Measuring Psychiatric Symptoms Remotely: a Systematic Review of Remote Measurement-Based Care
This article systematically reviews studies examining remote measurement-based care (RMBC), defined as using technology to measure patients ’ psychiatric symptoms outside the context of a clinical encounter.Recent FindingsThirty-six studies were identified that measured patients ’ psychiatric symptoms remotely and provided feedback to treatment providers. The majority were single group designs. There was evidence supporting the short-term feasibility and acceptability of RMBC, although long-term sustainability was less clear. Thirteen randomized controlled trials were ide ntified. RMBC was typically implemented...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Memory and Forgetting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewI summarize recent developments in understanding the phenomenology of memory in PTSD, describe the most prominent theoretical models, and outline new forms of treatment aimed at modifying the traumatic memory.Recent FindingsIntrusive memories that have the quality of being relived in the present have been highlighted in ICD-11. Debate over whether trauma memories are disorganized has led to a distinction between global narratives that are usually well rehearsed and episodic memories of the most frightening moments when disruptions and fragmentation may occur. Attempts to prevent the initial consoli...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Weight Suppression in Eating Disorders: a Research and Conceptual Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeight suppression, the discrepancy between an individual ’s highest past weight at adult height and his or her current weight, is related to many characteristics of individuals with eating disorders. This paper reviews research findings from the past 5 years, draws several implications regarding the mechanism underlying these effects, and proposes new approaches to measuring weight suppression.Recent FindingsStudies were reviewed under the categories of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and mixed or miscellaneous samples, with more studies falling into the last category than in the fir...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Leveraging Technology in Post-Disaster Settings: the Role of Digital Health/Telemental Health
AbstractThe Purpose ReviewThis paper will review the literature on global disasters and the mental health impact of disasters, and discuss the use of digital health/telemental health in providing care in post-disaster settings.Recent FindingsGlobal disasters, natural and manmade, are on the rise. As a consequence, there are increases in the health and mental health impact in the affected populations. We examine the literature on the health and mental health impact of disasters and the role of digital health/telemental health in response to meeting those needs. We examine the use of digital health/telemental health in two c...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Predictors and Mechanisms of Treatment Response in Social Anxiety Disorder: an Overview of the Amygdala
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAberrant amygdala activity is implicated in the neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and is, therefore, a treatment target. However, the extent to which amygdala predicts clinical improvement or is impacted by treatment has not been critically examined. This review highlights recent neuroimaging findings from clinical trials and research that test links between amygdala and mechanisms of action.Recent FindingsNeuropredictor studies largely comprised psychotherapy where improvement was foretold by amygdala activity and regions beyond amygdala such as frontal structures (e.g., anterior cingu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Children and Adults with Severe Antisocial Behavior and the Impact of Early Adversity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review recent studies investigating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and adults with antisocial personality disorder. We consider key concepts and methodological issues in cortisol assessment and review studies investigating basal cortisol secretion and stress reactivity in antisocial populations. Lastly, we consider whether cortisol abnormalities predict prognosis or treatment outcomes and the impact of exposure to adversity on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrena (HPA) axis activity.Recent FindingsStudies tracking corti...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Review of Use of Asynchronous Technologies Incorporated in Mental Health Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMental health clinicians should understand how technologies augment, enhance, and provide alternate means for the delivery of mental healthcare. These technologies can be usedasynchronously, in which the patient and the clinician need not be communicating at the same time. This contrasts withsynchronous technologies, in which patient and clinician must communicate at the same time.Recent FindingsThe review is based on research literature and the authors ’ clinical and healthcare administration experiences. Asynchronous technologies can exist between a single clinician and a single patient, su...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Please Don ’t Leave Me—Separation Anxiety and Related Traits in Borderline Personality Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn light of the apparent symptomatic resemblance of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms on the one hand and abandonment fears, anxiousness, and separation insecurity central to borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the other hand, a comprehensive overview of separation anxiety and related traits in BPD is provided.Recent FindingsEpidemiological, environmental, psychological, and neurobiological data connecting BPD to separation events, feelings of loneliness, insecure attachment styles, dimensional separation anxiety as well as SAD per se suggest a partly shared etiological pathway model ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental and Addictive Disorders and Medical Comorbidities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMental and addictive disorders commonly co-occur with medical comorbidities, resulting in poor health and functioning, and premature mortality. This review provides an overview of the intertwined causal pathways and shared risk factors that lead to comorbidity. Additionally, this review examines the strategies to prevent the onset of and to effectively manage chronic medical conditions among people with mental and addictive disorders.Recent FindingsRecent research provides further evidence for the shared genetic and biological, behavioral, and environmental risk factors for comorbidity. Additionall...