T-Box Genes in the Kidney and Urinary Tract.
Abstract T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system. However, this has chang...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Kispert A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Remarkably Diverse Family of T-Box Factors in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Abstract The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple metazoan animal that is widely used as a model to understand the genetic control of development. The completely sequenced C. elegans genome contains 22 T-box genes, and they encode factors that show remarkable diversity in sequence, DNA-binding specificity, and function. Only three of the C. elegans T-box factors can be grouped into the conserved subfamilies found in other organisms, while the remaining factors are significantly diverged and unlike those in most other animals. While some of the C. elegans factors can bind canonical T-box binding elements, ot...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Okkema PG Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Control of Neuronal Development by T-Box Genes in the Brain.
Abstract T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Mihalas AB, Hevner RF Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

T-Box Genes in Drosophila Limb Development.
Abstract T-box genes are essential for limb development in vertebrates and arthropods. The Drosophila genome encodes eight T-box genes, six of which are expressed in limb ontogenesis. The Tbx20-related gene pair midline and H15 is essential for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila legs. The three Tbx6-related Dorsocross genes are required for epithelial remodeling during wing development. The Drosophila gene optomotor-blind (omb) is the only member of the Tbx2 subfamily in the fly and is predominantly involved in wing development. Omb is essential for wing development and is sufficient to promote the develop...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Pflugfelder GO, Eichinger F, Shen J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Roles of T-Box Genes in Vertebrate Limb Development.
Abstract Members of the T-box gene family have diverse roles during embryogenesis and many play critical roles in the developing limb. This is exemplified by the fact that, in humans, mutations in T-box genes are associated with several congenital syndromes that include limb defects as part of their characteristic spectrum of abnormalities. T-box genes encode for evolutionary conserved transcription factors that include both transcriptional activators and repressors. The hallmark of T-box gene members is the presence of the eponymous DNA-binding T-box domain. There are 17 mammalian T-box genes, which based on the ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sheeba CJ, Logan MP Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

T-Box Genes in Human Development and Disease.
Abstract T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending thei...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Ghosh TK, Brook JD, Wilsdon A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

T-Box Genes and Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks in Ascidians.
Abstract Ascidians are invertebrate chordates with a biphasic life cycle characterized by a dual body plan that displays simplified versions of chordate structures, such as a premetamorphic 40-cell notochord topped by a dorsal nerve cord and postmetamorphic pharyngeal slits. These relatively simple chordates are characterized by rapid development, compact genomes and ease of transgenesis, and thus provide the opportunity to rapidly characterize the genomic organization, developmental function, and transcriptional regulation of evolutionarily conserved gene families. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Di Gregorio A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Eomesodermin-At Dawn of Cell Fate Decisions During Early Embryogenesis.
Abstract Proteins of the large family of T-box transcription factors are implicated in a broad spectrum of developmental processes. Loss-of-function mutations of T-box(Tbx) factors frequently cause severe embryonic phenotypes, often resulting from defects in cell fate specification and lineage differentiation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the functions of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) from postfertilization development until gastrulation stages of vertebrate embryos. Eomes exhibits evolutionary conserved functions in cell lineage specification and morphogenesis during gastrulat...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Probst S, Arnold SJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 28057274 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Frasch M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Fly Models of Human Diseases: Drosophila as a Model for Understanding Human Mitochondrial Mutations and Disease.
