Inflammation in Tissue and Organ Injury, Repair and Regeneration.
PMID: 31317836 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 20, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang C Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

A Mini-review of the Genomes and Allergens of Mites and Ticks.
Abstract Mites and ticks are associated with many human diseases including allergic diseases and scabies. With the recent advances in the high throughput DNA sequencing technology, many mitochondrial nuclear genomes of these species have been sequenced and the resulting genomic resources will certainly provide novel insights for the future investigation of the functionally important proteins and peptides in these species. In this mini-review, the current situation of mite and tick genomes were described and the future perspectives for the application of the genomic resources are discussed, in particular the identi...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xiong Q, Wan ATY, Tsui SK Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Methodologies and applications of Proteomics for study of Yeast Strains: An update.
da AM Abstract Yeasts are one of the mostly used microorganisms as models in several studies. A wide range of applications in different processes can be attributed to their intrinsic characteristics. They are eukaryotes and therefore valuable expression hosts that require elaborate post-translational modifications. Their arsenal of proteins has become a valuable biochemical tool for the catalysis of several reactions of great value to the food (beverages), pharmaceutical and energy industries. Currently, the main challenge in systemic yeast biology is the understanding of the expression, function and regulation of...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lacerda MPF, Marcelino MY, Lourencetti NMS, Neto ÁB, Gattas EA, Mendes-Giannini MJS, Fusco-Almeida AM Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Insect allergens on the dining table.
Abstract Edible insects are important sources of nutrition, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Recently, edible insects have gained considerable interest as a possible solution to global exhaustion of the food supply with population growth. However, little attention has been given to the adverse reactions caused by insect consumption. Here, we provide an overview of the food allergens in edible insects and offer insights for further studies. Most of the edible insect allergens identified to date are highly cross-reactive invertebrate pan-allergens such as tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Allergic rea...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jeong KY, Park JW Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Tissue Differentiation and its Regulatory Mechanisms by Master Proteins during Weaning.
PMID: 31290380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang J, Cao S, Li Y, Ma X Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Allergen-like Molecules from Parasites.
Abstract Parasite infections modulate immunologic responses, and the loss of parasite infections in the last two to three decades might explain the increased prevalence of allergic diseases in developed countries. However, parasites can enhance allergic responses. Parasites contain or release allergen-like molecules that induce the specific immunoglobulin, IgE, and trigger type-2 immune responses. Some parasites and their proteins, such as Anisakis and Echinococcus granulosus allergens, act as typical allergens. A number of IgE-binding proteins of various helminthic parasites are cross-reactive to other environmen...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim JY, Yi MH, Yong TS Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Overview of the Interplay Between Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathways and Membrane Lipid biosynthesis in fungi: perspectives for Aspergillus fumigatus.
Abstract The cell wall (CW) and plasma membrane are fundamental structures that define cell shape and support different cellular functions. In pathogenic fungi, such as Aspegillus fumigatus, they not only play structural roles but also are important for virulence and immune recognition. Both the CW and the plasma membrane remain as attractive drug targets to treat fungal infections, such as the Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA), a disease associated with high morbimortality in immunocompromised individuals. The low efficiency of echinocandins that target the fungal CW biosynthesis, the occurrence of environme...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fabri JHTM, Rocha MC, Malavazi I Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

ATP-Diphosphohydrolases in Parasites: Localization, Functions and Recent Developments in Drug Discovery.
Abstract ATP-diphosphohydrolases (EC 3.6.1.5), also known as ATPDases, NTPases, NTPDases, E-ATPases or apyrases, are enzymes that hydrolyze a variety of nucleoside tri- and diphosphates to their respective nucleosides, being their activities dependent on the presence of divalent cations, such as calcium and magnesium. Recently, ATP-diphosphohydrolases were identified on the surface of several parasites, such as Trypanosoma sp, Leishmania sp and Schistosoma sp. In parasites, the activity of ATP-diphosphohydrolases has been associated with the purine recuperation and/or as a protective mechanism against the host org...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: de Carvalho LSA, Junior IJA, Junqueira LR, Silva LM, Riani LR, de Faria Pinto P, Da Silva Filho AA Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Classical steroids in a new fashion: Focus on testosterone and aldosterone.