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial Treatments Targeting Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents and Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Review of the Latest Research and Recommended Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis synthesis of treatment research related to anxiety and depression in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focuses on the scientific support for various forms of psychosocial interventions, useful adaptations to standard interventions, and engagement of candidate therapeutic mechanisms.Recent FindingsThere is considerable evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to treat co-occurring problems with anxiety, but there has been relatively little research on treatment of co-occurring depression. Multiple mechanisms of treatment effect have been proposed,...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Measuring Psychiatric Symptoms Remotely: a Systematic Review of Remote Measurement-Based Care
This article systematically reviews studies examining remote measurement-based care (RMBC), defined as using technology to measure patients ’ psychiatric symptoms outside the context of a clinical encounter.Recent FindingsThirty-six studies were identified that measured patients ’ psychiatric symptoms remotely and provided feedback to treatment providers. The majority were single group designs. There was evidence supporting the short-term feasibility and acceptability of RMBC, although long-term sustainability was less clear. Thirteen randomized controlled trials were ide ntified. RMBC was typically implemented...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Memory and Forgetting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewI summarize recent developments in understanding the phenomenology of memory in PTSD, describe the most prominent theoretical models, and outline new forms of treatment aimed at modifying the traumatic memory.Recent FindingsIntrusive memories that have the quality of being relived in the present have been highlighted in ICD-11. Debate over whether trauma memories are disorganized has led to a distinction between global narratives that are usually well rehearsed and episodic memories of the most frightening moments when disruptions and fragmentation may occur. Attempts to prevent the initial consoli...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Weight Suppression in Eating Disorders: a Research and Conceptual Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeight suppression, the discrepancy between an individual ’s highest past weight at adult height and his or her current weight, is related to many characteristics of individuals with eating disorders. This paper reviews research findings from the past 5 years, draws several implications regarding the mechanism underlying these effects, and proposes new approaches to measuring weight suppression.Recent FindingsStudies were reviewed under the categories of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and mixed or miscellaneous samples, with more studies falling into the last category than in the fir...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Leveraging Technology in Post-Disaster Settings: the Role of Digital Health/Telemental Health
AbstractThe Purpose ReviewThis paper will review the literature on global disasters and the mental health impact of disasters, and discuss the use of digital health/telemental health in providing care in post-disaster settings.Recent FindingsGlobal disasters, natural and manmade, are on the rise. As a consequence, there are increases in the health and mental health impact in the affected populations. We examine the literature on the health and mental health impact of disasters and the role of digital health/telemental health in response to meeting those needs. We examine the use of digital health/telemental health in two c...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Insomnia: from Epidemiology and Etiology to Intervention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInsomnia is approximately 1.5 times more common in women than in men. To date, research has advanced our knowledge about why women report significantly more sleep problems than men despite not being reflected in objective sleep measures. Precisely understanding the symptomatology and pathological mechanisms underlying sex differences is important for prevention and providing appropriate interventions.Recent FindingsSex differences found in insomnia goes beyond simple explanations and have been proven to be a complicated interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors that play different ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prenatal Stress, Maternal Immune Dysregulation, and Their Association With Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile genetic factors are a major etiological contributor to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), evidence also supports a role for environmental factors. Herein, we will discuss two such factors that have been associated with a significant proportion of ASD risk: prenatal stress exposure and maternal immune dysregulation, and how sex and gender relate to these factors.Recent FindingsRecent evidence suggests that maternal stress susceptibility interacts with prenatal stress exposure to affect offspring neurodevelopment. Additionally, understanding of the impact of maternal immune dysfunction on ASD has ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Communication With Children and Families About Disaster: Reviewing Multi-disciplinary Literature 2015 –2017