Abstract Mitochondrial diseases are a prevalent, heterogeneous class of diseases caused by defects in oxidative phosphorylation, whose severity depends upon particular genetic mutations. These diseases can be difficult to diagnose, and current therapeutics have limited efficacy, primarily treating only symptoms. Because mitochondria play a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions, especially ATP production, their diminished activity has dramatic physiological consequences. While this in and of itself makes treating mitochondrial disease complex, these organelles contain their own DNA, mtDNA, whose products are ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sen A, Cox RT Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis Converges on Defects in Protein Homeostasis Associated with TDP-43 Mislocalization and Proteasome-Mediated Degradation Overload.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and/or lower motor neurons. It usually affects people between the ages of 40-70. The average life expectancy is about 3-5 years after diagnosis and there is no effective cure available. Identification of variants in more than 20 different loci has provided insight into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms mediating disease pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on seven ALS-causing genes: TDP-43, FUS, C9orf72, VCP, UBQLN2, VAPB and SOD-1, which encompass about 90% of the variants causing familial ALS. We examine th...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Lin G, Mao D, Bellen HJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Parkinson's Disease: Lessons from Drosophila.
Abstract The power of Drosophila genetics has attracted attention in tackling important biomedical challenges such as the understanding and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder which results from the relentless degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Over the past two decades tremendous advances have been made in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of PD. The ease of genetic manipulation in Drosophila has spurred the development of numerous models of PD, including expression of human genes carrying pathogenic ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Hewitt VL, Whitworth AJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Neurotoxicity Pathways in Drosophila Models of the Polyglutamine Disorders.
Abstract Although polyglutamine expansion diseases are the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorders, the key pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neuronal cell death are unclear. The expansion of a polyglutamine tract in specific proteins is the defining molecular insult, leading to cell-type and region-specific neuronal death. Intraneuronal aggregates of the affected protein can be found in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm and are a hallmark of these disorders. Whether and how aggregation leads to pathology, however, is under debate. In this chapter, we will review some of the key observations usin...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Krench M, Littleton JT Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

AxGxE: Using Flies to Interrogate the Complex Etiology of Neurodegenerative Disease.
Abstract Progressive and late-onset neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease affect up to 50 million people globally-a number postulated to double every 20 years in a continually aging population. While predisposing allelic variants in several genes clearly confer risk, individual age and specific environmental influences are equally important discriminators of disease onset age and progression. However, none of these factors can independently predict disease with significant precision. Therefore, we must actively develop models that accommodate contributions from all factors, pot...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Burke C, Trinh K, Nadar V, Sanyal S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.
Abstract Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward stu...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Chakravarti L, Moscato EH, Kayser MS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.
Abstract Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating dru...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sonoshita M, Cagan RL Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Drosophila as a Model for Human Diseases-Focus on Innate Immunity in Barrier Epithelia.
m Y Abstract Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila. This review describes the current knowledge on Drosophila as a model for human diseases, w...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Bergman P, Seyedoleslami Esfahani S, Engström Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Stem-Cell-Based Tumorigenesis in Adult Drosophila.
Abstract Recent studies suggest that a small subset of cells within a tumor, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor propagation, relapse, and the eventual death of most cancer patients. CSCs may derive from a few tumor-initiating cells, which are either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells after acquiring initial cancer-causing mutations. CSCs and normal stem cells share some properties, but CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their tumorigenic ability. Notably, CSCs are usually resistant to chemo- and radiation therapies. Despite the apparent roles of CSC...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Hou SX, Singh SR Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Drosophila Accessory Gland as a Model for Prostate Cancer and Other Pathologies.
Abstract The human prostate is a gland of the male reproductive tract, which together with the seminal vesicles, is responsible for most seminal fluid production. It is a common site of cancer, and unlike other glands, it typically enlarges in aging men. In flies, the male accessory glands make many major seminal fluid components. Like their human equivalents, they secrete proteins from several conserved families, including proteases, lectins, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins, some of which interact with sperm and affect fertility. A key protein, sex peptide, is not conserved in vertebrates but plays a central...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Wilson C, Leiblich A, Goberdhan DC, Hamdy F Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Drosophila melanogaster Models of Galactosemia.
