Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016
AbstractWhile psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr Top Behav Neurosci 9:199 –218,2012), focusing on pertinent peer-reviewed empirical papers published since 2012. We con...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment of Functional Impairment in Patients with Bipolar Disorder
AbstractTraditionally, functional impairment has received little attention in bipolar disorder, despite the fact that many patients experience significant impairments in daily life. In the last decade, research has changed its focus from clinical remission to functional recovery in bipolar patients as a priority. A literature review of this topic will allow us provide an overview of the relevance of functional impairment as well as the potential factors that can predict or contribute to low functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). Treatment approaches should consider not only euthymia as a goal but also cognitive and function...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Schizophrenia: Impact on Family Dynamics
AbstractIn many societies, family members are now the primary caregivers of mental health patients, taking on responsibilities traditionally under the purview of hospitals and medical professionals. The impact of this shift on the family is high, having both an emotional and economic toll. The aim of this paper is to review the main changes that occur in family dynamics for patients with schizophrenia. The article addresses three central themes: (i) changes in the family at the onset of the disorder, (ii) consequences for family members because of their caregiver role, and (iii) family interventions aimed at improving the ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prenatal Risk Factors and the Etiology of ADHD —Review of Existing Evidence
This article provides an update of research investigating the relationship between prenatal risk factors and ADHD published over the past 3  years. Recently, several epidemiological and data linkage studies have made substantial contributions to our understanding of this relationship. In particular, these studies have started to account for some of the genetic and familial confounds that, when taken into account, throw several establis hed findings into doubt. None of the proposed prenatal risk factors can be confirmed as causal for ADHD, and the stronger the study design, the less likely it is to support an associati...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Understanding Early Age of Onset: a Review of the Last 5  Years
AbstractThe age at onset of bipolar disorder ranging from childhood to adolescent to adult has significant implications for frequency, severity and duration of mood episodes, comorbid psychopathology, heritability, response to treatment, and opportunity for early intervention. There is increasing evidence that recognition of prodromal symptoms in at-risk populations and mood type at onset are important variables in understanding the course of this illness in youth. Very early childhood onset of symptoms including anxiety/depression, mood lability, and subthreshold manic symptoms, along with family history of a parent with ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Using Physical Activity to Manage ADHD Symptoms:The State of the Evidence
This article summarizes the evidence for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using chronic aerobic physical activity (PA). Known studies comparing chronic aerobic PA to at least one control group are listed; uncontrolled studies and studies of non-aerobic PA are not considered. Key challenges to conducting chronic PA studies with children and youth with ADHD are summarized. After condensing information from widely varying studies, measures, and research designs, conclusions are stated in broad brush stroke terms. Preliminary evidence supports PA as beneficial for ADHD symptoms, executive function,...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Life Span Studies of ADHD —Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome
AbstractThere is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Automated Decision-Making and Big Data: Concerns for People With Mental Illness
AbstractAutomated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness. Algorithms based on big data from seemingly unrelated sources may create obstacles to community i...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Coaching for College Students with ADHD
AbstractEvidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and pro...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Schools and Disasters: Safety and Mental Health Assessment and Interventions for Children
This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health asses...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Diverse Settings: Recent Advances and Challenges for the Future
This article review explores new findings in the cultural understanding of PTSD among racial and ethnic minorities. We first review recent advances in the understanding of PTSD symptomotology. Next, we provide overview of trials demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy (CPT), prolonged exposure (PE), and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) in diverse communities. Then, we discuss specific implementation strategies common across intervention trials used to increase feasibility, acceptability, adoption, and sustainability. Last, we discuss areas for future research and dissemi...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Integrated Behavioral Health in Pediatric Primary Care
AbstractThere are multiple barriers to accessing high quality, evidence-based behavioral health care for children and adolescents, including stigma, family beliefs, and the significant paucity of child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although equal access continues to be an unmet need in the USA, there is growing recognition that integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care have the potential to reduce health disparities and improve service utilization. In a joint position paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) highlighted the mul...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

