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DAF-16: FOXO in the Context of C. elegans.
Abstract In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is a single FOXO transcription factor homolog, encoded by the gene, daf-16. As a central regulator for multiple signaling pathways, DAF-16 integrates these signals which results in modulation of several biological processes including longevity, development, fat storage, stress resistance, innate immunity, and reproduction. Using C. elegans allows for studies of FOXO in the context of the whole animal. Therefore, manipulating levels or the activity of daf-16 results in phenotypic changes. Genetic and molecular analysis revealed that similar to other systems, DAF-16 is the d...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Tissenbaum HA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

FOXO in Neural Cells and Diseases of the Nervous System.
Abstract The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and fo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Santo EE, Paik J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism by FoxO Proteins, an Integrated Approach.
Abstract FoxO proteins are ancient targets of insulin action and play an important role in mediating effects of insulin on gene expression and metabolism. Regulation of FoxO function in the liver is critical for the ability of insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis and suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP), and dysregulation of FoxO function is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Signaling by the insulin/PI3 kinase/Akt pathway suppresses FoxO function, and FoxO proteins also are regulated by counterregulatory factors and sirtuin deacetylases which increase their activity. FoxO prot...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Unterman TG Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Role of FoxOs in Bone Health and Disease.
Abstract Recent studies with murine models of cell-specific loss- or gain-of-function of FoxOs have provided novel insights into the function and signaling of these transcription factors on the skeleton. They have revealed that FoxO actions in chondrocytes are critical for normal skeletal development, and FoxO actions in cells of the osteoclast or osteoblast lineage greatly influence bone resorption and formation and, consequently, bone mass. FoxOs also act in osteoblast progenitors to inhibit Wnt signaling and bone formation. Additionally, FoxOs decrease bone resorption via direct antioxidant effects on osteoclas...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Kim HN, Iyer S, Ring R, Almeida M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of FOXO Factors in Mammalian Cells.
Abstract Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are central regulators of cellular homeostasis. FOXOs respond to a wide range of external stimuli, including growth factor signaling, oxidative stress, genotoxic stress, and nutrient deprivation. These signaling inputs regulate FOXOs through a number of posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and methylation. Covalent modifications can affect localization, DNA binding, and interactions with other cofactors in the cell. FOXOs integrate the various modifications to regulate cell type-specific gene expression program...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Brown AK, Webb AE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

FOXO3 and Exceptional Longevity: Insights From Hydra to Humans.
Abstract Aging is a complex, multifactorial process with significant plasticity. While several biological pathways appear to influence aging, few genes have been identified that are both evolutionarily conserved and have a strong impact on aging and age-related phenotypes. The FoxO3 gene (FOXO3), and its homologs in model organisms, appears especially important, forming a key gene in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-signaling pathway, and influencing life span across diverse species. We highlight some of the key findings that are associated with FoxO3 protein, its gene and homologs in relation to lifespan in...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Davy PMC, Allsopp RC, Donlon TA, Morris BJ, Willcox DC, Willcox BJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Stem Cells Seen Through the FOXO Lens: An Evolving Paradigm.
Abstract Stem cells self-renew and differentiate to generate all tissues and cells in the body. Stem cell health promotes adaptive responses to tissue damage or loss and is essential for tissue regeneration with age. In the past decade, the evolutionarily conserved transcription factors FOXO with known functions in promoting healthy aging have emerged as key regulators of stem cell homeostasis in various tissues, including blood, neural, and muscle stem cells. Aberrant FOXO functions have been implicated in a variety of disorders including neurodegenerative, blood, cancer, and diabetes some of which are fostered b...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Liang R, Ghaffari S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