Abstract The galactosemias are a family of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from impaired function of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Type I, or classic galactosemia, results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type II galactosemia results from profound deficiency of galactokinase, the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type III galactosemia results from partial deficiency of UDP galactose 4'-epimerase, the third enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Although at least classic galactosemia has been recognized clinically ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Daenzer JM, Fridovich-Keil JL Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Drosophila as a Model for Diabetes and Diseases of Insulin Resistance.
Abstract Despite the importance of insulin signaling pathways in human disease, initial concerns that insect physiology and sugar metabolism differ enough from humans that flies would not model human disease hampered research in this area. However, during the past 10-15 years, evidence has accumulated that flies can indeed model various aspects of diabetes and related human disorders. This cluster of diseases impact insulin and insulin signaling pathways, fields which have been discussed in many excellent review articles in recent years. In this chapter, we restrict our focus to specific examples of diabetes-relat...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Graham P, Pick L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Drosophila melanogaster as a Model of Muscle Degeneration Disorders.
Abstract Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful platform with which researchers can dissect complex genetic questions and biochemical pathways relevant to a vast array of human diseases and disorders. Of particular interest, much work has been done with flies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle degeneration diseases. The fly is particularly useful for modeling muscle degeneration disorders because there are no identified satellite muscle cells to repair adult muscle following injury. This allows for the identification of endogenous processes of muscle degeneration as discrete events, disti...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Kreipke RE, Kwon YV, Shcherbata HR, Ruohola-Baker H Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 28057310 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Pick L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of the Embryonic Cell Cycle During Mammalian Preimplantation Development.
Abstract The preimplantation development stage of mammalian embryogenesis consists of a series of highly conserved, regulated, and predictable cell divisions. This process is essential to allow the rapid expansion and differentiation of a single-cell zygote into a multicellular blastocyst containing cells of multiple developmental lineages. This period of development, also known as the germinal stage, encompasses several important developmental transitions, which are accompanied by dramatic changes in cell cycle profiles and dynamics. These changes are driven primarily by differences in the establishment and enfor...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Palmer N, Kaldis P Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Genome Duplication at the Beginning of Mammalian Development.
Abstract Nothing is more fundamental to mammalian development than the ability to accurately reproduce its genome once-but only once-each time a cell divides. In fact, the basic mechanism for replicating DNA has been conserved throughout evolution, even though the magnitude of the problem became monumental. A human cell contains 670 times the DNA in an E. coli cell, and human development requires trillions of cell divisions that produce about 37 billion miles of DNA! But instead of increasing the speed of replication forks to compensate for increasing genome size and organism complexity, evolution simply increased...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: DePamphilis ML Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Zygotic Genome Activation Revisited: Looking Through the Expression and Function of Zscan4.
Abstract Zygotic genome activation (ZGA, a.k.a. zygotic gene activation) is a critical event in development, when the paternally derived genome and maternally derived genome begin to be activated and transcribed after fertilization. Major ZGA occurs at the two-cell stage in mice and the four- to eight-cell stage in human preimplantation embryos. It has been thought that ZGA exists to provide RNAs and proteins supporting embryonic development after supplies stored in oocytes are used up; however, this paradigm does not seem to explain recent findings. For example, many ZGA genes-once activated-are quickly turned of...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Ko MS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

From Meiosis to Mitosis: The Astonishing Flexibility of Cell Division Mechanisms in Early Mammalian Development.
Abstract The execution of female meiosis and the establishment of the zygote is arguably the most critical stage of mammalian development. The egg can be arrested in the prophase of meiosis I for decades, and when it is activated, the spindle is assembled de novo. This spindle must function with the highest of fidelity and yet its assembly is unusually achieved in the absence of conventional centrosomes and with minimal influence of chromatin. Moreover, its dramatic asymmetric positioning is achieved through remarkable properties of the actin cytoskeleton to ensure elimination of the polar bodies. The second meiot...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Bury L, Coelho PA, Glover DM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Genetic Regulation of Cell Fate During Preimplantation Mouse Development.
