Team Approach to Prosthetic Prescription Decision-Making
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the key concepts in prosthetic limb prescription for adults with limb loss, including the benefits of a multidisciplinary team.Recent FindingsThere is a relative absence of literature directly describing the role of a team-based approach to prosthetic limb prescription. However, comparable literature can be found in other rehabilitation topics and medical disciplines, generally in support of team-based approaches to patient care. While there is a growing body of comparative effectiveness literature for prosthetic componentry, there is generally a lack of coherent prescribi...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 18, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Is Aphasia Treatment Beneficial for the Elderly? A Review of Recent Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent literature regarding aphasia therapy in the elderly. Relevant articles from the last 5  years were identified to determine whether or not there is evidence to support that various therapeutic approaches can have a positive effect on post-stroke aphasia in the elderly.Recent FindingsThere were no studies examining the effects of aphasia therapy specifically in the elderly within the timeframe searched. Therefore, we briefly summarize findings from 50 relevant studies that included large proportions of participants with post-stroke aphasia above the age of 65. A variety of behav...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 18, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Stroke and Sarcopenia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo evaluate recent scientific research studies related to the changes in skeletal muscle after stroke and the presence of sarcopenia in stroke survivors to establish its incidence and effects on function.Recent FindingsRecently published findings on stroke-related sarcopenia are limited. This might be due to changes in the consensus definition of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in stroke patients is estimated at 14 to 54%. The presence of sarcopenia at the time of a stroke can lead to worse recovery and functional outcomes.SummaryThe presence of sarcopenia prior to a stroke may be more common than suspected...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 15, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Current Treatments of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT).Recent FindingsThere is no current consensus regarding conservative or surgical treatments for IAT. There has recently been an increase of trials demonstrating utility for extracorporeal shock wave in treating IAT. Additionally, a retrospective study of percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy shows promise.SummaryIAT has historically been recalcitrant to treatment. There are multiple available treatment options, and many that may confer some benefit. Knowing the available conservative treatme...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Training in Athletes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the available literature regarding blood flow restriction training (BFRT), summarize its mechanisms of action, address safety concerns, and help direct protocol development and practical implementation, particularly in athletes.Recent FindingsRecent literature, in both athletic and clinical cohorts, has explored the safety and efficacy of BFRT; however, rigorous randomized controlled trials with consistent protocols are lacking.SummaryBFRT is a promising clinical and athletic training tool; however, it should be used in a controlled setting with an individualized approach....
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairments and Responsiveness to Motor Rehabilitation: A Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the prevalence of cognitive deficits following stroke and their impact on responsiveness to therapeutic intervention within a motor learning context.Recent FindingsClinical and experimental studies have established that post-stroke cognitive and motor deficits may impede ambulation, augment fall risk, and influence the efficacy of interventions. Recent research suggests the presence of cognitive deficits may play a larger role in motor recovery than previously understood.SummaryConsidering that cognitive impairments affect motor relearning, post-stroke motor rehabilitation the...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 10, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

The Potential of Corticospinal-Motoneuronal Plasticity for Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on a relatively new neuromodulation method where transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex is paired with transcutaneous electrical stimulation over a peripheral nerve to induce plasticity at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses.Recent FindingsRecovery of sensorimotor function after spinal cord injury largely depends on transmission in the corticospinal pathway. Significantly damaged corticospinal axons fail to regenerate and participate in functional recovery. Transmission in residual corticospinal axons can be assessed using non-invasive transcranial magne...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - August 4, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Selecting, Administering, and Interpreting Outcome Measures Among Adults with Lower-Limb Loss: an Update for Clinicians
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize outcome measurement research among adults with lower-limb loss (LLL) for clinicians.Recent FindingsHoughton Scale, Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Subscale (PEQ-m), Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M ™), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP), Comprehensive High-Level Activity Mobility Predictor, Four Square Step Test (FSST), Narrowing Beam Walking Test (NBWT), L Test, 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) are appropriate for ev aluating individual patient changes post-LLL. Post-LLL, Sock...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - August 3, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Issues and Care Specific to the Female Athlete
