Current Considerations Regarding Food Addiction
Abstract “Food addiction” is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of “food addiction” that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual di...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Changes in Comorbid Conditions After Prolonged Exposure for PTSD: a Literature Review
Abstract Prolonged exposure (PE) is an effective psychological treatment for patients who suffer from PTSD. The majority of PTSD patients have comorbid psychiatric disorders, and some clinicians are hesitant to use PE with comorbid patients because they believe that comorbid conditions may worsen during PE. In this article, we reviewed the evidence for this question: what are the effects of PE on comorbid symptoms and associated symptomatic features? We reviewed findings from 18 randomized controlled trials of PE that assessed the most common comorbid conditions (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - March 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sick and Tired: Mood, Fatigue, and Inflammation in Cancer
Abstract Cancer patients commonly experience depression and fatigue before, during, and after treatment. Symptoms can be debilitating, and the risks associated with unrecognized or inadequately treated depression are substantial. Inflammation may be important in the genesis of depression and fatigue in cancer patients; potential neurobiological mechanisms of inflammation-related behavioral symptoms are reviewed. Randomized studies of pharmacologic treatments for depression in cancer populations are limited, but available data are generally encouraging. Studies of pharmacologic treatments for cancer-related fatigu...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep Disturbances as an Evidence-Based Suicide Risk Factor
Abstract Increasing research indicates that sleep disturbances may confer increased risk for suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. Despite increased investigation, a number of methodological problems present important limitations to the validity and generalizability of findings in this area, which warrant additional focus. To evaluate and delineate sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor, a systematic review of the extant literature was conducted with methodological considerations as a central focus. The following methodologic criteria were re...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Competencies for Disaster Mental Health
Abstract Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets speci...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disseminating Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders
Abstract The research-practice gap is of concern in the treatment of eating disorders. Despite the existence of empirically supported treatments, few receive them. The barriers to wider dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatment include clinician attitudes towards such treatments and the lack of sufficient numbers of suitably trained therapists to provide treatment. In this review we discuss these barriers in the context of the wider issue of the dissemination and implementation of psychological treatments and review the research with regard to the treatment of eating disorders. Particular empha...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Management of Delirium in Palliative Care: a Review
Abstract Delirium is a complex but common disorder in palliative care with a prevalence between 13 and 88 % but a particular frequency at the end of life (terminal delirium). By reviewing the most relevant studies (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLit, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library), a correct assessment to make the diagnosis (e.g., DSM-5, delirium assessment tools), the identification of the possible etiological factors, and the application of multicomponent and integrated interventions were reported as the correct steps to effectively manage delirium in palliative care. In terms of medications, both conventional (e.g., h...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Emergence of Safe Harbor Legislation: Implications for Policy and Practice
Abstract Commercial sexual exploitation of children is an enduring social problem that has recently become the focus of numerous legislative initiatives. In particular, recent federal- and state-level legislation have sought to reclassify youth involved in commercial sexual exploitation as victims rather than as offenders. So-called Safe Harbor laws have been developed and centered on decriminalization of “juvenile prostitution.” In addition to or instead of decriminalization, Safe Harbor policies also include diversion, law enforcement training, and increased penalties for adults seeking sexual conta...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Stigma and Eating and Weight Disorders
Abstract Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder: Role of Immune-Inflammatory Cytokines, Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Tryptophan Catabolites
Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex disorder with a range of presentations. BD is defined by the presentation of symptoms of mania or depression, with classification dependent on patient/family reports and behavioural observations. Recent work has investigated the biological underpinnings of BD, highlighting the role played by increased immune-inflammatory activity, which is readily indicated by changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines or signalling, both centrally and systemically, e.g. increased interleukin-6 trans-signalling. Here, we review the recent data on immune-inflammatory pathways and cytokine cha...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Attention Bias Modification for Anxiety and Phobias: Current Status and Future Directions
