Planning and enabling meaningful patient and public involvement in dementia research
Purpose of review To summarize the latest evidence on patient and public involvement (PPI) in dementia research. To identify methodologies used to deliver and evaluate co-production, potential barriers to involvement, and effective strategies to enable meaningful involvement of PPI representatives in dementia research. Recent findings PPI expertise in dementia research has been utilized to increase the acceptability of new interventions to end users and to interpret research findings from a PPI perspective. Practical adaptations to materials and meetings, and building relationships and trust were important facilitator...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Orestes Forlenza and Claudia Cooper Source Type: research

Mental health disparities, mechanisms, and intervention strategies: perspective from Hawai‘i
Purpose of review Although there is a growing body of literature describing the scope and impact of mental health disparities, there is relatively less literature focused on youth and on interventions that are grounded in the cultures of youth most significantly affected by disparities. From the perspective of Hawai‘i, one of the world's most diverse communities where disparities nonetheless exist, the authors review the varieties of diversity encountered in psychiatry and healthcare, specific youth mental health disparities, and examples of locally tailored solutions. Recent findings Mental health disparities a...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Preventive parent–young child interaction interventions to promote optimal attachment
Purpose of review Quality of attachment relationships is believed to be an important early indicator of infant mental health as it is considered a vital component of social and emotional development in the early years. As a result, there has been a growing call for the development of early intervention attachment research programs. In this brief overview, we summarize what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of intervention programs targeted to increase the prevalence of secure attachment and to reduce the level of disorganized attachment among infants with a wide range of psychological risks. Recent findings The t...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Social media, internet use and suicide attempts in adolescents
Purpose of review Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth aged 10–24 years old globally, but detecting those at risk is challenging. Novel preventive strategies with wide influence across populations are required. Interest in the potential for both detrimental and supportive influences of social media/internet use on suicidal behaviour has been growing; however, the relationship remains unclear. Recent findings A systematic search of articles from database inception up to 25 January 2019 across five databases: Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, HMIC and CINAHL revealed nine independent studies investigatin...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Early life stress: update on neurophysiologic effects and treatment
Purpose of review Recent research on childhood trauma has focused on the effects of in-utero and early life stress (ELS) as well as improving access to care. This review includes the previous year's clinically relevant research with attention to gaps that require further research that should improve patient care. Recent findings The current article focuses on the latest understanding of ELS effects on the neuroendocrine, inflammatory, immune, and neurologic systems, as well as epigenetic effects with a focus on research examining sex-specific differences. Resilience and innovative treatment delivery models are reviewe...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Editorial: prevention in child and adolescent psychiatry
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Purging disorder: recent advances and future challenges
Purpose of review The present review aims to help specialists remain up-to-date on research from the past 2 years on epidemiology, risk factors, biological correlates, treatment, and outcomes for purging disorder, a DSM-5 other specified feeding and eating disorder. Recent findings Purging disorder affects 2.5–4.8% of adolescent females in population-based samples, but purging disorder remains relatively rare in treatment settings. Higher premorbid body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and dieting prospectively predict purging disorder onset. In studies of biological correlates, women with purging disorder demo...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Eating disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder
Purpose of review Childhood maltreatment is associated with all types of eating disorders. We provide a systematic review of the recent literature on comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with eating disorders, and focus on prevalence, relationship with symptom severity, operating mechanisms and treatment. Recent findings The prevalence of comorbid PTSD in patients with eating disorders ranges from 9 to 24%, with research suggesting that comorbid PTSD is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms. Maladaptive emotional regulation strategies may mediate the relationship between PTSD and ea...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Disordered eating after bariatric surgery: clinical aspects, impact on outcomes, and intervention strategies
We describe DEBs most relevant to this population, their associations with weight outcomes, and emerging data on interventions for DEBs. Recent findings Loss of control eating episodes and grazing have been the most well studied DEBs in bariatric samples. Although DEBs often remit after surgery even without targeted intervention, a subgroup of patients have persistent or newly developed DEBs postoperatively. Preoperative DEBs have little effect on weight outcomes, whereas preoperative impulse control-related features commonly associated with DEBs (e.g., inhibitory control) may have stronger predictive value. Postoperati...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Treatment delivery strategies for eating disorders
Purpose of review The traditional model of treatment delivery, based on a psychotherapeutic intervention delivered by a trained professional, in a one-to-one relationship, occurring in a treatment setting context (e.g., clinic, private office, and hospital), highly restricts access to the best standards of care to all of those in need. In this article, we will be focusing on treatment delivering methods for eating disorders that depart from the traditional mode of delivery. We will focus on the use of self-help strategies, both in a pure self-help format, and with external minimal support, guided self-help. We will addi...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

The promise of neurobiological research in anorexia nervosa
