Intersection of Racism and PTSD: Assessment and Treatment of Racial Stress and Trauma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRacial trauma is a severe psychological response to the cumulative traumatic effect of racism. This review synthesizes emerging theoretical and empirical evidence of racial trauma, outlines the mechanisms, and lists available assessment and treatment options for racial trauma.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence illustrates that these cumulative experiences can result in the cognitive, behavioral, and affective presentations of PTSD in people of color. As a result, the evidence to inform the assessment, treatment, and implications of racial trauma has grown exponentially. There are several validated in...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Spiritually Integrated Interventions for PTSD and Moral Injury: a Review
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe scope of this article is to summarize (a) what is known about the relationships between spirituality and trauma outcomes and (b) outline options for spiritually integrated trauma care.Recent findingsResearch on relationships between spirituality and psychological trauma outcomes has advanced to the point that there is no doubt that interventions addressing spiritual distress can provide critically needed help to trauma survivors who want spiritually integrated care. There are now many options for providing spiritually integrated care for trauma, including both implicitly and explicitly spiritua...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Telepsychiatry for Patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder During the COVID-19 Outbreak
AbstractPurposeThe novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerged from Wuhan, China, causing a pandemic. Access to outpatient psychiatric care was limited. We conducted a pilot study of telepsychiatry during a national shutdown. Adult patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) participated via Zoom. Patient preference comparing televisits to face-to-face visits was assessed.Recent findingsTelemedicine has emerged as new technological tool in the evolution of the patient-physician relationship, changing the way we interact. Physicians and patients now have access to the electronic medical record, remote point-of-care testi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child and Adolescent Psychology: a Narrative Review
(Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Novel Antidepressant Approaches for Refractory Depression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough monoaminergic antidepressants are effective for some depressed patients, at least a third remain treatment refractory even after multiple treatment trials. Investigation into novel antidepressant approaches targeted to specific mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has significant potential to improve treatment response rates. This review highlights emerging novel antidepressant approaches for TRD, bridging neuromodulation and novel pharmacotherapeutics. We discuss how these new approaches target depression neurobiology via modulation of neuro...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - July 30, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child and Adolescent Psychology: a Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of reviewEye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is recognized as an excellent approach to the treatment of trauma in clinical and academic contexts by several national and international organizations. The purpose of this work is to summarize the results of research on EMDR therapy with children and adolescents in various contexts through a narrative review of the scientific literature.Recent findingsSelected studies were clustered in several clinical domains: (2) EMDR and trauma (T), (3) EMDR and violence, (4) EMDR and physical illnesses, and (5) EMDR and psychological problems. Our re...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurofeedback in the Treatment of Early Life Stress: a “Nudge” for the Nervous System?
AbstractPurpose of reviewEarly life stress has been shown to have profound effects on the developmental trajectories of individuals. Findings have implicated most major areas of the brain as being affected, and existing treatments have been limited in ameliorating symptoms. The purpose of this review is to focus on the development of the autonomic nervous system in concert with the brain.Recent findingsWe suggest that the majority of psychopathology related to early life stress represents an allostatic equilibrium achieved by the autonomic nervous system organizing around threat states. Recent findings in the field of neur...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cue-Centered Therapy for Youth Experiencing Posttraumatic Symptoms
This article reviews the CCT rationale, treatment co mponents, evidence base, and training approach.Recent findingsStudies demonstrate promising outcomes indicating CCT effectiveness in reducing child and caregiver posttraumatic stress, and in improving child functioning. Further research, however, is needed to identify which clients are best-suited for CCT (versus other available child trauma treatments) and to identify which components of CCT are most critical for addressing complex developmental trauma.SummaryCCT advances the field of child trauma treatment by offering an intervention approach focused on addressing comp...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - April 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Early Life Trauma
