Introduction.
PMID: 29477159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Plusa B, Hadjantonakis AK Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Regulative Nature of Mammalian Embryos.
Abstract The striking developmental plasticity of early mammalian embryos has been known since the classical experiments performed in the 1950s and 1960s. There are many lines of evidence that the mammalian embryo is able to continue normal development even when exposed to severe experimental manipulations of the number and position of cells within the embryo. These observations have raised the question about the mechanisms involved in emergence, maintenance, and progressive restriction of this plasticity. Only recently, we have begun to understand these mechanisms. In this review, in order to explain the molecula...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Klimczewska K, Kasperczuk A, Suwińska A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cell Polarity-Dependent Regulation of Cell Allocation and the First Lineage Specification in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo.
Abstract During the first few days in the mouse preimplantation embryo, two types of cells, polar and apolar cells are generated from spherical totipotent blastomeres. Sequential morphogenetic events, polarization, compaction, and asymmetric division, are essential for the generation of the first distinct cell populations, polar and apolar cells, which establish the outer/inner configuration within the embryo. This leads to position-dependent activation of the Hippo signaling pathway and lineage-specific gene expression to form the trophectoderm and inner cell mass in a blastocyst. It is still unknown how each mor...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Saini D, Yamanaka Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

States and Origins of Mammalian Embryonic Pluripotency In Vivo and in a Dish.
Abstract Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC), derived from preimplantation embryos in 1981, defined mammalian pluripotency for many decades. However, after the derivation of human ESC in 1998, comparative studies showed that different types of pluripotency exist in early embryos and that these can be captured in vitro under various culture conditions. Over the past decade much has been learned about the key signaling pathways, growth factor requirements, and transcription factor profiles of pluripotent cells in embryos, allowing improvement of derivation and culture conditions for novel pluripotent stem cell types. M...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Ramos-Ibeas P, Nichols J, Alberio R Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Capturing and Interconverting Embryonic Cell Fates in a Dish.
Abstract Cells of the early embryo are totipotent because they will differentiate to produce the fetus and its surrounding extraembryonic tissues. By contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered to be merely pluripotent because they lack the ability to efficiently produce extraembryonic cell types. The relatively limited developmental potential of ES cells can be explained by the observation that ES cells are derived from the embryo after its cells have already begun to specialize and lose totipotency. Meanwhile, at the time that pluripotent ES cell progenitors are specified, so are the multipotent progenito...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Watts J, Lokken A, Moauro A, Ralston A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

From Germline to Soma: Epigenetic Dynamics in the Mouse Preimplantation Embryo.
Abstract When reflecting about cell fate commitment we think of differentiation. Be it during embryonic development or in an adult stem cell niche, where cells of a higher potency specialize and cell fate decisions are taken. Under normal circumstances this process is definitive and irreversible. Cell fate commitment is achieved by the establishment of cell-type-specific transcriptional programmes, which in turn are guided, reinforced, and ultimately locked-in by epigenetic mechanisms. Yet, this plunging drift in cellular potency linked to epigenetically restricted access to genomic information is problematic for ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Seah MKY, Messerschmidt DM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Pre-gastrula Development of Non-eutherian Mammals.
Abstract Marsupials and monotremes differ from eutherian mammals in many features of their reproduction and development. Some features appear to be representative of transitional stages in evolution from therapsid reptiles to humans and mice, particularly with respect to the extraembryonic tissues that have undergone remarkable modifications to accommodate reduced egg size and quantity of yolk/deutoplasm, and increasing emphasis on viviparity and placentation. Trophoblast and hypoblast contribute the epithelial layers in most of the extraembryonic membranes and are the first two lineages to differentiate from the ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Frankenberg S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Pre-implantation Development of Domestic Animals.