FOXOs Maintaining the Equilibrium for Better or for Worse.
Abstract A paradigm shift is emerging within the FOXO field and accumulating evidence indicates that we need to reappreciate the role of FOXOs, at least in cancer development. Here, we discuss the possibility that FOXOs are both tumor suppressors as well as promoters of tumor progression. This is mostly dependent on the biological context. Critical to this dichotomous role is the notion that FOXOs are central in preserving cellular homeostasis in redox control, genomic stability, and protein turnover. From this perspective, a paradoxical role in both suppressing and enhancing tumor progression can be reconciled. A...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: van Doeselaar S, Burgering BMT Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29433741 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Ghaffari S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

"What Did Maxwell's Equations Really Have to Do With Edison's Invention?": Addressing the Complexity of Developing Clinical Interventions for Skeletal Muscle Disease.
"What Did Maxwell's Equations Really Have to Do With Edison's Invention?": Addressing the Complexity of Developing Clinical Interventions for Skeletal Muscle Disease. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:1-22 Authors: Dando J Abstract To reach the healthcare market and have a medical intervention reimbursed in any format carries high risk and very low success rates. Even when all regulatory hurdles have been surpassed, there is no guarantee that the product will be purchased; a different body makes that decision using criteria typically unknown to early-stage innovators and intervention developers. I...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Dando J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cellular Biomechanics in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.
Abstract Satellite cells, adult stem cells in skeletal muscle tissue, reside within a mechanically dynamic three-dimensional microenvironment. With each contraction-relaxation cycle, a satellite cell is expected to experience tensile, shear, and compressive stresses, and through cell-extracellular matrix interactions, also gauge the stiffness of the niche. Via mechanoreceptors, cells can sense these biophysical parameters of the niche, which serve to physically induce conformational changes that impact biomolecule activity, and thereby alter downstream signal transduction pathways and ultimately cell fate. An emer...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Li EW, McKee-Muir OC, Gilbert PM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.
Abstract Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the pro...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Giordani L, Parisi A, Le Grand F Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

"Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.
"Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:205-233 Authors: Cornelison D Abstract Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our un...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Cornelison D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Muscle Stem Cell Niche in Health and Disease.
Abstract The regulation of stem cells that maintain and regenerate postnatal tissues depends on extrinsic signals originating from their microenvironment, commonly referred to as the stem cell niche. Complex higher-order regulatory interrelationships with the tissue and factors in the systemic circulation are integrated and propagated to the stem cells through the niche. The stem cell niche in skeletal muscle tissue is both a paradigm for a structurally and functionally relatively static niche that maintains stem cell quiescence during tissue homeostasis, and a highly dynamic regenerative niche that is subject to ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Mashinchian O, Pisconti A, Le Moal E, Bentzinger CF Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis.
Abstract Skeletal muscle regeneration is an efficient stem cell-based repair system that ensures healthy musculature. For this repair system to function continuously throughout life, muscle stem cells must contribute to the process of myofiber repair as well as repopulation of the stem cell niche. The decision made by the muscle stem cells to commit to the muscle repair or to remain a stem cell depends upon patterns of gene expression, a process regulated at the epigenetic level. Indeed, it is well accepted that dynamic changes in epigenetic landscapes to control DNA accessibility and expression is a critical comp...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Robinson DCL, Dilworth FJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Dysregulated Myogenesis in Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma is a mesenchymal malignancy associated with the skeletal muscle lineage and is also the most common pediatric soft tissue cancer. Between the two pediatric subtypes, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, the alveolar subtype is generally more aggressive and high-risk. Despite intensive multimodal therapy, patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma continue to have poor prognosis. In this chapter we address the mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of myogenesis in rhabdomyosarcoma. We specifically focus on recently identified signaling pathways that function to inhibit myogenesis and h...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Yu PY, Guttridge DC Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Muscle Stem Cells and Aging.
Abstract Satellite cells (SCs) are a population of muscle-resident stem cells that are essential for efficient tissue repair. SCs reside in a relatively quiescent state during normal tissue turnover, but are activated in response to injury through the microenvironment and cell-intrinsic signals. During aging, SC dysfunction is a major contributor to the decline in regenerative potential of muscle tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors are deregulated during aging. Interventions that reverse age-associated changes in SCs or the niche have shown to partially reju...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Hwang AB, Brack AS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Translational Control of the Myogenic Program in Developing, Regenerating, and Diseased Skeletal Muscle.
Abstract Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to commit...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Fujita R, Crist C Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Composition, Development, and Regeneration of Neuromuscular Junctions.
Abstract The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized site that connects the terminal of a motor neuron axon to skeletal muscle. As a synapse NMJ integrity is essential for transducing motor neuron signals that initiate skeletal muscle contraction. Many diseases and skeletal muscle aging are linked to impaired NMJ function and the associated muscle wasting. In this chapter we review the components of an NMJ and, the processes of NMJ development, maturation, and regeneration. Also, we briefly discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NMJ decline in the context of disease and aging. PMID: 29305005...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Liu W, Chakkalakal JV Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29305006 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - January 7, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Sassoon D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Evolution of Nuclear Receptors and Ligand Signaling: Toward a Soft Key-Lock Model?
Abstract Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that modulate a wide variety of physiological functions in a ligand-dependent manner. The first NRs were discovered as receptors of well-known hormones such as 17β-estradiol, corticosteroids, or thyroid hormones. In these cases a direct activation of the receptor transcriptional activity by a very specific ligand, with nanomolar affinity, was demonstrated, providing a strong conceptual framework to understand the mechanism of action of these hormones. However, the discovery that some NRs are able to bind different ligands ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Holzer G, Markov GV, Laudet V Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Estrogen Hormone Biology.
Abstract The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanis...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Hamilton KJ, Hewitt SC, Arao Y, Korach KS Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Action During Development.
Abstract Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Mothers at risk of preterm delivery are administered glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung development and prevent respiratory distress. Conversely, excessive glucocorticoid signaling is detrimental fo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Busada JT, Cidlowski JA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Progesterone Receptor Signaling in Uterine Myometrial Physiology and Preterm Birth.
Discussions include novel conceptual discoveries and new development in legacy pathways such as the signal transducers NF-κB, ZEB, microRNA, and the unfolded protein response pathways. We also discuss the impact of progesterone receptor isoform composition and ligand accessibility in modification of the progesterone receptor genomic actions. PMID: 28527571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Wu SP, DeMayo FJ Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Roles of Retinoic Acid in Germ Cell Differentiation.
Abstract The modalities of gametogenesis differ markedly between sexes. Female are born with a definitive reserve of oocytes whose size is crucial to ensure fertility. Male fertility, in contrast, relies on a tightly regulated balance between germ cell self-renewal and differentiation, which operates throughout life, according to recurring spatial and temporal patterns. Genetic and pharmacological studies conducted in the mouse and discussed in this review have revealed that all-trans retinoic acid and its nuclear receptors are major players of gametogenesis and are instrumental to fertility in both sexes. PM...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Teletin M, Vernet N, Ghyselinck NB, Mark M Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor β and Transcriptional Control of Neuronal Differentiation.
Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor β and Transcriptional Control of Neuronal Differentiation. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2017;125:227-255 Authors: Liu H, Aramaki M, Fu Y, Forrest D Abstract The ability to generate neuronal diversity is central to the function of the nervous system. Here we discuss the key neurodevelopmental roles of retinoid-related orphan receptor β (RORβ) encoded by the Rorb (Nr1f2) gene. Recent studies have reported loss of function of the human RORB gene in cases of familial epilepsy and intellectual disability. Principal sites of expression of the Rorb gene in model species ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Liu H, Aramaki M, Fu Y, Forrest D Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Nuclear Receptor TLX in Development and Diseases.
Abstract The nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) is a transcription factor that is critical for neural development and adult neurogenesis through its actions in regulating neural stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and fate determination. These roles are primarily executed by regulating TLX downstream target genes involved in myriad pathways such as cell cycle progression, RNA processing, angiogenesis, and senescence. Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of TLX pathways plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human neurological disorders and brain tumors. Here, we will highlight recent progress in the role...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sun G, Cui Q, Shi Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

