How Do We Teach High-Value Radiology?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe healthcare environment is under tremendous flux and the rate of change is continuously increasing. Calls have been made and efforts are underway to transform medical education. In this article, trends, key drivers, and resources for both global medical education and some specific to radiology are discussed.Recent FindingsGreat strides have been made to begin shifting focus towards high-value healthcare delivery through both non-traditional methods and innovation. We are not alone in this journey; resources are readily offered by instrumental key drivers of medical education with collaboration a...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Augmented and Virtual Reality Navigation for Interventions in the Musculoskeletal System
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAugmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are cutting-edge technologies that offer advanced navigational solutions. These systems are just starting to be used in interventional radiology and the literature has been limited to pre-clinical and translational experiments. In this paper, we present a review of AR and VR for musculoskeletal interventions.Recent FindingsMixed reality systems have evolved from costly research systems to fully commercialized clinical instruments designed to facilitate operators in navigating complex anatomy. Studies within interventional radiology have demonstrated s...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vertebral Compression Fractures in Elderly: How to Recognize and Report
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn elderly patients, when there is no obvious evidence of malignancy on plain radiography, it can be difficult to evaluate benign and malignant vertebral fractures, because these patients are predisposed to senile osteoporosis and malignant disease. The only complaint could be back pain, as both types of fractures have the same symptoms and signs.Recent FindingsA reliable imaging modality is always required, as appropriate management and early diagnosis of malignant vertebral fractures are important.SummaryThe aim of this study was to highlight the importance of recognizing, through diagnostic tech...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET/CT and Bone Scintigraphy: Metabolic Results in Musculoskeletal Lesions
AbstractPurposeThis review aimed to provide an overview on findings from metabolic imaging modalities such as bone scintigraphy and positron emission tomography –computed tomography (PET/CT) in musculoskeletal lesions. It is conceivable that methods assessing metabolism of bone tumors, combined with the morphological assessment, could enhance the possibility for a personalized therapy with particular emphasis to malignant neoplasms.Recent FindingsThe assessment of bone tumors by conventional scintigaphic and morphological imaging has been recently integrated with the morpho-metabolic appraisal obtained by PET/CT syst...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Peer Review to Peer Learning in Radiology: Where Have  We Been, What Have We Learned and Where Are We Headed?
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo review and contrast varying methods of peer assessment driven practice quality improvement programs in radiology with an emphasis on peer review and peer learning.Recent findingsReview of the literature revealed that the current consensus is that a shift away from the original peer review system toward a peer learning process has the most beneficial effects for organizations seeking to maximally improve performance. This requires altering perceptions towards the peer review process itself, and significant time, effort, and resources.SummaryThe transition to a peer learning process is a necessity...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vertebroplasty in Elderly Patients: A Clinical Effectiveness Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMinimally invasive vertebral augmentation procedures (VAP) have been first introduced to provide pain relief in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VF). However, in the last decade scientific literature revealed to be quite controversial about their efficacy. The aim of this review was to analyze clinical evidences from current literature, supported by our own experience.Recent FindingsCompared to conservative therapies, VAP represent an effective treatment for recent VF and, in elderly patients, reduce mortality and morbidity. Advances in technology have widened the fields of applicati...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI of Acute Abdominal and Pelvic Non-obstetric Conditions in Pregnancy
This article will focus on the role of MR imaging and its applications in a variety of acute abdomen and pelvic non-obstetric conditions potentially affecting the pregnant patient.Recent FindingsNon-contrast MR imaging is routinely employed in the presence of an initial equivocal ultrasound. However, MR is playing an increasingly more important role in the imaging of the pregnant patient, potentially surpassing the utility of conventional imaging techniques.SummaryAs radiologists become more comfortable interpretating abdominal and pelvic MRI, MR will play a bigger role in imaging the pregnant patient in the emergency room...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

3D MRI in Musculoskeletal Imaging: Current and Future Applications