Abstract During the first days following fertilization, cells of mammalian embryo gradually lose totipotency, acquiring distinct identity. The first three lineages specified in the mammalian embryo are pluripotent epiblast, which later gives rise to the embryo proper, and two extraembryonic lineages, hypoblast (also known as primitive endoderm) and trophectoderm, which form tissues supporting development of the fetus in utero. Most of our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of early lineage specification in mammals comes from studies in the mouse. However, the growing body of evidence points to both similarities an...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Piliszek A, Madeja ZE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Human Pre-gastrulation Development.
Abstract Understanding the progression of early human embryonic development prior to implantation is of fundamental biological importance. Greater insights into early developmental events may lead to clinical improvements, not only via the establishment of novel stem cell models with increased potential or more physiological relevance, but also by uncovering some underlying causes of infertility, miscarriages, and developmental disorders. The majority of human embryos available for study are those donated to research once they are surplus to family building following in vitro fertilization, though in some countrie...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Wamaitha SE, Niakan KK Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Mitochondria and the Regulation of Cell Fitness During Early Mammalian Development.
ez TA Abstract From fertilization until the onset of gastrulation the early mammalian embryo undergoes a dramatic series of changes that converts a single fertilized cell into a remarkably complex organism. Much attention has been given to the molecular changes occurring during this process, but here we will review what is known about the changes affecting the mitochondria and how they impact on the energy metabolism and apoptotic response of the embryo. We will also focus on understanding what quality control mechanisms ensure optimal mitochondrial activity in the embryo, and in this way provide an overview of th...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Lima A, Burgstaller J, Sanchez-Nieto JM, Rodríguez TA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Head's Tale: Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation in the Mouse Embryo.
Abstract The establishment of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is a fundamental event during early development and marks the start of the process by which the basic body plan is laid down. This axial information determines where gastrulation, that generates and positions cells of the three-germ layers, occurs. A-P patterning requires coordinated interactions between multiple tissues, tight spatiotemporal control of signaling pathways, and the coordination of tissue growth with morphogenetic movements. In the mouse, a specialized population of cells, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) undergoes a migration event...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Stower MJ, Srinivas S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cell Fate Decisions During Preimplantation Mammalian Development.
Abstract The early mouse embryo offers a phenomenal system to dissect how changes in the mechanisms controlling cell fate are integrated with morphogenetic events at the single-cell level. New technologies based on live imaging have enabled the discovery of dynamic changes in the regulation of single genes, transcription factors, and epigenetic mechanisms directing early cell fate decision in the early embryo. Here, we review recent progress in linking molecular dynamic events occurring at the level of the single cell in vivo, to some of the key morphogenetic changes regulating early mouse development. PMID: ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Bissiere S, Gasnier M, Alvarez YD, Plachta N Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Our First Choice: Cellular and Genetic Underpinnings of Trophectoderm Identity and Differentiation in the Mammalian Embryo.
Abstract The trophectoderm (TE) is the first cell population to appear in the mammalian preimplantation embryo, as the result of the differentiation of totipotent blastomeres located on the outer surface of the late morula. Trophectodermal cells arrange in a monolayer covering the expanding blastocyst and acquire an epithelial phenotype with distinct apicobasal polarity and a basal lamina placed toward the blastocyst interior. During later development through the periimplantation and gastrulation stages, the TE gives rise to extraembryonic membranes and cell types that will eventually form most of the fetal placen...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Menchero S, Sainz de Aja J, Manzanares M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Primitive Endoderm Differentiation: From Specification to Epithelialization.
Abstract At the time of implantation, the mouse blastocyst has developed three cell lineages: the epiblast (Epi), the primitive endoderm (PrE), and the trophectoderm (TE). The PrE and TE are extraembryonic tissues but their interactions with the Epi are critical to sustain embryonic growth, as well as to pattern the embryo. We review here the cellular and molecular events that lead to the production of PrE and Epi lineages and discuss the different hypotheses that are proposed for the induction of these cell types. In the second part, we report the current knowledge about the epithelialization of the PrE. PMI...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Bassalert C, Valverde-Estrella L, Chazaud C Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

DAF-16: FOXO in the Context of C. elegans.