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis chapter aims to provide recent updates in the literature regarding musculoskeletal issues in the female athlete that affects their care. The content will aim to supply specific history, physical exam, diagnostic and treatment pearls for medical providers caring for female athletes.Recent FindingsFemale athletes are more likely to be injured and spend more time away from sport due to their injuries when compared with their male counterparts. The causes of these issues have been found to be multifactorial due to anatomic differences, hormonal influences, and biomechanical patterns that predispos...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary Amputation Team Management of Individuals with Limb Loss
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo demonstrate the utility of the multidisciplinary team and the role of each member in caring for persons with limb loss, from pre-amputation to lifelong care.Recent FindingsBy ensuring patient-centered care through shared decision-making, persons with limb loss report improved adjustment following amputation. Various medical, physical, and psychosocial factors have been shown to correlate with post-amputation outcomes and should be assessed pre-amputation by the team. Persons with limb loss are at increased risk for re-amputation and secondary disabling conditions that the team should monitor...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Healthcare Disparities in Dysvascular Lower Extremity Amputations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOur goal is to provide a current review of health disparities in patients with dysvascular lower extremity amputation, so that we can better identify how disparities persist after an amputation and how to reduce these disparities.Recent FindingsHealth disparities in amputation risk, level, and outcomes exist in the USA based on race/ethnicity, gender, income, insurance, care provider, hospital, neighborhood, and US region.SummaryWhile health disparities exist for patients with dysvascular lower extremity amputation, little is known about differences in function, rehabilitation, and prosthesis presc...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - July 16, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Spasticity Management After Spinal Cord Injury
This article reviews the current management options and research. (Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports)
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - July 15, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Women ’s Health Physical Therapy Across the Lifespan
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this paper is to review the current evidence for physical therapy (PT) in the treatment of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) in women throughout the female lifespan.Recent FindingsAlthough trials are small and heterogeneous, there is an increase in evidence to support PT as a safe, effective treatment option for women with PFDs at various life stages. Evidence to support PT interventions for pelvic floor conditions including dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and genitourinary syndrome of menopause are discussed. Clinicians are recomm...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 24, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Acute Intermittent Hypoxia as a Potential Adjuvant to Improve Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury: Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe reacquisition and preservation of walking ability are highly valued goals in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Recurrent episodes of breathing low oxygen (i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia, AIH) are a potential therapy to promote walking recovery after incomplete SCI via endogenous mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Here, we report on the progress of AIH, alone or paired with other treatments, on walking recovery in persons with incomplete SCI. We evaluate the evidence of AIH as a therapy ready for clinical and home use and the real and perceived challenges that may interfere with this possib...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 24, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Walking after Spinal Cord Injury: Current Clinical Approaches and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWalking is a major priority after spinal cord injury (SCI). This review aims to inform clinicians of key considerations, available research to assist with prognosis, and current and future rehabilitation strategies to promote walking.Recent FindingsThere are many benefits to walking, although not all aspects may be advantageous. Several models have been developed to assist with prognostication. Gait training and locomotor training (overground or body weight supported treadmill training) are common rehabilitation approaches to promote walking in this population. Walking after SCI is also a significa...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 22, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Physical Activity Interventions After Hip or Knee Joint Replacement: a Systematic Review
This study is aimed at describing and evaluating physical activity interventions in individuals that have undergone hip or knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis.Recent FindingsA total of 11,873 studies were screened. Seven studies with 627 participants, aged 50 to 85  years, met the review criteria. There are five randomised control trial, one longitudinal quasi-experimental study with a control group, and one pre-/post-test study with control group. Interventions included health coaching, a walking programme, a behavioural change intervention, and an alpine sk iing intervention delivered between 6 and 24 ...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Novel Approaches to Reduce Symptomatic Neuroma Pain After Limb Amputation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA considerable number of major limb amputation patients will develop symptomatic neuromas within the residual limb. There has been a paradigm shift in the surgical treatment of symptomatic neuromas from techniques that attempt to interrupt axonal regeneration in favor of techniques that permit reinnervation. In addition, growing evidence suggests that successful treatment of peripheral nerve pain may diminish the development of phantom limb pain. We discuss novel surgical techniques that seek to prevent neuroma formation and in turn reduce phantom limb pain.Recent FindingsTargeted muscle reinnervat...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 16, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

