Periodontal Grafting in Preparation for Orthodontic Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlveolar boundaries dictate the limitations of orthodontic tooth movement. Evaluation of the hard and soft tissues in terms of quality and quantity in conjunction with a sound orthodontic treatment plan that includes the amount and direction of desired tooth movement is essential. Prophylactic intervention may be required to support orthodontic goals and objectives without undesired iatrogenic periodontal consequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a review on current methods utilized for augmentation procedures prior to orthodontic treatment.Recent FindingsOrthodontic treatment can hav...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 26, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Nile Tilapia Fish Skin, Scales, and Spine as Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration
This study aims to review the literature on the use of Nile tilapia-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as naturally derived scaffold material for tissue regeneration.Recent FindingsNile tilapia has emerged as a particularly relevant specie for the development of fish-derived biomaterials. The skin, scale, and spine of various fish species have been extensively demonstrated as a potential source of native ECM proteins for use in regenerative medicine.SummaryWhen compared to synthetic polymers, collagen-based biomaterials introduce some disadvantages due to their lower biomechanical stiffness and rapid biodegradatio...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 16, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Digital Intraoral Impression Methods: an Update on Accuracy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe increased implementation of intraoral scanners (IOSs) in different dental fields has created the need for IOS ’s accuracy assessment by the scientific community. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to provide the current ``state of the art´´ regarding the accuracy of optical impression systems.Recent FindingsThe reported IOS ’s accuracy in dentistry is highly variable and controversial among studies. Researches performed either in vitro or in vivo considering digital intraoral impressions a valuable alternative to conventional impression techniques; however, the ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 11, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Grafting Around Implants: Why, When, and How?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper discusses the role of soft tissue grafting around dental implants. The aim of this review is to present pertinent literature on peri-implant soft tissue including its role, indications for augmentation, techniques used to enhance the quality and/or quantity of the soft tissue, and corresponding timing of those procedures.Recent FindingsMost reviewed soft tissue grafting studies in this paper were published in the last 5  years. However, the review also included older articles to mitigate the lack of recent randomized controlled trials or even case series on the reviewed soft tissue ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 9, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Clinical Longevity of Zirconia Implants with the Focus on Biomechanical and Biological Outcome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of the present review is to update the reader on the scientific background of zirconia ceramic implants. Clinical investigations using zirconia ceramic implants over the last couple of years have brought up some new developments and questions. Can we be confident in placing zirconia ceramic implants given the recently published data? Is there a difference in the application of one- and two-piece implants?Recent FindingsSystematic reviews on preclinical investigations of zirconia implants revealed that one-piece zirconia implants (> 4 mm) are sufficiently stable for clinical us...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 7, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Scientific Evidence of Clinical Performance of Veneered Zirconia Crowns and Fixed Dental Prostheses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to summarize recent scientific evidence regarding the clinical performance of veneered zirconia prostheses. In addition, the residual thermal stress studies were critically analyzed and associated with the veneering ceramic chipping issue.Recent FindingsDespite extensive materials and technique developments, the chipping of the veneering layer in zirconia-based crowns is still not fully solved. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published within the last 5  years showed that the extension of chipping fracture is more significant for zirconia-based compared to the metal-based pro...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 4, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Additive Manufacturing in Dentistry: Current Technologies, Clinical Applications, and Limitations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aimed to illustrate the utility of additive manufacturing technologies for the fabrication of polymer, metal, and ceramic components within the confines of their current and potential clinical applications in dentistry.Recent FindingsThe literature reviewed on five additive manufacturing technologies, namely, vat-polymerization, material jetting, material extrusion, powder-based fusion, and binder jetting, have been investigated in relevance to their dental applications. These technologies have the following existing or potential clinical applications: diagnostic and definitive casts, c...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Imaging for the Assessment of Periodontal Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging has become a significant imaging modality in periodontology, and its applications to dentoalveolar disease and conditions are frequently updated. This review highlighted some of the current evidence of the use of CBCT scans for imaging the most common conditions related to periodontal diseases.Recent FindingsCBCT imaging should not be the first choice for the routine assessment of vertical or horizontal bone loss, and its use should be preferable for cases where clinical information and conventional 2D images are insufficient or unclear for diagnosis and...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Etiology of Peri-Implantitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeri-implant diseases represent the biological complications associated with implant therapy. They are defined as inflammatory responses of the peri-implant soft tissues with or without progressive loss of marginal bone. The term peri-implantitis is used when the bone loss extends beyond initial bone remodeling after loading. Knowledge of the etiology and case definitions of peri-implant diseases are used to evaluate the impact of peri-implant diseases on the long-term survival and maintenance of dental implants. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about case definitions and contemp...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - August 23, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