Abstract Several endocrine glands produce steroid hormones. Thanks to the work of chemists and biochemists, the main synthetic as well as metabolic pathways of steroid hormones were included in the textbooks more than 50 years ago and the classical endocrine gland functions were identified. Later on, evidence of steroid hormone effects beyond the classical endocrine gland function has been accumulating. Testosterone was shown to participate in the stress response and may influence coping with stressors. We have shown a decrease in testosterone concentrations in saliva in children undergoing a school exam compared ...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - July 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jezova D, Balagova L, Chmelova M, Hlavacova N Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Reverse Micellar System in Protein Recovery - A Review of the latest developments.
In this study, an extensive review of RMS with the current application in biotechnology will be examined. This review provides insights with the fundamental principles, key variables and parameters of RMS. In addition, a comparative study of RMS with other liquid-liquid extraction techniques are included. The present review aims to provide a general overview of RMS by summarising the research works, since the introduction of the technology to current development. PMID: 31264547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - June 28, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sankaran R, Bong JH, Chow YH, Wong FWF, Ling TC, Show PL Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Cationic antimicrobial peptides for tuberculosis: A mini-review.
Abstract Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) can be considered as new potential therapeutic agents for Tuberculosis treatment with a specific amino acid sequence. New studies can be developed in future to improve pharmacological properties of CAMPs and also understand possible resistance mechanisms. This review discusses the principal properties of natural and/or synthetic CAMP and as well how these new peptides had significant specificity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We propose also some alternative strategies to enhance the therapeutic activity of these CAMPs that include co-administration with nanopartic...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - June 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Silva S, Vale N Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Regulatory Roles of GADD45 α in Skeletal Muscle and Adipocyte.
This article mainly review and discuss the regulatory roles of GADD45α in skeletal muscle development, adipocyte progenitor differentiation, and DNA demethylation. PMID: 31232235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - June 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: You W, Xu Z, Shan T Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathways: Activation and Diseases.
Abstract Secretory and membrane proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) prior to their exit. When ER function is disturbed by exogenous and endogenous factors, such as heat shock, ultraviolet radiation, hypoxia, or hypoglycemia, the misfolded proteins may accumulate, promoting ER stress. To rescue this unfavorable situation, the unfolded protein response is activated to reduce misfolded proteins within the ER. Upon ER stress, the ER transmembrane sensor molecules inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6, are ac...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - June 20, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zheng Z, Shang Y, Tao J, Zhang J, Sha B Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

System Bioinformatic Approach through Molecular Docking, Network Pharmacology and Microarray Data Analysis to Determine the Molecular Mechanism underlying the Effects of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata on Cardiovascular Diseases.
This study aims to explore the effective ingredients of RRP against CVDs, especially atherosclerosis (AS). Using the AutoDock Vina software, the RRP's ingredients were docked with the targets which can be collected by RCSB and UniProt. Then the screened ingredients and targets could be used to dispose the pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We used GEO, GCBI and DAVID databases to analyze the microarray data of AS which could be used to verify the results of molecular docking, all of which could show the molecular mechanism of RRP on CVDs. We also constructed a compound-target interaction networ...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - June 10, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang X, Wang D, Ren X, Atanasov AG, Zeng R, Huang L Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Protein Misfolding Diseases and Therapeutic Approaches.
Abstract Protein folding is the process by which a polypeptide chain acquires its functional, native 3D structure. Protein misfolding, on the other hand, is a process in which proteins fails to fold into its native functional conformation. This misfolding of proteins may lead to precipitation of number of serious diseases such as Cystic fibrosis (CF), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etc. Protein quality-control (PQC) systems, consisting of molecular chaperones, proteases and regulatory factors, help in protein folding and prevent its aggregation. At the s...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - June 9, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yadav K, Yadav A, Priyanka, Pandey VP, Dwivedi UN Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles as vehicles for the delivery of biologically active fungal molecules.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures surrounded by a lipid bilayer required for the export of fungal proteins, lipids, toxins, nucleic acids, pigments, and polysaccharides. Proteomic studies of the content of fungal EVs revealed the presence of molecules involved in cell metabolism, signal transduction, and virulence, among others. EVs are evolutionarily conserved in all three domains of life and play important roles in cell-cell communication. Recently, the bidirectional transport of EVs was characterized through the demonstration that EVs can be released and captured by fungal cells. I...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Herkert PF, Amatuzzi RF, Alves LR, Rodrigues ML Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Ligand Potency, Efficiency and Drug-likeness: A Story of Intuition, Misinterpretation and Serendipity.