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo identify strategies for communicating with youth and children pre- and post-disaster in the context of a broader survey of child participation in disaster risk reduction as well as methods for communication with children.Recent FindingsYouth and children are capable of peer and community education and activism concerning disaster issues and such participation benefits the young actors. Family and sibling support are important in easing the impact of trauma on children. Contemporary forms of psychological first aid appear to do no harm and in line with current evidence. Generally, more evidence f...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Be True to Our Schools —Models of Care in College Mental Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review and synthesize the previous, current, and proposed models of care in college mental health in order to identify best practices that will address the mental health needs of today ’s students. To highlight data that supports existing or proposed models and describe areas where more data is needed.Recent FindingsDespite the potentially appealing attributes of integrated care, empirical evidence supporting these systems and structures in campus settings is mixed. Recent surveys show less than half of campuses have an integrated mental health care model. Overall, there is only partial co...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Which Comes First? An Examination of Associations and Shared Risk Factors for Eating Disorders and Suicidality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review evaluates recent literature on the associations between eating disorders and suicidality and discusses potential shared mechanisms that may account for these relationships. Additionally, the review highlights shortcomings with the literature to date and suggests avenues for future research.Recent FindingsIndividuals with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder experience elevated rates of suicidality compared to the general population. Suicide risk is higher when eating disorders occur with other psychological conditions. Additionally, genetic factors, emo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An Overview of Conceptualizations of Eating Disorder Recovery, Recent Findings, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review delineates issues in the conceptualization and operationalization of eating disorder recovery, highlights recent findings about recovery (since 2016), and proposes future directions.Recent FindingsA longstanding problem in the field is that there are almost as many different definitions of recovery in eating disorders as there are studies on the topic. Yet, there has been a general shift to accepting that psychological/cognitive symptoms are important to recovery in addition to physical and behavioral indices. Further, several operationalizations of recovery have been proposed over the ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroactive Steroids and Perinatal Depression: a Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide a theoretical explanation and a review of the recent literature concerning the role of neuroactive steroids in perinatal depression, and to use this information to suggest future directions of research.Recent FindingsThe bulk of the evidence on neuroactive steroids in perinatal depression concerns allopregnanolone. Recent studies have been mixed, with some studies finding a direct correlation between lower levels of allopregnanolone and increased depressive symptoms but other studies finding no relationship. Evidence concerning other neuroactive steroids and...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Current Knowledge on Gene-Environment Interactions in Personality Disorders: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the existing literature on gene-environment interactions (G ×E) and epigenetic changes primarily in borderline personality disorder (BPD) but also in antisocial, schizotypal, and avoidant personality disorders.Recent FindingsResearch supports that susceptibility genes to BPD or its underlying traits may be expressed under certain environmental conditions such as physical or childhood sexual abuse. Epigenetic modifications of neurodevelopment- and stress-related genes are suggested to underlie the relationship between early life adversary and borderline personality disorder. Only lim...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Intersection of Sex Differences, Tobacco Use, and Inflammation: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTobacco use, sex differences, and psychiatric disorders are associated with altered immune function. There are also sex differences in tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. This review summarizes findings from the small, but growing literature examining sex differences in the effects of tobacco use on inflammation and the implications for psychiatric disorders.Recent FindingsWe identified four studies that tested the interaction between sex and tobacco/nicotine on inflammation. Although males and females generally exhibited differential tobacco-induced immune responses, the pattern varied dependin...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disgust in Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: Recent Findings and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the past 20  years, the role of disgust in anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been investigated with increasing precision. In this review, we examine recent evidence implicating disgust in anxiety and OCD, highlighting recent measurement and methodological improvements. Specific emph asis is placed on understanding the mechanisms that may account for the role of disgust in OCD and related disorders.Recent FindingsRecent developments include clarification of the role of distinct disgust-relevant vulnerabilities in the etiology of anxiety and OCD, an improved unders...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Women With Mental Illness Seeking Assisted Reproduction Considerations in Ethical Candidate Selection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to provide guidance to clinicians facing requests for assisted reproduction from women with mental illness.Recent FindingsThe paper explores the clinical and safety aspects of initiating fertility treatment in this context, including the use of psychotropic medication and the risk of untreated psychiatric mood or psychotic disorders. It also presents the ethical considerations involved in candidate selection, including treating similar cases equitably to avoid biased decisions based solely on “gut-feelings,” respect for women’s reproductive autonomy, and an effort...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Threats to Belonging, Immune Function, and Eating Behavior: an Examination of Sex and Gender Differences