AbstractPurpose of reviewCo-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) are severe and disabling psychiatric sequelae of early trauma. While the emergence of evidence-based treatments such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) improved treatment for BPD and PTSD individually, treatment gaps remain for individuals with co-occurring BPD and PTSD as well as CPTSD.Recent findingsDBT prolonged exposure (DBT+PE) and DBT for PTSD (DBT-PTSD) combine skills training to enhance emotional, behavioral, interperso...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - April 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An Update on the Latest Treatment Approaches with Suicidal Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the literature on the treatment of suicidal adolescents in order to determine the psychotherapy approach with the strongest evidence as well as the core treatment techniques that cut across therapies.Recent FindingsDialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has the strongest evidence base of any current treatment approach for suicidal adolescents, but it is also the most time intensive and expensive. Different variations of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and family therapy also have some limited evidence for efficacy. Although safety planning does not have stand-alone, empirical support to...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Adults with a History of Childhood Maltreatment: a Scoping Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSurvivors of childhood maltreatment are at high risk for developing complex psychiatric disorders. Traditional treatments, including psychopharmacology, tend to be less efficacious for this population. This scoping review aimed to discuss existing empirical studies on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for adult childhood trauma survivors, as well as the documented clinical challenges and adaptations for this population.Recent FindingsWe reviewed 17 research articles that measured the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for adults with childhood maltreatment histories. These stud...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Recent Critical Advances in Patient Care
AbstractPurposeTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an evidence-based treatment for pharmacoresistant major depressive disorder (MDD). In the last decade, the field has seen significant advances in the understanding and use of this new technology. This review aims to describe the large, randomized controlled studies leading to the modern use of rTMS for MDD. It also includes a special section briefly discussing the use of these technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic.Recent findingsSeveral new approaches and technologies are emerging in this field, including novel approaches to reduce treatment time and potentially...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Progress and Limitations in the Treatment of Complex PTSD and Developmental Trauma Disorder
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review describes treatments that have been developed (or adapted from treatment models for posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) for Complex PTSD (cPTSD) in adulthood and developmental trauma disorder (DTD) in childhood. The nascent research evidence-base is reviewed and future directions are discussed.Recent findingsNumerous psychotherapy treatments are in the early stages of clinical testing and dissemination for symptoms of cPTSD (emotion dysregulation, interpersonal detachment, altered self-perception) and the additional symptoms of DTD (interpersonal, somatic, and behavioral dysregulation...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - February 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Adolescent Depression
AbstractPurpose of reviewMajor depressive disorder is a global public health concern that is common in adolescents. Targeting this illness at the early stages of development is critical and could lead to better long-term outcomes because the adolescent brain is highly plastic and, hence, neural systems are likely to be more malleable to interventions. Although a variety of treatments are available, there are currently no guidelines to inform clinicians which intervention might be most suitable for a given youth. Here, we discuss current knowledge of prognostic and prescriptive markers of treatment outcome in adolescent dep...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - January 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Author Correction: Integrating Evidence-Based Guidelines on Pain and Opioids into Medical School Education
The original publication of this article contained mistakes and the author would like to correct them. These corrections are the following: (Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - November 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Simulation in Addiction Education
AbstractAddiction and substance use disorders are complex medical conditions with a number of effective treatment options. Providing health care professionals with high-quality training to treat addiction and substance use disorders is an essential component of health care education. High-fidelity simulation has been a successful teaching method in training providers across various health care disciplines and specialties. Some such disciplines include dentistry, nursing, and numerous medical specialties. In recent years, high-fidelity simulation has proven to be a significantly effective teaching tool in psychiatry and spe...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - October 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

PTSD/Substance Use Disorder Comorbidity: Treatment Options and Public Health Needs
AbstractPurpose of reviewPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with substance use disorder (SUD) and is challenging to treat. We review all behavioral therapy models with at least one randomized controlled trial in a current PTSD/SUD population. We identify factors in selecting a model for clinical use, emphasizing a public health framework that balances the need for evidence with the need for feasibility in frontline settings.Recent findingsSeven published models and 6 unpublished models are reviewed. Public health considerations for choosing a model include the following: whether it has been studied acr...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - September 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder in the Elderly