Abstract Attention bias modification (ABM) was introduced over a decade ago as a computerized method of manipulating attentional bias and has been followed by intense interest in applying ABM for clinical purposes. While meta-analyses support ABM as a method of modifying attentional biases and reducing anxiety symptoms, there have been notable discrepancies in findings published within the last several years. In this review, we comment on recent research that may help explain some of the inconsistencies across ABM studies. More relevant to the future of ABM research, we highlight areas in which continuing researc...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors of the Course of Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents and Young Adults
Abstract Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent mental disorders and are often characterized by an early onset and a progressive, persistent/chronic, or recurrent course. Several individual, familial, and environmental risk factors for adverse course characteristics of anxiety disorders (including higher persistence, lower probability of remission, and increased risk of recurrence) have been identified, and previous research suggests that clinical features of anxiety (e.g., higher severity, duration, and avoidance) as well as comorbid other mental disorders are particularly useful for predicting an unfavor...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Current Directions in Military Health-care Provider Resilience
Abstract After more than a decade of war, the US military continues to place significant emphasis on psychological health and resilience. While research and programs that focus on the broader military community’s resilience continue to emerge, less is known about and until recently little focus has been placed on military medical provider resilience. In this article, we review the literature on military medical provider resilience, provide an overview of the programmatic and technological advances designed to sustain and develop military medical provider resilience, and finally offer recommendations for fut...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder: a Current Review
Abstract This review provides a current overview on the diagnostics, epidemiology, co-occurrences, aetiology and treatment of obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The diagnostic criteria for OCPD according to the recently published Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include an official set of criteria for clinical practice and a new, alternative set of criteria for research purposes. OCPD is a personality disorder prevalent in the general population (3–8 %) that is more common in older and less educated individuals. Findings on sex dist...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prenatal Programming of Mental Illness: Current Understanding of Relationship and Mechanisms
Abstract The British epidemiologist Dr. David J. Barker documented the relationship between infant birth weight and later onset of hypertension, coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes. A stressful in utero environment can cause long-term consequences for offspring through prenatal programming. Prenatal programming most commonly occurs through epigenetic mechanisms and can be dependent on the type and timing of exposure as well as the sex of the fetus. In this review, we highlight the most recent evidence that prenatal programming is implicated in the development of psychiatric disorders ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Late-Life Psychosis: Diagnosis and Treatment
Abstract Psychosis is one of the most common conditions in later life with a lifetime risk of 23 %. Despite its high prevalence, late-onset psychosis remains a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. There are no reliable pathognomonic signs to distinguish primary or secondary psychosis. Primary psychosis is a diagnosis of exclusion and the clinician must rule out secondary causes. Approximately 60 % of older patients with newly incident psychosis have a secondary psychosis. In this article, we review current, evidence-based diagnostic and treatment approaches for this heterogeneous condition, emphasizing a t...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Importance of Anxiety States in Bipolar Disorder
Abstract Anxiety symptoms and syndromes are common in bipolar disorders, occurring in over half of all subjects with bipolar disorder type I. Despite methodological and diagnostic inconsistencies, most studies have shown a robust association between the presence of a broadly defined comorbid anxiety disorder and important indices of clinical morbidity in bipolar disorder, including a greater number of depressive episodes, worse treatment outcomes, and elevated risk of attempting suicide. Anxiety symptoms and/or syndromes often precede the onset of bipolar disorder and may represent a clinical phenotype of increas...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety and Substance Use Disorders: Co-occurrence and Clinical Issues
Abstract The co-occurrence of substance use disorders (SUDs) and anxiety disorders has been now well established. This association is frequent and can be explained by three models: the shared vulnerability factors model, the self-medication model, and the substance-induced model. General population epidemiological studies provide strong evidence of the frequency of the association for the most used substances: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and to a lesser extent sedatives, opiates, and cocaine. For substances that are less commonly used in the general population, the frequency of the co-occurrence can more precisel...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Personality Disorders in Older Adults: Emerging Research Issues
Abstract Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two treatment studies—one on dialectical behavior therapy and one on schema therapy—both with promising results among older patients despite small and heterogeneous populations. More rigorous studies incorporating age-specific adaptations are needed. Furthermore, in contrast to increasing numbers of psych...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychopharmacology in Cancer
This article aims to review the indications for use of antidepressants, psychostimulants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers in oncology. An updated review of the relevant literature is discussed and referenced in each section. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Melancholia and Catatonia: Disorders or Specifiers?