PM & amp;R Training in Amputation Rehabilitation: Past, Present and Future
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the available literature for amputee rehabilitation training throughout history and current times while giving a preview of future endeavors.Recent FindingsThere is limited literature available regarding specifics of amputee care training in PM&R. There have been some advances with creation of fellowships but most of the literature shows a clear need to increase and improve amputee rehabilitation training and education to ensure the growing population is appropriately cared for.SummaryAmputee care played a huge role in the development of the field of PM&R and is st...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 15, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Bone Loss and the Current Diagnosis of Osteoporosis and Risk of Fragility Fracture in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe topics to be discussed in this article include bone loss in the regions of the lower extremity that are most prone to fracture, the risk factors for fracture, the diagnosis of osteoporosis in persons with spinal cord (SCI), the determination of the fracture threshold at the knee, and a brief discussion of future directions.Recent FindingsExtensive cross-sectional studies, but a paucity of longitudinal studies, that describe the precipitous bone loss occurs during the acute phase of SCI that likely continues, albeit more gradually, over the lifetime. The distal femur (DF) and proximal tibia (PT)...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Neurogenic Bowel: Traditional Approaches and Clinical Pearls
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe management options used for neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).Recent FindingsApproach to treatment for NBD in SCI is primarily derived from traditional approaches and historical guidelines. Large formal randomized control trials and recent high-quality studies on NBD management are sparse. Advances in SCI research are transitioning focus to emerging technologies as well as addressing quality of life (QOL). Recent literature suggests that ongoing challenges remain in NBD management as it pertains to QOL, social activities, and life participation...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - June 1, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Heterotopic Ossification After Spinal Cord Injury: Current Clinical Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHeterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication after spinal cord injury (SCI). This review article critically analyzes the scientific literature of HO after SCI and offers expert opinion on how past research translates to clinical practice.Recent FindingsTriple-phase bone scintigraphy has been the gold standard for diagnosing HO; however, recent research suggests diagnostic ultrasound may be more convenient, cost-effective, and safe. Currently, routine pharmaceutical prophylaxis for HO after SCI is not recommended. Range of motion exercises are advised to prevent and treat HO. Etidronate ...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 30, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Motor Recovery Following Brain Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo discuss the potential use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to improve motor behavior after brain injury.Recent FindingsDespite evidence that tDCS can improve motor function following brain injury, meta-analysis studies have largely failed to find conclusive support for tDCS as a viable treatment. In part, these inconsistencies arise from widespread variability in individuals ’ responsiveness to tDCS because of biological and experimental factors.SummaryProperly designed smart clinical studies are still needed to determine the optimal stimulation parameters and combinations...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Employment After Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on employment after spinal cord injury (SCI) and highlights recent evidence-based models of vocational rehabilitation.Recent FindingsEmployment rates among people with SCI remain much lower than the general population. Benefits of employment for persons with SCI include improved quality of life, enhanced independence, reduced depression, improved social integration, greater life satisfaction, better health, and longevity. When striving to work after SCI, there are facilitators to be exploited (e.g., education, transportation, assistive technology) and barriers that need manageme...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 24, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Complementary and Alternative (CAM) Treatment Options for Women with Pelvic Pain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of the current complementary and alternative (CAM) treatment options for women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP).Recent FindingsRecent studies on chronic pain at cellular, molecular, and network level and their interaction with the immune system have unfolded several mechanisms for pain making it promising to explore the alternative paradigm to manage the incredibly complex chronic pelvic pain condition where multifactorial etiology often limits successful outcomes.SummaryThe multifactorial nature and complexity in establishing the underlying diagnosis in CPP limit predictable r...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 23, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Women ’s Cancer Rehabilitation: a Review of Functional Impairments and Interventions Among Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Survivors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this narrative review was to highlight rehabilitation-relevant aspects of cancer treatment and primarily musculoskeletal impairments and rehabilitation interventions among women with breast and gynecologic cancers. For breast cancer, we reviewed post-mastectomy pain syndrome, upper quadrant dysfunction, aromatase inhibitor musculoskeletal syndrome (AIMSS), and lymphedema. For gynecologic cancers, pelvic floor dysfunction, lymphedema, and insufficiency fractures were selected.Recent FindingsThe recent breast cancer rehabilitation literature evaluates the pathophysiology of impairments...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 23, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Female Athlete Triad
