Functional Imaging of Immunotherapy: Response Criteria, Imaging Characteristics, and Novel Immunoimaging of Advanced Malignancies
This article will provide a review of the mechanism of action of immunotherapy, response criteria used for diagnostic evaluation, imaging features of common irAEs, and novel immunoimaging. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Postoperative Biliary Complications
This article provides a review of the broad spectrum of biliary injuries following hepatobiliary surgery, with an emphasis on postcholecystectomy imaging findings. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Acute Findings on FDG PET/CT: Key Imaging Features and How to Differentiate Them from Malignancy
This article will review examples of common acute findings encountered during routine FDG PET/CT scans, compare them against examples of FDG-avid malignancy that can mimic these findings and emphasize key imaging findings to differentiate acute findings from their malignant mimics. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Positron Emission Tomography and Molecular Imaging of Head and Neck Malignancies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetabolic reprogramming and avid fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and other cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract lead to favorable sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT or PET/MR compared to conventional imaging. Meanwhile, the role of non-FDG PET in head and neck malignancies is rapidly expanding.Recent FindingsAccurate staging, identifying a clinically occult primary, or detection of distant metastasis or a synchronous malignancy on FDG PET significantly impacts management. FDG uptake after definitive therapy is an invaluab...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of MRI in Rectal Cancer: An Updated Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo bring the radiologists up to date on the state of the art of the magnetic resonance imaging protocol of the rectal cancer and on the findings to consider for reports.Recent FindingsRecently, the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology updated the 2012 guidelines with new recommendations on the acquisition and reporting of MRI for staging and restaging of rectal cancer; furthermore latest advanced MRI techniques (diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, kurtosis) are object of ongoing studies with promising results.SummaryMagnetic resonance imaging plays...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multiparametric MRI of Prostate Cancer: Recent Advances
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo bring the radiologists up to date on the state of the art of the magnetic resonance imaging in detection of prostate cancer and on the findings to consider for reports.Recent FindingsRecently, the members of American College of Radiologist updated the new guidelines (Prostate Imaging —Reporting and Data System) with new recommendations on the acquisition and reporting of MRI for staging and restaging of prostate cancer, giving a particular importance to the latest advanced MRI techniques (diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging).SummaryMagnetic resonance imaging pl...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Traumatic Brain Injury: Radiological Findings and Clinical Outcome
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review talks about the principal imaging investigations in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Physiopathological mechanisms are briefly discussed. The article will focus on the major brain lesions and their imaging appearance with also reference to the most recent techniques that can correlate with prognosis.Recent FindingsNeuroimaging plays a principal role in the evaluation of TBI. CT and MRI are used for the evaluation of pathological findings after the trauma and for the follow-up. Several classification systems have been proposed to correlate neuroimaging findings and patients ’ outc...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Skeletal Involvement in Hemolymphatic Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper is aimed at describing the main malignant hematolymphoid disorders and their most frequent imaging appearance.Recent FindingsHematological malignancies are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, including leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma that may involve the bone marrow as a primary or metastatic disease. Imaging has a pivotal role in the assessment of bone involvement, staging, and evaluation of treatment response and detection of complications.SummaryRadiologist should be aware of most frequent findings of hematological malignant diseases, in order to perform an earlier diagnosis ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Approach to Evaluating Superficial Masses on Ultrasound
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to give clinicians a guide of how to approach the diagnosis of superficial masses using ultrasound. This was separated into neoplastic and non-neoplastic etiologies, with key imaging features given to help distinguish between the two.Recent FindingsLatest diagnostic findings in the evaluation of superficial masses include assessing for vascularity, evaluating the echogenicity, measuring size, and analyzing the borders and location of the mass. More specific guidelines are given in the evaluation of thyroid nodules using TI-RADS, a radiologic risk stratification system dev...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An Update on Hepatobiliary Ultrasound
This article will provide a review of hepatobiliary ultrasound interpretation with an emphasis on diagnostic accuracy and new techniques. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical Relevance and Practical Approach for Challenging Rectal Cancer MRI Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMRI is the standard of care for clinical staging of rectal cancer, but has limitations. The purpose of this review is to describe and simplify the clinical relevance of common challenging findings on rectal cancer MRI, and to outline a practical approach to these findings for radiologists.Recent FindingsRecent literature regarding T2 versus T3 stages, extramural depth of invasion, circumferential resection margin/mesorectal fascia involvement, anal sphincter involvement, anterior peritoneal reflection involvement, extramural vascular invasion, and lymph node involvement are reviewed. These findings...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT for Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Primer for Residents