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the increasing age of those born between 1946 and 1965, issues relating to the “baby boomer” generation are more relevant than ever. This review aims to both highlight the importance of screening for substance use disorders in the elderly (specifically in this case, opioid use disorder) and then summarize the available treatment options for this vulnerable population.Recent FindingsA narrative review of the literature showed surprisingly little research on the treatment of substance use disorders, especially opioid use disorder, in the elderly. None of the three medications that ar...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - September 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical Off-Label Use of Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Psychiatric Conditions
AbstractPurpose of reviewRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation approach to psychiatric treatment that is FDA approved for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Standard TMS appears to exert biological effects by inducing current in the cortex more shallowly than deep TMS (dTMS); it may be that this modality of treatment differs from standard TMS. Given the potential difference in the manner in which dTMS stimulates the targeted brain regions, it is reasonable to review and summarize the various off-label and experimental app...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - September 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacological Management of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia
AbstractPurposeNeuropsychiatric symptoms are universal across all stages and types of dementia and can cause significant challenges for patients and caregivers. While there are currently no approved medications for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, a variety of psychotropic medications such as antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants are used off-label to treat these symptoms. This systematic review evaluated the available evidence for effectiveness and tolerability of pharmacologic treatments in addressing behavioral disturbances in dementia.Recent findingsInclusion criteria ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - September 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review of the Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Older Adult Bipolar Disorder
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review summarizes the extant literature on the epidemiology, neuropsychology, clinical assessment, and treatment/management of older adult bipolar disorder (OABD). The primary aim was to provide a contemporary and accessible reference for clinicians involved in the care of OABD patients.Recent findingsImportant research into the unique features of OABD has been carried out in recent years, providing a more robust albeit still limited foundation to help guide clinical decision-making. Some of the more consistent findings have highlighted (1) the importance of assessing for potentially reversibl...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emerging Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Geriatric Mental Health
AbstractPurposeThe use of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is on the rise among diverse populations of older adults in the USA. CIM is commonly perceived as safer, less expensive, and more culturally acceptable. There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of CIM, especially mind-body therapies, diet and nutritional supplements used for mental disorders of aging.Recent findingsWe summarize the results of the recent clinical trials and meta-analyses that provide the evidence for the role of CIM in treating older adults with mood or cognitive disorders that includes the use of diet and supplements, and ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Integrating Evidence-Based Guidelines on Pain and Opioids into Medical School Education
AbstractPurpose of reviewDirected, quality educational content, integration, and experience are required to prepare new medical professionals to improve access to and deliver high quality treatment for individuals with opioid use disorders. The collaboration of medical schools, their deans, and faculties as well as the involvement of local, state, and federal partners yields some important observations for success to expedite curricular customization to ultimately improve the core competence of future providers.Recent findingsMuch of the recent literature discusses what to teach medical students about substance use disorde...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Positive Psychiatry Interventions in Geriatric Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of reviewPositive psychiatry shifts the focus of geriatric mental healthcare beyond studying disorders and psychopathology to studying factors that contribute to mental well-being and successful aging. An increasing number of interventional studies are using treatments that target modifiable positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) and study their impact on mental health. Here we provide an overview of the literature on positive psychiatry interventions using illustrative examples of interventions targeting social connectedness, meaning in life, wisdom, and resilience.Recent findingsThere is growing evi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prognostic Significance of Personality Disorders in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUpdate the evidence regarding how co-occurring personality disorders influence treatment outcomes for major depressive disorder and update the evidence regarding treatment options for personality disorders that are co-occurring with major depressive disorder.Recent FindingsThere is evidence that personality disorders can be effectively treated through a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities. Given the substantial evidence that co-occurring personality disorders impede the recovery from major depressive disorder, comprehensively addressing any co-occurring personality disorders is an essential par...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Longitudinal Course of Borderline Personality Disorder: What Every Clinician Needs to Know