This article addresses current clinical applications, recent literature, and potential future applications of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) for musculoskeletal (MSK) applications.Recent FindingsThe main advantage of 3D MRI over standard 2-dimensional MRI is its ability to reduce partial volume averaging artifacts and create multiplanar reconstruction (MPRs) in any plane with any slice thickness from a single high-resolution isotropic acquisition. 3D MRI acquisitions are particularly useful for the evaluation of articular cartilage, which is prone to volume averaging artifacts, and for the assessment of ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MR Imaging of Chondrogenic Tumors: Update on Select Imaging Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review article discusses the updated World Health Classification of chondrogenic skeletal tumors and the role of conventional and advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of chondrogenic skeletal lesions with emphasis on select diagnostic dilemmas.Recent FindingsThe majority of benign chondrogenic skeletal lesions have typical radiographic and MR features. Conventional MR imaging sequences can be helpful in the distinction of tumor-like lesions from chondrogenic tumors, and the evaluation of anatomic extent, particularly with regard to the detection of soft tissue masses asso...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Emerging Role of 7 Tesla MRI in Musculoskeletal Imaging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the emergent role of ultra-high field (UHF) MR with respect to musculoskeletal MRI applications.Recent FindingsWith the recent US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and European Union (EU) approval of ultra-high field (UHF) MRI below 8T for clinical use, and the availability of clinical 7T MRI systems, there is a rising interest in the potential clinical and research applications in musculoskeletal MRI.SummaryWith increases in field strength and SNR gains resulting in sharper and higher spatial resolution MRI images, there is increasing interest in UHF MRI. Although there are challenges ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT Imaging of Cardiac Trauma
This article reviews the direct and indirect CT findings of cardiac injury. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Emerging Trends in Emergent Stroke Neuroimaging
This article reviews recent updates in emergent stroke neuroimaging.Recent FindingsMultiple recent randomized trials showing benefit of endovascular therapy in strokes with confirmed large-vessel occlusion emphasize need for vessel imaging, typically CTA, in addition to unenhanced head CT. In addition, because recent trials published in 2018 showed efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy at up to 24  h from symptom onset in stroke patients with favorable ischemic core and/or penumbra assessments, imaging techniques to define viable and infarcted tissue, such as DWI or CT/MR perfusion imaging, have an increasing role in em...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hip Fractures: A Practical Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize relevant anatomy, imaging, and treatment of hip fractures, and to synthesize a treatment-based approach for description and classification of hip fractures.Recent FindingsHip fractures are predominantly seen in the elderly, where they are increasing in incidence, and can substantially reduce healthy life-years. The osseous and vascular anatomy of the proximal femur can help to understand the clinical implications of various types of hip fracture. Radiographs are the principal imaging modality for assessment of hip fracture, although there is a clear role for CT and MRI for assessment o...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Insufficiency Fractures After Radiation Therapy: An Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRadio therapy, alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy, is commonly used to treat a variety of neoplasms, resulting in effective local tumor control. Unfortunately radiation therapy can also change the structure of the skeletal system, leading to edema, vascular congestion, areas of hemorrhage, loss of cellularity, focal bone marrow changes, fatty transformation, osteitis, hematopoietic marrow regeneration, osteolysis of symphysis pubis or sacroiliac joints, avascular necrosis, insufficiency fractures, osteoradionecrosis, and radiation-induced neoplasms.Recent FindingsThe various r...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Blunt Chest Trauma: A Radiologic Approach and Review
AbstractBlunt chest trauma, a frequent component of trauma admissions, is the second leading cause of death in motor-vehicle accidents. Additionally, it may be associated with significant morbidity in those who survive. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) have a widespread role in evaluating blunt chest trauma, importantly aiding in the diagnosis and management of injury. Herein, we discuss the most common salient injuries, imaging protocol considerations and imaging findings associated with acute blunt chest trauma. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Acute Traumatic Aortic Injury
This article aims to review the key aspects of the imaging evaluation of acute traumatic aortic injury (ATAI) with an emphasis on factors that affect management of these patients.Recent FindingsIn the setting of trauma, the chest radiograph typically serves as the initial imaging evaluation and can be useful in detecting signs of mediastinal hematoma. In the current era, definitive diagnosis of ATAI is made with computed tomography (CT), where indirect and direct findings of ATAI can enable a confident diagnosis. Knowledge of potential technical and anatomic CT imaging pitfalls can prevent misdiagnosis of ATAI.SummaryDiagn...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tip of the Iceberg Findings: Subtle Radiographic Abnormalities Indicating Significant Pathology in the Knee
This article will provide a review of important indicators of ligament, tendon, and osseous injuries with an emphasis on their mechanism of injury. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

State-of-the-Art Imaging in Human Chordoma of the Skull Base