We describe genes that are essential for cell fate specification during preimplantation stages, and we describe diverse models proposed to account for the mechanisms of cell fate specification during early development. PMID: 27475852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Lokken AA, Ralston A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Polarity in Cell-Fate Acquisition in the Early Mouse Embryo.
Abstract Establishing polarity is a fundamental part of embryogenesis and can be traced back to the earliest developmental stages. It can be achieved in one of two ways: through the preexisting polarization of germ cells before fertilization or via symmetry breaking after fertilization. In mammals, it seems to be the latter, and we will discuss the various cytological and molecular events that lead up to this event, its mechanisms and the consequences. In mammals, the first polarization event occurs in the preimplantation period, when the embryo is but a cluster of cells, free-floating in the oviduct. This provide...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Leung CY, Zhu M, Zernicka-Goetz M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mouse Embryo Compaction.
Abstract Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compactin...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: White MD, Bissiere S, Alvarez YD, Plachta N Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Metabolism of Preimplantation Embryo Development: A Bystander or an Active Participant?
Abstract Unicellular organisms are exquisitely sensitive to nutrient availability in the environment and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to sense the levels and types of nutrients, altering gene expression patterns accordingly to adjust the metabolic activities required to survive. Thus, environmental cues induce adaptive metabolic differentiation through transcriptional and posttranscriptional changes. Similarly, preimplantation embryos are exposed to various environmental cues within the maternal reproductive tract prior to implantation. Because only "simple" culture conditions are required, it is as...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Kaneko KJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Epigenetic Control of Early Mouse Development.
Abstract Although the genes sequentially transcribed in the mammalian embryo prior to implantation have been identified, understanding of the molecular processes ensuring this transcription is still in development. The genomes of the sperm and egg are hypermethylated, hence transcriptionally silent. Their union, in the prepared environment of the egg, initiates their epigenetic genomic reprogramming into a totipotent zygote, in which the genome gradually becomes transcriptionally activated. During gametogenesis, sex-specific processes result in sperm and eggs with disparate epigenomes, both of which require drasti...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Lim CY, Knowles BB, Solter D, Messerschmidt DM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Capturing Identity and Fate Ex Vivo: Stem Cells from the Mouse Blastocyst.
Abstract During mouse preimplantation development, three molecularly, morphologically, and spatially distinct lineages are formed, the embryonic epiblast, the extraembryonic primitive endoderm, and the trophectoderm. Stem cell lines representing each of these lineages have now been derived and can be indefinitely maintained and expanded in culture, providing an unlimited source of material to study the interplay of tissue-specific transcription factors and signaling pathways involved in these fundamental cell fate decisions. Here we outline our current understanding of the derivation, maintenance, and properties o...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Garg V, Morgani S, Hadjantonakis AK Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Species-Specific Variation Among Mammals.
Abstract Reproduction across mammalian species is conserved with a general pattern of fertilization followed by nascent embryo development in transcriptional silence for a variable length of time, a series of cleavage divisions that occur without growth in size of the embryo, compaction to form a morula, and production of a blastocyst. Following blastocyst formation, the embryo may implant immediately or after substantial differentiation of the epiblast and hypoblast layers. In this chapter, the shared and unique properties of several species, commonly used in studies of reproduction and embryology, are outlined. ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Reijo Pera RA, Prezzoto L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Genetic Analysis of Human Preimplantation Embryos.
bio C Abstract Preimplantation development comprises the initial stages of mammalian development, before the embryo implants into the mother's uterus. In normal conditions, after fertilization the embryo grows until reaching blastocyst stage. The blastocyst grows as the cells divide and the cavity expands, until it arrives at the uterus, where it "hatches" from the zona pellucida to implant into the uterine wall. Nevertheless, embryo quality and viability can be affected by chromosomal abnormalities, most of which occur during gametogenesis and early embryo development; human embryos produced in vitro ar...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Garcia-Herrero S, Cervero A, Mateu E, Mir P, Póo ME, Rodrigo L, Vera M, Rubio C Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 27475860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - August 1, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: DePamphilis ML Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The "Mendelian Gene" and the "Molecular Gene": Two Relevant Concepts of Genetic Units.
