Evolution of the plant body plan.
Kirbis A Abstract Land plants evolved about 470 million years ago or even earlier, in a biological crust-dominated terrestrial flora. The origin of land plants was probably one of the most significant events in Earth's history, which ultimately contributed to the greening of the terrestrial environment and opened up the way for the diversification of both plant and non-plant lineages. Fossil and phylogenetic evidence suggest that land plants have evolved from fresh-water charophycean algae, which were physiologically, genetically, and developmentally potentiated to make the transition to land. Since all land plan...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Szövényi P, Waller M, Kirbis A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Leaf development and evolution.
Abstract Plant leaves are differentiated organs that arise sequentially from a population of pluripotent stem cells at the shoot apical meristem (SAM). There is substantial diversity in leaf shape, much of which depends on the size and arrangement of outgrowths at the leaf margin. These outgrowths are generated by a patterning mechanism similar to the phyllotactic processes producing organs at the SAM, which involves the transcription factors CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON and the phytohormone auxin. In the leaf, this patterning mechanism creates sequential protrusions and indentations along the margin. The size, shape, and...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Nikolov LA, Runions A, Das Gupta M, Tsiantis M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Vascular tissue development in plants.
Abstract The plant vasculature is a sophisticated system that has greatly contributed to the evolution of land plants over the past few hundred million years. The formation of the vascular system is a well-organized plant developmental process, but it is also flexible in response to environmental changes. Provascular cells arise after asymmetric cell division in early embryos and differentiate into various vascular cells, including procambial cells, which function as vascular stem cells. Mutual regulation by auxin and cytokinin is essential for vascular pattern formation, in which the xylem, phloem, and procambium...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Fukuda H, Ohashi-Ito K Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Transcriptional networks orchestrating programmed cell death during plant development.
, Nowack MK Abstract Transcriptional gene regulation is a fundamental biological principle in the development of eukaryotes. It does control not only cell proliferation, specification, and differentiation, but also cell death processes as an integral feature of an organism's developmental program. As in animals, developmentally regulated cell death in plants occurs in numerous contexts and is of vital importance for plant vegetative and reproductive development. In comparison with the information available on the molecular regulation of programmed cell death (PCD) in animals, however, our knowledge on plant PCD st...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Cubría-Radío M, Nowack MK Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Molecular regulation of flower development.
Abstract Over the past three decades, several hundred genes with important regulatory functions during reproductive development in angiosperms have been identified. While we do not yet know, in most cases, how these genes and their products act, fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of flowers have been obtained in recent years. These advances were made possible to a large extent by studying the functions of master regulators of flower development through a multitude of experimental approaches, ranging from basic genetic analysis to genome-wide surveys. Based on the results of...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Thomson B, Wellmer F Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose: The developmental evolution of flowers.
Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose: The developmental evolution of flowers. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2019;131:211-238 Authors: Kramer EM Abstract The study of floral developmental evolution may be as old as the study of botany itself, but its history as a modern field largely dates to the characterization of the ABC model of floral organ identity. As we have come to understand more about the wide range of genetic programs that influence floral development, the potential for comparative studies has increased, leading to a steady expansion of research questions. This review attempts to take...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Kramer EM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Pre-meiotic anther development.
Abstract Most genetic and molecular analyses of anther development utilize Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa (rice), and Zea mays (maize). Especially in maize, early stages of anther development are easy to study because: (1) Maize has unisex flowers. (2) Compared to rice or A. thaliana, maize anthers are relatively large, making dissection for molecular and biochemical analyses easy. (3) Anther developmental stage is strongly correlated with maize anther length. Besides these technical advantages, understanding anther and pollen development in maize is of significant agricultural importance. Today maize is a wor...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: van der Linde K, Walbot V Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The evolution and patterning of male gametophyte development.
Abstract The reproductive adaptations of land plants have played a key role in their terrestrial colonization and radiation. This encompasses mechanisms used for the production, dispersal and union of gametes to support sexual reproduction. The production of small motile male gametes and larger immotile female gametes (oogamy) in specialized multicellular gametangia evolved in the charophyte algae, the closest extant relatives of land plants. Reliance on water and motile male gametes for sexual reproduction was retained by bryophytes and basal vascular plants, but was overcome in seed plants by the dispersal of po...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Hackenberg D, Twell D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Evolution of development of pollen performance.