Abstract The concept of ligand potency is briefly discussed here as well as why this is still a challenge for its complete comprehension. In this context, we explain also the meaning of ligand efficiency (LE), which has been greeted with both enthusiasm and criticism among the drug design audience. A full understanding of LE requires the complex interpretation of the potency concept presenting the uncertainty similar to this of the Zeno paradox. In reality, the efficiency of LE is caused by the high degree of preference for slim pharma drug candidates. PMID: 31131749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sourc...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Polanski J, Pedrys A, Duszkiewicz R, Kucia U Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Regulatory functions of fatty acids with different chain lengths on the intestinal health in pigs and relative signaling pathways.
The objective of this review is to give a clear understanding of the regulatory effects of fatty acids of different chain lengths on intestinal health in pigs and their signaling pathways, providing scientific reference for developing a feeding technique to apply fatty acids to piglet diets. PMID: 31084590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chen J, Li Y, Tang Z, Sun Z Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Strategies for oral delivery of metal-saturated lactoferrin.
Abstract Lactoferrin was isolated and purified for the first time over 50-years ago. Since then, extensive studies on the structure and function of this protein have been performed and the research is still being continued. In this mini-review we focus on presenting recent scientific efforts towards the elucidation of the role and therapeutic potential of lactoferrin saturated with iron(III) or manganese(III) ions. The difference in biological activity of metal-saturated lactoferrin vs. the unmetalated one is emphasized. The strategies for oral delivery of lactoferrin, are also reviewed, with particular attention ...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gajda-Morszewski P, Śpiewak-Wojtyła K, Oszajca M, Brindell M Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Versatile impact of serum proteins on ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes properties - Opportunities and obstacles.
Abstract Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes have been extensively studied for the past few decades as promising anticancer agents. Despite the expected intravenous route of administration, the interaction between Ru(II) polypyridyl compounds and serum proteins is not well characterized and vast majority of the available literature data concerns determination of the binding constant. Ru-protein adducts can modify the biological effects of the Ru complexes influencing their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity as well as introduce significant changes in their photophysical properties. More extensive research on the...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mazuryk O, Gajda-Morszewski P, Brindell M Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Advances in cyanine - Amino acid conjugates and peptides for sensing of DNA, RNA and protein structures.
ida I Abstract Small molecule spectrophotometric probes for DNA/RNA and proteins are of the utmost importance for diagnostics in biochemical and biomedical research. Both, naturally occurring and synthetic probes, often include peptide sequence responsible for the selectivity toward the particular target; however, commercially available dyes are restricted to single point attachment to the peptide (having one reactive group). Here presented are our recent advances in the development of novel amino acid-fluorophore probes, with the unique characteristic of free N- and C-terminus available for incorporation at any p...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Šmidlehner T, Rožman A, Piantanida I Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Current Understanding of the Molecular Mechanism between Hemody- namic-Induced Intracranial Aneurysm and Inflammation.