Abstract The fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 defines mental disorders as syndromes and also introduced disorder “specifiers” with the aim of providing increased diagnostic specificity by defining more homogeneous subgroups of those with the disorder and who share certain features. While the majority of specifiers in DSM-5 define a specific aspect of the disorder such as age at onset or severity, some define syndromes that appear to meet the DSM-5 definition of a mental disorder. Specifically, melancholia is positioned in DSM-5 as a major depressi...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Why Study Positive Emotions in the Context of Eating Disorders?
Abstract Experimental research, supported by systematic reviews, establishes that people with eating disorders have emotional difficulties in terms of recognising, regulating and expressing their emotions. These emotional difficulties contribute to poor social functioning and problems with relationships. The existing literature includes a broad range of studies, many of which have utilised self-report measures, but experimental studies of emotions in eating disorders are still limited. The primary aim of this paper is to highlight gaps in the clinical research on emotions in eating disorders, focusing on experime...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder—Current Evidence and Recent Trends
Abstract Drug treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is common but mostly not supported by evidence from high-quality research. This review summarises the current evidence up to August 2014 and also aims to identify research trends in terms of ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) as well as research gaps. There is some evidence for beneficial effects by second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers and omega-3 fatty acids, while the overall evidence base is still unsatisfying. The dominating role SSRI antidepressants usually play within the medical treatment of BPD patients i...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder
Abstract Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Depression in HIV Infected Patients: a Review
Abstract Depression is the most common neuropsychiatric complication in HIV-infected patients and may occur in all phases of the infection. Accurately, diagnosing major depressive disorder in the context of HIV is an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers, being complicated by the complex biological, psychological, and social factors associated with the HIV illness. Evidences exist to support the importance of improving the identification of depressive symptoms and their adequate treatment. Depression has long been recognized as a predictor of negative clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients, such as ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

d -Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: an Update
Abstract Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a generally effective treatment for treating anxiety disorders, there is clearly still room for further improvements. Recent advances in neuroscience of extinction learning led to novel clinical strategies to augment exposure-based treatments with d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine recognition site of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of DCS as an augmentation strategy of CBT for anxiety disorders. The adequacy of the CBT to be augmented, the dose of DCS, and the timing...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety Disorders Is Here to Stay
Abstract Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials that show that the benefits are substantial (d = 1.0) and similar to face to face CBT. There are two large effectiveness trials that demonstrate strong effects when iCBT is used in primary care; 60 % of patients who complete the courses no longer meet diagnostic criteria. The courses are suitab...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Bidirectional Relation Between Psychiatric Disorders With Selected Cardiovascular and Endocrinal Diseases: An Egyptian Perspective
Abstract Cardiovascular and endocrine diseases may act as burdens for individuals suffering from one of these medical illnesses, and whether through the ensuing psychological distress, or some biological mechanisms, these medical diseases can eventually lead to the development of psychiatric morbidities. Moreover, psychiatric morbidities negatively affect the prognosis of both cardiovascular and endocrine diseases. Despite transcultural differences, Egyptian patients with ischemic heart diseases (ISHD), heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM), or thyroid diseases (TD) endure the same psychological distress as ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genetics of Alcoholism
This article provides a brief overview of the current topically relevant findings in the field to date and includes areas of research still requiring attention. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Distinguishing Bipolar Disorder From Other Psychiatric Disorders in Children
Abstract Pediatric onset bipolar disorder (BD) is a challenging diagnosis with potentially debilitating outcomes. This review aims to critically evaluate recently published literature relevant to the diagnosis of BD in youth, emphasizing interesting and important new findings characterizing pediatric BD and reporting updates in the diagnostic and statistical manual relevant to this disorder in youth. Challenges regarding the diagnosis of BD will be discussed, in addition to important distinctions with other childhood disorders, including other bipolar spectrum disorders; major depressive disorder; dysthymia; disr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Use of Electronic Games in Therapy: a Review with Clinical Implications
Abstract Therapists and patients enjoy and benefit from interventions that use electronic games (EG) in health care and mental health settings, with a variety of diagnoses and therapeutic goals. We reviewed the use of electronic games designed specifically for a therapeutic purpose, electronic games for psychotherapy (EGP), also called serious games, and commercially produced games used as an adjunct to psychotherapy, electronic games for entertainment (EGE). Recent research on the benefits of EG in rehabilitation settings, EGP, and EGE indicates that electronic methods are often equivalent to more traditional tr...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Wake-Promoting Pharmacotherapy for Psychiatric Disorders