Abstract With the origin of pollination in ancient seed plants, the male gametophyte ("pollen") began to evolve a new and unique life history stage, the progamic phase, a post-pollination period in which pollen sexual maturation occurs in interaction with sporophyte-derived tissues. Pollen performance traits mediate the timing of the fertilization process, often in competition with other pollen, via the speed of pollen germination, sperm development, and pollen tube growth. Studies of pollen development rarely address the issue of performance or its evolution, which involves linking variation in developm...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Williams JH, Reese JB Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Female reproductive organ formation: A multitasking endeavor.
We describe networks of key genetic regulators and their interactions with hormonal dynamics in driving these developmental processes. The discoveries made to date clearly demonstrate that conclusions drawn from studying gynoecium and fruit development in flowering plants can be used to further our general understanding of organ formation across the plant kingdom. Importantly, this acquired knowledge is increasingly being used to improve fruit and seed crops, facilitated by the recent profound advances in genomics, cloning, and gene-editing technologies. PMID: 30612622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Simonini S, Østergaard L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Evolution and co-option of developmental regulatory networks in early land plants.
Abstract Land plants evolved from an ancestral alga from which they inherited developmental and physiological characters. A key innovation of land plants is a life cycle with an alternation of generations, with both haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte generations having complex multicellular bodies. The origins of the developmental genetic programs patterning these bodies, whether inherited from an algal ancestor or evolved de novo, and whether programs were co-opted between generations, are largely open questions. We first provide a framework for land plant evolution and co-option of developmental regulato...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Bowman JL, Briginshaw LN, Florent SN Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Development and evolution of the unique ovules of flowering plants.
Abstract Ovules are the precursors to seeds and as such are critical to plant propagation and food production. Mutant studies have led to the identification of numerous genes regulating ovule development. Genes encoding transcription factors have been shown to direct ovule spacing, ovule identity and integument formation. Particular co-regulators have now been associated with activities of some of these transcription factors, and other protein families including cell surface receptors have been shown to regulate ovule development. Hormone levels and transport, especially of auxin, have also been shown to play crit...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Gasser CS, Skinner DJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Development and function of the flowering plant female gametophyte.
dt R Abstract Flowering plants constitute an indispensable basis for the existence of most organisms, including humans. In a world characterized by rapid population growth and climate changes, understanding plant reproduction becomes increasingly important in order to respond to the resource shortage associated with this development. New technologies enabling powerful forward genetic approaches, comprehensive genome and transcriptome analyses, and sophisticated cell isolation and imaging have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gamete formation and fertilization. In addition, these te...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Erbasol Serbes I, Palovaara J, Groß-Hardt R Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae: Regulation and mechanism of self-recognition.
Abstract Self-incompatibility is one of the most common mechanisms used by plants to prevent self-fertilization. In the Brassicaceae, the inhibition of self-pollen is triggered right at the stigma surface by interaction of two highly polymorphic self-recognition proteins that are encoded by tightly linked genes of the S-locus haplotype: a receptor protein kinase displayed at the surface of stigma epidermal cells and its small diffusible ligand that is localized in the outer coat of pollen grains. It is the specific interaction between receptor and ligand encoded in the same S haplotype that determines specificity ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Nasrallah JB Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Friend or foe: Signaling mechanisms during double fertilization in flowering seed plants.
Abstract Since the first description of double fertilization 120 years ago, the processes of pollen tube growth and guidance, sperm cell release inside the receptive synergid cell, as well as fusion of two sperm cells to the female gametes (egg and central cell) have been well documented in many flowering plants. Especially microscopic techniques, including live cell imaging, were used to visualize these processes. Molecular as well as genetic methods were applied to identify key players involved. However, compared to the first 11 decades since its discovery, the past decade has seen a tremendous advancement in ou...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Zhou LZ, Dresselhaus T Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Genetic, molecular and parent-of-origin regulation of early embryogenesis in flowering plants.
Abstract Embryogenesis in flowering plants has fascinated biologists since at least the 19th century. Embryos of almost all flowering plants share common characteristics, including an asymmetric first division of the zygote, and multiple rounds of cell divisions that generate the major tissue types of the adult plant, usually within a few days of fertilization. This review focuses on early embryogenesis, including fertilization, the contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to the zygote and early embryo, cell fate decisions that create the apical and basal lineages, establishment of the shoot and root merist...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Armenta-Medina A, Gillmor CS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Histology versus phylogeny: Viewing plant embryogenesis from an evo-devo perspective.
