Childhood disadvantage, neurocognitive development and neuropsychiatric disorders: Evidence of mechanisms
Purpose of review Children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged households have excess risks of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric problems. The purpose of this review is to synthesize evidence for mechanisms that may contribute to these excess risks. Recent findings The majority of the 60 studies included in our review focused on children's neurocognitive development and behavioural problems. About half conducted mediation analyses of factors in the family and neighbourhood environments, including access to resources (e.g. cognitive inputs within the home environment) and exposure to stressors (e.g. n...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Suicide prevention efforts in the United States and their effectiveness
This article reviews recent work about these contributors to suicide and how they may inform prevention efforts. Recent findings Current research has shown that suicide is more than a mental health problem with a psychiatric or medical solution. Universal screening and referral by gatekeepers target a large group with a low baseline risk, and there are few treatments proven to reduce death by suicide, as well as a severe shortage of mental health providers in the United States to provide them. Instead, suicide prevention polices can target various other factors that contribute to elevated suicide risk at the populat...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Urbanization and mental health as a research problem in Latin America (with a focus on Brazil)
Purpose of review The basic hypothesis of this paper is that, in Latin America, the nature of the set of variables or determinants regarding the relationships of urbanization (and correlated processes of social change, modernization, acculturation, and economic inclusion) and mental health varies with the political context or historical phase considered. To assess the validity of the hypothesis, I propose a periodization of the economic, political, and social changes that occurred in Latin America in the past decades. Recent findings A brief review of recent studies on social determinants of mental health (with ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Urbanization and eating disorders: a scoping review of studies from 2019 to 2020
Purpose of review This review scoped recent (2019–2020) literature investigating the association between urbanization and eating disorders, and the putative role of urbanization as a direct or indirect risk factor. Recent findings There are few epidemiological studies which investigated adequately direct or indirect association between urban domicile and eating disorders. Findings suggest that urbanization is a complex phenomenon and its effects on eating behaviour are indirect, for example, because of other important social and environmental features, such as the amount of ‘green’ space, &lsqu...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Future perspectives of robot psychiatry: can communication robots assist psychiatric evaluation in the COVID-19 pandemic era?
Purpose of review Direct face-to-face interview between a psychiatrist and a patient is crucial in psychiatric evaluation, however, such traditional interviews are becoming difficult to conduct because of the infection risk in the COVID-19 era. As telepsychiatry, video interviews using internet are suggested to be useful to evaluate and assist individuals with mental disorders. However, some patients especially with social phobia, depression, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hesitate to use even such face-to-face-like tools. Communication robots have been proposed as future assistant tools for such patients. Herein, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Editorial: Cities and population mental health: present and future
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Ageing with schizophrenia: an update
Purpose of review The aim of this review was to summarize the recent literature on the clinical symptoms, functioning, outcomes and treatments for older adults with chronic schizophrenia. Recent findings The number and proportion of older adults with schizophrenia is rapidly increasing. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder and older adults with schizophrenia display significant variability in symptom severity, quality of life and overall outcomes. Many achieve stable disease remission, some display persistent nonremission and others experience fluctuating symptoms. Depression is commonly reported, and altho...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Cancer and schizophrenia
Purpose of review On the basis of articles published in 2018, 2019 and 2020, the first aim of this review is to present estimates of incidence rates and excess mortality of overall cancer and organ-specific cancers for patients with schizophrenia compared with the general population. The second aim is to explore if underdiagnosis and undertreatment can explain – at least partly – the increased mortality of cancer in patients with schizophrenia compared with the general population. Recent findings Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have an approximately 50% increased risk of death by cancer comp...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Noninvasive direct current stimulation for schizophrenia: a review
Purpose of review To provide an update of recent studies describing the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on patients with schizophrenia, with particular focus on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), cognitive deficits, and negative symptoms. Recent findings As a low-cost, easy-to-use neuromodulation technique, tDCS may have clinical implications for those suffering from treatment-persistent AVH, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. Over the past decade, tDCS has shown no effects for negative symptoms, except when used at a high frequency of sessions, and inconclus...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Recent findings on neurofeedback training for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia
Purpose of review To provide recent evidence on real-time neurofeedback (NFB) training for auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia patients. Recent findings NFB is a promising technique that allows patients to gain control over their AVH by modulating their own speech-related/language-related networks including superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using fMRI, fNIRS and EEG/MEG. A recent limited number of studies showed that while an EEG-based NFB study failed to regulate auditory-evoked potentials and reduce AVH, downregulation of STG hyperactivity and upregulation of A...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Schizophrenia during pregnancy
Purpose of review A diagnosis of schizophrenia has significant implications for women of childbearing age, pregnant or considering a pregnancy, ranging from sexual health, psychopharmacological treatment, to the occurrence of negative pregnancy and foetal outcomes. We provide a short narrative review of recent papers focusing on these issues. Recent findings Although pregnancy rates have been increasing in women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, they also tend to have altogether fewer pregnancies and fewer live births than women without this diagnosis, and also higher rates of induced abortions. Use of antip...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Estrogens in schizophrenia: progress, current challenges and opportunities
This article reviews the current state of estrogen research in schizophrenia. Recent findings Estrogens regulate important pathophysiological pathways in schizophrenia, including dopamine activity, mitochondrial function, and the stress system. Estrogen deficiency is common in both sexes and is associated with increases in psychotic symptoms. Hyperprolactinemia causes secondary estrogen deficiency and can be a reaction to stress, or secondary to prolactin-raising antipsychotics. Therefore, prolactin-sparing antipsychotics should be preferred especially in premenopausal women, who are more prone to hyperprolactinemia...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Abnormal synaptic pruning during adolescence underlying the development of psychotic disorders
This article reviews recent developments highlighting factors implicated in aberrant synaptic pruning and its contribution to disease onset and emergence of cognitive symptoms in SCZ. Unraveling these factors provides new insights for potential prevention and treatment strategies for psychotic disorders. Recent findings Increased pruning in SCZ was recently confirmed by a positron emission tomography-study employing the novel tracer [11C]UCB-J, demonstrating the consequential loss of synaptic density. Recent evidence supports the contributing role of astrocytes and increased complement-mediated microglial pruning in...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Agitation in schizophrenia: origins and evidence-based treatment
Purpose of review Agitation associated with schizophrenia remains an important clinical concern and if not managed effectively, can escalate into aggressive behavior. This is a review of the recent biomedical literature on agitation in individuals with schizophrenia. Recent findings Themes in the recent literature include consideration of comorbidities such as cigarette smoking and cannabis use. Surveys reveal that pharmacological approaches to manage agitation have changed little, with haloperidol remaining in common use and intramuscular administration of antipsychotics and/or benzodiazepines being frequently ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

