Predictors of mental health worsening among children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Purpose of review Restrictions put in place to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have significantly affected the lives of children and adolescents worldwide. School closure, home confinement and social distancing have the potential to negatively impact the mental health of this population. Several risk factors seem to contribute to worsening mental health of children and adolescents, with an increase of anxiety and depression symptoms. This review aims at exploring research available on risk factors that may worsen the mental health among children and adolescents during the pandemic. Recent f...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Recent advances in understanding neural correlates of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents
Purpose of review Anxiety disorders are some of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children and adolescents, but attempts to improve outcome prediction and treatment have stalled. This review highlights recent findings on neural indices related to fear and anxiety that provide novel directions for attempts to create such improvements. Recent findings Stimuli capable of provoking fear engage many brain regions, including the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Studies in rodents suggest that sustained, low-level threats are particularly likely to engage ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Child and adolescent mental health services and systems in low and middle-income countries: from mapping to strengthening
Purpose of review Most of the world's children and adolescents live in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where mental health services are very limited. Here, we reviewed literature over the last 18 months describing the current landscape of child and adolescent mental health services and systems (CAMHSS) in LMICs, and present findings from systems strengthening research. Recent findings The challenges in CAMHSS are well described with little change over the last two decades. Fortunately, research has started to move from ‘mapping’ towards systems ‘strengthening’. Using the WHO Asses...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Psychological and social risk factors associated with development of psychopathology, controlling for biological influence
Purpose of review To evaluate and summarize recent research investigating psychological, social and environmental risk factors for development of psychopathology in childhood, while controlling for biological (genetic) influences by using a matched sibling, twin or adoptee design. Recent findings Nineteen studies were included, of which eleven were longitudinal and eight were cohort studies. Included studies used adequate designs and statistical methods, controlled for unmeasured confounders and, in many cases, for other measured risk factors. None of the studies used the framework for environmental factors pres...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Updates in treatment of depression in children and adolescents
Purpose of review To examine recent evidence that informs the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Recent findings There are no new leads in the prevention and early intervention of depression in children and adolescents. For acute treatment of major depressive disorder, talking therapies are moving increasingly to internet-based platforms. Family therapy may have a slight edge over individual psychotherapy in the short-term. Patients with severe depression with endogenous features have a more robust response to pharmacotherapy than do patients with mild-to-moderate depression. Findings in relati...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Resilience and mental health in children and adolescents: an update of the recent literature and future directions
Purpose of review In order to promote optimal development of children and adolescents at risk for psychiatric disorders, a better understanding of the concept resilience is crucial. Here, we provide an overview of recent work on clinical and epidemiological correlates of resilience and mental health in children and adolescents. Recent findings Our systematic literature search revealed 25 studies that unanimously show that higher levels of resilience are related to fewer mental health problems, despite the heterogeneity of study populations and instruments. Correlates of resilience included multisystem factors, s...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

Editorial: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY: Edited by Richa Bhatia Source Type: research

New developments in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED)
Purpose of review This review summarizes recent developments in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED). More specifically, the past five years were covered, with the latest UK and Dutch guidelines for eating disorders as a starting benchmark, and with special consideration of the past 18 months. Recent findings The new research can be divided into findings that have: (1) reinforced our existing understanding of CBT-ED's models and impact; (2) advanced our understanding and the utility of CBT-ED, including its application for the ‘new’ disorder Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake D...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Anorexia nervosa and comorbid autism spectrum disorders
Purpose of review Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are overrepresented among individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may also moderate the behavioral manifestation of AN. This review aims to provide an overview of AN and comorbid ASD. Recent findings Elevated ASD traits do not seem to precede AN among some individuals but are rather related to the illness stage. However, studies have suggested that there are ASD-specific mechanisms for developing AN in a subgroup of individuals with AN. Pronounced traits of ASD and diagnosed ASD are associated with illness prolongation and poorer outcomes in AN, and i...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Eating disorders, pregnancy and the postnatal period: a review of the recent literature
Purpose of review Eating disorders (ED) are severe psychiatric disorders that affect women in reproductive age. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the impact of maternal ED on pregnancy and the postnatal period. The clinical implications for identification and management of maternal ED are also discussed. Recent findings In the last 2 years, 15 articles focused on the impact of maternal ED in pregnancy and postpartum. Findings from this review indicate that around 15% of pregnant women are likely to have had an ED at some point in their lifetime, and about 5% have an ED in pregnan...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

