The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in Latin America: the Need for Multidisciplinary Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute respiratory infections of viral etiology (ARIVE) constitute one of the most frequent infectious processes among humans. They cause significant morbidity and mortality every year in all age groups and regions of the world. Their etiology is diverse, and seasonal viruses began their journey, at some point, with an episode of expansion before their annual circulation as seasonal agents. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge for Latin America. Understanding dynamics is essential for decision making, to reduce the health, economic, and social impacts of the pandemic.Recen...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings and COVID-19 Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe discuss the risk of COVID-19 in religious mass gathering events including Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages.Recent FindingsThe risk of transmission of respiratory viruses including COVID-19 is particularly high due to the overcrowding conditions at the Hajj and Umrah. The profile of the Hajj pilgrims who tend to be older and with multiple comorbidities corresponds to that of individuals at risk for severe COVID-19. In order to avoid a COVID-19 outbreak with potential spreading to many countries through returning pilgrims, Saudi Arabia suspended the Umrah, and access to the 2020 Hajj was very limited.Su...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The Tokyo Olympic Games and the Risk of COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed the occurrence of outbreaks at past Olympics and discuss the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic at the Tokyo Games.Recent FindingsEvidence for large respiratory tract infection outbreaks at past Olympics is scant. Nevertheless, in order to control the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Tokyo 2020 Olympics were postponed for 2021. Given the high contagiousness of the disease and the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Japan, this decision was appropriate and important in order to safeguard athletes and the public. However, it is a major problem for Japan, involving massive financial losses and a ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: The Placenta and Plasmodium Infections: a Case Study from Blue Nile State, Sudan
The article The Placenta andPlasmodium Infections: a Case Study from Blue Nile State, Sudan, written by Samia A. Omer and Suad M. Sulaiman, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on October 03, 2020, with open access. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The Placenta and Plasmodium Infections: a Case Study from Blue Nile State, Sudan
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSequestration ofPlasmodium-infected cells in the placenta causes significant adverse effects on mothers and their fetuses. With progress in understanding placental malaria and associated adverse consequences, this review addresses the situation in an area with high prevalence, in Blue Nile State, Sudan, where protective interventions are not adequately provided.Recent FindingsSeveral studies have confirmed that malaria infection during pregnancy with parasites in the placenta, even at sub-patent level detected by molecular techniques, can result in maternal morbidity, fetal growth restriction, and ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Genomic Epidemiology and Recent Update on Nucleic Acid –Based Diagnostics for COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe SARS-CoV-2 genome has been sequenced and the data is made available in the public domain. Molecular epidemiological investigators have utilized this information to elucidate the origin, mode of transmission, and contact tracing of SARS-CoV-2. The present review aims to highlight the recent advancements in the molecular epidemiological studies along with updating recent advancements in the molecular (nucleic acid based) diagnostics for COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.Recent FindingsEpidemiological studies with the integration of molecular genetics principles and tools are now main...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Placental Malaria
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPlacental malaria is the primary mechanism through which malaria in pregnancy causes adverse perinatal outcomes. This review summarizes recent work on the significance, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of placental malaria.Recent FindingsPlacental malaria, characterized by the accumulation ofPlasmodium-infected red blood cells in the placental intervillous space, leads to adverse perinatal outcomes such as stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age neonates. Placental inflammatory responses may be primary drivers of these complications. Associated factors cont...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: COVID-19: Biosafety in the Intensive Care Unit
The original version of this article contained mistake where the article category was captured in the author group. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Placenta, Trypanosoma cruzi , and Congenital Chagas Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhy around 5% ofTrypanosoma cruzi–infected pregnant women transmit the parasite to their offspring whereas 95% do not? Answers to this main question are needed in order to improve the programs aiming to control or eliminate congenital Chagas disease (CCD), which has become an important global public health problem.Recent FindingsTurnover of syncitiotrophoblast as a new innate defense mechanism of placenta and analyses of transcriptomic responses of placental genes and of new parasite DNA sequences have allowed a re-evaluation of the relationship between parasite diversity, placental tropism, ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