An update on psychotic spectrum disorders and disasters
Purpose of review The aim of this study is to review the recent literature on disasters’ impact on the course of psychotic spectrum disorders (PSDs) and how people with PSD fare during a disaster, including the effects of COVID-19. Recent findings Several, but not all, studies examining disasters including earthquake-affected communities and refugee populations have found increased incidence of PSDs. Studies have been inconsistent regarding psychosis incidence in COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, patients with PSD have been found to cope poorly in recent disasters including flooding and a nuclear accident. Pat...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Schizophrenia during the COVID-19 pandemic
Purpose of review The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a critical impact on healthcare systems across the world, as well as on mental health in the general population; however, evidence regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with schizophrenia and on the onset of psychotic symptoms is currently emerging. Recent findings People living with schizophrenia are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and present worse COVID-19-related outcomes, including mortality. They show low levels of information and of concern regarding the possibility of contagion and infection but presented...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Editorial: Racial and ethnic disparities in research and treatment of people with schizophrenia
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Apathy and neurocognitive correlates: review from the perspective of ‘precision psychiatry’
Purpose of review From the perspective of motivated behaviour and the so-called ‘precision psychiatry’, we try to identify recent advances in the neurocognitive and biological correlates of apathy. Recent findings New evidence supports the notion that apathy is a common transdiagnostic and heterogeneous clinical syndrome, now conceptualized as a reduction in ‘goal-directed’ activity. Similarly, abundant evidence has been found related to neurocognitive correlates of apathy and the associations between clinical apathy and the processes primarily responsible for mediating motivational drive...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Applications of magnetic particle imaging in the dementias
Purpose of review This review discusses recent developments in the application of magnetic particle imaging (MPI) to dementia research. Recent findings MPI is a tracer method that is currently in the preclinical development stage. It provides high sensitivity for the detection and localization of magnetic nanoparticles with very high spatial and temporal resolution and a similar application spectrum as PET. Unlike MRI, the MPI signal is not contaminated by background signal from tissues and is highly quantifiable in terms of local tracer concentrations. These properties make the technology ideally suited for loc...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 and neurodegenerative disease: what will the future bring?
Purpose of review Over 70 million people worldwide, including those with neurodegenerative disease (NDD), have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to date. We review outcomes in patients with NDD and COVID-19 and discuss the hypothesis that due to putative commonalities of neuropathogenesis, COVID-19 may unmask or trigger NDD in vulnerable individuals. Recent findings Based on a systematic review of published literature, patients with NDD, including dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS) make up a significant portion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Such patients are lik...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Inequalities in mental health: predictive processing and social life
Purpose of review The paper applies recent conceptualisations of predictive processing to the understanding of inequalities in mental health. Recent findings Social neuroscience has developed important ideas about the way the brain models the external world, and how the interface between cognitive and cultural processes interacts. These resonate with earlier concepts from cybernetics and sociology. These approaches could be applied to understanding some of the dynamics leading to the patterning of mental health problems in populations. Summary The implications for practice are the way such thinking might ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Alcohol use and dementia: new research directions
Purpose of review Alcohol is gaining increased recognition as an important risk factor for dementia. This review summarises recent evidence on the relationship between alcohol use and dementia, focusing on studies published from January 2019 to August 2020. Recent findings Epidemiological data continues to yield results consistent with protective effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption for dementia and cognitive function. However, recent literature highlights the methodological limitations of existing observational studies. The effects of chronic, heavy alcohol use are clearer, with excessive consumption ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Preserving and enhancing social health in neurocognitive disorders
Purpose of review The WHO updated concept of health includes social health alongside physical and mental health. No existing reviews have examined the evidence for preserving or enhancing social health in people living with neurocognitive disorders, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia. The present review examines recent epidemiological studies and interventions with social health outcome measures, including interventions across multiple modalities and settings, from communities to assisted living facilities. Recent findings Epidemiological evidence shows that neurocognitive disorders are associated wi...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