This article summarizes the clinical evaluation of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding in the context of radiologic workup. It also provides a review of the non-invasive imaging modalities utilized in the workup of GIB with focus on computed tomography (CT) techniques, including the spectrum of imaging appearances of GIB. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Ultrasound in the Limited-Resource Setting: A Systematic Qualitative Review
The original version of the article, unfortunately, contained a typographical error in one author ’s name in the author group. The author’s name was published as ‘Amy Struder’ and the corrected name is ‘Amy C. Studer’. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Cardiovascular CT in Pulmonary Hypertension
This article reviews the current literature and provides a pictorial reference of CT findings associated with PH that can lead to a proposed diagnosis and, possibly, the underlying etiology of PH. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Recent Updates in Female Pelvic Ultrasound
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUltrasound of gynecologic diseases has evolved with growing understanding of disease pathophysiology and technical advancements. We review recent literature and summarize relevant changes in practice guidelines for evaluation of endometrial thickening, ovarian masses, and polycystic ovarian syndrome.Recent FindingsEndometrial thickening can be a sign of endometrial cancer, but normal thickness varies greatly by menstrual state and medication use. Endometrial thickness should raise suspicion at cut-offs of  >  5 mm by SRU and >  4 mm by ACOG guidelines for...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - June 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Calcifications on DBT and Synthetic Views: Update and Management Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an update on imaging appearance of calcifications on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to digital mammography (DM), and discuss the challenges in interpretation of DBT and synthesized views (SM).Recent FindingsThe quasi-3D feature of DBT reduces tissue overlap compared to DM improving visualization of lesions. However, early studies suggest that calcifications are less conspicuous on DBT. Two-dimensional SM created from tomosynthesis acquisition are FDA approved to replace DM and demonstrate improved conspicuity of calcifications. Reader and population-based studies suggested o...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 27, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT Protocol Optimization in Trauma Imaging: A Review of Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTrauma constitutes a social and a clinical problem. The CT protocol to be adopted in polytrauma patients is still not standardized across institutions. A variety of protocols can be found in the available literature, which differ from each other in timing acquisition and number of phases.Recent FindingsEven if multiple recent studies are investigating the role of split bolus technique, multiphasic protocol has been shown to be associated with early detection and adequate characterization of vascular injuries, so it should be still considered as the “best” CT protocol for the assessment ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Detection/Diagnosis in Breast Imaging: A Focus on the Evolving FDA Regulations for Using Software as a Medical Device
AbstractPurpose of ReviewArtificial Intelligence (AI)-based computer-aided detection (CAD) applications for medical tasks are classified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices. The purpose of this paper to review CAD and its categories, explain why AI counts as a medical device, and describe its FDA approval process. The review will also include some of the recent advancements in AI-based CAD for different modalities in breast imaging.Recent FindingsTo keep up with the rapid pace of AI, changes have recently been made by the FDA in how CAD software is classified and regulated.SummaryThe expedited 510(...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast Imaging in Global Health: Serving the Underserved
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current guidelines, recommendations, and strategies for implementing breast imaging programs in low-resource areas, specifically low- and middle-income countries.Recent FindingsBreast cancer in low- and middle-income countries is associated with high mortality, mostly related to late stage diagnosis and poor access to treatment. Efforts to improve breast cancer outcomes have focused on a strategy of downstaging disease, following resource-stratified guidelines.SummaryLaunching a sustainable breast imaging program in a low-resource area involves a thorough assessment that includes exis...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast Imaging: How to Talk to Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe primary purpose of this paper is to offer advice to breast imagers on how they can better communicate with their patients and to demonstrate the value of honing their communication skills.Recent FindingsRecent findings show that breast imagers must now fill a clinical role, as well as an imaging one. Breast imagers are the only ones who can synthesize all the imaging, pathology, and clinical information and present it to their patients in a meaningful and clinically relevant way.SummaryBy developing good communication skills, breast imagers can better serve their patients ’ medical needs ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cancer Detection with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo bring the reader up to date on recent literature on cancer detection with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT).Recent FindingsMany early landmark trials have recently published follow-up studies comparing DBT and synthesized DBT (SM  + DBT) to digital mammography (DM). Recent work has also focused on interval cancers and biological characteristics of DBT cancers in efforts to assess the impact of cancer detection with DBT.SummaryConsistent increases in cancer detection and overall reductions in recall rates are observed with DBT and maintained with SM  + DBT. Studies on...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Inflammatory Arthropathies and Systemic Rheumatic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewIn this review, the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, management and prognostication of inflammatory arthropathies and systemic rheumatic diseases (IASRD) is discussed. There have been several recent publications and it is timely to place into perspective the rapidly evolving concepts of advanced imaging in IASRDs through review and critical appraisal of the literature. IASRD are multisystemic autoimmune disorders with predilection for cardiovascular involvement a...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rapid Cardiac MRI Protocols: Feasibility and Potential Applications