This article reviews new research in the context of existing literature to identify approaches that will advance understanding of the persistence of anorexia nervosa. Recent findings Neuroscience research in anorexia nervosa has yielded disparate findings: no definitive neural mechanism underlying illness vulnerability or persistence has been identified and no clear neural target for intervention has emerged. Recent advances using structural and functional neuroimaging research, as well as new techniques for applying and combining these approaches, have led to a refined understanding of changes in neural architecture am...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Gonadal hormone contributions to individual differences in eating disorder risk
Purpose of review Females experience eating disorders at substantially higher rates than males. Although sociocultural factors have traditionally been thought to underlie this sex disparity, accumulating evidence implicates differential exposure to gonadal hormones early in life. Gonadal hormones also impact within-sex variability in disordered eating, helping to explain why not all women develop an eating disorder, and some men do. We review recent findings regarding these gonadal hormone effects and their implications for the etiology of eating disorders. Recent findings Males are exposed to significantly higher tes...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Neuroimaging and eating disorders
Purpose of review Eating disorders are severe psychiatric disorders with a suspected complex biopsychosocial cause. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the recent literature on brain imaging in eating disorders. Recent findings Food restriction as well as binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with lower regional brain volumes or cortical thickness, but those changes largely return to normal with normalization of weight and eating behavior. Computational modeling has started to identify patterns of structural and functional imaging data that classify eating disorder subtypes, which could be used in ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Eating disorder animal model
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to describe animal models that simulate the features of eating disorders. The literature pertaining to animal models that are of relevance for clinical eating disorders and the possible underpinning mechanisms was reviewed using PubMed, Ovid database and Google Scholar. Recent findings New refinements of the circuits regulated by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides which instigate eating behaviours and the various feedback pathways which monitor acute and chronic nutrient status continue to be discovered. Moreover, work with the animal models that simulate the behavioural fe...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Dementia care in high-income countries
Purpose of review To identify recent advances in the field of dementia care in high-income countries. Recent findings New national and international initiatives identified support the notion of an increased commitment to face the challenge of dementia care. Recent research has documented barriers and facilitators to provide good care, and provided data on the specific needs of caregivers; the needs for better training of general practitioners; the negative influence of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD); the palliative care needs; and the increased risk of dementia associated with anxiety (the p...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Orestes Forlenza and Claudia Cooper Source Type: research

Dementia care in low and middle-income countries
Purpose of review Recent reports from low and middle-income countries (LMICs) on the care of person with dementia (PWD). Recent findings Detection of PWDs in the community in LMICs is still problematic because of inappropriate screening questionnaires. Early diagnosis of dementia is also handicapped by lack of awareness, knowledge and stigma. The family is the main caregiver in LMICs and there is a paucity of community dementia services. Summary In LMICs, the burden of care of PWDs rests on the family and there is an urgent need to improve and expand community services. The digital media could be a platform for e-l...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Orestes Forlenza and Claudia Cooper Source Type: research

Effects of chronic physical illness on treatment outcomes among patients with schizophrenia
Purpose of review Previous research has demonstrated the high prevalence of medical comorbidity and multimorbidity among patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known regarding the potential effects of chronic physical illness (CPI) on schizophrenia treatment outcomes. In the present report, we aim to provide an updated review of the relevant literature. Recent findings We searched MEDLINE for studies published between 2017 and 2018. After screening 683 articles, we included six studies of adequate quality. Five of these studies reported significant associations between several CPIs and different schizophrenia...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Progress in psycho-oncology with special reference to developing countries
Purpose of review Psycho-oncology has completed 25 years. There is growing recognition of the psychosocial needs of persons living with cancer and the role of sociocultural factors in addressing the needs. This review addresses the research in developing countries relating to distress associated with living with cancer and psychosocial care. Recent findings There is growing recognition of the emotional needs, understanding of the sociocultural aspects of the emotional responses of persons, caregivers, role of resilience and posttraumatic growth and spirituality in cancer care. Psychosocial aspects of cancer are largel...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Personality disorders and physical comorbidities: a complex relationship
This article reviews recent reports about the comorbidity of personality disorders and nonpsychiatric medical problems, which call into question the adequacy of the mind-body dichotomy in medicine. Recent findings The strong association of any personality disorders with poor health in cross-sectional and community-based studies is now confirmed by personality disorder predicting future deterioration in longitudinal studies. Borderline personality disorder has been studied most frequently, but recent data suggest that severity of any personality disorder is associated with poor and worsening health. Summary Personalit...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Anxiety disorders and medical illness comorbidity and treatment implications
Purpose of review To review recent studies which assess comorbidity, that is, prevalence of co-occurrence, relationships and treatment implications between anxiety disorders and various medical illnesses. Recent findings The prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in patients with medical illnesses are high, with percentage up to 29% in patients with epilepsy, 48.9% in patients with multiple sclerosis, 30.1% in patients with Parkinson's disease, 30% in patients with cardiovascular disease, 47.0% in patients with diabetes mellitus, and so on. The most prevalent anxiety disorders among individuals with somatic illnesses a...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Inflammation and depression but where does the inflammation come from?