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a disorder observed in women and girls composed of three related components: low energy availability (EA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this review is to define the components of the Triad, review risk factors and complications, and review the diagnosis and management of the effects of the Triad.Recent FindingsRecent research has defined guidelines for return to play for athlete with the Triad, which are summarized here. In addition, there has been recent vigorous debate and research in an attempt to define a related d...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Interventional Treatment Options for Women with Pelvic Pain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of current interventional treatment options for women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP).Recent FindingsAccessibility of CT imaging, ultrasound, and fluoroscopy has assisted the development of novel interventional techniques. Similarly, neuromodulation techniques have improved with the development of novel stimulation patterns and device implants.SummaryNumerous small-scale studies report high success rates with injection intervention therapies in CPP, but there are limited well-designed large-scale studies that demonstrate the superiority of treatment. Female pelvic pain is diff...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 14, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

New Developments in Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Chronic Pain
This article reviews the current evidence for the use of transcranial direct current (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve outcomes in chronic pain. Finally, we introduce the reader to novel stimulation methods that may improve therapeutic outcomes in chronic pain.Recent FindingsWhile tDCS is approved for treatment of fibromyalgia in Canada and the European Union, no NIBS method is currently approved for chronic pain in the USA. Increasing sample sizes in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) seems the most efficient way to increase confidence in initial promising results. Trends at funding ...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 11, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Chronic Pelvic Pain and the Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditions in Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in the context of the chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPC) in women.Recent findingsEarly literature on CPP focused on individual etiologies of pelvic pain independently and from the limited perspectives of separate medical subspecialties. Recently, there has been increasing recognition of the multifactorial nature of CPP, highlighting numerous overlapping etiologies with common central mechanisms. A link has been established between pelvic and extra-pelvic chronic pain conditions under the emerging construct of COPCs, with the degree of over...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - May 8, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Neuromodulation in Childhood Onset Dystonia: Evolving Role of Deep Brain Stimulation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will provide an update on the current status of deep brain stimulation in pediatric onset dystonias.Recent FindingsDystonia is a complex movement disorder that may occur in isolation or in combination with other abnormalities of tone and posture. The dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders that can be progressive, painful, and severely disabling. Genetic and extrinsic factors may influence the treatment response. Pharmacologic treatment often has limited effectiveness and unacceptable, unwanted effects. Neuromodulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a targete...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to give an overview of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunction in women including evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of PFM dysfunction is thought to be higher in women and may contribute to urinary, defecatory, and sexual dysfunction, as well as chronic pelvic pain.SummaryPFM dysfunction is more prevalent amongst athletes, women who have given birth, and postmenopausal women than the general population. Stress and urge incontinence, urinary frequency and urgency, functional constipation, and fecal incontinence are all symptoms that may re...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Neuromodulation in Post-stroke Aphasia Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methods to augment speech and language therapy (SLT) for patients with post-stroke aphasia.Recent FindingsIn the past 5  years, there have been more than 30 published studies assessing the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for improving aphasia in people who have had a stroke. Different approaches to NIBS treatment have been used in post-stroke aphas ia treatment including different stimulation locations, stimulation intensity, number of treatment sessions, outcome...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - February 22, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Cerebellar Neuromodulation for Stroke
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the current preclinical and clinical evidence for cerebellar deep brain stimulation for stroke rehabilitation.Recent FindingsWe have demonstrated the effectiveness of cerebellar stimulation for stroke rehabilitation in rodent models, which has been reproduced by other groups. Synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, and vicariation of function in the perilesional cortex likely contribute to the mechanistic underpinnings of the effectiveness of this therapy. A Phase I clinical trial investigating dentate nucleus stimulation for improvement of hemiparesis due to stroke is currently underway, ...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - February 20, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Spine Disorders and Regenerative Rehabilitation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to evaluate recent advancements in regenerative medicine modalities in the treatment of the most common spinal disorders.Recent FindingsImmunomodulatory and trophic effects of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and growth factors have been studied in the treatment of symptomatic degenerative spine disorders including degenerative disc disease and facet joint arthropathy. Gene therapy and exosomes are investigated as a future generation of biologics with gene therapy most advanced in the treatment of osteoarthritis.SummaryWhile current studie...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Percutaneous and Implanted Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Management of Pain: Current Evidence and Future Directions