COVID-19: Biosafety in the Intensive Care Unit
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCOVID-19 is a new, highly transmissible disease to which healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). Information related to protection mechanisms is heterogeneous, and the infected HCWs ’ number is increasing. This review intends to summarize the current knowledge and practices to protect ICU personnel during the patient management process in the context of the current pandemic.Recent FindingsThe transmission mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 are mainly respiratory droplets, aerosols, and contact. The virus can last for a few hours suspended in the air and be vi...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Global COVID-19 Efforts as the Platform to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this commentary, we summarize and put into perspective the recent information that highlights the associations between coronavirus disease and poverty. We also bring attention to another dimension that will most likely exacerbate the severity and long-term sequelae of COVID-19 in impoverished populations, that is, the comorbidities and the presence of tropical infections.Recent FindingsDuring this first half of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a poverty-related neglected disease on at least two fronts. First, is its significant impact in low-income neighborhoods in the USA, the epicent...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - August 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, and Influenza: How Are They Connected?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo better understand the impact of obesity and cardiovascular diseases on influenza A infection.Recent FindingsThis infection could have detrimental outcomes in obese patients with cardiovascular diseases, such as an increased risk, length of hospitalization, disease severity, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, there also might be some cardioprotective benefits associated with influenza vaccination, such as a reduced mortality, hospitalization, and acute coronary syndromes, in patients with coronary heart disease and/or heart failure.SummaryObesity negatively impacts immune function and host d...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - July 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Leprosy Transmission in Amazonian Countries: Current Status and Future Trends
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLeprosy is one of the first pathologies described in the history of mankind. However, the ecology, transmission, and pathogenicity of the incriminated bacilli remain poorly understood. Despite effective treatment freely distributed worldwide since 1995, around 200,000 new cases continue to be detected yearly, mostly in the tropics. This review aims to discuss the unique characteristics of leprosy in Amazonian countries, which exhibit a very heterogeneous prevalence among human and animal reservoirs.Recent FindingsGroundbreaking discoveries made in the last 15  years have challenged the dogmas ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Global Trends in Genetic Markers of Pediculus humanus capitis Resistance Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHead lice infestations remain an important public health problem, albeit poorly defined in most endemic countries. Reports of increasing resistance to first-line treatment have renewed scientific research into this neglected ectoparasitosis. Mapping and understanding resistance mechanisms are essential for the development of more effective treatments, as well as for prolonging the life of existing pediculicides. This review aims to synthetize recent data on the type, frequency, and distribution of genetic mutations associated with head lice resistance to chemical treatments.Recent FindingsHead lice...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Tracing New Clinical Manifestations in Patients with COVID-19 in Chile and Its Potential Relationship with the SARS-CoV-2 Divergence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we discuss the current implications of the changing genomic epidemiology of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its potential relationship with the change of clinical manifestations in patients with confirmed infection.Recent FindingsOver the course of the current pandemic, the virus has been found more diverse in new countries. Simultaneously, also new clinical manifestations are observed, particularly more prominent gastrointestinal and neurological findings.SummarySARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Bothrops Snakebite Envenomings in the Amazon Region