Purpose of review Up until the latter part of the previous century, the monoamine theory guided our understanding of psychiatric disorders, notably depressive illness in its various phenotypic manifestations. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of newer theories that allow a deeper understanding of brain dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disease entities such as depressive illness. One such key theory is the theory of inflammation as a result of stress-induced immune system activation. Recent findings Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the sympathetic branch of the...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Depressive symptoms and disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Purpose of review To examine developments in the understanding of certain aspects of depression in diabetes mellitus patients with a special focus on diabetes distress, screening of depression and its management in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent findings Recent studies reviewed indicate an increasing trend of both major and minor depression in patients with diabetes. Depression is also reported to be persistent and chronic in diabetes patients. There is a bidirectional link between depression and diabetes. Diabetes-related distress independently increases the diabetes-related complications. Collaborativ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for depressive disorders: current knowledge and future directions
Purpose of review After three decades of clinical research on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), major depressive disorder (MDD) has proven to be the primary field of application. MDD poses a major challenge for health systems worldwide, emphasizing the need for improving clinical efficacy of existing rTMS applications and promoting the development of novel evidence-based rTMS treatment approaches. Recent findings Several promising new avenues have been proposed: novel stimulation patterns, targets, and coils; combinatory treatments and maintenance; and personalization and stratification of rTMS para...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Smoking in schizophrenia: recent findings about an old problem
Purpose of review Recent epidemiology, biological and clinical findings correlate high cigarette consumption in patients with schizophrenia, impeding both treatment strategies and the effectiveness of antipsychotics. Recent findings New data suggests that despite world-wide efforts to curb cigarette consumption, smoking in patients with schizophrenia was still high. Recent reports could not confirm earlier findings regarding smoking's beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction, however, the association between smoking, positive symptoms and suicidal behavior was revealed. As some patients smoked in an attempt to alle...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Ketogenic diet for schizophrenia: clinical implication
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to review recent findings on the efficacy of ketogenic diet in preclinical models and in patients with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight emerging evidence for compromised glucose and energy metabolism in schizophrenia, which provides a strong rationale and a potential mechanism of action for ketogenic diet. Recent findings Recent transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic evidence from postmortem prefrontal cortical samples and in-vivo NMR spectroscopy results support the hypothesis that there is a bioenergetics dysfunction characterized by abnormal glucose hand...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Causes of premature mortality in schizophrenia: a review of literature published in 2018
Purpose of review The current review examines the recent literature on the causes of premature mortality in schizophrenia. Recent findings People with schizophrenia have higher premature mortality rates compared with the general population. Suicides and accidents account for a nontrivial part of the excess mortality, but the largest part is attributable to natural causes of death. Five major causes have been identified: first, adverse effects of medication; second, suboptimal lifestyle; third, somatic comorbidity; fourth, suboptimal treatment of somatic disorders; and fifth, accelerated ageing/genetic explanations. Th...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Accelerated aging in serious mental disorders
Purpose of review Clinical, epidemiological, and biological evidence raises the possibility that serious mental disorders (SMDs) are associated with accelerated biological aging. To the extent this is true; SMDs should not simply be considered in terms of mental illness or brain dysfunction, but also as ‘whole body’ and multisystem illnesses, or else as conditions with significant somatic concomitants. Recent findings The concept of accelerated biological aging in SMDs is supported by reports of accelerated changes in certain biomarkers normally associated with the aging process. Summary We define and d...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

The evidence for physical activity in the management of major mental illnesses: a concise overview to inform busy clinicians’ practice and guide policy
Purpose of review Physical activity has established the efficacy in improving physical health, mental health and cognition in the general population. Recent research has examined its potential as a preventive measure and/or adjunctive treatment for various mental health conditions. This review summarizes the recent evidence for physical activity in the management of major mental illnesses. Recent findings Emerging evidence suggests that physical activity may confer protection against depression and anxiety/stress disorders. There is robust evidence that structured and supervised physical activity, including aerobic an...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Editorial: What can be done to decrease early deaths in people with severe mental disorders?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

What is new within staging of care for people with dementia? The IDEAL schedule and other recent work
Purpose of review This review provides an overview of recent progress within work centred around the ‘International schedule for the integrated assessment and staging of care for dementia’ (IDEAL schedule), and places it within the context of recent work around other staging models for dementia. Recent findings The IDEAL schedule assesses the severity of dementia across seven dimensions. A ‘Menu of care options’ of recommended priorities for interventions accompanies the schedule. A user manual for the schedule has just been published. Other staging models for dementia include those based on bi...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Source Type: research

Dementia care: international perspectives
Purpose of review As awareness of dementia increases, internationally derived knowledge and information about dementia care and practice can be helpful to improve the care of people with dementia and their families. It can serve as a stimulus to develop new ideas for the provision of such care. Recent findings An international survey of 47 countries has shown a high degree of national interest and commitment to dementia treatment and care. In each, a local dementia expert provided a bespoke narrative about the care and treatment of people with dementia, a review of national policies and a glimpse as to what the future...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Source Type: research

Service user involvement in global mental health: what have we learned from recent research in low and middle-income countries?