An Update on the Association Between Periodontitis and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to update evidence answering four questions: (1) Is there an association between periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)? (2) Is there evidence of causality? (3) Is there a dose-response relationship between the two conditions? (4) Is there evidence on efficacy of periodontitis interventions on the occurrence and/or severity of OSA or vice versa?Recent FindingsThirteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis, and nine of them were included in the quantitative analysis. Seven studies were case-control and six were cross-sectio...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Insights into the Clinical Diagnosis of Peri-implantitis: to Probe or Not to Probe
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review aimed at assessing the primary and secondary diagnostic tools currently used to monitor peri-implant conditions.Recent FindingsThere has been much debate on the diagnostic accuracy of clinical parameters in monitoring peri-implant conditions. Given the association between pocket depth measured around teeth and implants and the extent of microbial plaque biofilm deposits, it seems plausible for probing pocket depth to be indicative of disease progression or stability. Moreover, understanding the inflammatory nature of peri-implantitis, it seems reasonable to advocate that bleeding...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - August 10, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Psychological Stress: A Predisposing and Exacerbating Factor in Periodontitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between psychological stress, the immune system, and periodontitis, including the dynamic role of host stress responses in altering immune function, altering the oral microbiome and biofilm formation, and promoting local and systemic disease progression.Recent FindingsWithin the context of periodontal health and disease, stress leads to an impairment of effective antimicrobial defense, shifts in oral microbiome profiles toward more pathogenic gene expression and taxa composition, increased translocation, and biofilm for...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - August 10, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Surgical Management of Peri-implantitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of current surgical peri-implantitis treatment options.Recent FindingsSurgical procedures for peri-implantitis treatment include two main approaches: non-augmentative and augmentative therapy. Open flap debridement (OFD) and resective treatment are non-augmentative techniques that are indicated in the presence of horizontal bone loss in aesthetically nondemanding areas. Implantoplasty performed adjunctively at supracrestally and buccally exposed rough implant surfaces has been shown to efficiently attenuate soft tissue inflammation compared to control sites. However, this was...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 31, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Approaches for the Non-surgical Management of Peri-implant Diseases
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewPeri-implant diseases are inflammatory reactions to bacterial infections affecting osseointegrated dental implants. In recent years, scientific interest on this topic has increased, as demonstrated by the appearance of a large number of protocols for treating peri-implant mucositis (PIM) and peri-implantitis (PI). The aim of the present narrative review is to provide an overview of the recent (e.g., 2014 –present) published protocols for the non-surgical treatment of peri-implant diseases.Recent FindingsSeveral adjunctive measures for mechanical debridement have been proposed and investig...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Peri-implantitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis manuscript reviews the literature concerning risk factors associated with the development and/or progression peri-implantitis, focusing on studies published within the last 3  years (2017–2020). For the purpose of this review, all factors that can potentially contribute to the development of peri-implantitis will be considered “risk factors.”Recent FindingsRecent studies have focused on evaluating various risk factors associated with the development of peri-implantitis. Research shows that peri-implantitis lesions are associated with complex microbial biofilms consisting...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review of Peri-implantitis Risk Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis is a comprehensive narrative review aimed at identifying relevant risk factors associated with peri-implantitis.Recent FindingsRecent studies suggest that water pipes and electronic cigarettes present potentially significant risk factors for peri-implantitis. In addition, we have recently appreciated that the release of titanium particles into the peri-implant tissues is associated with inflammation and disease progression. Yet the question remains as to whether these factors could be sole or major causes of peri-implantitis, or merely additional factors contributing to the aggravation of the ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 26, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Implant and Peri-implant Tissue Maintenance: Protocols to Prevent Peri-implantitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the absence of prevention protocols, early diagnosis and predictable treatment options for peri-implant diseases, the long-term survival of dental implants may be compromised. The purpose of the present review is to outline risk