programs aiming to control or eliminate congenital Chagas disease (CCD), which has become an important global public health problem.Recent FindingsTurnover of syncitiotrophoblast as a new innate defense mechanism of placenta and analyses of transcriptomic responses of placental genes and of new parasite DNA sequences have allowed a re-evaluation of the relationship between parasite diversity, placental tropism, ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

COVID-19: Biosafety in the Intensive Care Unit
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCOVID-19 is a new, highly transmissible disease to which healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). Information related to protection mechanisms is heterogeneous, and the infected HCWs ’ number is increasing. This review intends to summarize the current knowledge and practices to protect ICU personnel during the patient management process in the context of the current pandemic.Recent FindingsThe transmission mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 are mainly respiratory droplets, aerosols, and contact. The virus can last for a few hours suspended in the air and be vi...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Global COVID-19 Efforts as the Platform to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this commentary, we summarize and put into perspective the recent information that highlights the associations between coronavirus disease and poverty. We also bring attention to another dimension that will most likely exacerbate the severity and long-term sequelae of COVID-19 in impoverished populations, that is, the comorbidities and the presence of tropical infections.Recent FindingsDuring this first half of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a poverty-related neglected disease on at least two fronts. First, is its significant impact in low-income neighborhoods in the USA, the epicent...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - August 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, and Influenza: How Are They Connected?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo better understand the impact of obesity and cardiovascular diseases on influenza A infection.Recent FindingsThis infection could have detrimental outcomes in obese patients with cardiovascular diseases, such as an increased risk, length of hospitalization, disease severity, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, there also might be some cardioprotective benefits associated with influenza vaccination, such as a reduced mortality, hospitalization, and acute coronary syndromes, in patients with coronary heart disease and/or heart failure.SummaryObesity negatively impacts immune function and host d...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - July 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Leprosy Transmission in Amazonian Countries: Current Status and Future Trends
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLeprosy is one of the first pathologies described in the history of mankind. However, the ecology, transmission, and pathogenicity of the incriminated bacilli remain poorly understood. Despite effective treatment freely distributed worldwide since 1995, around 200,000 new cases continue to be detected yearly, mostly in the tropics. This review aims to discuss the unique characteristics of leprosy in Amazonian countries, which exhibit a very heterogeneous prevalence among human and animal reservoirs.Recent FindingsGroundbreaking discoveries made in the last 15  years have challenged the dogmas ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Global Trends in Genetic Markers of Pediculus humanus capitis Resistance Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHead lice infestations remain an important public health problem, albeit poorly defined in most endemic countries. Reports of increasing resistance to first-line treatment have renewed scientific research into this neglected ectoparasitosis. Mapping and understanding resistance mechanisms are essential for the development of more effective treatments, as well as for prolonging the life of existing pediculicides. This review aims to synthetize recent data on the type, frequency, and distribution of genetic mutations associated with head lice resistance to chemical treatments.Recent FindingsHead lice...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Tracing New Clinical Manifestations in Patients with COVID-19 in Chile and Its Potential Relationship with the SARS-CoV-2 Divergence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we discuss the current implications of the changing genomic epidemiology of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its potential relationship with the change of clinical manifestations in patients with confirmed infection.Recent FindingsOver the course of the current pandemic, the virus has been found more diverse in new countries. Simultaneously, also new clinical manifestations are observed, particularly more prominent gastrointestinal and neurological findings.SummarySARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Bothrops Snakebite Envenomings in the Amazon Region
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSnakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease with a high burden in the Amazon basin. Our review aimed to give information about the epidemiology and the management of SB in the Amazon region.Recent FindingsThe Amazon basin, which comprises the largest portion of tropical rainforest on earth, includes territories of nine South American countries. The Amazon harbors a rich herpetofauna, among which the species of theBothrops genus (family Viperidae) cause the highest number of bites and envenomings. The management of snakebite envenomings poses a difficult challenge for the public health syst...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Malaria in Gold Miners in the Guianas and the Amazon: Current Knowledge and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFollowing Paraguay and Argentina, several countries from the Amazon region aim to eliminate malaria. To achieve this, all key affected and vulnerable populations by malaria, including people working on gold mining sites, must be considered. What is the situation of malaria in these particular settings and what are the challenges? This literature review aims to compile knowledge to answer these questions.Recent FindingsThe contexts in which gold miners operate are very heterogeneous: size and localization of mines, links with crime, administrative status of the mines and of the miners, mobility of t...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Pipeline: an Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide a timely overview on efforts to develop a vaccine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19).Recent FindingsPrevious research efforts to develop a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) vaccine in the years following the 2003 pandemic have opened the door for investigators to design vaccine concepts and approaches for the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit a high degree of genetic similarity and bind to the same host cell ACE2 receptor. Based on previous experi...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

West Nile Virus-Induced Neurologic Sequelae —Relationship to Neurodegenerative Cascades and Dementias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWest Nile virus (WNV) emerged from Central Africa in the 1990s and is now endemic throughout much of the world. Twenty years after its introduction in the USA, it is becoming apparent that neurological impairments can persist for years following infection. Here, we review the epidemiological data in support of such long-term deficits and discuss possible mechanisms that drive these persistent manifestations.Recent FindingsFocusing on the recently discovered antimicrobial roles of amyloid and alpha-synuclein, we connect WNV late pathology to overlapping features encountered in neurodegenerative dise...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Toxocariasis in Colombia: More Than Neglected
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarized information regarding human toxocariasis knowledge of disease and relevance in Colombia.Recent FindingsCurrent knowledge on the epidemiology and global burden of this infection is scarce. In part, because it remains a largely underdiagnosed clinical entity, and also since many countries do not officially recognize it as endemic, this has led to a lack of surveillance and underreporting, not considering it an officially notifiable disease. Recent reports have shown broad variability of seroprevalence rates amongst different countries.SummaryHuman toxocariasis is a zoono...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Coral Snake Envenomations in Central and South America
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSnakebites are increasingly recognized as a neglected tropical disease. The purposes of this review were to determine the significance of coral snakebites in Central and South America and how best to treat these envenomations. Questions that needed to be answered included:What is the incidence of coral snake envenomation?What are the features of coral snake envenomation?What are the pharmacological and nonpharmacological ways to treat these bites?Recent FindingsMultiple case reports and series describe the clinical features of coral snake envenomations, which account for fewer than 5% of all snakeb...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Review Article: Snake Envenomation in Africa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated snakebite envenoming (SBE) as a category A neglected tropical disease (NTD). This review aims to highlight clinical syndromes of envenomation, gaps in current knowledge, and provide updates on advancements in treatments for snakebites in Africa.Recent FindingsWhile antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment, many marketed in Africa are ineffective and potentially dangerous, though newer antivenoms on the market are effective with low rates of adverse reactions. Key treatment adjuncts such as airway devices and medications may improve mortality a...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research