COVID-19 and neurocognitive disorders
Purpose of review The COVID-19 infection results in various viral-related physical and mental health problems, joined with the long-term psychological impact of the pandemic in general. However, the accompanying neurocognitive changes remain poorly understood. Recent findings We synthetize the current knowledge of viral (SARS-CoV-2) induced inflammation, mechanisms to viral entry into the central nervous system and altered neurotransmitter systems to provide an informed neurobiological explanation for the rise of neurocognitive disorders (defined as per the DSM-5 criteria). Summary The mild and major neur...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Hypertension and Alzheimer's disease: is the picture any clearer?
Purpose of review The relationship between hypertension and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex and varies across the lifespan. Studies have suggested that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for AD, although studies of late life hypertension have suggested that it either has no effect or a weak protective effect. Recent findings Animal models of induced and spontaneous hypertension have found that AD pathological change (β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles) occurs within weeks of a hypertensive insult. Human imaging and autopsy studies indicate that midlife and late life hypertension are associated with in...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Exercise for the prevention and treatment of neurocognitive disorders: new evidence and clinical recommendations
This article also reviews existing evidence-based clinical guidelines advising on the optimal format and intensity of exercise interventions for older adults with different cognitive functions. Summary There is a growing body of evidence supporting the cognitive benefits of exercise for older adults with normal cognition, MCI, and dementia. Exercise is a relatively safe and low-cost lifestyle intervention and should be recommended for older adults to prevent dementia and treat cognitive impairment. However, as the factors affecting the efficacy of exercise in improving cognition are complex, exercise prescription sh...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of neurocognitive disorders: right for prime time?
Purpose of review Neurocognitive disorders are associated with tremendous burden at the level of the individual, the care giver, and society at large. No effective treatments have been discovered to date. Recent findings Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) comprises several promising interventions that have been studied in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Most recent studies have tested transcranial direct current stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on their own or in combination with other interventions, particularly cognitive training. While most studies were proof-of-princip...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev Source Type: research