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe first goal of this review is to discuss the evidence linking belonging threats to immune function and food intake. The second goal is to evaluate whether the links among belonging threats, immune function, and eating behavior differ based on gender.Recent FindingsThreats to belonging are linked to elevated herpesvirus antibody titers, dysregulated appetite-relevant hormones, and increased food consumption. Furthermore, these relationships are largely consistent for both men and women. Threats to belonging are also linked to elevated inflammation. However, some studies showed that these effects ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Network Analysis as an Alternative Approach to Conceptualizing Eating Disorders: Implications for Research and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNetwork analysis (NA) is an emerging methodology that allows for the characterization of maintaining symptoms and pathways among symptoms of mental disorders. The current paper provides background on NA and discusses the relevance of the network approach for the conceptualization of eating disorders (ED).Recent FindingsWe review the burgeoning literature conceptualizing ED from a network approach. Overall, these papers find that fear of weight gain and overvaluation of weight and shape are core symptoms in networks of ED pathology. We integrate literature on new advances in network methodology (e.g...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ecological Momentary Assessment and Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of the present review is to systematically examine published data regarding ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in children and adolescents with mood disorders.Recent FindingsEMA is increasingly used to collect participant ’s information in their real environment and in real time. There are multiple studies focused on the evaluation of mood disorders in children and adolescents, but only a few of them used EMA protocols.SummaryResults found in this review showed a wide variability of works with different fields of study, methodological approaches, and EMA protocols. More than 60% of...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: a Review of Recent Advances
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent research validating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a first-line intervention for childhood anxiety disorders. We also review recent research aimed at enhancing exposure-based CBT components and adapting CBT to work with specific populations.Recent FindingsExposure-based CBT is a well-established intervention. Different research groups have found positive evidence to augment CBT by evaluating inhibitory learning principles, the role of parents in child treatment, an individualized case formulation, computer and online forms of CBT, and virtual and augmented reality systems fo...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mapping Movement: Applying Motion Measurement Technologies to the Psychiatric Care of Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent advances in technology have changed the landscape of treatment for adults with mental illness. This review highlights technological innovations that may improve care for older adults with mental illness and neurocognitive disorders through the measurement and assessment of physical motion. These technologies include wearable sensors (such as smart watches and Fitbits), passive motion sensors, and smart home models that incorporate both active and passive motion technologies.Recent FindingsClinicians have evaluated motion measurement technologies in older adults with depression, dementia, anx...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Moving to Beat Anxiety: Epidemiology and Therapeutic Issues with Physical Activity for Anxiety
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the relationship between physical activity (PA) and anxiety and the rationale for including it as a treatment option for anxiety disorders. Several gaps in the literature are highlighted alongside recommendations for future research.Recent FindingsPA in the general population has established efficacy in preventing and managing cardiovascular disease and improving wellbeing. Recent epidemiological data further suggests that people who are more active may be less likely to have anxiety disorders. In addition, evidence from s...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Screening for Depression in Pediatric Primary Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the clinical practice guideline landscape for depression screening in pediatric primary care and to identify current gaps in knowledge.Recent FindingsVarious organizations have recommendations that support screening for depression in pediatric primary care, although some differ based on the age of the child. To date, guidelines have been made based on indirect evidence of efficacy. For example, indirect evidence shows that several screening tools exist for use in primary care, and various primary care-administered or referred treatments for childhood depression have some evidence of effic...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Habits in Anorexia Nervosa: Where We Are and Where to Go From Here?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe persistent maladaptive eating behavior characteristic of anorexia nervosa (AN) can be understood as a learned habit. This review describes the cognitive neuroscience background and the existing data from research in AN.Recent FindingsBehavior is habitual after it is frequently repeated and becomes nearly automatic, relatively insensitive to outcome, and mediated by dorsal frontostriatal neural systems. There is evidence for such behavior in AN, in which restrictive intake has been related to dorsal frontostriatal systems. Other neural and neurocognitive data provide mixed findings, some of whic...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Chronotype and Mental Health: Recent Advances