This article provides an overview of commercially available devices, the evidence supporting their use, and novel treatments being considered for the future.Recent FindingsThere are four peripheral nerve stimulators commercially available in multiple countries around the world. The stimulation may be used temporarily, with percutaneous placement of leads, or indefinitely with permanent implantation of the leads. Two stimulation paradigms are described in the literature for treatment of pain —stimulation of motor (efferent) nerve fibers to create muscle contraction and stimulation of sensory (afferent) nerve fibers to...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Muscular Dystrophy and Rehabilitation Interventions with Regenerative Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the enhanced therapeutic effects of rehabilitation and regenerative medicine toward Duchenne muscular dystrophy.Recent FindingsDuchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most severe forms of muscle disorders. Muscle in DMD patients is extremely fragile and can be damaged even during normal daily activity. There is little in the way of treatment for the disease and no cure. Some investigators have been developing cell therapies for DMD by generating muscle stem cells from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and other progenitor/stem cells. Although reports have shown d...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Regenerative Rehabilitative Medicine for Joints and Muscles
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper was to review regenerative medicine treatments for joints and muscles.Recent FindingsThere is level 1 evidence supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Few studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), microfragmented fat (MF), and placental and amniotic product (PAP) injections for OA. Preliminary studies have not found a benefit of PRP injections for acute muscle injury. No studies have been performed evaluating the therapeutic effect of BMAC, MF, or PAP injection...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Correction to: The Accuracy of SPECT/CT for Diagnosing Lumbar Zygapophyseal Joint Pain: a Systematic Review
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the authorgroup section. Author Byron Schneider ’s family name was incorrectly presented as “Schnieder”. (Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports)
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - December 23, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Correction to: The Effectiveness and Safety of Percutaneous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for the Treatment of Suspected Discogenic Low Back Pain: a Comprehensive Review
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the authorgroup section. Author Byron Schneider ’s family name was incorrectly presented as “Schnieder”. (Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports)
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - December 20, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Systemic Effects of Steroids Following Epidural Steroid Injections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSystemic absorption of corticosteroids occurs following epidural administration. Central steroid response, including sleeplessness, flushing, and non-positional headache, insomnia, hiccups, flushing, and increased radicular pain, represents some of the most common immediate or delayed adverse event related to epidural steroid injections (ESI).Recent FindingsThe systemic effects of corticosteroids themselves likely represent the most commonly encountered complications that result from ESI. These include hyperglycemia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, decreased bone mineral density, a...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Exercise Benefits in Patients Recovering from Traumatic Brain Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to understand in what aspects exercise benefits traumatic brain injury patients. It examines the molecular basis of how exercise may facilitate cognitive recovery, discuss the clinical evidence of the benefits of exercise on cognition and mood impairments in patients, and identify potential barriers for patients recovering from traumatic brain injury from engaging in physical exercise.Recent FindingsThere are extensive reviews exploring the effect of exercise on patients recovering from traumatic brain injury. Exercise appears to have benefit in global cognition and mood. Exercise i...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Cervical Ultrasound Utilization in Selective Cervical Nerve Root Injection for the Treatment of Cervical Radicular Pain: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the available literature addressing the safety, accuracy, and efficacy of ultrasound-guided injections for cervical radicular pain.Recent FindingsUltrasound-guided injections remain a “partially blind technique” due to the inability to visualize relevant structures and the distribution of injectate. There remains a need for adequately powered studies evaluating the safety, accuracy, and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided steroid injections in the cervical spine. Fluoroscopy r emains the best evidence-based image-guidance modality for injections into the cervica...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