Abstract The goal of evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) biology compares inter-organism developmental processes to infer ancestral relationships and evolutionary adaptations. Frameworks to address macroevolutionary traits such as plant embryogenesis commonly involve two complementary approaches. Historically, focus has been placed on comparative morphology and histology, but more recently, accumulating genome data from diverse taxa have elicited the construction of molecular phylogenies, which aid the identification of gene homologies and orthologies that have been adaptive and that underlie differences in form...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Chandler JW, Werr W Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The role of plant root systems in evolutionary adaptation.
Abstract Roots provide a means to plants for gathering belowground resources. They are plastic and can adapt to ever-changing environmental cues. The plasticity of the roots comes from their ability to branch out by developing lateral and/or adventitious roots. In this chapter, we make an attempt to document the diversity in plant root systems and understand their role in evolutionary adaptation. After a brief introduction to different root systems, such as homorhizic and allorhizic ones, the relationship of plant roots with their surroundings, i.e., the rhizosphere and its effect on adaptation, will be discussed....
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Shekhar V, Stӧckle D, Thellmann M, Vermeer JEM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Apomixis in flowering plants: Developmental and evolutionary considerations.
-Calzada JP Abstract Apomixis refers to a set of reproductive mechanisms that invariably rely on avoiding meiotic reduction and fertilization of the egg cell to generate clonal seeds. After having long been considered a strictly asexual oddity leading to extinction, the integration of more than 100 years of embryological, genetic, molecular, and ecological research has revealed apomixis as a widely spread component of the dynamic processes that shape flowering plant evolution. Apomixis involves several flexible and versatile developmental pathways that can be combined within the ovule to produce offspring. Here we...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: León-Martínez G, Vielle-Calzada JP Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Seeds-An evolutionary innovation underlying reproductive success in flowering plants.
Abstract "Seeds nourish, seeds unite, seeds endure, seeds defend, seeds travel," explains the science writer Thor Hanson in his book The Triumph of Seeds (2015). The seed is an ultimate product of land plant evolution. The nursing and protective organization of the seed enable a unique parental care of the progeny that has fueled seed plant radiation. Seeds promote dispersal and optimize offspring production and thus reproductive fitness through biological adaptations that integrate environmental and developmental cues. The composite structure of seeds, uniting tissues that originate from three distinct ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Baroux C, Grossniklaus U Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Patterning at the shoot apical meristem and phyllotaxis.
Abstract The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates all above-ground organs throughout the life of plants. The development and maintenance of the SAM are crucial for building the plant architecture. The spatiotemporal patterning of lateral organs (leaves and flowers), called phyllotaxis, is one of the best-characterized self-organizing systems and has long been proposed to be driven by inhibitory fields generated by the existing organs and blocking new initiations in their vicinity. Recent years have seen impressive progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling SAM function, and on how these...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Shi B, Vernoux T Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 30612634 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 9, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Grossniklaus U Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Physical and Biochemical Properties of the Extracellular Matrix Regulate Cell Fate.
We present examples describing how the extracellular matrix functions as a highly complex physical and chemical entity that regulates tissue organization and cell behavior through a dynamic and reciprocal dialogue with the cellular constituents of the tissue. We suggest that the extracellular matrix not only transmits cellular and tissue-level force to shape development and tune cellular activities that are key for coordinated tissue behavior, but that it is itself remodeled such that it temporally evolves to maintain the integrated function of the tissue. Accordingly, we argue that perturbations in extracellular matrix co...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Muncie JM, Weaver VM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Collagen Fibril Assembly and Function.
Abstract Collagen fibrils are the major mechanical component in the extracellular matrix of a broad range of multicellular animals from echinoderms to vertebrates where they provide a stable framework for tissues. They form the key tension-resisting element of a complex fiber-composite system that has a tissue-specific hierarchical structure linked to mechanical demands. Remarkably, these tissues are self-maintaining and avoid fatigue failure over the lifetime of the animal. Collagen fibrils can assemble spontaneously from purified solutions of collagen molecules. In developing tissues, however, in addition to the...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Holmes DF, Lu Y, Starborg T, Kadler KE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Basement Membranes in Development and Disease.