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvening chronotype is increasingly recognized as a correlate of, and perhaps a contributor to, mental illness. The current review evaluates recent evidence for the association between chronotype and mental illness and putative mechanisms underlying the association, while highlighting methodological advances and areas of research that are relatively under-examined in the literature.Recent FindingsWhile evening chronotype is most consistently associated with severity of mood disorder symptoms, emerging evidence implicates evening chronotype as a transdiagnostic correlate of substance use severity, an...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ethical Challenges in the Provision of Mental Health Services for Children and Families During Disasters
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewAs mental health professionals assist individuals and communities affected by disaster, they are likely to encounter ethical issues. We conducted a review of academic and grey literature to identify ethical issues associated with the provision of mental health care during disasters, with particular attention to children and families.Recent FindingsWe identified nine categories of ethical challenge: ensuring competent care; protecting confidentiality and privacy; obtaining informed consent and respecting autonomy; providing culturally sensitive care; avoiding harm; allocating limited resources; ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correlates of Aggression in Personality Disorders: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review article aims at giving an update on studies investigating correlates of aggression in personality disorders during the last 5  years.Recent FindingsMost data refer to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In BPD, emotion dysregulation, hypersensitivity to interpersonal rejection/threat, increased rumination, increased negative urgency, aggression-related knowledge structures, and invalidation were either corroborated or emerged as psychological correlates of aggression, while reduced ambiguity sensitivity, hyposensitivity to interpersonal...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Delivering Mental Health Treatment via Video to Home
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemental health has rapidly evolved as technology and policy advances have allowed new and innovative approaches, including the remote delivery of services directly to patients ’ homes. This review examined the literature on video to home (VTH) delivery of mental health services to synthesize information regarding (1) the comparative clinical effectiveness of VTH to in-person mental health treatment, (2) impact of VTH on treatment adherence, (3) patient and provider sati sfaction with VTH, (4) cost effectiveness of VTH, and (5) clinical considerations for VTH use.Recent FindingsClinical eff...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Advances in the Assessment of Sexual Deviance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews recent research into four different approaches to the assessment of offense-related sexual deviance.Recent FindingsTwo of these approaches, structured rating scales and phallometry, have a sufficient basis in research for clinical use but have undergone significant refinements in recent years. One approach, the use of cognitive tasks to indirectly assess sexual deviance, is approaching the point where it has a sound research basis for clinical use though too many promising tasks have yet to make the transition from laboratory to clinical practice. This approach has however begun ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mind-Body Therapies in Childhood Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvances in the field of Pediatric Oncology have led to increased survival rates in children with cancer, and addressing the emotional well-being and quality of life of this specific population is a critical component of care. Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are an adjuvant modality of treatment that appears to have a positive impact on patient quality of life, patient mental health, and family perceptions toward illness. In this review, we describe several evidence-based MBTs, such as art therapy, meditation, prayer, music therapy, hypnosis and relaxation techniques, their use, and our personal experie...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Brief History of Psychological Theory, Research, and Treatment With Adult Male Sex Offenders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to provide a history of psychological theories, research, and treatment of male sex offenders from the onset of modern approaches that emerged in the 1960s up to the present time. The questions addressed in this paper primarily concern the reasons and justifications for the observed changes.Recent FindingsCurrent conceptualizations of the motivations of sex offenders are quite comprehensive with a central focus on deficits in attachment and coping skills. Research now provides an empirical foundation for the issues to be addressed in treatment and for the manner in which t...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Diagnostic Issues in the Paraphilias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine the empirical bases underlying the diagnoses of the paraphilias. We address issues concerning the reliability of these diagnoses and their implications for etiology, treatment, and prognosis.Recent FindingsResearch on these issues with the paraphilias is quite limited except for those paraphilics whose interests lead them to sexually offend. Even among these clients, research has, for the most part, failed to distinguish those who meet criteria for a paraphilia from those who do not, thereby limiting the possibility of drawing firm conclusions regarding the value of a paraphilic diagnosi...