From Periodontitis to Periimplantitis —the Quest for the Missing Link
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this narrated review, we shall study the commonality and discord in the anatomy, bacterial flora, immune response, rate of progression, and response to therapy. Finally, we shall explore the unique, periimplantitis-related risk factors.Recent FindingsThe absence of PDL around implants, combined with poor periimplant vascularization and weaker attachment apparatus, might account for the poor cellular response to bacterial implant in periimplantitis. Using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, it has been recently shown that although certain known periodontal pathogens may also be found around dental imp...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - February 15, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontal Disease and Birth Outcomes: Are We Missing Something?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeriodontal disease is a widespread inflammatory disorder influenced by microbial, genetic, and environmental factors. Dr. Robert J. Genco was a pioneer in recognizing the connection between periodontal disease and systemic diseases. His early work reported a “two-way street” with respect to diabetes mellitus such that those with diabetes are more susceptible to periodontal disease and the severity of diabetes increases in those with periodontal disease. Dr. Genco also proposed that periodontal disease could impact cardiovascular and pulmonary diseas es as well as oral cancers. Here, we...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - February 12, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Persistence of Tannerella forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum in Dental Plaque: a Strategic Alliance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Gram-negative oral pathogenTannerella forsythia is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting structures affecting over 700 million people worldwide. This review highlights the basis of why and howT. forsythia interacts withFusobacterium nucleatum, a bacterium considered to be a bridge between the early and late colonizing bacteria of the dental plaque.Recent FindingsThe recent findings indicate that these two organisms have a strong mutualistic relationship that involves foraging byT. forsythia onF. ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 29, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Periodontal Microenvironment: a Potential Reservoir for Intestinal Pathobionts in Crohn ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeriodontal disease is a common bacteria-initiated inflammatory disease generating alveolar bone destruction around the dentition. Chronic periodontitis leads to the formation of a nutrient-rich periodontal microenvironment where opportunistic pathogens can thrive and flourish. The dissemination of these microbes from the oral cavity to other body sites can initiate or exacerbate disease, especially in susceptible individuals. This brief review will highlight the oral-gut axis and common bacterial etiologies associated with periodontal disease and Crohn ’s disease as well as providing a persp...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 29, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

On the Role of Mentorship in Team Science
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper highlights the value of mentorship based on lessons learned working with Dr. Robert ( ‘Bob’) Genco before he passed away in March 2019. Bob was a terrific mentor to researchers working in diverse environments, including academia, clinical settings, and industry.Recent FindingsFive key dimensions of mentorship are discussed in this review: resources, opportunities, advice, protection, and interpersonal connection. Bob demonstrated that mentorship can and should be cross-disciplinary. Though we had very different areas of expertise, our joint involvement on a multidisciplinary ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Buffalo OsteoPerio Studies: Summary of Our Findings and the Unique Contributions of Robert J. Genco, DDS, PhD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRobert ( “Bob”) Genco was a member of the research team that established the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease (OsteoPerio) study. Here we detail the scientific discoveries emanating from this enduring collaboration.Recent FindingsOsteoPerio is ancillary to the Women ’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). WHI-OS is a longitudinal study of 93,676 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 enrolled at 40 US centers (enrolled in 1993–1998). OsteoPerio enrolled 1342 women 3 years later (1997–2001) from the Buffalo WHI-OS participants to study the ass...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontitis: a Host-Mediated Disruption of Microbial Homeostasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn a prolific scientific career, Dr. Robert J. Genco dedicated himself to enriching our understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontitis. During a period of time in the 1970s and 1980s, when periodontitis was considered a classic infectious disease, Bob had the foresight to investigate and characterize the immune/inflammatory response in periodontitis, particularly juvenile periodontitis. His leadership in this area brought to the fore our appreciation of host-microbial interactions that many years later (2008) culminated in the realization that periodontitis is a fundamental inflammatory disease...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 25, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Could Vitamin D Influence Risk for Periodontal Disease —to “D” or Not to “D”?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the literature on associations between vitamin D and periodontal disease, including its strengths and weaknesses. Future direction for continued work in this area is provided.Recent FindingsResearch in cross-sectional cohorts, surveys, and case-control studies provide support for a role of vitamin D in periodontal disease, especially using clinical indicators such as bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss. However, these studies have a number of limitations. They cannot establish temporality of these associations. Most case-control studies have bee...