AbstractPurposeLongitudinal research describing the course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has radically revised psychiatry ’s stigmatizing assumptions of its immutability and poor prognosis. This review outlines major findings from four of the largest, most methodologically rigorous prospective studies of BPD in childhood and adulthood to provide a scientifically informed understanding of its precursors, structure, tr ajectory, interaction with other psychiatric illnesses, and impact on treatment utilization and functional outcomes.Recent findingsBPD ’s fluctuating symptoms and underlying diathesis in...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - August 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Buprenorphine Dosing for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder Through Pregnancy and Postpartum
We present data from a retrospective chart review of patients at our institution describing trends in buprenorphine dosing during pregnancy and postpartum. Utilizing this information, we synthesize findings to provide clinical recommendations for providers. Changes in the total daily dose of buprenorphine used across pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum at the individual level do not follow consistent patterns, highlighting substantial individual variability. Altogether, buprenorphine dosing should be individualized through pregnancy and postpartum with frequent evaluations by providers and solicited input from patie...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating Depression in the Context of Mania or Mania Risk in Youth
AbstractPurposeBipolar disorder (BD) is a heritable and episodic psychiatric disorder that is increasingly being recognized to take onset in childhood or adolescence. Youth with a parent or sibling with BD may also be at risk for mania, but frequently present with depression. In a busy clinical practice, treating depression in the context of mania or risk for mania can be obfuscated by a number of factors, including clinical heterogeneity and co-occurring conditions, changes in symptom presentation over the course of development, and treatment-emergent affective switching. In this review, we critically appraise recently pu...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment of Sleep Comorbidities in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractPurpose of the reviewSleep disturbances, insomnia and recurrent nightmares in particular, are among the most frequently endorsed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present review provides a summary of the prevalence estimates and methodological challenges presented by sleep disturbances in PTSD, highlights the recent evidence for empirically supported psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for comorbid sleep disturbances implicated in PTSD, and provides a summary of recent findings on integrated and sequential treatment approaches to ameliorate comorbid sleep disturbances in PTSD.Rec...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Does the Type of Treatment Make a Difference?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe first aim of this review is to summarize the major evidence-based psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and the research supporting their use. The second aim is to explore the evidence for the differential effectiveness of these treatments.Recent FindingsFour types of specific psychotherapies are identified that show promising results in at least two randomized controlled trials. In addition, several adjunctive and minimal/pragmatic interventions are available that are supported by research evidence. Recent findings highlight the applicability of these treatments across sett...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Harnessing the Healing Power of Relationships in Trauma Recovery: a Systematic Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD
AbstractPurposeThe goal of this systematic review was to examine the empirical literature on cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT). The aims were to (1) review the efficacy of CBCT for PTSD, relationship satisfaction, and related symptoms; (2) describe novel adaptations to the treatment; and (3) identify potential moderators and mediators of treatment outcomes. A systematic search of peer-reviewed publications was conducted across three databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, and SCOPUS). Relevant publications were rated by two authors using a validated checklist.FindingsFourteen articles met inclusion criteria. Quali...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Advances in PTSD Treatment Delivery: Evidence Base and Future Directions for Intensive Outpatient Programs
This article will review the existing literature on evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD delivered within an intensive outpatient format.Recent findingsStudies indicate that the intensive outpatient format substantially increases retention rates and demonstrates treatment outcomes at least equivalent to those demonstrated in traditional outpatient settings. Findings are limited by the dearth of randomized clinical trials to date.SummaryCurrent research highlights the utility of implementing evidence-based PTSD treatment in massed intensive format, which evidences improved treatment retention and comparable outcomes with t...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Current Pharmacological Treatments for Childhood-Onset Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (SSRD) and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGID)
AbstractPurpose of reviewSomatic symptom and related disorders (SSRD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common causes of morbidity in children and adults. They are associated with impaired functioning in multiple domains and increasing health care utilization and costs. Their complex nature with medical and psychiatric comorbidities, diverse symptomatology, and often waxing and waning course can make them difficult to study and treat. However, there is some literature in this area regarding pharmacologic and behavioral treatment approaches. This review aims to examine the existing evidence for pharmacolo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Simulation Methods as a Tool to Enhance Medical Student Education and Combat Stigma in Addictions