factors/indicators for peri-implantitis and propose current protocols (2015 –present) for their control and disease prevention.Recent FindingsRecent evidence suggests that factors including use of proton-pump and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, titanium-particle release, disruption of the implant-abutment connection, and prosthesis material/dimensions may ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 22, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Ridge Preservation Procedures: Review of Current Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlveolar ridge preservation (ARP) procedures have become one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in dentistry, due to increased demand for dental implant therapy. Previous studies have repeatedly shown a naturally healed socket could lose up to 50% of its buccolingual width, which in turn would negatively impact the future implant placement. ARP procedures have been shown to consistently reduce the amount of post-extraction horizontal and vertical bone loss; however, it is still not conclusive which biomaterial or technique is the most superior. The purpose of this article is to revi...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 21, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Communication Skills of the Clinician and Patient Motivation in Dental Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the current literature on the importance and role of communication skills of the clinician for patient motivation. Moreover, methods for teaching communication skills to the dental students are discussed.Recent FindingsGood relationship between the clinician and the patient is essential for not only establishing mutual trust and satisfaction but also obtaining better clinical outcomes from the periodontal treatment.SummaryCompetency in communication skills for dental practitioners can be gained within the dental curriculum, and this will provide more sustainable benefits from t...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 20, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Use of PRF for Hard and Soft Tissue Grafting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second-generation platelet concentrate, has gained popularity in the field of oral regenerative surgery. This review presents data from published clinical trials on outcomes from PRF application in regeneration of infrabony defects, implant site development, and mucogingival surgery.Recent FindingsWhen PRF is used for regeneration of infrabony defects, minor improvements are noted in the clinical parameters that in the majority of the cases does not reach the level of statistical significance. The use of PRF appears to limit the dimensional changes of the al...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 16, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Consensus of Dental Implants in the Elderly —What Are the Limitations?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the restricting factors based on the current situation of implant treatments in elderly people and describes how they should be handled. In addition, it is suggested to establish an environment in which the oral cavity of the patient can be managed at the end of treatment with an implant card detailing the implant treatments provided, while anticipating the patient ’s aging.Recent FindingsImplant treatments now account for a large proportion of dental prosthetic treatment options. Meanwhile, aging is accelerating globally, with Japan at the top of the list. This has resul...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 6, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Desquamative Diseases and Periodontal Health/Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of the present review is to answer the following focused question: “What are the most relevant findings about the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of desquamative gingivitis (DG)?”Recent FindingsTopical corticosteroids in the form of gel should be the first-line medical treatment and may be sufficient for some moderate or mild forms of DG. When patients continue to experience erosions and pain despite topical therapy, treatment with systemic therapy is indicated. A tailored plaque control program is effective in reducing gingival manifestations of DG in terms of related sy...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontal Health and Nutritional Status in the Elderly: Systematic Review
In conclusion, there was an insufficient amount of evidence to claim the casual effects of nutritional status on periodontal health in the elderly. (Source: Current Oral Health Reports)
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 25, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Sarcopenia and Mastication
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSarcopenia is a disease characterized by a decrease in muscle mass with aging, and it has received widespread attention because it accelerates physical frailty. In this review, we conducted a literature search to determine the effect of sarcopenia on mastication.Recent FindingsThe literature review was performed for the last 5  years using PubMed. The results showed that sarcopenia was observed in the masticatory muscles and suprahyoid muscles. Also, tongue pressure was decreased with sarcopenia and was associated with decreased masticatory and swallowing function. Furthermore, masticatory fun...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 7, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Nutritional Supplements and Periodontal Disease Prevention —Current Understanding
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review updates the current knowledge on nutrient supplements, which are reported as effective in maintaining the health of periodontal tissues or preventing diseases, as a complementary therapy to existing periodontal treatments.Recent FindingsThe latest meta-analysis reported that green tea component might be used as a complementary method to existing periodontal treatments. New multifunctional food-derived components such as rice- and soybean-derived proteins and amino acids have also been reported recently.SummarySeveral previous reports describe that nutritional supplements may help bacter...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - March 22, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

What Are the Major Causes of Dry Mouth in Elderly Adults?