The Effectiveness and Safety of Percutaneous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for the Treatment of Suspected Discogenic Low Back Pain: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewComprehensively review the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous, fluoroscopically guided, intradiscal injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) for the treatment of suspected discogenic low back pain.Recent FindingsPublications in PubMed up to February 2019 were independently assessed. The literature search yielded three intradiscal PRP studies: one randomized controlled trial and two prospective cohort studies. Five intradiscal BMAC studies were identified. Four of the five prospective cohort studies were completed by the same primary author and result...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - October 28, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Neurologic, Cognitive, and Behavioral Consequences of Opioid Overdose: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the literature regarding neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders resulting from non-fatal opioid overdose.Recent FindingsAlthough there is extensive literature regarding hypoxic-ischemic brain injury resulting from cardiac arrest, studies specifically examining opioid-induced brain injury are limited, derived mainly from patient case reports or animal models. Medical management of this population requires careful consideration of acute and long-term complications, as well as careful treatment planning in coordination with neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and addiction medic...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - October 21, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

The Effectiveness and Safety of Genicular Nerve Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Knee Pain Due to Osteoarthritis: a Comprehensive Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview the effectiveness and safety of current treatment protocols for fluoroscopically guided genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation (RFA) used for recalcitrant knee pain secondary to osteoarthritis (OA).Recent FindingsRandomized controlled trials and cohort studies of fluoroscopically guided RFA of the genicular nerves demonstrate variability in responder rates from 59% at 3  months to as high as 74% at 6 month follow-up. Studies that investigated the prognostic value of genicular nerve blocks to select patients for RFA demonstrate no difference in outcomes with current treatment proto...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 14, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Safe Injectate Choice, Visualization, and Delivery for Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections: Evolving Literature and Considerations
This article summarizes the recent literature regarding considerations relevant to safe performance of TFESIs.Recent FindingsWe collated recent case report reporting of permanent neurologic injury after TFESI, which has been theorized to occur as a result of disrupted radiculomedullary arterial blood flow to the spinal cord. We also review how injectate selection, visualization methods, and delivery techniques may impact the safety considerations of these injections.SummaryWhile TFESIs are safe, there is continued need to optimize injectate selection, visualization methods, and delivery techniques to minimize the possibili...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - September 7, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Neuroplasticity in Brain Injury: Maximizing Recovery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe ability to promote greater neuroplasticity through external influencers is an emerging field of study with potentially significant consequences on the treatment of neurologic injury. Several of these methods are reviewed in this paper.Recent FindingsThrough advances in neuroscience, a clearer understanding of the complexity of the brain ’s interconnectedness and its ability to adapt to the environment is leading to neurorehabilitation treatments that augment the brain’s capacity towards neuroplastic change.SummaryAn increased appreciation and recognition of neuroplasticity has led t...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - August 31, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Management of Traumatic Brain Injury: Special Considerations for Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on the unique challenges facing older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and provides considerations for appropriate medical treatment.Recent FindingsOlder adults are the fastest growing population to suffer TBI, typically due to falls. Despite less severe injuries based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, older adults more frequently have abnormal head CT findings, are more likely to be admitted to the hospital, and suffer higher mortality than younger adults. Older adults have higher degree of medical comorbidities that require careful management in the acute hospital and rehabil...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - August 8, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Biological Sex/Gender and Biopsychosocial Determinants of Traumatic Brain Injury Recovery Trajectories
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goals of the report are to integrate recent and key foundational gender- and sex-related, post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature across several research domains, to highlight need for increased cross-field communication using an integrative biopsychosocial research model, and to provide recommendations for further research approaches and foci.Recent FindingsRecent findings of TBI studies addressing gender and/or biological sex provide evidence of women ’s unique risks for injury, significant differences in severity, type, and number of post-TBI symptoms reported by women vs. men, an...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - August 8, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Mobile Health Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injuries
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMobile health (mHealth) interventions may be useful for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there is minimal knowledge regarding how mHealth technology is currently being used for TBI treatment or rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to examine the extant literature on the use of mHealth for intervention delivery in order to identify considerations for using mHealth with the TBI population, and to provide recommendations for further study.Recent FindingsConsistent with recent literature in other disability populations, mHealth shows promise for people with TBI as a compensat...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - August 1, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research