This article provides a review of how rapid Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) has been used successfully in different clinical settings, outlining the current role of CMR and the unique, incremental information provided in the care of the patient. The article will provide a review of the abbreviated protocols used, future developments and ways to optimize these protocols. A major emphasis of the application of this technology is in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) where Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, however the principles and protocols can be applied across a broad array ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - February 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An Overview of Strategies Targeting Inappropriate Advanced Diagnostic Imaging in the Setting of Acute Uncomplicated Low Back Pain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aims of this article are to review the driving forces for increased utilization of imaging within the US and to review the strategies currently being implemented to curtail the use of inappropriate advanced diagnostic imaging (ADI) in the setting of acute uncomplicated low back pain.Recent FindingsStrategies aimed at reducing inappropriate ADI in the setting of uncomplicated low back pain, including guideline dissemination, clinical decision support (CDS), audit and feedback, prior authorization, and prior notification.SummaryIncreasing utilization of inappropriate ADI is a multifactorial probl...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - January 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contemporary Imaging Findings in Aortic Arch Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this manuscript is to review the surgical techniques of aortic arch repair, imaging techniques for evaluating the pre- and post-operative aortic arch, and both normal and abnormal post-operative imaging appearances.Recent FindingsAortic arch repair is a technically challenging and rapidly evolving procedure, utilizing a variety of surgical methods that result in variable imaging appearances. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of aortic arch abnormalities, as well as diagnosis of abnormalities in the adjacent ascending and descending aorta. Imaging also plays a key role ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Pros and Cons of Structured Reports
This article will provide a review of the pros and cons of structured reporting. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Update In Percutaneous Lung Ablation
This article provides a review of currently available ablative devices and its use in lung ablation. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A Guided Survey Approach for Joint Commission Preparedness in Radiology
We present an efficient, interactive survey tool that can aid practice leaders, including radiologists and administrators, as they internally survey their own departments in preparation for The Joint Commission survey process. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A Review of the Currently Available Retrievable and Next Generation Inferior Vena Cava Filters
This article is aimed at aiding interventionists in filter selection by providing easily accessible data.Recent FindingsThe Inferior Vena Cava filters has and will continue to play a primary role in the prevention of thromboembolic disease, especially in the acute care setting. There are a plethora of publications regarding the safety and efficacy of the traditional removable filter in addition to  multiple comparative analyses discussing their intervariability and design characteristics. Over the last three years, the FDA has approved novel filter designs for widespread use. While the research on these “next-ge...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Developing Diagnostic Radiology Training in Low Resource Countries
We describe how features of a radiology residency that we helped design in Rwanda will lead to a successful, long-term educational program.SummaryIn this paper we note the growing interest in and need for global imaging along with the insufficient number of radiologists and radiology training programs in resource-limited countries. We make recommendations for and describe a model of ethical radiology educational outreach. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular Imaging: Utilization of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to present a concise summary of the current literature on the use of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for vascular imaging.Recent FindingsDECT techniques have shown significant promise and useful applications for the detection of subtle pulmonary embolism, intramural hematoma, active bleeding, and differentiation of bleed from contrast staining in the brain, with potentially less radiation and improved accuracy.SummaryVascular imaging with DECT has many new applications through enhanced technology and postprocessing algorithms. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Emerging Infectious Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmerging infectious diseases have seen a record increase in prevalence, and understanding their management is critical in an increasingly global community. In this paper, we review current literature detailing the role of radiology in the diagnosis and treatment of the Ebola (EVD), Zika (ZVD), Chikungunya (CHIKF), H1N1, Middle East Respiratory (MERS), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) viruses.Recent FindingsComplex protocols are required to safely use portable imaging in EVD to prevent nosocomial spread of disease. In ZVD, antenatal ultrasound can detect fetal abnormalities early, allowi...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep Learning for Chest Radiology: A Review
This article will provide a review of leading and emerging deep-learning-based applications in chest radiology. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Tuberculosis in Resource-Limited Settings
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo describe the imaging findings of tuberculosis with different imaging modalities, as well as the current usage and importance of imaging tuberculosis in resource-limited settings.Recent findingsPrimary pulmonary tuberculosis can manifest as lung parenchymal disease, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, and/or miliary disease. Differentiating features of post-primary tuberculosis include cavitation, bilateral tree-in-bud nodules, and an absence of lymphadenopathy. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can involve nearly any organ system, including the heart, central nervous system, bones and abdominal organs....