COUP-TF Genes, Human Diseases, and the Development of the Central Nervous System in Murine Models.
Abstract COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects. In this review, we first describe the functions of COUP-TF genes in the morphogenes...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Yang X, Feng S, Tang K Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Genetic Investigation of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Function in the Developing and Adult Brain.
Abstract Thyroid hormones exert a broad influence on brain development and function, which has been extensively studied over the years. Mouse genetics has brought an important contribution, allowing precise analysis of the interplay between TRα1 and TRβ1 nuclear receptors in neural cells. However, the exact contribution of each receptor, the possible intervention of nongenomic signaling, and the nature of the genetic program that is controlled by the receptors remain poorly understood. PMID: 28527576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Flamant F, Gauthier K, Richard S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to Heterozygous Mutations in Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha.
CONCLUSIONS: The severity of the clinical phenotype of RTHα patients seems to be associated with the location and type of mutation in THRA. The most frequent abnormalities observed include anemia, constipation, and growth and developmental delay. In addition, serum (F)T3 levels can be high-normal to high, (F)T4 and rT3 levels normal to low, while TSH is normal or mildly raised. Despite heterogeneous consequences of mutations in THRA, RTHα should be suspected in subjects with even mild clinical features of hypothyroidism together with high/high-normal (F)T3, low/low-normal (F)T4, and normal TSH. PMID: 28527...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: van Gucht ALM, Moran C, Meima ME, Visser WE, Chatterjee K, Visser TJ, Peeters RP Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

TR2 and TR4 Orphan Nuclear Receptors: An Overview.
Abstract Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR&gam...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Lin SJ, Yang DR, Yang G, Lin CY, Chang HC, Li G, Chang C Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Role of COUP-TFII in Striated Muscle Development and Disease.
Abstract Skeletal and cardiac muscles are the only striated muscles in the body. Although sharing many structural and functional similarities, skeletal and cardiac muscles have intrinsic differences in terms of physiology and regenerative potential. While skeletal muscle possesses a robust regenerative response, the mammalian heart has limited repair capacity after birth. In this review, we provide an updated view regarding chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) function in vertebrate myogenesis, with particular emphasis on the skeletal and cardiac muscles. We also highlight the ne...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Xie X, Wu SP, Tsai MJ, Tsai S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Function and Evolution of Nuclear Receptors in Insect Embryonic Development.
Abstract Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that are often responsive to small ligands, allowing for efficient gene expression-level responses to a stimulus. The average insect has 21 genes encoding nuclear receptors, whose functions are especially well studied in developmental transitions during the insect life cycle, such as metamorphosis and molting. However, their utility as well-controlled transcriptional regulators also lends them to important roles in embryogenesis, neurogenesis, metabolism, and organogenesis. Such developmental functions have been explored in depth in the model organis...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Cheatle Jarvela AM, Pick L Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Nuclear Receptors in Skeletal Homeostasis.
Abstract Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that can be activated by lipophilic ligands. They are fundamental regulators of development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. In bone, nuclear receptors enable bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, to sense their dynamic microenvironment and maintain normal bone development and remodeling. Our views of the molecular mechanisms in this process have advanced greatly in the past decade. Drugs targeting nuclear receptors are widely used in the clinic for treating patients with bone disorders such as osteoporosis by modulatin...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Zuo H, Wan Y Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 28527582 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - May 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Forrest D, Tsai S Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects in Zebrafish.
Abstract Cardiac development is a dynamic process regulated by spatial and temporal cues that are integrated to effect molecular, cellular, and tissue-level events that form the adult heart. Disruption of these highly orchestrated events can be devastating for cardiac form and function. Aberrations in heart development result in congenital heart defects (CHDs), which affect 1 in 100 infants in the United States each year. Zebrafish have proven informative as a model organism to understand both heart development and the mechanisms associated with CHDs due to the similarities in heart morphogenesis among vertebrates...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Grant MG, Patterson VL, Grimes DT, Burdine RD Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Netting Novel Regulators of Hematopoiesis and Hematologic Malignancies in Zebrafish.
Abstract Zebrafish are one of the preeminent model systems for the study of blood development (hematopoiesis), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) biology, and hematopathology. The zebrafish hematopoietic system shares strong similarities in functional populations, genetic regulators, and niche interactions with its mammalian counterparts. These evolutionarily conserved characteristics, together with emerging technologies in live imaging, compound screening, and genetic manipulation, have been employed to successfully identify and interrogate novel regulatory mechanisms and molecular pathways that guide ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Kwan W, North TE Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Making It New Again: Insight Into Liver Development, Regeneration, and Disease From Zebrafish Research.
Abstract The adult liver of most vertebrates is predominantly comprised of hepatocytes. However, these cells must work in concert with biliary, stellate, vascular, and immune cells to accomplish the vast array of hepatic functions required for physiological homeostasis. Our understanding of liver development was accelerated as zebrafish emerged as an ideal vertebrate system to study embryogenesis. Through work in zebrafish and other models, it is now clear that the cells in the liver develop in a coordinated fashion during embryogenesis through a complex yet incompletely understood set of molecular guidelines. Zeb...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Wang S, Miller SR, Ober EA, Sadler KC Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