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Role of the Oral Healthcare Team in Identification of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 2 diabetes (T2DM) presents a growing global health and economic burden. Dental settings have been employed to identify individuals who may be at high risk of diabetes, who exhibit non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH – also termed “prediabetes”) and who already unknowingly have the condition, through the use of targeted risk-assessments. This review aims to synthesize the existing literature supporting dental teams’ identification of individuals at an increased risk of or suffering from undiagnosed NDH o r T2DM in dental specialist care settings.Recent FindingsElectronic da...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 18, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Oral Microbiome and Lung Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe understanding of the human microbiome, especially of the oral cavity, has expanded exponentially since the advent of 16 rRNA PCR gene sequencing. Since the respiratory tract starts from the oral cavity and ends in the lung, study of the relationship between the oral microbiota and the lungs will allow us to understand the changes in lung disease compared with healthy state.Recent FindingsThe oral and lung microbiota were found to be similar, but the oral microbiota had greater diversity. The oral cavity especially the dorsal tongue was found to be a reservoir for bacteria causing pneumonia and ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 18, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Robert J. Genco: A Legacy of Lifelong Innovation and Inspiration
(Source: Current Oral Health Reports)
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Chronic Renal Diseases
The objective of the current review is therefore twofold. First, we aim to demonstrate the emerging role of gastrointestinal microbiome dysbiosis in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic kidney disease. Second, we highlight specific mechanisms as to how microbiome dysbiosis is provoked in chronic kidney disease.Recent FindingsCurrent work has shown that microbiome dysbiosis can directly and indirectly influence renal physiology and contribute to the onset and development of chronic kidney disease, such as by stimulating hypertension. It is also becoming evident that the composition and function of both the intestinal...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Periodontal Disease and Systemic Interactions (Periodontal Medicine): Current Epidemiological Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review recent literature on the effects of periodontal diseases on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with emphasis on the contributions of Dr. Robert Genco.Recent FindingsNumbers of missing teeth are positively related to levels of infection and inflammation. Most studies find a positive relationship between periodontitis and incident CVD and T2DM and the ability of periodontal treatment to reduce CVD risk factors and HbA1C levels, but controversy due to negative findings remains.SummaryRecent finding that tooth loss is related to levels of inflammation is importan...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Porphyromonas gingivalis : Immune Subversion Activities and Role in Periodontal Dysbiosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes mechanisms by whichPorphyromonas gingivalis interacts with community members and the host so that it can persist in the periodontium under inflammatory conditions that drive periodontal disease.Recent FindingsRecent advances indicate that, in great part, the pathogenicity ofP. gingivalis is dependent upon its ability to establish residence in the subgingival environment and to subvert innate immunity in a manner that uncouples the nutritionally favorable (for the bacteria) inflammatory response from antimicrobial pathways. While the initial establishment ofP. gingivalis is de...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - January 10, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Functional Aesthetics in Implantology and Reconstructive Dentistry: Analysis and Transfer of Referenced Individual Patient Information With the PlaneSystem ®
This article focuses on the realistic, correctly positioned transfer of the casts and other anatomical parameters into the analogue or virtual articulator. The development of the function-analytical method is presented using the PlaneSystem ®. The detection of patient-specific details using the analogue method (e.g. head posture, facial proportions, physiognomic landmark, cast analysis, cast orientation, movement recording, joint mechanics, lower jaw position in physiological, unmanipulated centric) as well as the digital procedure (e .g. facial scan, three-dimensional analysis, photo documentation) and their transfer ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 12, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Beyond Endodontic MicroSurgery 2: Transplantation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aimed to report the outcome of contemporary transplantation of mature and immature teeth and its correlation with various procedural factors.Recent FindingsThe success rate of immature tooth transplantation was around 90% with successful revascularization. The teeth with root development stage of 3 or 4 show the most favorable outcome, which are the teeth with almost full root formation and open apical foramina. Mature teeth have a lower prognosis than immature teeth after transplantation and patients over 45 years old and extraoral time over 15 min caused significantly more failures.Su...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 9, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Digital Scanning in Modern Orthodontics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide the readers with current information and state-of-the-art of digital scanning systems within the orthodontics. Introducing the commercially available intraoral and facial scanning systems, as well as bringing future perspectives to these systems.Recent FindingsThe emergence of digital scanners associated with computer-aided design is one of today ’s key diagnostic tool enhancements in orthodontics. Among the main applications in orthodontics, it is the analysis for diagnosis, treatment planning, and prediction of the final result. There is a range of p...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 9, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Irrigation in Endodontics: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this chapter was to review progress in the endodontic irrigation and advances in disinfection process and their clinical implication.Recent FindingsThis review shed the light on the culturing techniques shortcomings and the complexity of the root canal infection both anatomically and microbiologically. It also discusses in depth the most widely used endodontic irrigants, their antimicrobial efficacy, safety, advantages, and disadvantages. Irrigation issues to discuss are not merely centered on which antimicrobial solution to use, but also its method of delivery, preferably to all par...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Tunneling Techniques for Root Coverage