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tumors of the Urinary Tract
ConclusionModern surgical techniques such as nephron-sparing surgery demand high-quality imaging in the preoperative workup of renal lesions, as well as modern medical therapies, and the follow-up after nephron-sparing surgery needs reliable diagnostic information. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound in the Limited-Resource Setting: A Systematic Qualitative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the most recently published literature regarding ultrasound (US) use in limited-resource settings.Recent FindingsThe body of literature is quite heterogeneous, but several recurring themes emerged from the data. Research regarding education is burgeoning, with studies showing that low-cost training modules can effectively teach US skills to novices. Many studies reported feasibility of training non-physicians to perform US, which allows for task-shifting. Research regarding clinical application of US is broad; especially regarding Echocardiography, Infecti...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging in Lung Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the current role of imaging in the detection, staging, therapy planning and response assessment in lung cancer.Recent FindingsLung cancer screening using low-dose CT has been shown to reduce mortality in risk groups of active or former smokers and has, thus, been recommended by several societies and organisations worldwide. There remain, however, questions regarding optimum definition of risk factors and screening intervals. Staging criteria for lung cancer have been updated in the 8th edition of the TNM staging to better reflect prognosis. Preliminary research in radiomics in lung canc...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Global Outreach for U.S. Radiology Training Programs
This article will provide a summary of requirements for creating and sustaining a global outreach elective and provide ideas and resources for overcoming common roadblocks. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Humanitarian Teleradiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo outline the current state of humanitarian teleradiology: scope of projects, technical and organization challenges, and to outline how recent technological developments will change the face of humanitarian teleradiology and global health.Recent FindingsTechnical and information technology improvements in recent years have enabled small- and large-scale teleradiology projects in many regions, some quite remote, of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These are aimed at alleviating the severe shortage of radiologists in LMICs. Teleradiology offers an opportunity for radiologists in high-income...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPositron emission tomography has not traditionally played a major role in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Owing to high background liver uptake and molecular mechanisms within HCC lesions, uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is variable and prior studies have shown only modest overall detection of intrahepatic disease.Recent FindingsTracers such as 18F- and 11C-choline as well as 11C-acetate have been explored either in isolation or together with 18F-FDG have shown greater promise in detection of intrahepatic lesions, but yet are not in widespread clinical use. 68  Ga-Pros...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Emerging Role of Fluciclovine and Other Next Generation PET Imaging Agents in Prostate Cancer Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProstate cancer recurrence after definitive therapy is not uncommon. Recurrent disease is first detected by the elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and may often be radiographically occult. The use of molecular imaging for the localization and staging of recurrent prostate cancer is promising.18F-Fluciclovine is a synthetic amino acid analog positron emission tomography (PET) tracer which has demonstrated great utility in the evaluation of patients with suspected recurrence disease. Other newer PET tracers such68Ga/18F-PSMA-ligands are being investigated for prostate imaging with promising...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - April 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Somatostatin Receptor Positron Emission Tomography: Beyond Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSimilar to various gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are overexpressed in a wide array of malignant and benign conditions. Using somatostatin positron emission tomography (PET) analogs ([68Ga]DOTA-peptides) this overexpression of SSTRs can be exploited for clinical management in terms of diagnosis, therapy, and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).Recent FindingsRecent reports suggest that [68Ga]DOTA-peptide PET tracers have an emerging role in the management of wide array of non-GEP-NETs due to overexpression of SSTRs. The potenti...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Amino Acid PET Imaging of Glioma