Purpose of review The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development claims the field of global mental health is undergoing a ‘transformational shift’ toward an ethic of ‘nothing about us without us’. Yet a systematic review published in 2016 identified few examples of meaningful participation by service users in mental health systems strengthening in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). To investigate whether this is still the case, we conducted a rapid review of primary research published between June 2017 and December 2018. Recent findings We identified 10 studies ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Depression: more treatment but no drop in prevalence: how effective is treatment? And can we do better?
Purpose of review Since the 70s, treatment of depression, especially pharmacologically, has expanded enormously. However, epidemiological studies show that 12-month population prevalence rates have not dropped. This observation raises multiple questions. How good are treatments of depression actually? Do they improve long-term outcomes? Have the treatment gaps narrowed? And how can we make mental healthcare more effective at the population level? Recent findings Recent publications suggest some answers. Controlled treatment trials show that effectiveness of specific treatments (pharmacological, psychological) is modes...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Prison mental healthcare: recent developments and future challenges
This article aims to review recent findings and developments and to focus on the changing needs of prisoners and consequences for treatment. Recent findings The evidence for high general prevalence rates of mental disorders in prison populations can be considered as robust worldwide. Recent meta-analyses focused on specific prevalence rates and found that complex disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, are also more common in prison populations. Interest is growing in studying subgroups with special needs, for example, women and older prisoners. Furthermore, a large...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Emerging trends in suicide prevention research
Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to present notable findings and developments in suicide prevention research and in particular, strategies to detect persons at risk for suicide as well as strategies to reduce suicide risk among the general population and specific risk groups. Recent findings Popular strategies to detect persons at risk for suicide include scanning social media posts, prediction models using electronic health record data as well as the use of experienced sampling methodology to enhance our understanding of the suicidal process. Emerging approaches to reduce suicide risk include the deve...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Recent advances in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder for mental health professionals
Purpose of review Understanding the pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and treatment implications of the interface between mental disorder and the consequences of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) is important for mental health professionals (MHP) seeking to provide the most effective care. This review was written to highlight the importance of identifying and intervening with regards to the unique mental health and medical needs of individual with PAE. Recent findings Over the last year, research has identified differences in the diagnostic criteria for Neurodevelopmental Disorder Associated with PAE (ND-PAE)/Fetal Alcohol ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Prescription drug misuse in adolescents and young adults: an emerging issue as a health problem
Introduction In recent years, prescription drug misuse has become a common issue among adolescents and young adults in many countries, with, for example, a lifetime prevalence of 12% among individuals aged 12–17 in 2017 in United States. Purpose of review To summarize recently published studies about prescription drug misuse among adolescent and young adults. Recent findings Prescription drug misuse has many definitions, one being any medication taken in a way other than prescribed, whether related to dosage or manner of usage. Among adolescents, it has a relationship with illicit drug use, decline in academi...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Professionally delivered interventions for gambling disorder
Purpose of review To assess recent developments in professionally delivered interventions for gambling disorder. Recent findings During the past 24 months a number of reviews and individual studies have been published. Collectively they assess the efficacy and effectiveness of a range of interventions and identify methodological and other shortcomings. These studies advance knowledge with respect to pharmacological and psychological treatments including brief interventions delivered face-to-face and in other ways. Increased attention has been given to patient diversity, comorbidity, relapse, and nongambling outcomes. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Self-directed interventions for gambling disorder
Purpose of review To assess recent developments in self-directed interventions for gambling disorder and at-risk gambling. Recent findings Relevant reviews and meta-analyses were published during 2017 and 2018. These reviews assess the nature and efficacy of self-directed and largely self-directed interventions including self-change, assisted self-change and mutual aid support groups. Additional reviews cover government and industry strategies to reduce harm including gambling venue and site self-exclusion and a variety of responsible gambling and consumer protection measures. Further studies were published that advan...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Diagnosis and treatment of patients with comorbid substance use disorder and adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a review of recent publications