eHealth Intervention for Problematic Internet Use (PIU)
AbstractExcessive use of the Internet is considered a problematic behaviour by clinicians and researchers. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been advocated for a long time as a treatment approach and has been extended to include family therapy in the recent years. As eTherapy (eHealth) has become an important component in the treatment of many mental health problems, it is prudent to explore the current status of the eHealth approach as an intervention option for this problem. This systematic review aims to examine the current development of online intervention programmes for this particular condition. The PRISMA guide...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identifying and Managing Malingering and Factitious Disorder in the Military
AbstractMalingering is the intentional fabrication of medical symptoms for the purpose of external gain. Along similar lines as malingering, factitious disorder is the intentional creation or exaggeration of symptoms, but without intent for a concrete benefit. The incidence of malingering and factitious disorder in the military is unclear, but likely under reported for a variety of reasons. One should be aware of potential red flags suggesting malingering or factitious disorder and consider further evaluation to look for these conditions. A deliberate and intentional management plan is ideal in these cases. Furthermore, a ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Fear-Related Behaviors in the 2013 –2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak
AbstractThe 2013 –2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease pandemic was the largest, longest, deadliest, and most geographically expansive outbreak in the 40-year interval since Ebola was first identified. Fear-related behaviors played an important role in shaping the outbreak. Fear-related behaviors are defined as “ individual or collective behaviors and actions initiated in response to fear reactions that are triggered by a perceived threat or actual exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. FRBs modify the future risk of harm.” This review examines how fear-related behaviors were implicated in (1) acce...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Apathy in Dementia: Systematic Review of Recent Evidence on Pharmacological Treatments
AbstractIncreasing recognition that apathy is one of the most prevalent behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and causes substantial caregiver distress has led to trials evaluating psychosocial and pharmacological treatments of apathy in dementia. We evaluated evidence of the efficacy of pharmacotherapies for apathy in dementia from studies since 2013. Previously reported benefits of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine were not replicated in recent studies. Antidepressants had mixed results with positive effects for apathy shown only for agomelatine, while stimulants, analgesics, and oxytocin study re...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive, Emotional, Temperament, and Personality Trait Correlates of Suicidal Behavior
AbstractSuicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emergency Department Screening for Suicide and Mental Health Risk
AbstractSuicide is the second leading cause of death among youth ages 10 –24. An estimated 1.5 million US adolescents receive their primary health care in the emergency department (ED); this is particularly true for low-income and minority youths who often lack a regular source of care. ED visits can provide a window of opportunity to screen and identify youths with su icide and mental health risk, triage youths based on need, and facilitate effective follow-up care. Recently developed brief therapeutic assessment approaches have demonstrated success in improving rates of follow-up care after discharge from the ED. F...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractAnxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac heal...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Slice of the Suicidal Brain: What Have Postmortem Molecular Studies Taught Us?
AbstractSuicide ranks amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. Contemporary models of suicide risk posit that suicide results from the interaction of distal and proximal factors, including neurobiological, psychological/clinical, and social factors. While a wealth of neurobiological studies aimed at identifying biological processes associated with suicidal behaviour have been conducted over the last decades, the more recent development of arrays and high-throughput sequencing methods have led to an increased capacity and interest in the study of genomic factors. Postmortem studies are a unique tool to directly invest...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological Mechanisms of PTSD and Its Treatment
AbstractPsychological mechanisms can be defined as processes or events that are responsible for specific changes in psychological outcomes. In psychotherapy research, mechanisms are the factors through which interventions produce change. In this article, we explain the importance of identifying psychological mechanisms, describe methods for identifying them, and analyze recent literature on the psychological mechanisms underlying the development and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on the findings of recent investigations (from 2013 to present), we focus on four putative mechanisms: emotional engage...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Current Understanding of Psychosis in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractPsychosis in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) is one of the greatest determinants of nursing home placement and caregiver stress. Traditionally associated with medications with dopaminergic effect, it has now been linked to other medications and other stressors e.g. systemic illnesses. The development of hallucinations in a PD patient can herald the onset of dementia and usually predicts increased mortality risk. Medication reduction in PD psychosis usually reduces the symptoms; however, this comes at the cost of worsening motor function. If gradually decreasing the patient’s medications does not resolve the p...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Means Safety as a Suicide Prevention Strategy