The "Mendelian Gene" and the "Molecular Gene": Two Relevant Concepts of Genetic Units. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2016;119:1-26 Authors: Orgogozo V, Peluffo AE, Morizot B Abstract We focus here on two prevalent meanings of the word gene in research articles. On one hand, the gene, named here "molecular gene," is a stretch of DNA that is transcribed and codes for an RNA or a polypeptide with a known or presumed function (as in "gene network"), whose exact spatial delimitation on the chromosome remains a matter of debate, especially in cases with alternative splicing, ant...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Orgogozo V, Peluffo AE, Morizot B Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Differences Within and Between Drosophila Species.
Abstract In Drosophila, as well as in many other plants and animals, pigmentation is highly variable both within and between species. This variability, combined with powerful genetic and transgenic tools as well as knowledge of how pigment patterns are formed biochemically and developmentally, has made Drosophila pigmentation a premier system for investigating the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for phenotypic evolution. In this chapter, we review and synthesize findings from a rapidly growing body of case studies examining the genetic basis of pigmentation differences in the abdomen, thorax, wings, a...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Massey JH, Wittkopp PJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

To Have and to Hold: Selection for Seed and Fruit Retention During Crop Domestication.
Abstract Crop domestication provides a useful model system to characterize the molecular and developmental bases of morphological variation in plants. Among the most universal changes resulting from selection during crop domestication is the loss of seed and fruit dispersal mechanisms, which greatly facilitates harvesting efficiency. In this review, we consider the molecular genetic and developmental bases of the loss of seed shattering and fruit dispersal in six major crop plant families, three of which are primarily associated with seed crops (Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae) and three of which are associated wi...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Li LF, Olsen KM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Genetics Underlying Natural Variation in the Biotic Interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana: The Challenges of Linking Evolutionary Genetics and Community Ecology.
Abstract In the context of global change, predicting the responses of plant communities in an ever-changing biotic environment calls for a multipronged approach at the interface of evolutionary genetics and community ecology. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation involved in mediating biotic interactions, and associated adaptive dynamics of focal plants in their natural communities, is still in its infancy. Here, we review the genetic and molecular bases of natural variation in the response to biotic interactions (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, herbivores, and plants) in the mo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Roux F, Bergelson J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Behavioral Genetic Toolkits: Toward the Evolutionary Origins of Complex Phenotypes.
Abstract The discovery of toolkit genes, which are highly conserved genes that consistently regulate the development of similar morphological phenotypes across diverse species, is one of the most well-known observations in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Surprisingly, this phenomenon is also relevant for a wide array of behavioral phenotypes, despite the fact that these phenotypes are highly complex and regulated by many genes operating in diverse tissues. In this chapter, we review the use of the toolkit concept in the context of behavior, noting the challenges of comparing behaviors and genes ac...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Rittschof CC, Robinson GE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Identifying Coopted Networks and Causative Mutations in the Origin of Novel Complex Traits.
Abstract One of the central goals of the field of evo-devo is to understand how novel complex traits originate. Novel complex traits are often old, and this makes understanding the genetic basis of their origin difficult. The traditional genetics approach for identifying the causative mutations for trait origin, of crossing species with and without the trait, is often impossible when the species are too distantly related. Alternatively, if the species are closely related, the genetic basis of their differences is often the recent loss, rather than the gain, of the trait in one of them, and mutations resulting in t...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Monteiro A, Gupta MD Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Looking Beyond the Genes: The Interplay Between Signaling Pathways and Mechanics in the Shaping and Diversification of Epithelial Tissues.