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChordoma are rare tumours of the axial skeleton which occur most often  at the base of the skull and in the sacrum. Although chordoma are generally slow-growing lesions, the recurrence rate is high and the location makes it often difficult to treat. Both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are crucial in the initial diagnosis, treatment plann ing and post-treatment follow-up.Recent FindingsBasic MRI and CT characteristics of chordoma were described in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Since then, imaging techniques have evolved with increased resolution and new molecula...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Blunt Injury of the Bowel and Mesentery
This article will review the current state-of-the-art approach in using direct and indirect MDCT signs of bowel injury in an attempt to differentiate surgical from nonsurgical lesions, and discuss imaging protocols used at our institution for follow-up imaging in nonsurgical lesions. We will also demonstrate the potential utility of DS-CT in blunt bowel injury. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging Parkinsonian Pathology in Substantia Nigra with MRI
This article outlines iron-sensitive and diffusion-sensitive MRI contrasts, and provides an overview of neuromelanin-sensitive MRI techniques. The application of these techniques to image parkinsonian pathobiology in substantia nigra is then reviewed, with a focus on neuromelanin-sensitive imaging methods for the accurate and reproducible study of PD-related changes in SNc. These advances may help resolve current controversies surrounding MRI investigations of substantia nigra in PD and related disorders. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism on Computed Tomography: Common Pathologic and Imaging Mimics
This article will discuss the diagnosis of acute PE with CT, the diagnosis of diseases that may be mistaken for acute PE, and how to identify imaging artifacts that may be mistaken for an acute PE. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Periprocedural Management in Transthoracic Needle Biopsy: Review of the Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTransthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) is a common diagnostic tool with expanding clinical indications. While most literature on this topic has focused on complications and techniques, this review will examine the evidence for periprocedural care specific to lung biopsy.Recent FindingsReview of the literature reveals great heterogeneity in clinical practice regarding periprocedural management of TTNB, for example, in terms of post-procedural monitoring as well as strategies for dealing with potential complications of TTNB. This is on the basis of a relative paucity of systematic clinical studies to gui...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thoracic Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the imaging findings of thoracic infections occurring in immunocompromised patients. Lung infection remains one of the most common complications in immunocompromised patients and is one of the major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Imaging examinations are frequently performed in immunocompromised patients suspected of having chest infection. This review primarily illustrates the CT findings of lung infection. Early detection is important because these patients can rapidly develop fulminant disease.Recent FindingsThe imaging findings of a variety o...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - February 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cystic Lung Disease from Protein Deposition: Pathogenesis and Associated Conditions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe explicate the development of cystic lung disease from the deposition of protein in the lung. The protein may be in the form of amyloid or non-amyloid (typically immunoglobulin-associated light chains) and is usually seen in the context of three entities: idiopathic light-chain deposition disease, Sjogren ’s syndrome, and clonal lymphoplasmacytic proliferative disorders. A commonly observed and distinctive feature of the circumscribed cystic spaces is the presence of internal tissue septations.Recent FindingsThe traditional causal association of lung cysts and the pathologic entity of lymph...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - February 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging the Breast in Pregnant or Lactating Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the imaging evaluation of common benign and malignant breast lesions encountered in pregnant or lactating women.Recent FindingsThere is increasing prevalence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer as the age of  women during pregnancy increases. Women in the first 10 years following pregnancy demonstrate an elevated risk for breast cancer compared to the average population. MRI has been shown to be more sensitive for evaluating the extent of disease in lactating patients than mammography or ultrasound.SummaryThe hormonal effects of pregnancy and lactation on the breast lea...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - February 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of PET/CT with 18 F-FDG in the Assessment of Therapeutic Response of Head and Neck Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo make a brief review on the pre-treatment evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG PET/CT) and to discuss the use of this method after treatment, with emphasis on the evaluation of therapeutic response.Recent FindingsThe18F-FDG PET/CT pre-treatment evaluation is recommended at III –IV staging to determine metastasis foci. At post-evaluation, the use of18F-FDG PET/CT is very important to confirm the therapeutic response based on its high negative predictive value (NPV), mostly when...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thoracic Imaging of Solid Tumor Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmune checkpoint inhibitors harness the patient ’s own immune system to fight cancer. They are now approved for treating a number of solid malignancies, with more agents and indications expected in the coming months and years. Because of their unique mechanism of action, these agents may lead to unusual imaging appearances.Recent FindingsRare patients may experience pseudoprogression, whereby tumors may initially increase in size or number despite response to therapy. Many patients will experience autoimmune side effects including pneumonitis, which may lead to respiratory compromise and wil...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current Management of High-Risk Breast Lesions