Abstract In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is a single FOXO transcription factor homolog, encoded by the gene, daf-16. As a central regulator for multiple signaling pathways, DAF-16 integrates these signals which results in modulation of several biological processes including longevity, development, fat storage, stress resistance, innate immunity, and reproduction. Using C. elegans allows for studies of FOXO in the context of the whole animal. Therefore, manipulating levels or the activity of daf-16 results in phenotypic changes. Genetic and molecular analysis revealed that similar to other systems, DAF-16 is the d...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Tissenbaum HA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System.
Abstract The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and fo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Santo EE, Paik J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism by FoxO Proteins, an Integrated Approach.
Abstract FoxO proteins are ancient targets of insulin action and play an important role in mediating effects of insulin on gene expression and metabolism. Regulation of FoxO function in the liver is critical for the ability of insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis and suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP), and dysregulation of FoxO function is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Signaling by the insulin/PI3 kinase/Akt pathway suppresses FoxO function, and FoxO proteins also are regulated by counterregulatory factors and sirtuin deacetylases which increase their activity. FoxO prot...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Unterman TG Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Role of FoxOs in Bone Health and Disease.
Abstract Recent studies with murine models of cell-specific loss- or gain-of-function of FoxOs have provided novel insights into the function and signaling of these transcription factors on the skeleton. They have revealed that FoxO actions in chondrocytes are critical for normal skeletal development, and FoxO actions in cells of the osteoclast or osteoblast lineage greatly influence bone resorption and formation and, consequently, bone mass. FoxOs also act in osteoblast progenitors to inhibit Wnt signaling and bone formation. Additionally, FoxOs decrease bone resorption via direct antioxidant effects on osteoclas...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Kim HN, Iyer S, Ring R, Almeida M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of FOXO Factors in Mammalian Cells.
Abstract Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are central regulators of cellular homeostasis. FOXOs respond to a wide range of external stimuli, including growth factor signaling, oxidative stress, genotoxic stress, and nutrient deprivation. These signaling inputs regulate FOXOs through a number of posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and methylation. Covalent modifications can affect localization, DNA binding, and interactions with other cofactors in the cell. FOXOs integrate the various modifications to regulate cell type-specific gene expression program...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Brown AK, Webb AE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

FOXO3 and Exceptional Longevity: Insights From Hydra to Humans.
Abstract Aging is a complex, multifactorial process with significant plasticity. While several biological pathways appear to influence aging, few genes have been identified that are both evolutionarily conserved and have a strong impact on aging and age-related phenotypes. The FoxO3 gene (FOXO3), and its homologs in model organisms, appears especially important, forming a key gene in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-signaling pathway, and influencing life span across diverse species. We highlight some of the key findings that are associated with FoxO3 protein, its gene and homologs in relation to lifespan in...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Davy PMC, Allsopp RC, Donlon TA, Morris BJ, Willcox DC, Willcox BJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Stem Cells Seen Through the FOXO Lens: An Evolving Paradigm.
Abstract Stem cells self-renew and differentiate to generate all tissues and cells in the body. Stem cell health promotes adaptive responses to tissue damage or loss and is essential for tissue regeneration with age. In the past decade, the evolutionarily conserved transcription factors FOXO with known functions in promoting healthy aging have emerged as key regulators of stem cell homeostasis in various tissues, including blood, neural, and muscle stem cells. Aberrant FOXO functions have been implicated in a variety of disorders including neurodegenerative, blood, cancer, and diabetes some of which are fostered b...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Liang R, Ghaffari S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

FOXOs Maintaining the Equilibrium for Better or for Worse.