Abstract The core of Evo-Devo lies in the intuition that the way tissues grow during embryonic development, the way they sustain their structure and function throughout lifetime, and the way they evolve are closely linked. Epithelial tissues are ubiquitous in metazoans, covering the gut and internal branched organs, as well as the skin and its derivatives (ie, teeth). Here, we discuss in vitro, in vivo, and in silico studies on epithelial tissues to illustrate the conserved, dynamical, and complex aspects of their development. We then explore the implications of the dynamical and nonlinear nature of development on...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Urdy S, Goudemand N, Pantalacci S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Phenotypic Evolution With and Beyond Genome Evolution.
ix MA Abstract DNA does not make phenotypes on its own. In this volume entitled "Genes and Phenotypic Evolution," the present review draws the attention on the process of phenotype construction-including development of multicellular organisms-and the multiple interactions and feedbacks between DNA, organism, and environment at various levels and timescales in the evolutionary process. First, during the construction of an individual's phenotype, DNA is recruited as a template for building blocks within the cellular context and may in addition be involved in dynamical feedback loops that depend on the envi...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Félix MA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Human Phenotypic Diversity: An Evolutionary Perspective.
Abstract As humans migrated across the world, they encountered new environments requiring them to adapt to new challenges that presented themselves. The distribution of human phenotypes observed today is the result of this continuous adaptation, via biological/physiological and cultural means, and also by the modification of cultural practices, which leads to biological changes. In this chapter, we examine a number of adaptive traits and the roles played by their genetic and environmental determinants. We have selected a few traits used for human identification purposes (externally visible characteristics), associ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Balaresque P, King TE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 27282031 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 12, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Orgogozo V Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of Blood Stem Cell Development.
Abstract Understanding how the blood system is formed is an ongoing fundamental research challenge. Developmental biology has provided many insights into the molecules and processes that affect the formation of the blood tissues, both in health and disease. It is of particular interest for clinical transplantation therapies to understand how hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)-the self-renewing purveyors of the adult blood system that produce over 10 different functionally specialized cell lineages and over 10(11) cells daily-are generated during embryonic stages. Recent successes to reprogram the fate of adult differ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 4, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Dzierzak E, de Pater E Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Its Bone Marrow Niche.
Abstract Stem cells do not thrive without their niche. The bone marrow microenvironment is where hematopoietic stem cells maintain their cell state while receiving physiological input to modify their activity in response to changing physiological demands. The complexity of the bone marrow microenvironment is being unraveled and indicates that multiple different cell types contribute to the regulation of stem and progenitor cells. Further, it is becoming evident that the bone marrow represents a composite of niches with different components and different functional roles in hematopoiesis. It is now evident that alt...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 4, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Yu VW, Scadden DT Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Cistrome: GATA Factor-Dependent cis-Regulatory Mechanisms.
Abstract Transcriptional regulators mediate the genesis and function of the hematopoietic system by binding complex ensembles of cis-regulatory elements to establish genetic networks. While thousands to millions of any given cis-element resides in a genome, how transcriptional regulators select these sites and how site attributes dictate functional output is not well understood. An instructive system to address this problem involves the GATA family of transcription factors that control vital developmental and physiological processes and are linked to multiple human pathologies. Although GATA factors bind DNA motif...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 4, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Hewitt KJ, Johnson KD, Gao X, Keles S, Bresnick EH Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

ETS Transcription Factor ETV2/ER71/Etsrp in Hematopoietic and Vascular Development.
Abstract Effective establishment of the hematopoietic and vascular systems is prerequisite for successful embryogenesis. The ETS transcription factor Etv2 has proven to be essential for hematopoietic and vascular development. Etv2 expression marks the onset of the hematopoietic and vascular development and its deficiency leads to an absolute block in hematopoietic and vascular development. Etv2 is transiently expressed during development and is mainly expressed in testis in adults. Consistent with its expression pattern, Etv2 is transiently required for the generation of the optimal levels of the hemangiogenic cel...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 4, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Sumanas S, Choi K Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research