Abstract Medications promoting wakefulness are currently used in psychopharmacology in different contexts and with different objectives. In particular, they may be used for the treatment of syndromes that primarily show significant impairment in alertness/wakefulness (e.g., excessive sleepiness and other sleep disorders) as well as for the symptomatic treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders that, in turn, are not exclusively characterized by sleep-wake disturbances (like mood disorders, for instance). In addition, several psychotropic compounds, including some antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepre...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Addiction Treatment
Abstract Neuroimaging studies have made a significant contribution to the efforts to identify measurable indices, or biomarkers, of addictions and their treatments. Biomarkers in addiction treatment are needed to provide targets for treatment, detect treatment subgroups, predict treatment response, and broadly improve outcomes. Neuroimaging is important to biomarkers research as it relates neural circuits to both molecular mechanisms and behavior. A focus of recent efforts in neuroimaging in addiction has been to elucidate the neural correlates associated with dimensions of functioning in substance-use and relate...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Population-Based Initiatives in College Mental Health: Students Helping Students to Overcome Obstacles
Abstract College students’ need for mental health care has increased dramatically, leaving campus counseling and mental health centers struggling to meet the demand. This has led to the investigation and development of extra-center, population-based interventions. Student-to-student support programs are but one example. Students themselves are a plentiful, often-untapped resource that extends the reach of mental health services on campus. Student-to-student programs capitalize on students’ natural inclination to assist their peers. A brief review of the prevalence and effects of mental disorders in th...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Psychiatric Disorders
Abstract Sleep-disordered breathing, the commonest form of which is obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly recognised as a treatable cause of morbidity. It shares many risk factors with psychiatric disorders including behaviours such as smoking and physical comorbidity. Many symptoms of the two overlap, leaving OSA often undetected and undertreated. In the few studies that assess the two, OSA is commonly comorbid with depression (17–45 %) and schizophrenia (up to 55 %) and possibly bipolar. There is some limited evidence that treating OSA can ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. Some psychotro...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Depression Related to Reproductive Events
Abstract There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that nonpharmacological interventions have an appropriate place in the treatment of major depressive disorders (MDDs) as both stand-alone and supplemental treatments. Because women may be reluctant to use psychotropic medications due to strong values or treatment preferences during specific reproductive events, clinicians need to be able to offer empirically based alternatives to medication. In this review, we present recent findings from studies of acupuncture, bright light therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, omega fatty acid supplementation, physical activ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

New Measures of Mental State and Behavior Based on Data Collected From Sensors, Smartphones, and the Internet
Abstract With the rapid and ubiquitous acceptance of new technologies, algorithms will be used to estimate new measures of mental state and behavior based on digital data. The algorithms will analyze data collected from sensors in smartphones and wearable technology, and data collected from Internet and smartphone usage and activities. In the future, new medical measures that assist with the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of psychiatric disorders will be available despite unresolved reliability, usability, and privacy issues. At the same time, similar non-medical commercial measures of mental state are bein...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Proceed with Caution: Off-label Ketamine Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder
Abstract Ketamine offers a promising new option for the treatment of depression, but its increasing off-label use is ethically and clinically inappropriate at the moment. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Professional Social Networking
Abstract We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating c...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Challenges and Strategies in Helping the DSM Become More Dimensional and Empirically Based
Abstract The DSM-5 creation process and outcome underlines a core tension in psychiatry between empirical evidence that mental pathologies tend to be dimensional and a historical emphasis on delineating categorical disorders to frame psychiatric thinking. The DSM has been slow to reflect dimensional evidence because doing so is often perceived as a disruptive paradigm shift. As a result, other authorities are making this shift, circumventing the DSM in the process. For example, through the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), NIMH now encourages investigators to focus on a dimensional and neuroscientific conceptualiz...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Treatment of Perimenopausal Depression
Abstract The menopause transition is associated with a two to fourfold increased risk in major depressive disorder (MDD) and clinical elevations in depressive symptoms. While the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this increased risk remain uncertain, ovarian hormone fluctuation is believed to play a role. To the extent that this is the case, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), through its hormone-stabilizing effects, represents a viable antidepressant treatment. The current review summarizes the most recent literature evaluating the efficacy of HRT in treating MDD in peri- and postmenopausal women. In addit...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Internet Interventions for Mental Health and Addictions: Current Findings and Future Directions