Emerging Therapies and challenges for individuals with Angelman syndrome
Purpose of review This review describes current understandings in the search for therapies to support children with Angelman syndrome. There is a rapid progression in particular in genetic therapies in this disorder supported by the Angelman community. Recent findings Recent papers shed light on the timing of therapies and novel genetic therapies coming to trial as well as potential therapies still in preclinical phases. Further understanding of UBE3A and its role in neuronal development and plasticity as well as other mechanisms contributing to the Angelman phenotype is offering an opportunity for novel therape...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Recent developments in Phelan–McDermid syndrome research: an update on cognitive development, communication and psychiatric disorders
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on cognitive development, communication, behavioral or psychiatric aspects in Phelan–McDermid syndrome (PMS) and to discuss the clinical implications and recommendations of these summarized findings. Recent findings PMS is often associated with severe communication impairments, behavioral or psychiatric problems and regression. These challenges may adversely affect and impair the quality of life of the individual with PMS and his family. Summary Individuals with PMS experience intellectual disability, communication and behav...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Behaviour across the lifespan in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
Purpose of review While previous reviews have extended descriptions of the behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) significantly, potential changes with age across the lifespan have been neglected. Age-related difference in the behavioural phenotype constitutes preliminary evidence of change with age. Documenting and understanding the developmental trajectories of behaviours is informative as it enables identification of risk periods for behavioural challenges and compromised mental health. Recent findings Recent cross sectional, longitudinal and mixed design studies report differing presentat...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Neuroimaging in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Purpose of review Neuroimaging research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues growing in extent and complexity, although it has yet to become clinically meaningful. We review recent MRI research on ADHD, to identify robust findings, current trends and challenges. Recent findings We identified 40 publications between January 2019 and September 2020 reporting or reviewing MRI research on ADHD. Four meta-analyses have presented conflicting results regarding across-study convergence of functional and resting-state functional (fMRI and R-fMRI) studies on ADHD. On the other hand, the Enhancing N...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Prenatal and perinatal metabolic risk factors for autism: a review and integration of findings from population-based studies
Purpose of review Given the ongoing rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the challenges in developing and administering interventions to significantly alleviate ASD symptoms, there is an urgent need to identify modifiable risk factors for ASD. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the current evidence for an association between conditions related to maternal metabolic syndrome and risk for ASD in offspring focusing on methodically rigorous studies. Recent findings In recent years, multiple studies explored the association between various conditions related to maternal metaboli...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders with behavioral phenotypes
Purpose of review Genetic mutations in animals advance our understanding of disease mechanisms and treatments of neurodevelopmental disorders. Research with mutant mouse models is being extended to nonhuman primates whose brain development is closer to that of humans. This review summaries advances in mouse and nonhuman primate models. Recent findings Mutant mouse models recapitulate key symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, successful phenotypic reversal of symptoms in mouse models has not been replicated in human studies; this failure may be because of differences in the structure and physiology o...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Dyslexia in the 21st century
Purpose of review Within the past decade tremendous advances have occurred in our understanding of dyslexia. Recent findings Reliable data now validate the definition of dyslexia as an unexpected difficulty in reading in an individual who has the ability to be a much better reader. That dyslexia is unexpected is now codified in US federal law (PL 115–391). Replicated studies using functional brain imaging have documented a neural signature for dyslexia. Epidemiologic, longitudinal data now demonstrate that dyslexia is highly prevalent, affecting 20% of the population, affecting boys and girls equally. Thes...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Editorial: Developmental Neuropsychiatry dyslexia, animal models, prenatal and perinatal risk for autism, neuroimaging, and syndrome updates
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by James C. Harris Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Cross-cultural applicability of ICD-11 and DSM-5 personality disorder
Purpose of review This review explores recent literature on the applicability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and International Classification of Disease, 11th Revision (ICD-11) personality disorder classification systems across countries and cultural contexts. Recent findings Several studies examining the cultural validity and utility of DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality disorder have been conducted in a number of language and cultural groups that are different from those in which the tools were originally developed. These studies, using quantitative methods, have la...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

Psychopathy and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition alternative model of personality disorder: a synthesis and critique of the emergent literature
Purpose of review Including the psychopathic specifier within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition alternative model of personality disorder (AMPD) trait conceptualization of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) represents a significant development in the history of the conceptualization of ASPD and its relationship to psychopathy. This review presents a synthesis and critique of emerging literature pertaining to AMPD ASPD and the psychopathic specifier. Recent findings The current review draws attention to the utility of ASPD impairment ratings and traits to effectively meas...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