Abstract Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are a huge threat to human health, with a global incidence rate of 0.65-8.4%. Although the microsurgical and interventional techniques have made profound progression in treating IA, the relatively high rate of complications and recurrence are still not satisfactory. Thus, there is a need to elucidate its molecular mechanism. Numerous studies have identified the close relationship between hemodynamic-induced inflammation and development of IA. Indeed, the dysfunction of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as their secreted cytokines, coll...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tang H, Luo Y, Zuo Q, Huang Q, Wang C, Zhao R, Liu J Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Immune Cells in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a systemic disease characterized by acute loss of renal func- tion and accumulation of end products of nitrogen metabolism. Ischemic AKI is the most common cause of AKI, and inflammatory responses are inevitablely involved in ischemic AKI. In the process of ischemic AKI, multiple factors are involved in activating and recruitment of immune cell to the injured kidney. These factors include DAMPs and HIFs released from the injured kidney, increased expression of adhesion molecules, the production of chemokines and cytokines, activation of complement system and TLRs as well as th...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zheng L, Gao W, Hu C, Yang C, Rong R Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Role of TRPM7 in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) that is a global health concern associated with high morbidity and mortality. So far, no specific interventions limit injury or improve recovery and survival. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a bifunctional membrane protein, plays key roles in inflammation and cell death. However, the precise role and under-lying mechanism of TRPM7 in IR-induced AKI have not been well defined. Herein, we reviewed the structure and function of TRPM7 as a non-selective ion channel, but Ca2+ and Mg2+-conducting, that mediated th...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu A, Yang B Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Wnt Signaling in Inflammation in Tissue Repair and Regeneration.
Abstract Inflammation is the first response occurring after damage or infection, which is a defensive process for the body. It is well known that excessive inflammation can lead to further diseases such as fibrosis. But a regenerative inflammatory response can accelerate the process of repairing injury, in which a variety of cytokines, immune cells, and stem cells are involved. The Wnt signaling pathway was originally known in the field of development. Recently, its role in regenerative inflammation has gradually been established. Wnt signaling can regulate cell proliferation and differentiation through regulating...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou Y, Jin J, Feng M, Zhu D Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Potential Roles of Siglecs in the Regulation of Allo-Immune Reaction.
Abstract Siglecs are mammalian sialic acid (Sia) recognizing immuno-globulin-like receptors ex- pressed across the major leukocyte lineages, and function to recognize ubiquitous Sia epitopes on the cell surface. Many Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed on innate immune cells, they also have a role in maintaining B cell tolerance as well as modulating the activation of conventional and plasmo-cytic dendritic cells. Through these and other roles they contribute directly and indirectly to the regulation of T cell function. Siglecs have been identified to play key roles in several forms of blood cancers, autoim...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cai S, Zhao J, Ueno T, Chandraker A Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Natural Products: Potential Source of DPP-IV Inhibitors.
Abstract Out of multiple therapeutic targets, DPP-IV is the lead target for the treatment of the type 2 diabetes. Natural products have always been available for the possible lead generation against various diseases and disorders. In the present review, we have covered various natural sources which have experimentally validated anti-diabetic activity for type 2 diabetic patients with specific focus on the DPP-IV inhibition. Out of all, the most potent DPP-IV inhibitor were found to be resveratrol, luteolin, apigenin and flavone having activity in nanomolar range. Standard drugs like sitagliptin, saxagliptin, dipro...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - May 2, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Singla RK, Kumar R, Khan S, Mohit, Kumari K, Garg A Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Structure-based druggability assessment of anti-virulence targets from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious threat to health and world economy. However, the interest in antibacterial drug development decreased significantly in the last decades. Meanwhile, anti-virulence drug development has emerged as an attractive alternative to fight AMR. Despite the fact that several macromolecular targets have been explored for this goal, their druggability is a vital piece of information that has been overlooked. This review paper sheds some light on this subject by showing how structure-based freely available in silico tools, such as PockDrug and FTMap, might be useful t...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - April 17, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Froes TQ, Baldini RL, Vajda S, Castilho MS Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Clinical Applications of Virus-like Particles: Opportunities and Challenges.
PMID: 30942144 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - April 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang C, Huang K Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Bacterial Inclusion Bodies for Anti-Amyloid Drug Discovery: Current and Future Screening Methods.
P, Sabate R Abstract Amyloid aggregation is linked to an increasing number of human disorders from non-neurological pathologies such as type-2 diabetes to neurodegenerative ones such as Alzheimer or Parkinson's diseases. Thirty-six human proteins have shown the capacity to aggregate into pathological amyloid structures. To date, it is widely accepted that amyloid folding/aggregation is a universal process present in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In the last decade, several studies have unequivocally demonstrated that bacterial inclusion bodies - insoluble protein aggregates usually formed during heterologous p...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Caballero AB, Espargarò A, Pont C, Busquets MA, Estelrich J, Muñoz-Torrero D, Gamez P, Sabate R Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Human Amylin: From Pathology to Physiology and Pharmacology.