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSnakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease with a high burden in the Amazon basin. Our review aimed to give information about the epidemiology and the management of SB in the Amazon region.Recent FindingsThe Amazon basin, which comprises the largest portion of tropical rainforest on earth, includes territories of nine South American countries. The Amazon harbors a rich herpetofauna, among which the species of theBothrops genus (family Viperidae) cause the highest number of bites and envenomings. The management of snakebite envenomings poses a difficult challenge for the public health syst...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Malaria in Gold Miners in the Guianas and the Amazon: Current Knowledge and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFollowing Paraguay and Argentina, several countries from the Amazon region aim to eliminate malaria. To achieve this, all key affected and vulnerable populations by malaria, including people working on gold mining sites, must be considered. What is the situation of malaria in these particular settings and what are the challenges? This literature review aims to compile knowledge to answer these questions.Recent FindingsThe contexts in which gold miners operate are very heterogeneous: size and localization of mines, links with crime, administrative status of the mines and of the miners, mobility of t...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Pipeline: an Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide a timely overview on efforts to develop a vaccine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19).Recent FindingsPrevious research efforts to develop a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) vaccine in the years following the 2003 pandemic have opened the door for investigators to design vaccine concepts and approaches for the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit a high degree of genetic similarity and bind to the same host cell ACE2 receptor. Based on previous experi...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

West Nile Virus-Induced Neurologic Sequelae —Relationship to Neurodegenerative Cascades and Dementias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWest Nile virus (WNV) emerged from Central Africa in the 1990s and is now endemic throughout much of the world. Twenty years after its introduction in the USA, it is becoming apparent that neurological impairments can persist for years following infection. Here, we review the epidemiological data in support of such long-term deficits and discuss possible mechanisms that drive these persistent manifestations.Recent FindingsFocusing on the recently discovered antimicrobial roles of amyloid and alpha-synuclein, we connect WNV late pathology to overlapping features encountered in neurodegenerative dise...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Toxocariasis in Colombia: More Than Neglected
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarized information regarding human toxocariasis knowledge of disease and relevance in Colombia.Recent FindingsCurrent knowledge on the epidemiology and global burden of this infection is scarce. In part, because it remains a largely underdiagnosed clinical entity, and also since many countries do not officially recognize it as endemic, this has led to a lack of surveillance and underreporting, not considering it an officially notifiable disease. Recent reports have shown broad variability of seroprevalence rates amongst different countries.SummaryHuman toxocariasis is a zoono...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Coral Snake Envenomations in Central and South America
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSnakebites are increasingly recognized as a neglected tropical disease. The purposes of this review were to determine the significance of coral snakebites in Central and South America and how best to treat these envenomations. Questions that needed to be answered included:What is the incidence of coral snake envenomation?What are the features of coral snake envenomation?What are the pharmacological and nonpharmacological ways to treat these bites?Recent FindingsMultiple case reports and series describe the clinical features of coral snake envenomations, which account for fewer than 5% of all snakeb...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Review Article: Snake Envenomation in Africa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated snakebite envenoming (SBE) as a category A neglected tropical disease (NTD). This review aims to highlight clinical syndromes of envenomation, gaps in current knowledge, and provide updates on advancements in treatments for snakebites in Africa.Recent FindingsWhile antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment, many marketed in Africa are ineffective and potentially dangerous, though newer antivenoms on the market are effective with low rates of adverse reactions. Key treatment adjuncts such as airway devices and medications may improve mortality a...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Maternal and Infant Death and the rVSV-ZEBOV Vaccine Through Three Recent Ebola Virus Epidemics-West Africa, DRC Équateur and DRC Kivu: 4 Years of Excluding Pregnant and Lactating Women and Their Infants from Immunization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEbola virus infection has one of the highest overall case fatality rates of any viral disease. It has historically had an especially high case mortality rate among pregnant women and infants —greater than 90% for pregnant women in some outbreaks and close to 100 % in fetuses and newborns. The Merck recombinant vaccine against Ebola virus, termed rVSV-ZEBOV, underwent clinical trials during the 2013–2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic where it was found to be 100% efficacious. It was sub sequently used during the 2018 DRC Équateur outbreak and in the 2018 DRC Kivu Ebola which is still...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers in Pregnant Women and the Vaccine Landscape: Comparisons Between Yellow Fever, Ebola, and Lassa Fever
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Alterations in Host Lipid Metabolism Produced During Visceral Leishmaniasis Infections