Abstract A paradigm shift is emerging within the FOXO field and accumulating evidence indicates that we need to reappreciate the role of FOXOs, at least in cancer development. Here, we discuss the possibility that FOXOs are both tumor suppressors as well as promoters of tumor progression. This is mostly dependent on the biological context. Critical to this dichotomous role is the notion that FOXOs are central in preserving cellular homeostasis in redox control, genomic stability, and protein turnover. From this perspective, a paradoxical role in both suppressing and enhancing tumor progression can be reconciled. A...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: van Doeselaar S, Burgering BMT Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29433741 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Ghaffari S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

"What Did Maxwell's Equations Really Have to Do With Edison's Invention?": Addressing the Complexity of Developing Clinical Interventions for Skeletal Muscle Disease.
"What Did Maxwell's Equations Really Have to Do With Edison's Invention?": Addressing the Complexity of Developing Clinical Interventions for Skeletal Muscle Disease. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:1-22 Authors: Dando J Abstract To reach the healthcare market and have a medical intervention reimbursed in any format carries high risk and very low success rates. Even when all regulatory hurdles have been surpassed, there is no guarantee that the product will be purchased; a different body makes that decision using criteria typically unknown to early-stage innovators and intervention developers. I...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Dando J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cellular Biomechanics in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.
Abstract Satellite cells, adult stem cells in skeletal muscle tissue, reside within a mechanically dynamic three-dimensional microenvironment. With each contraction-relaxation cycle, a satellite cell is expected to experience tensile, shear, and compressive stresses, and through cell-extracellular matrix interactions, also gauge the stiffness of the niche. Via mechanoreceptors, cells can sense these biophysical parameters of the niche, which serve to physically induce conformational changes that impact biomolecule activity, and thereby alter downstream signal transduction pathways and ultimately cell fate. An emer...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Li EW, McKee-Muir OC, Gilbert PM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.
Abstract Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the pro...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Giordani L, Parisi A, Le Grand F Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

"Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.
"Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:205-233 Authors: Cornelison D Abstract Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our un...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Cornelison D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Muscle Stem Cell Niche in Health and Disease.
Abstract The regulation of stem cells that maintain and regenerate postnatal tissues depends on extrinsic signals originating from their microenvironment, commonly referred to as the stem cell niche. Complex higher-order regulatory interrelationships with the tissue and factors in the systemic circulation are integrated and propagated to the stem cells through the niche. The stem cell niche in skeletal muscle tissue is both a paradigm for a structurally and functionally relatively static niche that maintains stem cell quiescence during tissue homeostasis, and a highly dynamic regenerative niche that is subject to ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Mashinchian O, Pisconti A, Le Moal E, Bentzinger CF Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis.
Abstract Skeletal muscle regeneration is an efficient stem cell-based repair system that ensures healthy musculature. For this repair system to function continuously throughout life, muscle stem cells must contribute to the process of myofiber repair as well as repopulation of the stem cell niche. The decision made by the muscle stem cells to commit to the muscle repair or to remain a stem cell depends upon patterns of gene expression, a process regulated at the epigenetic level. Indeed, it is well accepted that dynamic changes in epigenetic landscapes to control DNA accessibility and expression is a critical comp...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Robinson DCL, Dilworth FJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Dysregulated Myogenesis in Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma is a mesenchymal malignancy associated with the skeletal muscle lineage and is also the most common pediatric soft tissue cancer. Between the two pediatric subtypes, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, the alveolar subtype is generally more aggressive and high-risk. Despite intensive multimodal therapy, patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma continue to have poor prognosis. In this chapter we address the mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of myogenesis in rhabdomyosarcoma. We specifically focus on recently identified signaling pathways that function to inhibit myogenesis and h...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Yu PY, Guttridge DC Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Muscle Stem Cells and Aging.
Abstract Satellite cells (SCs) are a population of muscle-resident stem cells that are essential for efficient tissue repair. SCs reside in a relatively quiescent state during normal tissue turnover, but are activated in response to injury through the microenvironment and cell-intrinsic signals. During aging, SC dysfunction is a major contributor to the decline in regenerative potential of muscle tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors are deregulated during aging. Interventions that reverse age-associated changes in SCs or the niche have shown to partially reju...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Hwang AB, Brack AS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Translational Control of the Myogenic Program in Developing, Regenerating, and Diseased Skeletal Muscle.