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTunneling technique (TUN) has been introduced as a minimally invasive and highly esthetic treatment option for the treatment of gingival recession, one of the most frequent mucogingival deformities and conditions. The purpose of the present article is to review how specific technique modifications, different grafting materials, and different defect characteristics may affect the outcome of TUN for root coverage.Recent FindingsTUN has been shown to be an efficacious root coverage technique that, in combination with various grafting materials, can achieve satisfactory root coverage outcomes in Miller...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - December 3, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Use of Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) in Endodontics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCone beam computed tomography scans have been gaining popularity as a diagnostic aid. The purpose of this review is to understand the benefits and the limitations of this technology and its application in day to day clinical assessment. Familiarity with some basic principles of the technical aspect will aid the practitioner in controlling quality of the scan and the amount of radiation the patient is subjected to.Recent FindingsSignificant findings of this review are that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the main limiting factor in taking CBCT scans. The information obtained can be invaluable ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

3D Printing of Zirconia –What is the Future?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWithin this review, the current needs of the dental industry will be discussed with special focus on additive manufacturing (3D printing) of dental restorations. Up to now, subtractive manufacturing methods are state of the art for production of monolithic restorations. Here, the challenges and opportunities currently existing for 3D printing of crowns and bridges will be evaluated.Recent FindingsOver the last 10 years, the LCM technology has evolved to the state of the art 3D printing technique for dense and precise ceramics. A case study will present here the full digital workflow from acquiring ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Digital Treatment Planning: Limits and Possibilities
This study set out to demonstrate how the digital approach to prosthetic dentistry is able to guarantee better opportunity both in terms of diagnosis and planning and from the point of view of final prosthetic restoration.Recent FindingsIn recent years, the digital approach to prosthetic dentistry has certainly improved the predictability of treatments, giving clinicians and technicians the opportunity to cooperate in the best possible way. A crucial point in prosthetic rehabilitation is the creation of a treatment plan that can be generated through an analysis of facial aesthetics and a consequent orientation of the arche...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Factors Affecting the Marginal Fit of CAD-CAM Restorations and Concepts to Improve Outcomes
This report assesses and compares ceramic crown fabrication systems to determine what factors affect marginal fit and provide solutions for better outcomes.SummaryThe review revealed key scientific evidence about what factors influence the marginal fit of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations. Solutions were recommended to help the clinician achieve greater long-term success when providing this treatment to their patients. The dental microscope enables the dental practitioner to achieve improved clinical outcomes in all phases of restorative dentistry, especially CAD-CAM restorations. (Source: Current Oral Health Reports)
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Endodontic microsurgery: outcomes and prognostic factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review addresses endodontic microsurgery procedures compared with traditional surgery and aims to review factors related to the success and failure of endodontic microsurgery from the existing literature.Recent FindingsPeriodontal involvement and tooth position are patient- and tooth-related factors known to have an effect on the outcome of apical surgery. Factors related to successful outcome have been reported and include whether the mineral trioxide aggregate used to obturate the apical portion of the root after surgery was fast or slow setting. Although not statistically significant, large...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Workflows for Computer-Aided Implant Surgery: a Review Article
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImplant dentistry is a fast-evolving field and the computer-aided implant placement is becoming an inseparable part of it. There is a vast variety of techniques, workflows, and software making it hard for the dental practitioner to know which technique to apply to which clinical scenario. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to classify and describe current techniques and compare advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Workflows for various clinical scenarios are also presented to guide a clinician in decision-making.Recent FindingsStatic computer-aided implant surgery offers safe an...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 13, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Biological Communications Between Implants and Periodontal Tissues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAt present, attention is directed to increase the bone to implant contact (BIC) and minimize the marginal bone loss by modifying the root part of titanium implant using chemical and texture surface treatments. In the present review, we evaluate to what extent the titanium implant surface treatments are targeted to achieve biological attachment and connectivity similar to ankylosed teeth.Recent FindingsWe find that the re-implanted tooth that undergoes ankylosis to alveolar bone and re-attachment of marginal gingiva by cellular and fibrous biological connectivity is a desirable model to seek similar...