This article aims to review lipid metabolism of both parasite and host, and how the former affects the latter.Recent FindingsLeishmania uses the host ’s cholesterol to ensure macrophage phagocytosis and evade immune response. Additionally, the host’s lipid bodies have key roles in disease progression and development of the parasite inside the cell. This induces changes in the patient’s serum lipid profile like hypertriglyceridemia and low H DL levels.SummaryChanges in the lipid profile and metabolism in both parasite and host during development of the disease depend on the presence of lipid bodies. Furthe...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Hepatitis E in Pregnant Women and the Potential Use of HEV Vaccine to Prevent Maternal Infection and Mortality
This article reviews the latest knowledge on HEV in pregnancy, the vaccine candidates that have reached clinical trials, and their potential use during pregnancy.Recent FindingsNew evidence suggests that a genotype-specific tropism to uteroplacental cells contributes to the multifactorial pathology leading to the increased severity of HEV during pregnancy. Data from pregnant women inadvertently vaccinated are limited but show similar rates of adverse events as non-pregnant women, and no evident harm to newborns. Protective anti-HEV IgG antibodies are estimated to last longer after vaccination than natural infection. Accele...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Pregnant Women, Vaccine Development for Emerging and Epidemic Viral Infections and Maternal Immunization: Human Rights and the Global Survival of Mothers and Infants
This article analyzes current issues related to maternal vaccination with a focus on emerging and epidemic viral infections and human rights.Recent FindingsHistorically, pregnant women have not been considered in the development of vaccines and have been excluded from participating in clinical trials and vaccination campaigns. Because of risk for injury and death of mothers and fetuses/infants during infectious disease outbreaks, it is important to consider their rights to receive any potential form of prevention or therapy available to non-pregnant individuals in order to enhance their well-being.SummaryIt is unacceptable...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Current Perspectives on Maternal Influenza Immunization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPregnant women and young infants are more likely to experience severe complications associated with influenza infection and are at increased risk of hospitalization. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy produces antibodies which protect the mother against infection, and due to transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies before birth, it also protects the infant in the first few months of life.Recent FindingsIn many countries, influenza vaccination is recommended during pregnancy to protect mothers and their infants. In fact, influenza vaccine is the most widely used vaccine in pregnancy global...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Flavivirus Cross-Reactivity (Zika and Dengue) on the Development of Vaccines for Use in Pregnancy
ConclusionStudies of vaccines against ZIKV are progressing positively, and in their designs, modifications of the antigens are being considered so that they do not cause cross reactions with other flaviviruses that can cause complications in people previously exposed to other flaviviruses (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 29, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Development of a Dengue Vaccine and Its Use in Pregnant Women
ConclusionDespite the risk of obstetric complications in pregnant women due to infection with dengue virus infection, there is currently no specific treatment or licensed vaccine for use during pregnancy. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Is the Diet Industry Disrupting Your Microbiota?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGut microbes are essential to human health and dietary patterns can influence bacterial diversity and abundance, resulting in either health or disease. Here, we review if high-fat diets motivated by the diet industry can result in disruption of microbiota, which in turn leads to disease.Recent FindingsA high-fat diet induces microbiota dysbiosis, which is related to obesity and chronic diseases. Some mechanisms include higher bile acid secretion, which conduct its detergent effect on bacterial cell membranes, inducing the loss of non-bile-resistant species. In addition, by adopting a low-carbohydra...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 20, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

When Is It Acceptable to Vaccinate Pregnant Women? Risk, Ethics, and Politics of Governance in Epidemic Crises
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn some countries, pregnant women experience disproportionately high morbidity and mortality during infectious disease outbreaks due to a variety of gender-based factors and pregnancy-related immunological changes. Despite this, the interests of pregnant women have largely been absent from policies that guide the design of clinical trials and the deployment of vaccines in epidemic contexts. This review examines historic precedent for both excluding and including pregnant women in vaccine trials and considers the rights of pregnant women in epidemic crises.Recent FindingsThe latest research reveals ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - October 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in the Molecular and Cellular Biology of Strongyloides spp.