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurotransmitter, Peptide, and Steroid Hormone Abnormalities in PTSD: Biological Endophenotypes Relevant to Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes neurotransmitter, peptide, and other neurohormone abnormalities associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and relevant to development of precision medicine therapeutics for PTSD.Recent FindingsAs the number of molecular abnormalities associated with PTSD across a variety of subpopulations continues to grow, it becomes clear that no single abnormality characterizes all individuals with PTSD. Instead, individually variable points of molecular dysfunction occur within several different stress-responsive systems that interact to produce the clinical PTSD phenotype.Summ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - July 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Smartphones, Sensors, and Machine Learning to Advance Real-Time Prediction and Interventions for Suicide Prevention: a Review of Current Progress and Next Steps
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs rates of suicide continue to rise, there is urgent need for innovative approaches to better understand, predict, and care for those at high risk of suicide. Numerous mobile and sensor technology solutions have already been proposed, are in development, or are already available today. This review seeks to assess their clinical evidence and help the reader understand the current state of the field.Recent FindingsAdvances in smartphone sensing, machine learning methods, and mobile apps directed towards reducing suicide offer promising evidence; however, most of these innovative approaches are still...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dementia Care at End of Life: Current Approaches
This article reviews current literature on late-stage dementia.Recent FindingsSurvival times may vary across dementia subtypes. Yet, the overall trajectory is characterized by progressive decline until death. Ideally, as people with dementia approach the end of life, care should focus on comfort, dignity, and quality of life. However, barriers prevent optimal end-of-life care in the final stages of dementia.SummaryImproved and earlier advanced care planning for persons with dementia and their caregivers can help delineate goals of care and prepare for the inevitable complications of end-stage dementia. This allows for time...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Health Anxiety
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine the diagnosis of health anxiety, its prevalence in different settings, public health significance, treatment, and outcome.Recent FindingsHealth anxiety is similar to hypochondriasis but is characterized by fear of, rather than conviction of, illness. Lifetime prevalence rates are 6% in the population and as high as 20% in hospital out-patients, leading to greater costs to health services through unnecessary medical contacts. Its prevalence may be increasing because of excessive internet browsing (cyberchondria). Drug treatment with antidepressants has some efficacy but is not well-liked,...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent Advancements in Treating Sleep Disorders in Co-Occurring PTSD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewComorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia, nightmares, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high. We review recent research on psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for sleep disorders in PTSD.Recent FindingsPTSD treatments decrease PTSD severity and nightmare frequency, but do not resolve OSA or insomnia. Research on whether insomnia hinders PTSD treatment shows mixed results; untreated OSA does interfere with PTSD treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the recommended treatment for insomnia; however, optimal ordering with PTSD treatment is unc...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Redeveloping Substance Abuse Treatment for Military Personnel
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the prevailing evidence surrounding treatment of substance use disorder (SUD), with specific focus on alcohol, tobacco, and prescription opiates, and how it informs guidelines for treating active duty military. We survey the evidence regarding preventive screening, treatment, and relapse prevention in substance misuse as it pertains to patient-centered care of the service member.Recent FindingsHolistic, patient-centered care with an emphasis on identifying maladaptive use or dependence prior to progression to chronic disease is now recognized as the evidenced approach to treating substanc...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An Etiological Approach to Sexual Offender Assessment: CAse Formulation Incorporating Risk Assessment (CAFIRA)
This article focuses specifically on CF incorporating risk assessment procedures of sexual offenders.Recent FindingsWhile empirical support for the use of risk analysis and formulation in managing offending behavior generally, and sexual offending behavior in particular, is limited, there is mounting evidence to suggest that CF can improve understanding of an individual ’s problem sexual behaviors. We argue that by integrating risk formulations into the CF provides a conceptually robust link between the etiologically development of the problem sexual behavior and effective assessment and risk management of sexual off...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digital Technologies in the Treatment of Anxiety: Recent Innovations and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on “first-generation” e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each.Recent FindingsThere is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - May 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research