Abstract The histopathological hallmark of type 2 diabetes is islet amyloid implicated in developing treatment options. The major component of human islet amyloid is 37 amino acid peptide known as amylin or islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Amylin is an important hormone that is co-localized, co-packaged, and co-secreted with insulin from islet β cells. Physiologically, amylin regulates glucose homeostasis by inhibiting insulin and glucagon secretion. Furthermore, amylin modulates satiety and inhibits gastric emptying via the central nervous system. Normally, human IAPP is soluble and natively unfolded in its...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 27, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wei L, Yan-Mei H, Yong-Chao Q, Xiao-Xi Z, Hai-Lu Z Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Gradual and Asynchronous Increase of Temperature Influence on Insulin Endo- and Exocytosis in Isolated Vertebrata Hepatocytes.
Abstract Insulin internalization and intracellular insulin/receptor complex (IRC) processing provide with both the hormonal signal transduction elongation into cell and the dissociated complex parts utilization. The patterns of temperature influence on the insulin mechanism of action (IAM), in spite of a general opinion on temperature factor significance, have not been yet revealed. The results of the experimental studies previously carried out on four vertebrate classes isolated hepatocytes (lamprey, frogs, chickens, rats) and the data analysis have revealed the temperature factor particular effects on IAM separa...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kolychev AP, Terpilovskii MA Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Sox2: A regulatory factor in tumorigenesis and metastasis.
Abstract The transcription factor Sox2 plays an important role in various phases of embryonic development, including cell fate and differentiation. These key regulatory functions are facilitated by binding to specific DNA sequences in combination with partner proteins to exert their effects. Recently, overexpression and gene amplification of Sox2 has been associated with tumor aggression and metastasis in various cancer types, including breast, prostate, lung, ovarian and colon cancer. All the different roles for Sox2 involve complicated regulatory networks consisting of protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid in...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chaudhary S, Islam Z, Mishra V, Rawat S, Ashraf GM, Kolatkar PR Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Lead Molecules for Targeted Urease Inhibition: An Updated Review From 2010 -2018.
Abstract The field of enzyme inhibition is a tremendous and quickly growing territory of research. Urease, a nickel containing metalloenzyme found in bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants, brings hydrolysis of urea and plays important role in the environmental nitrogen cycle. Apart from this it was found to be responsible for many pathological conditions due to its presence in many microorganisms such as H. pylori, a ureolytic bacteria having urease which elevates pH of gastric medium by hydrolyzing urea present in the alimentary canal and helps the bacteria to colonize and spread infection. Due to the infections cau...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kataria R, Khatkar A Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Plant Thaumatin-like Proteins: Function, Evolution and Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) regard a highly complex protein family associated with host defense and developmental processes in plants, animals, and fungi. They exhibit high diversity in angiosperms, where they have been classified as the PR-5 (Pathogenesis-Related-5) protein family. In plants, TLPs exhibit a variety of properties associated with their structural diversity, being mostly associated with responses to biotic stress, besides some predicted activity under drought and osmotic stresses. The present review covers aspects related to the structure, evolution, gene expression, and biotechnological...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: de Jesus-Pires C, Ferreira-Neto JRC, Pacifico Bezerra-Neto J, Kido EA, de Oliveira Silva RL, Pandolfi V, Wanderley-Nogueira AC, Binneck E, da Costa AF, Pio-Ribeiro G, Pereira-Andrade G, Sittolin IM, Freire-Filho F, Benko-Iseppon AM Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Crosstalk between the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and inflammatory signaling pathways in tissue injury.
Abstract During inflammation, chemokines play a central role by mediating the activation of inflammatory cascade responses in tissue injury. Among more than 200 chemokines, CX3CL1 is a special chemotactic factor existing in both membrane-bound and soluble forms. Its only receptor, CX3CR1, is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis can affect many inflammatory processes by communicating with different inflammatory signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, toll-like receptor, MAPK, AKT, NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, etc. These inflammatory networks are involved in much pathology...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ou J, Zhang S, Ming Y, Zhuang Q Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Isoleucine plays an important role for maintaining immune function.