This article will review the etiology and mechanisms of onset of dry mouth in elderly adults.Recent FindingsSj ögren syndrome (SS), a disease triggered by an autoimmune response against the exocrine glands, has long been recognized as a typical disease associated with such symptoms. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also one of the causative diseases of dry mouth and results in oral mucosal inflammation. Previously , hyperglycemia induces dehydration and results dry mouth. Recently, hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance impairs saliva secretion mechanisms and promotes dry mouth.SummaryAn increasing number of dry-mouth pati...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - March 22, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Association Between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontitis: Recent Progress
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile a number of reviews have been published in recent years covering all aspects of the relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, this review considers only the very most recent advances in the field by reporting on studies published from January 2018 to August 2019.Recent FindingsThe number of published studies that have investigated this relationship has increased dramatically in recent years. These studies have established a number of important biochemical, cellular, genetic and microbiological processes that link these two conditions at the clinical level.SummaryThere is no...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Insulin Function in Peripheral Taste Organ Homeostasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTaste is the sensory system primarily devoted to the selection of what we eat. Various internal factors are likely involved in the modulation of taste sensitivity or homeostasis in the context of one ’s general nutritional condition. For ameliorating or preventing lifestyle-related diseases, it is important to understand how our taste system is maintained and disrupted. This review focuses on insulin, the most potent anabolic agent in our body and a possible modulator of taste sensation, in th e peripheral taste system.Recent FindingsThe insulin receptor is expressed in taste buds and taste p...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - March 18, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Associations Between Periodontal Health/Treatment and Cognitive Impairment: Latest Evidence From Epidemiological Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the aging of the worldwide population, the social impact of cognitive impairment is increasing. Periodontal disease may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. This review aimed to establish the latest evidence for associations between cognitive impairment and periodontal health/treatment published in the past 5  years.Recent FindingsElectronic searches were conducted in PubMed for literature published in English between January 2015 and September 2019. The selected 15 studies included 3 cross-sectional, 9 longitudinal, and 3 case-control studies. Most studies demonstrated a significan...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - March 5, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

From Periodontitis to Periimplantitis —the Quest for the Missing Link
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this narrated review, we shall study the commonality and discord in the anatomy, bacterial flora, immune response, rate of progression, and response to therapy. Finally, we shall explore the unique, periimplantitis-related risk factors.Recent FindingsThe absence of PDL around implants, combined with poor periimplant vascularization and weaker attachment apparatus, might account for the poor cellular response to bacterial implant in periimplantitis. Using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, it has been recently shown that although certain known periodontal pathogens may also be found around dental imp...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontal Disease and Birth Outcomes: Are We Missing Something?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeriodontal disease is a widespread inflammatory disorder influenced by microbial, genetic, and environmental factors. Dr. Robert J. Genco was a pioneer in recognizing the connection between periodontal disease and systemic diseases. His early work reported a “two-way street” with respect to diabetes mellitus such that those with diabetes are more susceptible to periodontal disease and the severity of diabetes increases in those with periodontal disease. Dr. Genco also proposed that periodontal disease could impact cardiovascular and pulmonary diseas es as well as oral cancers. Here, we...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Persistence of Tannerella forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum in Dental Plaque: a Strategic Alliance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Gram-negative oral pathogenTannerella forsythia is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting structures affecting over 700 million people worldwide. This review highlights the basis of why and howT. forsythia interacts withFusobacterium nucleatum, a bacterium considered to be a bridge between the early and late colonizing bacteria of the dental plaque.Recent FindingsThe recent findings indicate that these two organisms have a strong mutualistic relationship that involves foraging byT. forsythia onF. ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Periodontal Microenvironment: a Potential Reservoir for Intestinal Pathobionts in Crohn ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeriodontal disease is a common bacteria-initiated inflammatory disease generating alveolar bone destruction around the dentition. Chronic periodontitis leads to the formation of a nutrient-rich periodontal microenvironment where opportunistic pathogens can thrive and flourish. The dissemination of these microbes from the oral cavity to other body sites can initiate or exacerbate disease, especially in susceptible individuals. This brief review will highlight the oral-gut axis and common bacterial etiologies associated with periodontal disease and Crohn ’s disease as well as providing a persp...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