AbstractDespite advances in theory and the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments, the United States suicide rate has been rising continuously for over a decade. Although this does not indicate that traditional treatment approaches should be abandoned, it does highlight the need to supplement such approaches with alternatives. One seemingly highly valuable option is means safety, defined as the reduced access to and/or increased safe storage of potentially lethal methods for suicide. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the prevalence of six methods for suicide and preventative eff...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emergence of Transdiagnostic Treatments for PTSD and Posttraumatic Distress
AbstractBoth theoretical and empirical findings have demonstrated similarities across diagnoses, leading to a growing interest in transdiagnostic interventions. Most of the evidence supporting transdiagnostic treatment has accumulated for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders, with minimal attention given to posttraumatic stress disorder and other reactions to traumatic stressors. Although single-diagnosis protocols are effective for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related disorders, in principle, transdiagnostic approaches may have beneficial applications within a traumatized population. This pap...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sociodemographic Antecedent Validators of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature
AbstractSuicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavi...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Patterns of Comorbidity of Suicide Attempters: An Update
AbstractBetween 10 and 20 million people attempt suicide every year worldwide, and suicide attempts represent a major economic burden. Suicide attempters suffer from high rates of comorbidity, and comorbidity is the rule in suicide re-attempters. Comorbidity complicates treatment and prognosis and causes a more protracted course. In the present narrative review, we included these patterns of comorbidity: intra-Axis I disorders, intra-Axis II disorders, Axis I with Axis II disorders, and psychiatric with physical illnesses. We also briefly reviewed the patterns of comorbidity in suicide re-attempters. We concluded that como...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep and Eating Disorders
AbstractInsomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic par...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mobile Mental Health: Navigating New Rules and Regulations for Digital Tools
AbstractMobile health (mHealth) apps are becoming much more widely available. As more patients learn about and download apps, clinicians are sure to face more questions about the role these apps can play in treatment. Clinicians thus need to familiarize themselves with the clinical and legal risks that apps may introduce. Regulatory rules and organizations that oversee the safety and efficacy of mHealth apps are currently fragmentary in nature and clinicians should pay special attention to categories of apps which are currently exempt from significant regulation. Uniform HIPAA protection does not apply to personal health d...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine Misuse in the Elderly: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Management
AbstractBenzodiazepine (BZD) inappropriate use (i.e., misuse and overuse) is a worldwide public health problem. Despite current knowledge about increased sensitivity to side effects in the elderly, that should lead to more caution, only a third of BZD prescriptions in this age group are considered appropriate. The most frequent inadequate situations are excessive duration and/or dosage of a medical prescription or self-medication, especially in a context where it would be contraindicated, e.g., long-acting BZD in the elderly. Polypharmacy and comorbidities are major risk factors. Consequences of BZD inappropriate use are f...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Can Neuroimaging Provide Reliable Biomarkers for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? A Narrative Review
AbstractIn this integrative review, we discuss findings supporting the use neuroimaging biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To do so, we have selected the most recent studies that attempted to identify the underlying pathogenic process associated with OCD and whether they provide useful information to predict clinical features, natural history or treatment responses. Studies using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in OCD patients are generally supportive of an e...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Suicidal Behavior in Mood Disorders: Response to Pharmacological Treatment
AbstractSuicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on d...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorder in Older Adults: Neglected and Treatable Illnesses
AbstractThe purpose of this article is to provide an overview of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) in older adults for general psychiatrists. The rapid growth of the geriatric population in the USA has wide-ranging implications as the baby boomer generation ages. Various types of substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in older adults, and they often take a greater toll on affected older adults than on younger adults. Due to multiple reasons, SUDs in older adults are often under-reported, under-detected, and under-treated. Older adults often use substances, which leads to various clinical problems....