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to describe recent updates in the management of high-risk breast lesions. We review the various high-risk breast lesions and evaluate the collective literature regarding the rates of upgrade to invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ with excisional biopsy as well as the increased risk for future breast cancer development that a diagnosis of a high-risk breast lesion may portend. For those lesions associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, we discuss the appropriate surveillance regimens as well as risk reduction opportunities available to patients.Recent ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in Renal Cyst Infection
This article aims to review the role of18F-FDG PET/CT in renal CI, particularly in the context of ADPKD, compare this technique with conventional radiological and nuclear medicine methods, and discuss future perspectives in the approach to such a diagnostic challenge. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

BI-RADS 3: Current and Future Use of Probably Benign
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProbably benign (BI-RADS 3) causes confusion for interpreting physicians and referring physicians and can induce significant patient anxiety. The best uses and evidence for using this assessment category in mammography, breast ultrasound, and breast MRI will be reviewed; the reader will have a better understanding of how and when to use BI-RADS 3.Recent FindingsInterobserver variability in the use of BI-RADS 3 has been documented. The 5th edition of the BI-RADS atlas details the appropriate use of BI-RADS 3 for diagnostic mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, and discourages its use in screening mammog...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evolving Medical-Legal Issues in Breast Imaging
This article addresses these issues and provides a contextual discussion so that physicians and facilities are educated in their selection of a wide variety of approaches that can be applied to clinical use. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Functional MRI for Treatment Evaluation in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review of the Literature from a Radiologist Perspective
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo show the role of functional MRI in patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.Recent findingsMRI is commonly used for treatment evaluation in patients with head and neck tumors. However, anatomical MRI has its limits in differentiating between post-treatment effects and tumor recurrence. Recent studies showed promising results of functional MRI for response evaluation.SummaryThis review analyzes possibilities and limitations of functional MRI sequences separately to obtain insight in the post-therapy setting. Diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy show promise, especially when uti...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced Imaging Techniques in Skull Base Osteomyelitis Due to Malignant Otitis Externa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo give an up-to-date overview of the strengths and weaknesses of current imaging modalities in diagnosis and follow-up of skull base osteomyelitis (SBO).Recent FindingsCT and MRI are both used for anatomical imaging, and nuclear techniques aid in functional process imaging. Hybrid techniques PET-CT and PET-MRI are the newest modalities which combine imaging strengths.SummaryNo single modality is able to address the scope of SBO. A combination of functional and anatomical imaging is needed, in the case of newly suspected SBO we suggest the use of PET-MRI (T1, T2, T1-FS-GADO, DWI) and separate HRCT ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast Imaging of Transgender Individuals: A Review
AbstractPurposeThis review will inform radiologists about the evidence base regarding radiographic imaging for transgender individuals and considerations for providing culturally sensitive care for this population.FindingsTransgender individuals are increasingly referred for both screening and diagnostic breast imaging. It is important that the clinic environment is welcoming, the medical staff utilize accepted terminology and patients are able to designate their gender and personal history to ensure appropriate care. Hormone and surgical treatments used for transition by many transgender women and men may change the appro...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radioimmunotherapy in Oncology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRadioimmunotherapy (RIT) is the targeting of radiosensitive tumors through the use of monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the benefit and challenges of RIT. We appraise factors that determine optimal targeting of tumor such as choice of target, targeting antibody, and the associated radionuclide, as well as the current methods to potentiate RIT effect.Recent FindingsRadioimmunotherapy has a well-established role in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Recent completed and current studies in the treatment of solid malignancies are however demonstrating good clinic...