Abstract Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to commit...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Fujita R, Crist C Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Composition, Development, and Regeneration of Neuromuscular Junctions.
Abstract The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized site that connects the terminal of a motor neuron axon to skeletal muscle. As a synapse NMJ integrity is essential for transducing motor neuron signals that initiate skeletal muscle contraction. Many diseases and skeletal muscle aging are linked to impaired NMJ function and the associated muscle wasting. In this chapter we review the components of an NMJ and, the processes of NMJ development, maturation, and regeneration. Also, we briefly discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NMJ decline in the context of disease and aging. PMID: 29305005...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Liu W, Chakkalakal JV Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29305006 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Sassoon D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Evolution of Nuclear Receptors and Ligand Signaling: Toward a Soft Key-Lock Model?
Abstract Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that modulate a wide variety of physiological functions in a ligand-dependent manner. The first NRs were discovered as receptors of well-known hormones such as 17β-estradiol, corticosteroids, or thyroid hormones. In these cases a direct activation of the receptor transcriptional activity by a very specific ligand, with nanomolar affinity, was demonstrated, providing a strong conceptual framework to understand the mechanism of action of these hormones. However, the discovery that some NRs are able to bind different ligands ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Holzer G, Markov GV, Laudet V Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Estrogen Hormone Biology.
Abstract The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanis...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Hamilton KJ, Hewitt SC, Arao Y, Korach KS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Action During Development.
Abstract Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Mothers at risk of preterm delivery are administered glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung development and prevent respiratory distress. Conversely, excessive glucocorticoid signaling is detrimental fo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Busada JT, Cidlowski JA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Progesterone Receptor Signaling in Uterine Myometrial Physiology and Preterm Birth.
Discussions include novel conceptual discoveries and new development in legacy pathways such as the signal transducers NF-κB, ZEB, microRNA, and the unfolded protein response pathways. We also discuss the impact of progesterone receptor isoform composition and ligand accessibility in modification of the progesterone receptor genomic actions. PMID: 28527571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Wu SP, DeMayo FJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Roles of Retinoic Acid in Germ Cell Differentiation.
Abstract The modalities of gametogenesis differ markedly between sexes. Female are born with a definitive reserve of oocytes whose size is crucial to ensure fertility. Male fertility, in contrast, relies on a tightly regulated balance between germ cell self-renewal and differentiation, which operates throughout life, according to recurring spatial and temporal patterns. Genetic and pharmacological studies conducted in the mouse and discussed in this review have revealed that all-trans retinoic acid and its nuclear receptors are major players of gametogenesis and are instrumental to fertility in both sexes. PM...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Teletin M, Vernet N, Ghyselinck NB, Mark M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor β and Transcriptional Control of Neuronal Differentiation.
Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor β and Transcriptional Control of Neuronal Differentiation. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2017;125:227-255 Authors: Liu H, Aramaki M, Fu Y, Forrest D Abstract The ability to generate neuronal diversity is central to the function of the nervous system. Here we discuss the key neurodevelopmental roles of retinoid-related orphan receptor β (RORβ) encoded by the Rorb (Nr1f2) gene. Recent studies have reported loss of function of the human RORB gene in cases of familial epilepsy and intellectual disability. Principal sites of expression of the Rorb gene in model species ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Liu H, Aramaki M, Fu Y, Forrest D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Nuclear Receptor TLX in Development and Diseases.
Abstract The nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) is a transcription factor that is critical for neural development and adult neurogenesis through its actions in regulating neural stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and fate determination. These roles are primarily executed by regulating TLX downstream target genes involved in myriad pathways such as cell cycle progression, RNA processing, angiogenesis, and senescence. Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of TLX pathways plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human neurological disorders and brain tumors. Here, we will highlight recent progress in the role...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sun G, Cui Q, Shi Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

COUP-TF Genes, Human Diseases, and the Development of the Central Nervous System in Murine Models.