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contemporary CAD/CAM Materials in Dentistry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo present an update on the current CAD/CAM materials in restorative dentistry.Recent FindingsImportant contributions are seen in updated mechanical properties of CAD/CAM materials, new insights in lithium silicate systems, and development in translucent zirconia. Many materials are arriving at optimized processing procedures and further development will come from new strategies and systems. Increasing our understanding of CAD/CAM materials will improve their use and indications and drive innovation.SummaryA general update was provided by classifications, mechanical properties, and clinical conside...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Developments on Enamel and Dentin Remineralization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo present an overview of the ongoing research on enamel and dentin remineralization and to describe particle-mediated and biomimetic approaches. The importance of restoring tissue functionality as the ultimate goal of remineralization is emphasized.Recent FindingsCalcium-releasing particles and adjuvants to increase fluoride uptake by enamel are described in the literature. In order to recover the prismatic structure in mineral-depleted enamel, amelogenin-derived peptides and amelogenin analogues have been proposed as templates for apatite deposition. In dentin, mineral deposition per se is not en...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Use of Growth Factors for Guided Bone Regeneration in Clinical Periodontics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe primary purpose of this literature review is to determine the effectiveness of available growth factors for oral guided bone regeneration surgery in clinical periodontics. Secondarily, the authors clarify questions regarding the use of specific growth factors to optimize clinical outcomes.Recent FindingsCurrent research indicates that growth factors may enhance initial periodontal wound healing; however, there is limited evidence to support their use in guided bone regeneration surgical procedures, to include peri-implant bone regeneration.SummaryThe use of biologic mediators, such as growth fa...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Beyond Endodontic MicroSurgery 1: Intentional Replantation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to explain the concepts and techniques of intentional replantation so as to encourage all practitioners to include this procedure in their armamentarium. We will seek to answer why this procedure is not done more frequently.Recent FindingsThe latest review of papers from the 1960s through 2017 shows a success rate approaching 89%.SummaryOther than newer root-end filling materials and transport media, the technique has not varied significantly. The CBCT has allowed for better imaging to help treatment plan the direction of extraction without fracturing the tooth. Future res...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Facially Driven Digital Diagnostic Waxing: New Software Features to Simulate and Define Restorative Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewComputer-aided design (CAD) softwares minimize human designing errors, reduce time and cost, and serve as more powerful diagnostic and designing tools for treatment planning in restorative dentistry when compared with conventional diagnostic waxing techniques. The goal of this article was to review the features of the available dental and open-source CAD softwares for a facially driven digital diagnostic waxing elaboration.Recent FindingsThe literature review demonstrated that when digital technologies are selected, the fundamental concepts remain, but the protocol differs. When fabricating a facia...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - November 5, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Allografts and Xenografts for Periodontal Plastic Surgical Procedures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe selection of surgical techniques and grafting materials is undoubtedly a critical component in the treatment of gingival recession defects. In order to provide top quality care, dental professionals are always in pursuit of treatment modality that provides maximal efficacy and predictability with minimal patient morbidity. The subepithelial connective tissue graft procedure, the gold standard, has been consistently proven to show excellent root coverage, but limited palatal tissue availability and potential morbidity associated with the harvesting process push dental practitioners to seek an al...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 24, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Surgical Treatment of Periodontal Diseases —a Review of Current Clinical Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis manuscript reviews the literature concerning the surgical treatment of periodontal diseases focusing on studies published within the last three years (2016 –2019). A thorough review of four databases was completed including clinical human research studies and systematic reviews.Recent FindingsSeveral recent studies have focused on evaluating the effects of combining alloplastic materials with autologous platelet-rich products and growth factors. The results of most of these studies are similar to those with traditionally used allografts. New membranes of human, animal, stem cell, or allo...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Crown Lengthening Procedures for Functional and Esthetic Purposes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe crown lengthening (CL) procedure is one of the most common procedures in daily dental practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the newer techniques along with parameters that need to be considered in the decision-making process for optimal functional and esthetic results.Recent FindingsThe parameters that need to be considered during the decision-making process for CL include the patient ’s restorative needs and esthetic expectations, supracrestal attachment, level of bone, and gingival phenotype. While gingivectomy with or without osseous resection is the traditional approach, ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Nutritional Status Influencing Orofacial Developmental Anomalies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDevelopmental anomalies affecting orofacial region are not that uncommon. Genetic factors play an important role in developmental anomalies of the orofacial region. However, the role of other factors including nutrition cannot be disregarded. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the normal development and various developmental anomalies associated with nutritional deficiency.Recent FindingsNeural crest cells have an enigmatic role in the development of orofacial region, and there are evidences to support the importance of nutrition in its differentiation....