Purpose of review Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often presents with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). Due to similarities in key symptoms of both disorders and suboptimal efficacy of the available treatments, clinicians are faced with difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients with both disorders. This review addresses recent publications between 2017 and 2019 on the etiology, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring ADHD and SUD. Recent findings ADHD is diagnosed in 15–20% of SUD patients, mostly as ADHD with combined (hyperactive/inattentive) presentati...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Treatment of substance use disorders with co-occurring severe mental health disorders
Purpose of review To provide an update of treatment for substance use in patients with co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders (dual diagnosis) with a focus on both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. Recent findings A total of 1435 abstracts were identified, of which we selectively reviewed 43 for this narrative review. There is emerging evidence, both clinical and neurobiological, that clozapine is a more efficacious antipsychotic in treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and SUD. The use of depot atypical antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate in this population is also...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Interventions for excessive energy drink use
Purpose of review Given the increased and sometimes excessive consumption of energy drinks containing caffeine and other drugs, often sugar-sweetened, especially among young people, interventions that reduce consumption are needed. We review current findings related to interventions at the individual, outlet and regulatory levels to reduce energy drink consumption. Recent findings Few interventions to reduce excess energy drink consumption have been tested. Interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and caffeinated beverages are reviewed. A manual-only intervention to reduce caffeinated beverages...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Meeting the challenges of opioid dependence in China: experience of opioid agonist treatment
This article reviews the role of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in minimizing the harms caused by opioid dependence, as well as China's current challenges in this area. In addition, we aim to discuss the treatment strategies for opioid dependence within the international community in the current global situation of serious abuse of opioids. Recent findings Like other countries facing the opioid crisis, China is actively working on revising policy, improving the addiction treatment system and promotion of MMT clinics to cope with the risks of opioid abuse. As they provide one of the most effective opioid a...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Medications to treat cocaine use disorders: current options
Purpose of review Cocaine is a highly addictive substance with serious medical and mental health consequences. Despite these concerns, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD). Although many medication-assisted treatments (MATs) have been investigated, no clear guidelines exist for clinicians treating patients with CUDs. Recent findings There are a limited number of recent data examining MATs for CUD. Multiple high-quality reviews of existing literature have been performed with psychostimulants, modafinil, bupropion, topiramate and disulfiram showin...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Selecting an appropriate alcohol pharmacotherapy: review of recent findings
Purpose of review Only a few pharmacological treatments are available for treating alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and nalmefene is EMA-approved in European Union. Off-label medications, such as baclofen, gabapentin, ondansetron and topiramate are medications commonly prescribed for the treatment of AUD. The aim of this review is to give an update on recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviews evaluating pharmacological treatment for AUD. Recent findings A literature search was conducted for pharmacological treatment for al...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Prospects for pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol use disorder: an update on recent human studies
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to provide an update on medication development efforts for alcohol use disorder (AUD) by reviewing recently published (past 2 years) human studies that evaluated medications’ effects on alcohol-related outcomes. Recent findings Forty-five publications were found suitable for this review. A variety of compounds have been tested in the past 2 years as potential pharmacological options for AUD, including medications that act on multiple targets (topiramate, aripiprazole, quetiapine), calcium channels (gabapentin), gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptors (baclofen, diazepam), gl...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Current evidence on urbanicity and the impact of neighbourhoods on anxiety and stress-related disorders
Purpose of review To synthesize recent knowledge on the association of urbanization (and neighbourhood factors) and anxiety and stress-related disorders. Recent findings The quality of urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhood factors – physical (e.g. green space), social (e.g. social cohesion) and biological (e.g. stress response) factors – are directly linked to the presence and severity of anxiety disorders, although data on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are pauce. Preliminary data indicate that architectural and space design elements in PTSD can either increase anxiety and lead to trauma triggers o...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - March 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Christopher P. Szabo Source Type: research