"Muscling" Throughout Life: Integrating Studies of Muscle Development, Homeostasis, and Disease in Zebrafish.
"Muscling" Throughout Life: Integrating Studies of Muscle Development, Homeostasis, and Disease in Zebrafish. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2017;124:197-234 Authors: Goody MF, Carter EV, Kilroy EA, Maves L, Henry CA Abstract The proper development and function of skeletal muscle is vital for health throughout the lifespan. Skeletal muscle function enables posture, breathing, and locomotion; and also impacts systemic processes-such as metabolism, thermoregulation, and immunity. Diseases of skeletal muscle (myopathies, muscular dystrophies) and even some neurological, age-related, and metabolic diseases ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Goody MF, Carter EV, Kilroy EA, Maves L, Henry CA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Zebrafish Pancreas Development and Regeneration: Fishing for Diabetes Therapies.
Abstract The zebrafish pancreas shares its basic organization and cell types with the mammalian pancreas. In addition, the developmental pathways that lead to the establishment of the pancreatic islets of Langherhans are generally conserved from fish to mammals. Zebrafish provides a powerful tool to probe the mechanisms controlling establishment of the pancreatic endocrine cell types from early embryonic progenitor cells, as well as the regeneration of endocrine cells after damage. This knowledge is, in turn, applicable to refining protocols to generate renewable sources of human pancreatic islet cells that are cr...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Prince VE, Anderson RM, Dalgin G Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Modeling Infectious Diseases in the Context of a Developing Immune System.
Abstract Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted study...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Masud S, Torraca V, Meijer AH Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Zebrafish in Toxicology and Environmental Health.
Abstract As manufacturing processes and development of new synthetic compounds increase to keep pace with the expanding global demand, environmental health, and the effects of toxicant exposure are emerging as critical public health concerns. Additionally, chemicals that naturally occur in the environment, such as metals, have profound effects on human and animal health. Many of these compounds are in the news: lead, arsenic, and endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A have all been widely publicized as causing disease or damage to humans and wildlife in recent years. Despite the widespread appreciation that envi...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Bambino K, Chu J Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Using Zebrafish to Study Kidney Development and Disease.
Abstract The kidneys are a crucial pair of organs that are responsible for filtering the blood to remove waste, maintain electrolyte and water homeostasis, and regulate blood pressure. There are a number of factors, both genetic and environmental, that can impair the function of the kidneys resulting in significant morbidity and mortality for millions of people affected by kidney disease worldwide. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has emerged as an attractive vertebrate model in the study of kidney development and disease and has proven to be a powerful tool in the advancement of how kidney development occurs in verteb...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Jerman S, Sun Z Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Zebrafish Developmental Models of Skeletal Diseases.
Abstract The zebrafish skeleton shares many similarities with human and other vertebrate skeletons. Over the past years, work in zebrafish has provided an extensive understanding of the basic developmental mechanisms and cellular pathways directing skeletal development and homeostasis. This review will focus on the cell biology of cartilage and bone and how the basic cellular processes within chondrocytes and osteocytes function to assemble the structural frame of a vertebrate body. We will discuss fundamental functions of skeletal cells in production and secretion of extracellular matrix and cellular activities l...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Luderman LN, Unlu G, Knapik EW Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 28335866 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology)
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - March 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sadler KC Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