Abstract The basement membrane is a thin but dense, sheet-like specialized type of extracellular matrix that has remarkably diverse functions tailored to individual tissues and organs. Tightly controlled spatial and temporal changes in its composition and structure contribute to the diversity of basement membrane functions. These different basement membranes undergo dynamic transformations throughout animal life, most notably during development. Numerous developmental mechanisms are regulated or mediated by basement membranes, often by a combination of molecular and mechanical processes. A particularly important p...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Sekiguchi R, Yamada KM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Extracellular Determinants of Arterial Morphogenesis, Growth, and Homeostasis.
Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly heterogeneous mixture of macromolecules capable of self-assembling into tissue-specific suprastructures that constitute the architectural elements supporting organ function. Contrary to the traditional view of being a static scaffold that supports tissue integrity along with cell adhesion and migration, the ECM is an inherently dynamic system that specifies cellular function and defines the limits and patterns of tissue organization. Throughout evolution, the composition and organization of the ECM have changed to accommodate basic and new tissue functions, both ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Mecham RP, Ramirez F Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Structure, Function, and Development of the Tectorial Membrane: An Extracellular Matrix Essential for Hearing.
Abstract The tectorial membrane is an extracellular matrix that lies over the apical surface of the auditory epithelia in the inner ears of reptiles, birds, and mammals. Recent studies have shown it is composed of a small set of proteins, some of which are only produced at high levels in the ear and many of which are the products of genes that, when mutated, cause nonsyndromic forms of human hereditary deafness. Quite how the proteins of the tectorial membrane are assembled within the lumen of the inner ear to form a structure that is precisely regulated in its size and physical properties along the length of a to...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Goodyear RJ, Richardson GP Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Extracellular Matrix (ECM) and the Sculpting of Embryonic Tissues.
Abstract Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are structurally and compositionally diverse networks of collagenous and noncollagenous glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and associated molecules that together comprise the metazoan matrisome. Proper deposition and assembly of ECM is of profound importance to cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and the morphogenesis of tissues and organ systems that define sequential steps in the development of all animals. Importantly, it is now clear that the instructive influence of a particular ECM at various points in development reflects more than a simpl...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Dzamba BJ, DeSimone DW Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Fish Egg's Zona Pellucida.
Abstract All fish eggs are surrounded by an envelope, called the zona pellucida (ZP), that plays various roles during oogenesis, egg deposition, fertilization, and embryogenesis. The fish egg ZP consists of only a few proteins that are homologs of mammalian ZP proteins ZP1, ZP3, and ZP4. Unlike the situation in mammals, in fishes there are often multiple copies of ZP genes, perhaps a consequence of ancient polyploidization, gene amplification, and mutation. Like mammalian ZP proteins, fish egg ZP1-like proteins exhibit conserved organization with distinct domains and motifs, but unlike mammalian ZP1 and ZP4 have a...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Litscher ES, Wassarman PM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Egg-Coat and Zona Pellucida Proteins of Chicken as a Typical Species of Aves.
Abstract Birds are oviparous vertebrates in terrestrial animals. Birds' eggs accumulate mass of egg yolk during the egg development and are accordingly much larger than the eggs of viviparous vertebrates. Despite such difference in size and contents, the birds' eggs are surrounded with the egg-coat morphologically and compositionally resembling the mammalian egg-coat, zona pellucida. On the other hand, there are some differences in part between the two egg-coats, though relationships of such structural differences to any biological roles specific for the extracellular matrix of birds' eggs are not fully understood...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Nishio S, Okumura H, Matsuda T Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Mouse Egg's Zona Pellucida.
Abstract All mammalian eggs are surrounded by a highly specialized extracellular matrix (ECM), called the zona pellucida (ZP), that functions before, during, and after fertilization. Unlike somatic cell ECM the mouse ZP is composed of three different proteins, ZP1-3, that are synthesized and secreted by growing oocytes and assembled into long interconnected fibrils. ECM or vitelline envelope (VE) that surrounds fish, reptilian, amphibian, and avian eggs also consists of a limited number of proteins all closely related to ZP1-3. Messenger RNAs encoding ZP1-3 are expressed only by growing oocytes at very high levels...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Wassarman PM, Litscher ES Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Conceptus Coats of Marsupials and Monotremes.
Abstract Mammals evolved from oviparous reptiles that laid eggs in a dry, terrestrial environment, thus requiring large amounts of yolk to support development and tough, outer coats to protect them. Eutherian mammals such as humans and mice exhibit an "extreme" form of viviparity in which yolk and conceptus coats have become largely redundant. However, the "other" mammals-monotremes and marsupials-have retained and modified some features of reptilian development that provide valuable insights into the evolution of viviparity in mammals. Most striking of these are the conceptus coats, which incl...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Frankenberg S, Renfree MB Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Human Egg's Zona Pellucida.