On the Role of Mentorship in Team Science
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper highlights the value of mentorship based on lessons learned working with Dr. Robert ( ‘Bob’) Genco before he passed away in March 2019. Bob was a terrific mentor to researchers working in diverse environments, including academia, clinical settings, and industry.Recent FindingsFive key dimensions of mentorship are discussed in this review: resources, opportunities, advice, protection, and interpersonal connection. Bob demonstrated that mentorship can and should be cross-disciplinary. Though we had very different areas of expertise, our joint involvement on a multidisciplinary ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Buffalo OsteoPerio Studies: Summary of Our Findings and the Unique Contributions of Robert J. Genco, DDS, PhD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRobert ( “Bob”) Genco was a member of the research team that established the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease (OsteoPerio) study. Here we detail the scientific discoveries emanating from this enduring collaboration.Recent FindingsOsteoPerio is ancillary to the Women ’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). WHI-OS is a longitudinal study of 93,676 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 enrolled at 40 US centers (enrolled in 1993–1998). OsteoPerio enrolled 1342 women 3 years later (1997–2001) from the Buffalo WHI-OS participants to study the ass...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 26, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontitis: a Host-Mediated Disruption of Microbial Homeostasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn a prolific scientific career, Dr. Robert J. Genco dedicated himself to enriching our understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontitis. During a period of time in the 1970s and 1980s, when periodontitis was considered a classic infectious disease, Bob had the foresight to investigate and characterize the immune/inflammatory response in periodontitis, particularly juvenile periodontitis. His leadership in this area brought to the fore our appreciation of host-microbial interactions that many years later (2008) culminated in the realization that periodontitis is a fundamental inflammatory disease...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 24, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Could Vitamin D Influence Risk for Periodontal Disease —to “D” or Not to “D”?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the literature on associations between vitamin D and periodontal disease, including its strengths and weaknesses. Future direction for continued work in this area is provided.Recent FindingsResearch in cross-sectional cohorts, surveys, and case-control studies provide support for a role of vitamin D in periodontal disease, especially using clinical indicators such as bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss. However, these studies have a number of limitations. They cannot establish temporality of these associations. Most case-control studies have bee...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 19, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Role of the Oral Healthcare Team in Identification of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 2 diabetes (T2DM) presents a growing global health and economic burden. Dental settings have been employed to identify individuals who may be at high risk of diabetes, who exhibit non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH – also termed “prediabetes”) and who already unknowingly have the condition, through the use of targeted risk-assessments. This review aims to synthesize the existing literature supporting dental teams’ identification of individuals at an increased risk of or suffering from undiagnosed NDH o r T2DM in dental specialist care settings.Recent FindingsElectronic da...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Oral Microbiome and Lung Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe understanding of the human microbiome, especially of the oral cavity, has expanded exponentially since the advent of 16 rRNA PCR gene sequencing. Since the respiratory tract starts from the oral cavity and ends in the lung, study of the relationship between the oral microbiota and the lungs will allow us to understand the changes in lung disease compared with healthy state.Recent FindingsThe oral and lung microbiota were found to be similar, but the oral microbiota had greater diversity. The oral cavity especially the dorsal tongue was found to be a reservoir for bacteria causing pneumonia and ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Robert J. Genco: A Legacy of Lifelong Innovation and Inspiration
(Source: Current Oral Health Reports)
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Chronic Renal Diseases
The objective of the current review is therefore twofold. First, we aim to demonstrate the emerging role of gastrointestinal microbiome dysbiosis in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic kidney disease. Second, we highlight specific mechanisms as to how microbiome dysbiosis is provoked in chronic kidney disease.Recent FindingsCurrent work has shown that microbiome dysbiosis can directly and indirectly influence renal physiology and contribute to the onset and development of chronic kidney disease, such as by stimulating hypertension. It is also becoming evident that the composition and function of both the intestinal...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontal Disease and Systemic Interactions (Periodontal Medicine): Current Epidemiological Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review recent literature on the effects of periodontal diseases on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with emphasis on the contributions of Dr. Robert Genco.Recent FindingsNumbers of missing teeth are positively related to levels of infection and inflammation. Most studies find a positive relationship between periodontitis and incident CVD and T2DM and the ability of periodontal treatment to reduce CVD risk factors and HbA1C levels, but controversy due to negative findings remains.SummaryRecent finding that tooth loss is related to levels of inflammation is importan...