Abstract COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects. In this review, we first describe the functions of COUP-TF genes in the morphogenes...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Yang X, Feng S, Tang K Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Genetic Investigation of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Function in the Developing and Adult Brain.
Abstract Thyroid hormones exert a broad influence on brain development and function, which has been extensively studied over the years. Mouse genetics has brought an important contribution, allowing precise analysis of the interplay between TRα1 and TRβ1 nuclear receptors in neural cells. However, the exact contribution of each receptor, the possible intervention of nongenomic signaling, and the nature of the genetic program that is controlled by the receptors remain poorly understood. PMID: 28527576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Flamant F, Gauthier K, Richard S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to Heterozygous Mutations in Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha.
CONCLUSIONS: The severity of the clinical phenotype of RTHα patients seems to be associated with the location and type of mutation in THRA. The most frequent abnormalities observed include anemia, constipation, and growth and developmental delay. In addition, serum (F)T3 levels can be high-normal to high, (F)T4 and rT3 levels normal to low, while TSH is normal or mildly raised. Despite heterogeneous consequences of mutations in THRA, RTHα should be suspected in subjects with even mild clinical features of hypothyroidism together with high/high-normal (F)T3, low/low-normal (F)T4, and normal TSH. PMID: 28527...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: van Gucht ALM, Moran C, Meima ME, Visser WE, Chatterjee K, Visser TJ, Peeters RP Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

TR2 and TR4 Orphan Nuclear Receptors: An Overview.
Abstract Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR&gam...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Lin SJ, Yang DR, Yang G, Lin CY, Chang HC, Li G, Chang C Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Role of COUP-TFII in Striated Muscle Development and Disease.
Abstract Skeletal and cardiac muscles are the only striated muscles in the body. Although sharing many structural and functional similarities, skeletal and cardiac muscles have intrinsic differences in terms of physiology and regenerative potential. While skeletal muscle possesses a robust regenerative response, the mammalian heart has limited repair capacity after birth. In this review, we provide an updated view regarding chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) function in vertebrate myogenesis, with particular emphasis on the skeletal and cardiac muscles. We also highlight the ne...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Xie X, Wu SP, Tsai MJ, Tsai S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Function and Evolution of Nuclear Receptors in Insect Embryonic Development.
Abstract Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that are often responsive to small ligands, allowing for efficient gene expression-level responses to a stimulus. The average insect has 21 genes encoding nuclear receptors, whose functions are especially well studied in developmental transitions during the insect life cycle, such as metamorphosis and molting. However, their utility as well-controlled transcriptional regulators also lends them to important roles in embryogenesis, neurogenesis, metabolism, and organogenesis. Such developmental functions have been explored in depth in the model organis...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Cheatle Jarvela AM, Pick L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Nuclear Receptors in Skeletal Homeostasis.
Abstract Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that can be activated by lipophilic ligands. They are fundamental regulators of development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. In bone, nuclear receptors enable bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, to sense their dynamic microenvironment and maintain normal bone development and remodeling. Our views of the molecular mechanisms in this process have advanced greatly in the past decade. Drugs targeting nuclear receptors are widely used in the clinic for treating patients with bone disorders such as osteoporosis by modulatin...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Zuo H, Wan Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 28527582 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Forrest D, Tsai S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects in Zebrafish.
Abstract Cardiac development is a dynamic process regulated by spatial and temporal cues that are integrated to effect molecular, cellular, and tissue-level events that form the adult heart. Disruption of these highly orchestrated events can be devastating for cardiac form and function. Aberrations in heart development result in congenital heart defects (CHDs), which affect 1 in 100 infants in the United States each year. Zebrafish have proven informative as a model organism to understand both heart development and the mechanisms associated with CHDs due to the similarities in heart morphogenesis among vertebrates...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Grant MG, Patterson VL, Grimes DT, Burdine RD Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research