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Should Antibiotics Be Rationed in Periodontics —if Yes, how?
AbstractPurposeBased on the latest findings, we evaluate the benefits and risks of systemic antibiotics in periodontal treatment and search for opportunities to reduce their use.Recent FindingsThorough mechanical debridement by deep scaling and root planing (SRP) resolves a considerable amount of pathology on its own. Thus, antibiotics are not needed for most cases of periodontitis. Specific indications are the presence of multiple deep pockets, especially in the molar area and rapid rate of progression. There, SRP plus amoxicillin-metronidazole can be an efficacious, minimally invasive, rapid, and inexpensive form of trea...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Protocols for the Treatment of Peri-implantitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeri-implant diseases are becoming a major problem in modern dentistry. A clear understanding of the pathogenesis of peri-implant diseases may provide key aspects for decision-making on their approach and obtaining predictable results. The purpose of the present article is to provide a narrative review of current protocols (2015 –present) used for treatment of peri-implantitis.Recent FindingsCurrent evidence reflects the level of diagnostic and therapeutic complexity; and multifactorial effect of conditions associated with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. Non-surgical therapy, by ...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy: a Review of Current Standards of Care and Innovations to Improve Gingival and Periodontal Health
This report will examine current therapies for nonsurgical periodontal and peri-implant diseases, including oral hygiene measures and behavioral modification, scaling and root planing, adjunctive systemic and local antibiotic therapy, and novel pharmacologic and physical adjunctive treatments.Recent FindingsPeriodontitis is a highly prevalent, destructive disease and has been estimated to result in $54 billion of lost productivity yearly worldwide. Additionally, it is estimated that up to 5 million dental implants are placed each year and, with the increasing number of implants comes increasing numbers of cases of peri-imp...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - July 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Are There Any Sensors in Oral Cavity for Gut Hormone Release?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis brief review will present recent research findings regarding to the gut hormone secretions in the oral cavity to maintain the energy metabolism from the mouth to the whole body.Recent FindingsThe existence of the gut hormones, such as incretins, neuropeptides, and ghrelin, in the saliva and taste buds in mammals is evident; however, the localization patterns of each gut hormones and their cognitive receptors are diverse and not yet clearly defined for their roles. It has been certainly explored that gut hormones expressed in the oral cavity have potentials to functionate on the taste signaling...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Non-Malignant Blood Disorders and Their Impact on Oral Health: an Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize the literature on inherited hemoglobin and coagulation disorders, focusing on sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, hemophilia, and von Willebrand disease (vWD), and their impact on oral health. Clinical dental management of patients with these conditions is also reviewed.Recent FindingsThere is no evident association between caries and SCD. Despite limited available studies, there may be a possible association between caries and thalassemia, which could relate to salivary changes in immunoglobulin A andStreptococcus mutans reported in these patients. Controversial r...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 24, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The Microbiome of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas: a Functional Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis decade has witnessed increasing interest in the potential role of the oral microbiome in head and neck cancers, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Most studies have focused on the bacterial component of the microbiome (bacteriome), but the fungal component (mycobiome) is also receiving attention. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms by which the microbiome can contribute to oral carcinogenesis, and summarize results from clinical studies, especially focusing on those reporting functional microbiome analysis. Synthesizing and illustrating the evidence, we also sug...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 18, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Vitamin Status and Mineralized Tissue Formation
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewVitamins play important roles in bone health, and vitamin supplementation has been recommended to prevent osteoporosis and to reduce fracture risk in the elderly. However, the benefits of vitamin intake for bone health are still controversial. The aim of the review is to examine the relationship between vitamins and bone health and how vitamins function in osteoblasts and osteoclasts.Recent FindingsA broad literature search with the PubMed database was performed. The results of human clinical studies are inconsistent due to differences in the study design, race, genetic factors, and the populat...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Aging, Mastication, and Malnutrition and Their Associations with Cognitive Disorder: Evidence from Epidemiological Data