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - October 5, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT and MR Applications in Electrophysiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aims of this article are to discuss the role of cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) applications in cardiac electrophysiology and to review recent literature including emerging technologies.Recent FindingsApplications of CT and MR are relevant to electrophysiology procedures in patients with both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. CT and MR can identify anatomic landmarks and barriers to successful pulmonary vein ablation and left atrial appendage ligation. Further, the excellent tissue characterization provided by cardiac MR allows rapid identification of ventricular ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - October 5, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fragility Fractures of the Pelvis: New Approaches to Classification and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of the present article is to review the new approaches to classification and management of fragility fractures of pelvis.Recent FindingsFragility fractures of the pelvis (FFPs) account for approximately 7% of fragility fractures and are increasing in incidence due to the aging population, an increase in life expectancy, and a more active life-style. The FFPs are characterized by isolated bone disruption and are generally more stable than high-energy pelvic ring fractures due to intact ligaments. Due to differences in the degrees of instability, the traditional classification systems (Ti...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - October 5, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Postmortem CT: Initial Experience at a Tertiary Care Children ’s Hospital
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPediatric postmortem imaging is a new and rapidly growing discipline. A review of recent literature is discussed along with a brief overview of common imaging findings on postmortem CT that may simulate antemortem pathology.Recent FindingsThe authors describe their own experience in establishing a postmortem imaging program as well as a discussion of the unique challenges in developing a program and performing and interpreting postmortem CT.SummaryPostmortem CT may provide valuable information in understanding the cause of death and disease processes in children; however, collaboration and research...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI of Sports Injuries in the Leg
AbstractPurpose of reviewAccurate diagnosis of muscle and bone injuries in the leg may not be possible based on clinical history and physical examination alone. This monograph reviews the evidence supporting the diagnostic roles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in athletes with leg injuries. Data on the minor complementary roles of sonography in these patients is also examined.Recent findingsMRI can distinguish among the various types of injury that occur in the leg. In addition, combined with clinical data, specific MRI findings can guide management and help predict the expected time for return to play.SummaryIn athlet...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of Pediatric Metabolic Disorders with Emphasis on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and MR Spectroscopy: A Pictorial Essay
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough individually rare, metabolic brain disorders together account for significant disease burden in infants and children. MRI evaluation of these disorders is daunting, but using a pattern-based approach is helpful. Here we present 10 of the most commonly encountered metabolic brain disorders, highlighting specific features on DWI and MR spectroscopy that help narrow the differential diagnosis.Recent findingsA number of metabolic diseases result in elevated lactate at 1.3  ppm in affected areas. Other metabolite derangements, though, are more helpful in determining the underlying disease....
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advancements in Dual-Energy CT Applications for Musculoskeletal Imaging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has become a unique highly useful imaging modality in musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology practice. In this article, we provide a concise overview of the four main applications for DECT in (MSK) imaging: monosodium urate (Gout) detection, metal artifact reduction, bone marrow edema detection, and collagen imaging. We also highlight the recent studies published in radiology and rheumatology literature.Recent FindingsVirtual monoenergetic images performed by utilizing DECT, particularly with the use of metal artifact reduction algorithm software, deliver superior im...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging Features of Toxicities by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy
This article reviews imaging features of irAEs induced by the anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab.Recent findingsImportant radiological manifestations are immune-related colitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, hypophysitis, pneumonitis, arthritis and sarcoid-like lymphadenopathy. Typical imaging features are summarized and compared with other relevant differential diagnoses.SummaryEarly diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic decisions are required for a successful treatment of irAEs. In addition to staging and follow-up imaging, identification and monitoring of adverse events becomes an im...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Prostate Cancer