Abstract Human zona pellucida (ZP) matrix, a delicate network of thin interconnected filaments, is primarily composed of four glycoproteins, namely, ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. All four zona proteins share common structural elements such as signal peptide, "ZP domain," consensus furin cleavage site, transmembrane-like domain, and short cytoplasmic tail. In addition, ZP1 and ZP4 also have "Trefoil domain." Recombinant/native human zona proteins have been used to investigate their binding characteristics to the capacitated and/or acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. These investigations revealed that ZP1, Z...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Gupta SK Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Matricellular Proteins: Functional Insights From Non-mammalian Animal Models.
Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM) has central roles in tissue integrity and remodeling throughout the life span of animals. While collagens are the most abundant structural components of ECM in most tissues, tissue-specific molecular complexity is contributed by ECM glycoproteins. The matricellular glycoproteins are categorized primarily according to functional criteria and represented predominantly by the thrombospondin, tenascin, SPARC/osteonectin, and CCN families. These proteins do not self-assemble into ECM fibrils; nevertheless, they shape ECM properties through interactions with structural ECM protein...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Adams JC Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Structure of Zona Pellucida Module Proteins.
Abstract The egg coat, an extracellular matrix made up of glycoprotein filaments, plays a key role in animal fertilization by acting as a gatekeeper for sperm. Egg coat components polymerize using a common zona pellucida (ZP) "domain" module that consists of two related immunoglobulin-like domains, called ZP-N and ZP-C. The ZP module has also been recognized in a large number of other secreted proteins with different biological functions, whose mutations are linked to severe human diseases. During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made toward understanding the atomic architecture of the ZP mo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Bokhove M, Jovine L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Egg Coat Proteins Across Metazoan Evolution.
Abstract All animal oocytes are surrounded by a glycoproteinaceous egg coat, a specialized extracellular matrix that serves both structural and species-specific roles during fertilization. Egg coat glycoproteins polymerize into the extracellular matrix of the egg coat using a conserved protein-protein interaction module-the zona pellucida (ZP) domain-common to both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that the basic structural features of egg coats have been conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Egg coat proteins, as with other proteins involved in reproduction, are frequently found to ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Killingbeck EE, Swanson WJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29853188 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Litscher ES, Wassarman PM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling Mammalian Gastrulation With Embryonic Stem Cells.
Abstract Understanding cell fate patterning and morphogenesis in the mammalian embryo remains a formidable challenge. Recently, in vivo models based on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have emerged as complementary methods to quantitatively dissect the physical and molecular processes that shape the embryo. Here we review recent developments in using ESCs to create both two- and three-dimensional culture models that shed light on mammalian gastrulation. PMID: 29801527 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Siggia ED, Warmflash A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Long Road to Making Muscle In Vitro.
hal J Abstract The skeletal muscle lineage derives from the embryonic paraxial mesoderm (PM) which also gives rise to the axial skeleton, the dermis of the back, brown fat, meninges, and endothelial cells. Direct conversion was pioneered in skeletal muscle with overexpression of the transcription factor MyoD which can convert fibroblasts to a muscle fate. In contrast, directed differentiation of skeletal muscle from pluripotent cells (PC) in vitro has proven to be very difficult compared to other lineages and has only been achieved recently. Experimental strategies recapitulating myogenesis in vitro from mouse and...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Pourquié O, Al Tanoury Z, Chal J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Recapitulating and Deciphering Human Pancreas Development From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Dish.
ton A Abstract Here, we review how human pluripotent stem cell models of pancreas development have emerged and became an important tool to study human development and disease. Initially developed toward the production of β cells for diabetes therapy, the protocols have been refined based on knowledge of pancreas development in model organisms. While the cells produced are closer and closer to the end goal of a functional β cell, these models have also been used to carry out functional experiments addressing gene function and expression as well as regulatory and epigenetic landscape changes during human p...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Petersen MBK, Gonçalves CAC, Kim YH, Grapin-Botton A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

What Can Stem Cell Models Tell Us About Human Germ Cell Biology?
Abstract Fusion of sperm and egg generates a totipotent zygote that develops into a whole organism. Accordingly, the "immortal" germline transmits genetic and epigenetic information to subsequent generations with consequences for human health and disease. In mammals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) originate from peri-gastrulation embryos. While early human embryos are inaccessible for research, in vitro model systems using pluripotent stem cells have provided critical insights into human PGC specification, which differs from that in mice. This might stem from significant differences in early embryogenesis ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Irie N, Sybirna A, Surani MA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cortical Circuits.