WNK Kinases in Development and Disease.
Abstract WNK (With-No-Lysine (K)) kinases are serine-threonine kinases characterized by an atypical placement of a catalytic lysine within the kinase domain. Mutations in human WNK1 or WNK4 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome of hypertension and hyperkalemia, reflecting the fact that WNK kinases are critical regulators of renal ion transport processes. Here, the role of WNKs in the regulation of ion transport processes in vertebrate and invertebrate renal function, cellular and organismal osmoregulation, and cell migration and cerebral edema will be reviewed, along with emerging literature demonstrating roles for...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Rodan AR, Jenny A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

ROR-Family Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
Abstract ROR-family receptor tyrosine kinases form a small subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), characterized by a conserved, unique domain architecture. ROR RTKs are evolutionary conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as alternative receptors and coreceptors of WNT ligands. The intracellular signaling cascades activated downstream of ROR receptors are diverse, including but not limited to ROR-Frizzled-mediated activation of planar cell polarity signaling, RTK-like signaling, and antagonistic regulation of WNT/β-Catenin signaling. In line with their diverse repertoire of signaling functions...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Stricker S, Rauschenberger V, Schambony A Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of Drosophila Development by the Golgi Kinase Four-Jointed.
Abstract Despite intensive research on kinases and protein phosphorylation, most studies focus on kinases localized to the cytosol and nucleus. Studies in Drosophila discovered a novel signaling pathway that regulates growth and planar cell polarity. In this pathway, the atypical cadherin Fat acts as a receptor, and the cadherin Dachsous (Ds) serves as its ligand. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified the four-jointed gene as a regulator of the Fat pathway. Four-jointed (Fj) resides in the Golgi and phosphorylates the cadherin domains of Fat and Ds. Fj-mediated phosphorylations promote the ability of Fat to bin...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Keira Y, Wada M, Ishikawa HO Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

The Hippo Pathway: A Master Regulatory Network Important in Development and Dysregulated in Disease.
Abstract The Hippo Pathway is a master regulatory network that regulates proliferation, cell growth, stemness, differentiation, and cell death. Coordination of these processes by the Hippo Pathway throughout development and in mature organisms in response to diverse external and internal cues plays a role in morphogenesis, in controlling organ size, and in maintaining organ homeostasis. Given the importance of these processes, the Hippo Pathway also plays an important role in organismal health and has been implicated in a variety of diseases including eye disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and can...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Pfleger CM Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of Embryonic and Postnatal Development by the CSF-1 Receptor.
Abstract Macrophages are found in all tissues and regulate tissue morphogenesis during development through trophic and scavenger functions. The colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R) is the major regulator of tissue macrophage development and maintenance. In combination with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), the CSF-1R also regulates the differentiation of the bone-resorbing osteoclast and controls bone remodeling during embryonic and early postnatal development. CSF-1R-regulated macrophages play trophic and remodeling roles in development. Outside the mononuclear phagocytic syst...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 28, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Chitu V, Stanley ER Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research