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 12, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Porphyromonas gingivalis : Immune Subversion Activities and Role in Periodontal Dysbiosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes mechanisms by whichPorphyromonas gingivalis interacts with community members and the host so that it can persist in the periodontium under inflammatory conditions that drive periodontal disease.Recent FindingsRecent advances indicate that, in great part, the pathogenicity ofP. gingivalis is dependent upon its ability to establish residence in the subgingival environment and to subvert innate immunity in a manner that uncouples the nutritionally favorable (for the bacteria) inflammatory response from antimicrobial pathways. While the initial establishment ofP. gingivalis is de...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 9, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Functional Aesthetics in Implantology and Reconstructive Dentistry: Analysis and Transfer of Referenced Individual Patient Information With the PlaneSystem ®
This article focuses on the realistic, correctly positioned transfer of the casts and other anatomical parameters into the analogue or virtual articulator. The development of the function-analytical method is presented using the PlaneSystem ®. The detection of patient-specific details using the analogue method (e.g. head posture, facial proportions, physiognomic landmark, cast analysis, cast orientation, movement recording, joint mechanics, lower jaw position in physiological, unmanipulated centric) as well as the digital procedure (e .g. facial scan, three-dimensional analysis, photo documentation) and their transfer ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 11, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Beyond Endodontic MicroSurgery 2: Transplantation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aimed to report the outcome of contemporary transplantation of mature and immature teeth and its correlation with various procedural factors.Recent FindingsThe success rate of immature tooth transplantation was around 90% with successful revascularization. The teeth with root development stage of 3 or 4 show the most favorable outcome, which are the teeth with almost full root formation and open apical foramina. Mature teeth have a lower prognosis than immature teeth after transplantation and patients over 45 years old and extraoral time over 15 min caused significantly more failures.Su...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Digital Scanning in Modern Orthodontics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide the readers with current information and state-of-the-art of digital scanning systems within the orthodontics. Introducing the commercially available intraoral and facial scanning systems, as well as bringing future perspectives to these systems.Recent FindingsThe emergence of digital scanners associated with computer-aided design is one of today ’s key diagnostic tool enhancements in orthodontics. Among the main applications in orthodontics, it is the analysis for diagnosis, treatment planning, and prediction of the final result. There is a range of p...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Irrigation in Endodontics: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this chapter was to review progress in the endodontic irrigation and advances in disinfection process and their clinical implication.Recent FindingsThis review shed the light on the culturing techniques shortcomings and the complexity of the root canal infection both anatomically and microbiologically. It also discusses in depth the most widely used endodontic irrigants, their antimicrobial efficacy, safety, advantages, and disadvantages. Irrigation issues to discuss are not merely centered on which antimicrobial solution to use, but also its method of delivery, preferably to all par...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 7, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Tunneling Techniques for Root Coverage
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTunneling technique (TUN) has been introduced as a minimally invasive and highly esthetic treatment option for the treatment of gingival recession, one of the most frequent mucogingival deformities and conditions. The purpose of the present article is to review how specific technique modifications, different grafting materials, and different defect characteristics may affect the outcome of TUN for root coverage.Recent FindingsTUN has been shown to be an efficacious root coverage technique that, in combination with various grafting materials, can achieve satisfactory root coverage outcomes in Miller...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 2, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Use of Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) in Endodontics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCone beam computed tomography scans have been gaining popularity as a diagnostic aid. The purpose of this review is to understand the benefits and the limitations of this technology and its application in day to day clinical assessment. Familiarity with some basic principles of the technical aspect will aid the practitioner in controlling quality of the scan and the amount of radiation the patient is subjected to.Recent FindingsSignificant findings of this review are that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the main limiting factor in taking CBCT scans. The information obtained can be invaluable ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

3D Printing of Zirconia –What is the Future?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWithin this review, the current needs of the dental industry will be discussed with special focus on additive manufacturing (3D printing) of dental restorations. Up to now, subtractive manufacturing methods are state of the art for production of monolithic restorations. Here, the challenges and opportunities currently existing for 3D printing of crowns and bridges will be evaluated.Recent FindingsOver the last 10 years, the LCM technology has evolved to the state of the art 3D printing technique for dense and precise ceramics. A case study will present here the full digital workflow from acquiring ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research