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior
AbstractAdverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suici...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Reserve and the Prevention of Dementia: the Role of Physical and Cognitive Activities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe article discusses the two most significant modifiable risk factors for dementia, namely, physical inactivity and lack of stimulating cognitive activity, and their effects on developing cognitive reserve.Recent FindingsBoth of these leisure-time activities were associated with significant reductions in the risk of dementia in longitudinal studies. In addition, physical activity, particularly aerobic exercise, is associated with less age-related gray and white matter loss and with less neurotoxic factors. On the other hand, cognitive training studies suggest that training for executive functions ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Erratum to: Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions
(Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among People Living with HIV: a Critical Review of Intervention Trials
Abstract The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people living with HIV (PLWH) is significantly higher than the rate among the general population. Moreover, PTS symptoms have been linked with numerous negative health-related outcomes in PLWH. While these findings suggest that studies evaluating the efficacy of treatments for PTS symptoms among PLWH are sorely needed, according to prior reviews, such studies are lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review was to provide an updated critical evaluation of treatment studies that targeted PTS among PLWH. Following PRIMSA guidelines,...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers
This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Aging Brain
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases. Whether these associations are causations, ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Children ’s Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism
Abstract Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with dive...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiologica...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Children’s Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism
Abstract Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An Update on the Use of Sedative-Hypnotic Medications in Psychiatric Disorders
Abstract Sleep disturbance is a common clinical problem experienced by patients with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that insomnia is a comorbid process that affects the course and treatment of a number of forms of mental illness. The efficacy and safety of sedative-hypnotic medications have largely been established in patients who do not have comorbid psychiatric disorders, underscoring the need for further research in this sphere. This review summarizes pertinent findings in the recent literature that have examined the role of hypnotic medication in the treatment of...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dysregulations of Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Schizophrenia
Abstract Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness which is experienced by about 1 % of individuals worldwide and has a debilitating impact on perception, cognition, and social function. Over the years, several models/hypotheses have been developed which link schizophrenia to dysregulations of the dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin receptor pathways. An important segment of these pathways that have been extensively studied for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is the presynaptic neurotransmitter release mechanism. This set of molecular events is an evolutionarily well-conserved process that involves ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep Problems in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status of Knowledge and Appropriate Management
Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5 % of children and adolescents, and sleep problems are common in these patients. There is growing evidence informing the significant importance of sleep problems in youth with ADHD. The sleep problems in children with ADHD include specific sleep disorders and sleep disturbances due to comorbid psychiatric disorders or ADHD medications. The specific sleep disorders of ADHD children include behaviorally based insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, and restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement disorder. Current practices on the m...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social Rhythm Therapies for Mood Disorders: an Update
Abstract Social rhythms are patterns of habitual daily behaviors that may impact the timing of the circadian system directly or indirectly through light exposure. According to the social rhythm hypothesis of depression, depressed individuals possess a vulnerability in the circadian timing system that inhibits natural recovery after disrupting life events. Social rhythm therapies (SRTs) support the implementation of regular, daily patterns of activity in order to facilitate recovery of circadian biological processes and also to improve mood. The majority of SRT research has examined interpersonal and social rhythm...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses
This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating PTSD Within the Context of Heightened Suicide Risk
Abstract Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few psychological conditions that predict suicidal behavior among those who think about suicide, many patients with PTSD present clinically with elevated suicide risk. Expert consensus and practice guidelines recommend against trauma-focused treatments for patients with elevated suicide risk, however. Research aimed at understanding the common mechanisms that underlie the association of PTSD and suicide risk has led to several advances in the effective care of suicidal patients diagnosed with PTSD. Based on these results, various combinations and...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep Spindle Deficit in Schizophrenia: Contextualization of Recent Findings
Abstract Sleep spindles are wax and waning brain oscillations at a frequency range of 11–16 Hz, lasting 0.5–2 s, that define non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2. Over the past few years, several independent studies pointed to a decrease of sleep spindles in schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to contextualize these findings within the growing literature on these oscillations across other neuro-psychiatric disorders. Indeed, spindles reflect the coordinated activity of thalamocortical networks, and their abnormality can be observed in a variety of conditions that disrupt local or global thalamoco...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of Displacement in Children Exposed to Disasters
Abstract The literature on children’s responses to disasters is well developed with increasing attention to the confounding experiences of displacement. This paper presents an overview of the emotional and behavioral effects of displacement on children and adolescents and describes their educational adjustment in terms of both academic achievement and school behavior. A summary of family effects elucidates how children’s functioning is influenced through the family system in which they are embedded. The psychosocial impact of displacement reflects the myriad social losses that children and their famil...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Concurrent Treatment of Substance Use and PTSD
Abstract Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are chronic, debilitating conditions that frequently co-occur. Individuals with co-occurring SUD and PTSD suffer a more complicated course of treatment and less favorable treatment outcomes compared to individuals with either disorder alone. The development of effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for co-occurring SUD and PTSD is an active and critically important area of investigation. Several integrated psychosocial treatments for co-occurring SUD and PTSD have demonstrated promising outcomes. While recent studies...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research