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs the world ’s population ages, the decline of cognitive function and dementia among elderly people are becoming serious problems. Cognitive impairment and dementia affect the quality of life and increase health care costs. Possible risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia include masticatory dysfun ction and malnutrition. Recent findings in epidemiological studies in which the associations of mastication and malnutrition with cognitive disorders in elderly people were investigated are described in this review.Recent FindingsThere have been several longitudinal studies and many cro...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Computational Analysis of Interactions of the Oral Microbiota
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe human oral microbiome is a complex site containing many hundreds of species with the community response of these species having a large effect on human health. The complexity of this site speaks to the need for applying -omics techniques to better understand which microbial species are present, their interactions and contribution to the microbiome, and how this may change as a function of disease. Here, I review several recent studies that use computational analysis to examine and model the oral microbiome and determine its role in human health.Recent FindingsSeveral studies have emerged in the...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Oral Health and Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecently published studies have provided new evidence for a role of oral health on risk of cancer. This review summarizes the latest research on this topic, including several new cohort studies that have examined associations on periodontal disease and cancer risk.Recent FindingsThe most consistent findings for associations with periodontal disease have been observed for lung cancer; five out of seven studies have reported statistically significant increases in risk of lung cancer. For pancreatic, colorectal, and head and neck cancers, the associations are less consistent across studies, and the ov...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Nutrition as Adjunct Therapy in Periodontal Disease Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeriodontal disease and its associated systemic diseases have gained public attention due to their increasing global prevalence. Still, the gold standard for the management of periodontitis is scaling and root planing (SRP). However, bacterial recolonization is considered a limitation of this approach. Further, the efficacy of adjunctive agents such as antibiotics, antimicrobials, and probiotics has been investigated extensively. Nowadays, drug resistance development due to antibiotics and antimicrobials abuse has become a global problem and our concern. In order to reduce the spread of drug resist...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Recent Changes and Improvements in Multidisciplinary Perioperative Management From a Nutritional Perspective: Dental Specialty Should Be Considered Important
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecently, multidisciplinary strategies on accelerated recovery postoperatively have been provided, and management of the perioperative period has changed and improved dramatically. We summarize the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS ®) protocol and its outcomes from a nutritional perspective. We established the perioperative management center (PERiO), much of whose work contents conform to ERAS®, but intensive dental staff involvement is characteristic. We also summarize its outcomes.Recent FindingsERAS ® is a multimodal perioperative care pathway designed to achieve early recovery f...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Poor Oral Health and Its Neurological Consequences: Mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis Involvement in Cognitive Dysfunction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is an increasing body of evidence from epidemiology and laboratory investigations demonstrating periodontal disease as a risk factor for dementia. In particular,Porphyromonas gingivalis infections in animal models suggest causal associations with Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). This review focuses on howP. gingivalis infections promote the incidence of functional loss in AD.Recent FindingsThe risk of the sporadic form of AD doubles when periodontitis persists for ten or more years. AD differs from other forms of dementia in that the clinical signs together with the presence of amyloid-beta (...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 11, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Tooth Loss and Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a major subtype of dementia. Recent cohort studies have demonstrated that loss of masticatory function, periodontitis, and/or tooth loss are risk factors for AD. The present review provides an overview of the existing literature as well as recent evidence regarding the relations hip between tooth loss and the onset of AD.Recent FindingsIn the dental field, tooth loss is one of the most relevant factors related to the prevalence of AD. This is important in a progressively elderly population because tooth loss is associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Current Understanding of the Gut Microflora in Subjects with Nutrition-Associated Metabolic Disorder Such as Obesity and/or Diabetes: Is There Any Relevance with Oral Microflora?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe oral cavity is one of the main gateways to the whole body and leads to the gastrointestinal tract. Both oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract have complex ecosystems of microorganisms called microbiota. Recent studies have shown that altered local microbiome in human, such as gut microflora, is associated with various systemic diseases. This review focuses on the association between the microbiota at local sites, such as gut and oral cavity, and the systemic diseases, especially nutrition-associated metabolic disorder, such as obesity and/or diabetes.Recent FindingsThe gut microbiota has a pot...
Source: Current Oral Health Reports - April 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research