AbstractPurpose of reviewMultiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate (mpMRI) is a new rising diagnostic modality in prostate cancer management. The combination of anatomic and functional sequences allows for detection, localization, and characterization of prostate cancer lesions. This leads to shift from staging to other clinical applications. However, lack of standardization of scanning, detection, and reporting protocols is a major drawback.Recent findingsCurrent main applications of mpMRI are detection, staging, and localization with the latter one enabling targeted biopsies of MRI-detected lesions. With...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New Imaging Techniques for Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization
This article will address recent advancements in plaque characterization using both invasive and noninvasive techniques, as well as potential improvements in patient evaluation and targeted therapies.Recent FindingsRecent findings have demonstrated that plaque composition affects plaque vulnerability, or the propensity of a plaque to rupture and cause acute thrombus formation with potentially life-threatening downstream implications.SummaryNewly introduced invasive and noninvasive techniques allow for a comprehensive assessment of atherosclerotic plaque to classify high-risk patients requiring more intensive therapy. (Sour...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Qualitative and Semi-Quantitative 18-F FDG PET/CT for Osteosarcoma: A Review
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis work is focused on (i) reviewing different tools of 18F-FDG PET/CT image analysis considering the most recent literature and our experience and (ii) their correlation with clinical outcome in the setting of osteosarcoma.Recent findingsAlthough there is a clear role for PET/CT in the staging of osteosarcoma, considerable debate exists concerning the use of PET/CT for prognostication. The potential to use PET/CT to predict clinical outcomes and treatment responses is an attractive concept, particularly prior to obtaining final surgical pathology at resection. SUV is the mainstay semi-quantitativ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MR Imaging of the Fetal Chest and Abdomen: How to Provide Value-Added Imaging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, recent literature on MRI of the fetal chest and abdomen is presented, with review of the growing area of fetal interventions. Emerging imaging techniques, the increasing trend toward 3  T in fetal imaging, as well as imaging protocols designed to optimize efficient evaluation of specific disease conditions will be discussed.Recent FindingsPrenatal MRI has been shown to contribute to accurate diagnoses of intrapulmonary lesions, and is anticipated to play an increasingly important role in cardiac disease. While the role of prenatal MRI in evaluation of the fetus with congenital...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pitfalls in Imaging of Female Pelvic Masses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to highlight potential magnetic resonance (MR) imaging pitfalls that may mask and simulate ovarian cancer.Recent FindingsMR imaging is the standard method for evaluating female pelvic masses of indeterminate origin, especially sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses.To define the correct origin and nature of a pelvic mass has an enormous clinical impact, namely in females of child-bearing age. This is particularly true in adnexal lesions. Ovarian cancer usually requires a cytoreductive surgery in a specialized oncological centre. In contrast, a benign ovarian lesi...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 16, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current Evidence of Contrast Medium-Induced Nephropathy (CIN) After Administration of Low-Osmolarity Iodine-Based Contrast Agents
AbstractPurpose of reviewContrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) may occur after intravascular administration of low-osmolarity iodine-based contrast media. The goal of this review is to provide an updated overview of the current knowledge of CIN. Questions to be investigated are as follows: What are risk factors of CIN? How should the risk factors be assessed? Have any preventive measures proven effective?Recent findingsThe main risk factor of CIN is decreased renal function prior to contrast-enhanced imaging. A variety of other factors have been described, but these are not significant in controlled studies. Before con...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 16, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Emergency MRI: What You Need to Know to Make It Through the Night
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to introduce the non-pediatric radiologist to the many common conditions that can be diagnosed via pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the emergency setting.Recent FindingsThe vast majority of radiologic examinations in children occurs in non-pediatric facilities, and is interpreted by non-pediatric radiologists.  Therefore, it is essential that the non-pediatric radiologist is aware of the current and potential imaging trends occurring in the pediatric setting, largely focused on increased MRI utilization. With advances in MR technolo...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 5, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular MRI in Thoracic Aortopathy: A Focused Review of Recent Literature Updates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to provide a focused update on the clinical and research trends in thoracic aorta magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Recent FindingsTraditional cardiovascular MRI techniques for the evaluation of thoracic aortopathy have focused on vessel diameter and qualitative descriptors to characterize disease. Recent developments in MR image acquisition and flow visualization and quantification now allow for advanced evaluation of aortic hemodynamics with MRI in both adults and children with aortic disease, and are likely to provide new imaging-derived biomarkers in aortic disease. Novel acquis...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research