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper constitutes an update of recent studies on the general biology, molecular genetics, and cellular biology ofStrongyloides spp. and related parasitic nematodes.Recent FindingsIncreasingly, human strongyloidiasis is considered the most neglected of neglected tropical diseases. Despite this, the last 5  years has seen remarkable advances in the molecular biology ofStrongyloides spp. Genome sequences forS. stercoralis,S. ratti,S. venezuelensis,S. papillosus, and the related parasiteParastrongyloides trichosuri were created, annotated, and analyzed. These genomic resources, along with a p...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Coccidioidomycosis: Epidemiology, Fungal Pathogenesis, and Therapeutic Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoccidioidomycosis can result from the inhalation of infectious spores ofCoccidioides species (spp.)immitis orposadasii. Clinical manifestations range from mild flu-like disease to severe disseminated infection that can require life-long therapy. Burden of this mycosis is high in the southwest region of the USA where it is well characterized, and in many areas of Mexico and Latin America where it is inadequately characterized. Here, we provide historical data and current knowledge onCoccidioides spp. pathogenesis as well as recent progress in therapeutic and vaccine development against coccidioidom...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: a Case-Cohort Report at a Single-Center Experience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is increased recognition of Strongyloides infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Our goal is to describe our experience and published cases of Strongyloides stercoralis infections in SOT recipients.Recent findingsRecently, three cases of Strongyloides stercoralis infections in solid organ transplant recipients have been identified at Baylor College of Medicine, St. Luke's Hospital, an 850-bed tertiary care center.SummaryWe discuss prevalence and prevention strategies in solid organ transplant recipients. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - June 2, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in Vaccine Development Against Sporotrichosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review recent data about the study of the immune response in sporotrichosis and recent progress in the development of an effective human and feline vaccine.Recent FindingThe cell wall ofSporothrix is an important source of antigens with the potential to develop vaccines. A major candidate is a 70-kDa glycoprotein (gp70). Our group developed a model of sporotrichosis treatment using the monoclonal against gp70 (mAbP6E7) with good results. We also recently developed a humanized antibody, mAbP6E7, that increased phagocytosis in human monocytes and reduced the fungal burden in a murine model of spor...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 28, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Melioidosis in Mexico: a Coordinated Effort to Educate the Medical Specialists and the Community About an Unknown Disease Endemic in the Country
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMelioidosis, caused byBurkholderia pseudomallei, is virtually unknown in Mexico. The acquisition of the pathogen and development of the disease has been scarcely documented in the Mexican population, but strong evidence indicates that several of the cases are autochthonous to the country.Recent FindingsTwo fatal cases in the state of Sonora triggered a coordinated effort by the health system at the local, state, and federal level, supported by the state government, academic institutions, and international specialists, that resulted in the proper identification of the pathogen and provided strong ev...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Exploiting Lipids to Develop Anticryptococcal Vaccines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCryptococcus spp. are responsible for life-threatening infections in humans causing mortality rates of 70% in developing countries. Antifungal therapy to combat cryptococcosis is based on the combination of amphotericin B, azoles, and 5-flucytosine. However, treatment failure is frequently triggered by antifungal resistance, drug-drug interactions, and toxicity. New alternatives to prevent cryptococcosis are imperative. Here, we discuss the roles of lipids in the immunological control of the disease caused byCryptococcus spp.Recent FindingsRecently, remarkable advances on immunology of fungal infec...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 13, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Factors Determining Implementation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in South Western Oromia, Ethiopia
This study identified several personal and social facilitating factors that can contribute to exclusive breastfeeding and help to devise policy direction promoting exclusi ve breastfeeding. (Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports)
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Changing Epidemiology, Treatment, and Vaccine Update on Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Viruses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNow more than ever, regions other than Africa and Asia, such as the USA, are being affected by the rising epidemic of vector-borne illnesses, specifically Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses; this has prompted this review aimed at discussing the changing epidemiology of the three diseases as well as the current treatment and vaccines in development to control the diseases. With the viruses being spread through a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, mosquito bites, fetal transmission, sexual contact, breast milk, and saliva, there is no doubt that more preventative measures are required...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Vaccine Development to Systemic Mycoses by Thermally Dimorphic Fungi