This article summarizes recent developments and clinical applications of the most widely used amino acid radiotracers. While none of these agents are FDA approved in the United States, they are considered standard of care in Europe and other parts of the world with  >  10,000 studies being performed in some centers (Langen et al. in J Neurooncol 120(3):665–666, 2014). (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Technology-Mediated Education in Global Radiology: Opportunities and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review explores opportunities and challenges in utilizing technology-mediated educational strategies for radiology education in parts of the world where attending radiologist support is limited. In efforts to increase the number of radiologists globally, radiology residencies have been established in regions where radiologists are scarce, several of which have partnerships with programs in other parts of the world. Technology-mediated educational strategies could leverage these partnerships to provide critical infrastructure to these recently established residencies.Recent findingsThe efficaci...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Renal Malignancy: A Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRenal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignancy that is often detected incidentally in patients undergoing cross-sectional imaging of the abdomen for workup of pain or other symptoms. Due to overlap in imaging findings of RCC and benign tumors, biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Biopsies are occasionally non-diagnostic, however, and in small lesions or patients with comorbidities may not be technically feasible. Molecular imaging techniques can characterize tumors as being more likely malignant or benign and obviate the need for invasive testing, as well as providing accurate whole...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of  Placenta Accreta Spectrum
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs the number of cesarean deliveries continues to increase, the incidence of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) has also increased. This is likely due to the abnormal placenta/uterus interface caused by macro- or microscopic scar tissue from prior instrumentation or previous infection. Due to increasing incidence, it is important to be aware of the imaging findings of PAS, as well as the strengths and limitations of different imaging modalities.Recent FindingsThis review focuses on the ultrasound evaluation of PAS, evaluating the accuracy of various sonographic findings and comparing these results to ...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thyroid Sonography: Nuclear Medicine Point of View
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe American Cancer Society estimated that cancer of the thyroid causes 53,990 new cases and about 2060 deaths in 2018. The chance of being diagnosed with thyroid cancer has risen and this increment seems to be the result of increased use of ultrasound, CT and MR imaging examinations for reasons unrelated to the thyroid. Up to 50% of adults in central Europe have one or multiple thyroid nodules. However, the prevalence of latent carcinoma in an unselected autopsy study was 8.6%. The main diagnostic task is to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, preferably based upon on ultrasound pa...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Benign Breast Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnderstandably, a great deal of research is dedicated to the identification of sonographic manifestations of malignant breast disease. However, recognition of clinical and imaging characteristics that support benign diagnoses is equally integral to accurate, cost-effective management of breast disease. Review of these characteristics is provided to enable more confident diagnosis and focused management.Recent FindingsAdvances in ultrasound utilization have extended its range to include screening and diagnosis. Coupled with updates to BI-RADS, current practices reflect the indispensable nature of ul...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound Screening and Surveillance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
AbstractPurposeTo review the current state of the use of ultrasound in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance.FindingsDespite limitations in the evidence supporting the use of ultrasound in HCC surveillance, it has been formally recommended by a number of guidelines based on the best available evidence showing that it improves survival and is cost effective. However, ultrasound surveillance is inconsistently adopted and is prone to a number of practical and technical challenges. The recent introduction of ultrasound LI-RADS aims to standardize performance and reporting of these surveillance studies.SummaryDespite rema...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - February 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Detection and Diagnosis: Role of Ultrasound with MRI Correlates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProstate cancer (PCA) detection and diagnosis has rapidly changed in recent years, with medical imaging playing an instrumental component. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to an alternative diagnostic pathway for patient triage and diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is already essential to this pathway, and development of new US technologies ensures it will assume an even more important role.Recent FindingsConventional US is widely used for anatomic guidance during prostate biopsy, but has low PCA detection rates. Ultrasound elastography and contrast-enhanced US are promising for im...
Source: Current Radiology Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research