Abstract Branched chain amino acids are the essential nutrients for humans and many animals. As functional amino acids,they play important roles in physiological functions, including immune functions. Isoleucine, as one of the branched chainamino acids, is also critical in physiological functions of the whole body, such as growth, immunity, protein metabolism, fattyacid metabolism and glucose transportation. Isoleucine can improve the immune system, including immune organs, cells andreactive substances. Recent studies have also shown that isoleucine may induce the expression of host defense peptides (i.e.,β-d...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gu C, Mao X, Chen D, Yu B, Yang Q Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

The Immune System Regulation in Sepsis: from Innate to Adaptive.
Abstract Sepsis, which is a highly heterogeneous syndrome, can result in death as a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The activation and regulation of immune system play a key role in the initiation, development and prognosis of sepsis. Due to the different periods of sepsis when the objects investigated were incorporated, clinical trials often exhibit negative results and even contrary. Thus, in this review we aim to sort out the current knowledge in how immune cells play the role during sepsis. PMID: 30843486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qiu Y, Tu GW, Ju MJ, Yang C, Luo Z Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Role of Autophagy in Chronic Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis.
Abstract Autophagy entails the removal of dysfunctional components to maintain cellular homeostasis. Over the years, studies of autophagy demonstrated its complex physiological and pathological roles in the liver. Apart from regulation of normal metabolic functions such as glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, and β-oxidation, autophagy also contributes to the modulation of various liver diseases. In this review, we provide a concise overview of the role of autophagy in regulating hepatic metabolism in healthy conditions and various chronic liver diseases. A well-rounded understanding of the role of autophagy may pro...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - March 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tseng YJ, Dong L, Xu N, Ma W, Weng SQ, Janssen HLA, Wu SD Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

About TFE: old and new findings.
Abstract The fluorinated alcohol 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) has been implemented for many decades now in conformational studies of proteins and peptides. In peptides, which are often disordered in aqueous solutions, TFE acts as secondary structure stabilizer and primarily induces an α-helical conformation. The exact mechanism through which TFE plays its stabilizing roles is still debated and direct and indirect routes, relying either on straight interaction between TFE and molecules or indirect pathways based on perturbation of solvation sphere, have been proposed. Another still unanswered question is the ...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - February 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vincenzi M, Mercurio FA, Leone M Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Biotechnological applications of protein splicing.
Abstract Protein splicing domains, also called inteins, have become a powerful biotechnological tool for applications involving molecular biology and protein engineering. Early applications of inteins focused on self-cleaving affinity tags, generation of recombinant polypeptide α-thioesters for the production of semisynthetic proteins and backbone cyclized polypeptides. The discovery of naturally occurring split-inteins has allowed the development of novel approaches for the selective modification of proteins both in vitro and in vivo. This review gives a general introduction to protein splicing with a focus...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - February 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sarmiento C, Camarero JA Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Glutathione, an antioxidant tripeptide: Dual roles in Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention.
Abstract Glutathione (GSH or reduced glutathione) is a tripeptide of gamma-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine and the predominant intracellular antioxidant in many organisms including humans. GSH and associated enzymes are controlled by a transcription factor-nuclear factor-2 related erythroid factor-2 (Nrf2). In cellular milieu, GSH protects the cells essentially against a wide variety of free radicals including reactive oxygen species, lipid hydroperoxides, xenobiotic toxicants, and heavy metals. It has two forms, the reduced form or reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized form (GSSG), where two GSH moieties combine by s...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - February 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Narayanankutty A, Jdevagiri JT, Narayanankutty V Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Anti-Virulence Strategy against the Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Pseudolysin (Elastase B) as a Potential Druggable Target.
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a non-fermentative, gram-negative bacterium that is one of the most common pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections worldwide. The management of the infections caused by P. aeruginosa represents a huge challenge in healthcare settings due to the increased emergence of resistant isolates, some of them resistant to all the currently available antimicrobials, which results in elevated morbimortality rates. Consequently, the development of new therapeutic strategies against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa is urgent and needful. P. aeruginosa is well-recognized for its...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - February 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Galdino ACM, de Oliveira MP, Ramalho TC, de Castro AA, Branquinha MH, Santos ALS Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

New mechanism of amyloid fibril formation.