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPathogenic thermal-dimorphic fungi are endemic in certain regions and can cause from subclinical respiratory infections to systemic mycoses. These pathogens are associated with high rates of mortality and high morbidity, infecting thousands of people each year. In addition, the toxicity and high costs of treatment of systemic mycoses are great public health concerns. In the present review, we address recent studies that refer to the development of vaccines against systemic mycoses by thermally dimorphic fungi.Recent FindingsMembers of the genusParacoccidioides,Histoplasma,Coccidioides, andBlastomyc...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Chagas Disease in the Americas: a Call for Standardized Reporting of Chagas Disease Prevalence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEstimates of Chagas disease (CD) seroprevalence in the Americas vary greatly. We lack an accurate representation of the state of the disease in this region for various reasons including intranational variability in prevalence and a lack of standardized diagnostic approaches. The goal of this review is to generate an estimate of CD burden in the Americas, by performing a systematic review of recent prevalence papers published after major vector control initiatives.Recent FindingsCommunity-based CD screening programs that focus on a third- to fourth-level administrative division basis are more repres...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Chagas Disease Epidemiology in Central America: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChagas disease is endemic to all seven Central American countries, where 12% of the population lives in areas where the disease is a risk. While neglect is a pervasive characteristic of Chagas disease in general, it tends to be especially overlooked in Central America, with more studies and resources devoted to the disease in South America. Here we report on the current epidemiological scenario of Chagas disease in Central America with the objective of presenting a panorama that includes national program details, recent morbidity data, new findings, and events relevant to the disease.Recent Finding...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Antibody Immunity and Natural Resistance to Cryptococcosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review recent data on the role that B cells and/or antibody-based immunity play in host defense againstCryptococcus neoformans (Cn).Recent FindingsCn, an encapsulated fungus, causes cryptococcal meningitis (CM). There are ~180,000 deaths per year worldwide attributed to CM, which is the most common cause of meningitis in adults with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection with advanced immunodeficiency is the most important predisposing risk factor for CM, highlighting the critical role that T cell-mediated immunity plays in disease prevention. However, numerous studies in the past decade demon...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Chagas Disease in Central America: Recent Findings and Current Challenges in Vector Ecology and Control
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn Central America, most new humanTrypanosoma cruzi infections (Chagas disease) are vector-borne, primarily by native vector species. Given the importance of vector control in reducing Chagas disease incidence, here, we provide an updated report on the recent advances and the latest research in vector ecology and control in Central America. Our objective is to present a panorama of the current situation that includes vector control program details, recent public health activities and academic research, and current challenges faced by each country and the region as a whole.Recent FindingsWith the el...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Difficult but Not Impossible: in Search of an Anti- Candida Vaccine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPervasive fungal infection among the immunocompromised population, in conjunction with a lack of effective treatment options, has demanded further scrutiny. Millions of people are still dying annually from fungal infections. While existing treatment for these fungal infections exists, it is difficult to administer without adverse effects in the immunocompromised and is slowly becoming obsolete due to varying mutation rates and rising resistance in multiple species. Thus, vaccines may be a viable target for preventing and treating fungal infections and addressing the critical challenge of such infec...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 28, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Immunization Strategies for the Control of Histoplasmosis
AbstractHistoplasmosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungusHistoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasmosis is typically self-limited and presents asymptomatically in most people. Nevertheless, histoplasmosis can cause severe pulmonary disease and death. Histoplasmosis is increasingly found worldwide; however, it is best documented in the endemic region of the Mississippi river valley system in the Eastern part of the United States (US). Epidemiological studies from the US detailing the morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with histoplasmosis underscore the need to develop a vaccine.Purpose of ReviewThis review will d...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Current Gaps and Needs for Increasing Access to Healthcare for People with Chagas Disease in the USA
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the USA, fewer than 1% of people with Chagas disease (CD) are diagnosed and treated. Patients and physicians confront significant barriers to initiating testing and treatment, which are not systematically available in the US health care system. What are these barriers and how can they be overcome? We discuss the broader challenges and state-level dynamics of CD in several of the US states with the highest burdened populations.Recent FindingsThe principal challenges for expanding access to testing and treatment include confusion surrounding testing procedures, limitations in available drugs and d...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Chagas Disease in the USA: High-Risk Patient Populations for Screening
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goals of this paper are to review the current data on the prevalence of Chagas disease in the USA and to describe the obstacles to expanding screening efforts.Recent FindingsLatin American immigrants appear to be at a significantly higher risk of contracting Chagas disease than are individuals born in the USA, though the risk of autochthonous transmission is likely underestimated. Rates of Chagas disease in the community are variable, and likely depend on the specific makeup of the immigrant community, specifically the country of origin. In patients with cardiac disease, Chagas disease becomes ...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Chagas Disease: an Emphasis for Transplant Patient Populations
This article aims to review the pathogenesis of Chagas disease with special emphasis on transplant populations in an effort to inform clinicians about the potential risk for reactivation of Chagas disease in high-risk populations.Recent FindingsReactivation of Chagas disease is most common in the recipient who had Chagas cardiomyopathy and least common in the recipient of non-heart tissues from Chagas patients. T cell suppression associated with AIDS and transplantation is a major risk factor for reactivation. Certain drugs are associated with a higher risk for reactivation post-transplant, such as mycophenolate motefil. T...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - January 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research