How does level of personality functioning inform clinical management and treatment? Implications for ICD-11 classification of personality disorder severity
This article reviews the literature on levels of personality functioning in relation to clinical management and treatment, and proposes how these findings apply to the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders. Recent findings Findings were primarily derived from studies using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS), Kernberg's Level of Personality Organization, and the general P-factor of personality disorder. Severity of personality dysfunction is related to treatment outcome, risk of dropout, therapeutic alliance, readiness ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

Personality Traits in the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11)
Purpose of review The International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) officially adopted a dimensional system of personality disorder that was a paradigm shift for the classification of personality disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the growing amount of research on one component of that system – the personality trait domain model. Importantly, several self-report measures have been developed to measure the ICD-11 domains and have been subjected to initial validation through examination of their factor structure, multimethod use, convergent and discriminant validity with other pro...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

Key themes in recent research on interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder
Purpose of review We provide an overview of new ideas and directions of research on interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent findings We highlight the following key themes emerging in recent and ongoing research: investigation of the cognitive and motivational mechanisms which underpin impairments of interpersonal functioning in BPD, tracking BPD across the lifespan with earlier interventions and longitudinal studies, expansion of the scope of interest to family members of individuals with BPD and to people in the general population with levels of BPD traits, and investigating B...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

Personality impairment in the DSM-5 and ICD-11: Current standing and limitations
Purpose of review The current review provides an examination of the levels of personality functioning outlined by the International Classification of Diseases-11 and the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Recent findings Across self-report measures, high convergence is observed, and they evince relatively robust relations with general and pathological traits as well as other clinical symptoms. At the same time, current measures of impairment also demonstrate unstable factor structures, poor discriminant validity (when measures offer subscales aligned with different forms of...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

Editorial: Personality disorder(s) across diagnostic systems: what to assess and how
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Edited by Aleksandar Janca and Charles B. Pull Source Type: research

Addressing psychological resilience during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: a rapid review
Purpose of review The mental health toll on populations exposed to COVID-19 is alarming, and there is a need to address this with urgency. This current review provides insights on how individuals, communities, and specific populations, such as healthcare workers and patients are leveraging pre-COVID-19 and peri-COVID-19 factors to reinforce their psychological resilience during the global public health crisis. Recent findings Examination of the extant literature indicated that populations around the world rely often on support from their loved-ones, closed significant others, outdoor and physical activities, and...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: MOOD AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: Edited by Sidney H. Kennedy and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen Source Type: research

Functional neuroimaging biomarkers of resilience in major depressive disorder
Purpose of review In this review we provide an overview of definitions and determinants of resilience in the context of neuroimaging research in major depressive disorder (MDD). We summarize emerging literature on functional neuroimaging biomarkers of resilience in MDD and discuss their clinical relevance and implications for future research. Recent findings Resilience in MDD is characterized by dissociable profiles of activation and functional connectivity within brain networks involved in cognitive control, emotion regulation, and reward processing. Increased activation of frontal cortical brain regions implic...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: MOOD AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: Edited by Sidney H. Kennedy and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen Source Type: research

Measuring resilience in children: a review of recent literature and recommendations for future research
Purpose of review Understanding variability in developmental outcomes following exposure to early life adversity (ELA) has been an area of increasing interest in psychiatry, as resilient outcomes are just as prevalent as negative ones. However, resilient individuals are understudied in most cohorts and even when studied, resilience is typically defined as an absence of psychopathology. This review examines current approaches to resilience and proposes more comprehensive and objective ways of defining resilience. Recent findings Of the 36 studies reviewed, the most commonly used measure was the Strengths and Diff...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: MOOD AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: Edited by Sidney H. Kennedy and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen Source Type: research

Central and peripheral stress-induced epigenetic mechanisms of resilience
Purpose of review Resilience is an adaptation process presented by an individual despite facing adversities. Epigenetic changes, such as histone acetylation/methylation and DNA methylation, have been demonstrated to mediate stress response. In this review, we summarize recent findings on epigenetic mechanisms contributing to stress resilience. Recent findings : Epigenetic modifications of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, endocrine, immune, and vascular systems are linked to resilience. For instance, increased DNA methylation of the nonneuronal growth factor Gdnf in specific brain regions promotes stress re...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: MOOD AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: Edited by Sidney H. Kennedy and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Optimizing the delivery of interventions for harmful alcohol use in primary healthcare: an update: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research