AbstractPurposeIndividuals with substance use disorders are besieged by stigma, within their community and also the broader social context. This stigma may also pervade interactions with health care professionals, preventing individuals with SUD from seeking treatment for medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Given the current opioid crisis, providers must be equipped with the skills to diagnose and treat individuals with SUD, as well as the ability to communicate in an empathic, nonjudgmental manner. While training in addictions has often been absent from medical school curriculum, increasing numbers of programs are inco...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Efficacy and Safety of Neuromodulation Treatments in Late-Life Depression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, the efficacy and safety of FDA-approved neuromodulation devices (electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)), as well as emerging neuromodulation treatments currently under investigation.Recent FindingsECT is the “gold standard” somatic therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Although the clinical benefits are outweighed by potential cognitive and cardiovascular side effects in a majority of cases, it remains unfairly stigmatized. TMS has few cognitive or somatic side effects but is not as effe ct...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - June 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Advances in PTSD Treatment Delivery: Review of Findings and Clinical Considerations for the Use of Telehealth Interventions for PTSD
AbstractPurpose of reviewEffective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain underutilized and individuals with PTSD often have difficulty accessing care. Telehealth, particularly clinical videoconferencing (CVT), can overcome barriers to treatment and increase access to care for individuals with PTSD. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on the delivery of PTSD treatments through office-based and home-based videoconferencing, and outline areas for future research.Recent findingsEvidence-based PTSD treatments delivered through office-based and home-based CVT have been studied in pilot ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - May 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Addressing Diversity in PTSD Treatment: Disparities in Treatment Engagement and Outcome Among Patients of Color
AbstractPurposePosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent mental disorder characterized by difficulty recovering from exposure to a traumatic event. The prevalence of PTSD varies by race/ethnicity, with studies in US samples indicating higher prevalence and lower treatment use among some racial and ethnic minority groups compared with Whites. Clarifying the extent to which race and ethnicity influence PTSD treatment outcomes is crucial to delivering treatments that are equitably effective and culturally relevant.Recent findingsThere are few rigorous studies of racial/ethnic differences in PTSD treatment-related ou...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - May 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Engaging in Late-Life Mental Health Research: a Narrative Review of Challenges to Participation
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis narrative review seeks to ascertain the challenges older patients face with participation in mental health clinical research studies and suggests creative strategies to minimize these obstacles.Recent findingsChallenges to older adults ’ engagement in mental health research include practical, institutional, and collaboration-related barriers applicable to all clinical trials as well as more personal, cultural, and age-related patient barriers specific to geriatric mental health research. Universal research challenges include (1) institutional barriers of lack of funding and researchers, ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - May 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Non-Trauma-Focused Psychotherapies for the Treatment of PTSD: a Descriptive Review
AbstractPurpose of reviewPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious disorder with high rates of chronicity and significant functional impairment. There is strong research support for several psychotherapies that focus on trauma, and these are recommended as first-line treatments. However, many patients are reluctant or unwilling to engage in treatments that focus on trauma, and some desire treatment for other pressing issues. As such, there is a need for effective alternative treatment options. The purpose of this review is to describe existing non-trauma-focused psychotherapies and summarize the available evidence ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Double Trouble: Treatment Considerations for Patients with Comorbid PTSD and Depression
AbstractPurpose of reviewPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rarely occurs alone, with an approximate 80% syndromal comorbidity rate of which 50% is major depression. Evidence-based psychotherapy is the first-line treatment for PTSD and is very efficacious in some, but is directed toward PTSD symptomatology not depression, and many do not fully recover. This review presents the evidence for psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, neurostimulation, and combinations of these modalities in treating PTSD with comorbid depression.Recent findingsModifications to evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD and comorbid depression can be made ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - May 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabis and the Developing Adolescent Brain
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review summarizes (1) recent trends in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabionol [THC] and cannabidiol (CBD) content in cannabis products, (2) mechanism of action of THC and CBD and the neurobiological correlates of cannabis use on the developing adolescent brain, (3) effects of cannabis on psychiatric symptoms and daily functioning in youth (i.e., academic performance, cognition, sleep and driving), (4) cannabis products used to relieve or treat medical issues in youth, and (5) available treatments for cannabis use disorder in adolescence.Recent findingsDespite marked increases in THC content and availab...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - April 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Telemental Health in the Context of a Pandemic: the COVID-19 Experience
(Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - April 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ensuring Successful Telepsychiatry Program Implementation: Critical Components and Considerations
AbstractPurposeTelepsychiatry in the USA witnessed exponential growth in the last decade, having been proven to be a cost-effective and sustainable approach to delivering high-quality mental health services. This surge was aided by the availability of high-speed Internet, improved software, and an increase in demand paired with expanded reimbursement models. Despite a growing interest in adopting telepsychiatry programs, many health organizations continue to face challenges at the implementation stage. This review aims to identify the critical components and the associated challenges met at the planning, deployment, and ma...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Advances in PTSD Treatment Delivery: the Role of Digital Technology in PTSD Treatment
AbstractPurpose of reviewPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental health disorder affecting about 7% of the general population during their lifetime. PTSD typically has a chronic course, is often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and negatively impacts functioning and quality of life. This review examines the evidence for several digital technology –based applications being used to deliver PTSD interventions, including video telehealth, Internet-based interventions, virtual reality exposure therapy, and mobile apps.Recent findingsA number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined t...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predicting and Managing Treatment Non-response in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review aims to synthesize existing research regarding the definition of treatment resistance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), predictors of treatment non-response to first-line interventions, and emerging second-line PTSD treatment options into an accessible resource for the practicing clinician.Recent findingsThe concept of treatment resistance in PTSD is currently poorly defined and operationalized. There are no well-established predictors of treatment non-response utilized in routine clinical care, but existing research identifies several potential candidate markers, including male ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional Overinvolvement with Adolescents: a Problematic Construct?
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe purpose of the current study was to examine emotional overinvolvement (EOI) among caregivers of adolescents with a range of physical and psychiatric disorders to determine whether it is a problematic construct.Recent findingsExpressed emotion is a robust predictor of treatment dropout, outcome, and relapse across a range of physical and psychiatric disorders. The two components of expressed emotion that have received the most research attention are criticism and EOI. Although criticism plays a significant role in treatment outcome, evidence is mixed for EOI, particularly in children and adolesc...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Addressing Diversity in PTSD Treatment: Clinical Considerations and Guidance for the Treatment of PTSD in LGBTQ Populations
AbstractPurpose of reviewTrauma exposure is widespread but is especially common among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals. LGBTQ individuals also experience higher rates of discrimination, victimization, and minority stress which can complicate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment but also represent independent intervention targets. In this review, we highlight existing evidence-based practices, current limitations, and provide recommendations for care in the absence of established guidelines for treatment PTSD among LGBTQ patients.Recent findingsTrauma-focused therapies (e.g., CPT,...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Empirically Supported Treatment Options for Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Integrating Network Models and Treatment Components
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review aims to provide an overview of recent neurodevelopmental network models of PTSD in youth as an avenue towards a better understanding of treatment options for this group. Present empirically supported psychosocial intervention components for youth exposed to trauma in the context of the neurodevelopmental network model of PTSD in youth.Recent findingsKey brain regions and regional connections implicated in childhood trauma may be targeted by the specific components taught in interventions. Intervention components may have differential use and effectiveness by community therapists and dep...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - March 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Antipsychotics for Treatment of Adolescent Onset Schizophrenia: a Review
This article reviews the pharmacological treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia, when possible, with a focus on the past five years of research.Recent FindingsThere are relatively few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and head-to-head trials informing selection of a medication in pediatric schizophrenia. However, recent literature focusing on the efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics has led to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of multiple agents, specifically risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, and lurasidone, for the treatment of pediatric schizophreni...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Treatment of Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents
This article reviews the efficacy of current treatments for youth suicidality and SIBs.Recent FindingsMost of the existing literature on treatment for suicidality and NSSI in children and adolescents is focused on psychotherapy, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, family therapy, and school-based interventions. In contrast, psychopharmacology studies have focused on addressing disorders related to suicidality and NSSI such as major depressive disorder, rather than on the behaviors themselves.SummaryCurrently, there is no single treatment that is considered...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research