Abstract Polymorphism is a specific feature of the amyloid structures. We have studied the amyloid structures and the process of their formation using the synthetic and recombinant preparations of Aβ peptides and their three fragments. The fibrils of different morphology were obtained for these peptides. We suppose that fibril formation by Aβ peptides and their fragments proceeds according to the simplified scheme: destabilized monomer → ring-like oligomer → mature fibril that consists of ring-like oligomers. We are the first who did 2D reconstruction of amyloid fibrils provided that just a rin...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Galzitskaya O Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

The underlying regulated mechanisms of adipose differentiation and apoptosis of breast cells after weaning.
Abstract Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that a series of remodeling processes occurred in the adipose tissue during the weaning, such as the differentiation. Fibroblasts in the breast at weaning stage could re-differentiate into mature adipocytes. Many transcriptional factors were involved in these processes, especially the PPARγ, C/EBP, and SREBP1. There is cell apoptosis participating in the breast tissue degeneration and secretory epithelial cells losing during weaning. In addition, hormones, especially the estrogen and pituitary hormone, play a vital role in the whole reproductive proces...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dong Y, Gao W, Gao Z, Pu S, Xu X, Yang X, Zhang Y, Fang K, Li J, Yu W, Sun N, Hu L, Xu Q, Cheng Z, Gao Y Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Intrauterine growth restriction alters the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in small intestine, liver and longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn piglets.
The objective of this review is to assess the impact of differentially methylation status on developmental delay, metabolic disorders and immune deficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID: 30678618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tao S, Zhou T, Saelao P, Wang Y, Zhu Y, Li T, Zhou H, Wang J Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Tight Junction Proteins in the Weaned Piglet Intestine: Roles and Regulation.
Abstract The intestinal epithelial barrier plays a crucial role in the health and growth of weaned piglets. Proper epithelial function mainly depends on tight junctions (TJs), which act as both ion channels and a barrier against noxious molecules. TJs are multiprotein complexes consisting of transmembrane and membrane-associated proteins. Because the intestine in piglets is immature and incomplete, its structure and function are easily impaired by various stresses, infections, and food-related factors. Certain nutrients have been demonstrated to participate in intestinal TJ regulation. Probiotics, amino acids, fib...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang J, Ji H Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Progress in research on brain development and function of mice during weaning.
This article mainly focuses on the developmental differentiation of the brain during lactation, especially during weaning in mice. PMID: 30678620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science)
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang W, Zhang Y, Zheng Y, Zheng M, Sun N, Yang X, Gao Y Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Advance in tissue differentiation and its regulatory mechanisms by master proteins of nervous system during weaning.
Abstract Weaning is a critical period for the growth and development of mammals, in which various physiological and biochemical indicators of the body have undergone great changes. The development, differentiation, and maturation of the nervous system are regulated by many proteins. Changes in related proteins affect the physiological functions of the nervous system. However, the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of the nervous system at this stage is still poorly understood. The mechanism of differentiation and regulation of the major proteins in the nervous system during this special period of weani...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ma W, Tang C, Hu H, Zhang F, Wang X, Wu X, Zhang W, Wang X, Ma H, Li Z, Dong Y, Yang Z, Feng S, Tian L, Gao Y Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research

Differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells and its underlying regulated mechanisms during weaning.
Abstract Weaning is a stressful event associated with gastrointestinal disorders and increased disease susceptibility. Many studies have reported the changes happened in the gut of various mammals such as pigs and rats after weaning. These findings suggest that the development of intestinal tract mainly is affected at the time of weaning through interfering in the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells. Weaning stress stimulates the rapid differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells in order to adjust to changes caused by weaning, which are mainly manifested as deeper crypt depth ...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chen X, Yang Z, Hu H, Duan W, Wang A, Dong Y, Gao W, Deng S, Cheng B, Li J, Sun N, Cheng Z, Guo W, Li Y, Gao Y Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research