Abstract Understanding the development of the human brain in relation with evolution is an important frontier field in developmental biology. In particular, investigating the mechanisms underlying the greatly increased relative size and complexity of the cerebral cortex, the seat of our enhanced cognitive abilities, remains a fascinating yet largely unsolved question. Though many advances in our understanding have been gained from the study of animal models, as well as human genetics and embryology, large gaps remain in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that control human cortical development. Interestingl...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Astick M, Vanderhaeghen P Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Studying the Brain in a Dish: 3D Cell Culture Models of Human Brain Development and Disease.
Abstract The study of the cellular and molecular processes of the developing human brain has been hindered by access to suitable models of living human brain tissue. Recently developed 3D cell culture models offer the promise of studying fundamental brain processes in the context of human genetic background and species-specific developmental mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of 3D human brain organoid models and consider their potential to enable investigation of complex aspects of human brain development and the underpinning of human neurological disease. PMID: 29801532 [PubMed - in process] (Sou...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Brown J, Quadrato G, Arlotta P Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29801533 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Brivanlou AH Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Introduction.
PMID: 29477159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Plusa B, Hadjantonakis AK Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Regulative Nature of Mammalian Embryos.
Abstract The striking developmental plasticity of early mammalian embryos has been known since the classical experiments performed in the 1950s and 1960s. There are many lines of evidence that the mammalian embryo is able to continue normal development even when exposed to severe experimental manipulations of the number and position of cells within the embryo. These observations have raised the question about the mechanisms involved in emergence, maintenance, and progressive restriction of this plasticity. Only recently, we have begun to understand these mechanisms. In this review, in order to explain the molecula...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Klimczewska K, Kasperczuk A, Suwińska A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cell Polarity-Dependent Regulation of Cell Allocation and the First Lineage Specification in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo.
Abstract During the first few days in the mouse preimplantation embryo, two types of cells, polar and apolar cells are generated from spherical totipotent blastomeres. Sequential morphogenetic events, polarization, compaction, and asymmetric division, are essential for the generation of the first distinct cell populations, polar and apolar cells, which establish the outer/inner configuration within the embryo. This leads to position-dependent activation of the Hippo signaling pathway and lineage-specific gene expression to form the trophectoderm and inner cell mass in a blastocyst. It is still unknown how each mor...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Saini D, Yamanaka Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

States and Origins of Mammalian Embryonic Pluripotency In Vivo and in a Dish.
Abstract Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC), derived from preimplantation embryos in 1981, defined mammalian pluripotency for many decades. However, after the derivation of human ESC in 1998, comparative studies showed that different types of pluripotency exist in early embryos and that these can be captured in vitro under various culture conditions. Over the past decade much has been learned about the key signaling pathways, growth factor requirements, and transcription factor profiles of pluripotent cells in embryos, allowing improvement of derivation and culture conditions for novel pluripotent stem cell types. M...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Ramos-Ibeas P, Nichols J, Alberio R Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Capturing and Interconverting Embryonic Cell Fates in a Dish.
Abstract Cells of the early embryo are totipotent because they will differentiate to produce the fetus and its surrounding extraembryonic tissues. By contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered to be merely pluripotent because they lack the ability to efficiently produce extraembryonic cell types. The relatively limited developmental potential of ES cells can be explained by the observation that ES cells are derived from the embryo after its cells have already begun to specialize and lose totipotency. Meanwhile, at the time that pluripotent ES cell progenitors are specified, so are the multipotent progenito...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Watts J, Lokken A, Moauro A, Ralston A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

From Germline to Soma: Epigenetic Dynamics in the Mouse Preimplantation Embryo.
Abstract When reflecting about cell fate commitment we think of differentiation. Be it during embryonic development or in an adult stem cell niche, where cells of a higher potency specialize and cell fate decisions are taken. Under normal circumstances this process is definitive and irreversible. Cell fate commitment is achieved by the establishment of cell-type-specific transcriptional programmes, which in turn are guided, reinforced, and ultimately locked-in by epigenetic mechanisms. Yet, this plunging drift in cellular potency linked to epigenetically restricted access to genomic information is problematic for ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Seah MKY, Messerschmidt DM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research