Abstract Over the last several years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of publications reporting on Internet interventions for mental health and addictions. This paper provides a summary of the recent research on Internet interventions for the most common mental health and addictions concerns—depression, anxiety, alcohol and smoking. There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions targeting depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol use and smoking. Small to moderate effect sizes have been reported for interventions targeting depression, anxiety and alcoho...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Current State of Biomarkers in Bipolar Disorder
Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness of which the etiology remains unknown. Extensive research has provided some hypotheses for the pathophysiology of this disorder; however, there are no molecular tests available to help support the diagnosis obtained by self-report and behavioral observations. A major requirement is to identify potential biomarkers that could be used for early diagnosis in patients susceptible to the disease and for its treatment. The most recently published findings regarding alterations in BD were found to be related to oxidative stress, inflammatory and trophic fac...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of ADHD – Promising Directions
Abstract The etiology and pathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are unclear and a more valid diagnosis would certainly be welcomed. Starting from the literature, we built an hypothetical pyramid representing a putative set of biomarkers where, at the top, variants in DAT1 and DRD4 genes are the best candidates for their associations to neuropsychological tasks, activation in specific brain areas, methylphenidate response and gene expression levels. Interesting data come from the noradrenergic system (norepinephrine transporter, norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, monoamine o...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 9, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Online Groups and Patient Forums
Abstract Online mental health support forums are becoming increasingly popular and there is evidence that they are useful: particularly for providing anonymous support and filling information gaps. However, there are also very real concerns about negative outcomes for users. One online mental health service, Big White Wall, manages these risks and supports its members through the provision of 24 hour professional moderation. Comparison of Big White Wall’s member population with the population of one London borough shows a diverse user group, but members are more likely to be female, and aged 25 to 34, ...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - October 2, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Multimodal Imaging in Autism: an Early Review of Comprehensive Neural Circuit Characterization
Abstract There is accumulating evidence that the neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is linked to atypical neural communication and connectivity. This body of work emphasizes the need to characterize the function of multiple regions that comprise neural circuits rather than focusing on singular regions as contributing to deficits in ASD. Multimodal neuroimaging — the formal combination of multiple functional and structural measures of the brain — is extremely promising as an approach to understanding neural deficits in ASD. This review provides an overview of the multimodal imaging approac...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Second Generation Antipsychotic-Induced Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Experimental Literature
Abstract Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been implicated in the de novo emergence and exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with schizophrenia. Among SGAs, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone are the most prominent agents associated with these sequelae, according to case reports. Comorbid OCS can impede recovery by compromising treatment benefits, medication compliance, and clinical prognoses. Previous reviews of SGA-induced OCS have predominantly focused on descriptive case reports, with limited attention paid toward experimental findings. To address this paucity of data...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial Treatments for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan: New Developments and Underlying Mechanisms
Abstract Researchers have studied many interventions to address the core impairment in social interactions in autism spectrum disorder. We reviewed the social skills intervention literature over the past two years (2012-2014). Social skills intervention studies have increased by 35 % over our previous review of 2010- 2012. Nearly equal numbers of studies reported results using single subject research designs (n = 29) and group designs (n = 25). Consistent with our previous review, many studies focused on joint attention/joint engagement for young children and interventio...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Use of EEG to Diagnose ADHD
Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) has, historically, played a focal role in the assessment of neural function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review here the most recent developments in the utility of EEG in the diagnosis of ADHD, with emphasis on the most commonly used and emerging EEG metrics and their reliability in diagnostic classification. Considering the clinical heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of information available from the EEG signals, we suggest that considerable benefits are to be gained from multivariate analyses and a focus towards understanding of...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosis and Seizure Disorder: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment
We describe such a case where the presence of these two problems complicated the diagnoses and the patient’s subsequent management required a very intricate collaboration between psychiatry and neurology. In addition, we review available published articles including case reports, studies, and review articles regarding the diagnosis and treatment of this complicated clinical presentation. Some of the analyses were reviewed in detail and resulting outcomes are discussed. Finally, we review the diagnostic and treatment guidelines in the context of the presenting case. (Source: Current Psychiatry Reports)
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research