A systematic review of instruments for the assessment of eating disorders among adults
Purpose of review The availability of psychometrically sound assessment instruments for assessing eating disorder symptomatology is crucial for both clinical practice and research. The purpose of the current review is to provide the reader with a list of psychometrically validated assessments for adults that are available within the field of eating disorders. Eating disorder interviews and self-report questionnaires were identified using online literature searches, reviewing previous review articles, and via research and/or clinical experience of the authors. The focus of the review was on (1) standard assessments that...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Assessment of avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, pica and rumination disorder: interview and questionnaire measures
This article reviews available assessment instruments for three of the feeding and eating disorder diagnostic categories: avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica, and rumination disorder (RD). It includes an overview of the current status of screening tools, questionnaire measures, and diagnostic instruments. Recent findings Screening instruments are available for all three disorders; however, for pica and RD, these typically include single screening items only and do not cover any specific features of these presentations. Only one questionnaire suitable for clinical populations is included, covering...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Epidemiology of binge eating disorder: prevalence, course, comorbidity, and risk factors
Purpose of review Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new diagnosis in the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Recent findings DSM-5 BED is currently estimated to affect 1.5% of women and 0.3% of men worldwide; a lifetime diagnosis of DSM-5 BED is reported by 0.6–1.8% of women and 0.3–0.7% of men. In adolescence, BED is even more prevalent, but often transient. Many adults with BED report longstanding symptoms; less than half are recognized in healthcare. Commonly co-occurring...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
Purpose of review To review the recent literature on the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in terms of incidence, prevalence and mortality. Recent findings Although the overall incidence rate of anorexia nervosa is considerably stable over the past decades, the incidence among younger persons (aged (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EATING DISORDERS: Edited by Hans W. Hoek and Anna Keski-Rahkonen Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Emerging Therapies and challenges for individuals with Angelman syndrome: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Treatment of gambling disorder: review of evidence-based aspects for best practice
Purpose of review Despite a significant body of literature related to the treatment of gambling disorder, there are still an insufficient number of evaluation studies regarding their effectiveness or firm conclusions on specific treatment elements that contribute to it. The aim of this article was to provide a review of scientific results regarding the treatment of gambling disorder, to present the most commonly applied modalities of treatment and to explore the elements of the most successful therapeutic interventions. Recent findings A substantial body of literature has shown that the most successful therapeut...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and microbiome in schizophrenia
Purpose of review Accumulating evidence indicates that there are bidirectional interactions between the gut microbiota and functioning of the central nervous system. Consequently, it has been proposed that gut microbiota alterations might play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Therefore, in this article, we aimed to perform a narrative review of studies addressing gut microbiota alterations in patients with schizophrenia that were published in the years 2019–2020. Recent findings Several studies have shown a number of gut microbiota alterations at various stages of schizophrenia. S...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to review the recent literature on contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders, including novel psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at these vulnerable individuals. Recent findings Among the various psychological theories and models of personality disorders, still the most popular and researched are psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives. More specifically, object relations theory, cognitive schema conceptualization and interpersonal circumplex model have produced the most empirical investigations of personality disorders in rece...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Novel methods of teaching psychiatry to medical and postgraduate students
Purpose of review Global burden of mental illness remains at an all-time high and provision of timely good quality care is a challenge globally. Current methods of medical and post-graduate education in psychiatry worldwide have been inadequate in treating those with mental illness. Enormous gaps exist in provision of high-quality teaching, particularly in poorer countries with many having no access to ongoing teaching and training. Recent findings Technology and changes to curriculum design have transformed student experiences and highlighted the value of online learning. There are many models to consider from ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

‘Falsehood flies, and the truth comes limping after it’: social media and public health
Purpose of review To highlight the various uses of social media by public health practitioners and organizations, with special emphasis on how social media has been successfully applied and where applications have struggled to achieve the desired effects. Recent findings Social media has been used effectively in improving the timeliness and accuracy of public health surveillance. Social media has also been used to communicate information between public health organizations and reinforce consistent messaging about enduring threats to public health. It has been applied with some success to coordinate of disaster r...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Overview of behavioural and psychological consequences of COVID 19
Purpose of review The paper aims to provide an overview of the psychological and behavioural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on variations in behavioural response in different geographical areas due to the existence of different social-cultural contexts. Recent findings Whilst anxiety, depression and economic stressors are common findings worldwide, specific behavioural responses are heavily influenced by government stances, misinformation, conspiratorialism and competing demands of resource scarcity. This has led to very different understandings of the pandemic even in geographically close areas,...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Cognitive-behavioral and related therapies for obsessive–compulsive and related disorders
Purpose of review Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention is the first-line treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We review here recent developments in CBT and related therapies in treating OCD and related disorders. Recent findings Superiority of CBT over medications in treating OCD is being questioned by some recent meta-analyses, nonetheless CBT continues to be the mainstay of treatment. Web-based therapies have been shown to be beneficial in treating at least mild-to-moderately ill patients. Mindf...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Psychosocial interventions for people with a first episode psychosis: between tradition and innovation
Purpose of review Assessing recent evidence on psychosocial interventions for people with first episode psychosis (FEP). Recent findings Family interventions (FI) reduce relapse rates, whilst cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) shows a moderate effect in improving positive psychotic symptoms. Vocational interventions (VI) appear to be worthy of implementation within early intervention for psychosis (EIP) teams, but it is still unclear what is the most cost-effective strategy for their delivery. Promising interventions, which need more careful evaluation, focus on substance misuse, physical health comorbidities, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Recent trends in the management of depression in persons with cancer
Purpose of review Depression is a prevalent comorbidity in cancer that significantly increases the risk for numerous negative health outcomes. This review updates the current evidence base for management of depression in cancer, highlighting new research directions based on the inflammatory hypothesis of depression. Recent findings Research on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for depression in cancer has shown mixed efficacy partly because of methodological issues arising from the phenomenology of depression in cancer. After decades of stagnancy, more recent high-quality clinical trials are beginning to provide...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Editorial
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Barriers, benefits and interventions for improving the delivery of telemental health services during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: a systematic review
Purpose of review To reduce the spread of infection from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mental healthcare facilities were forced to make the rapid transition from face-to-face services to virtual care. This systematic review aims to synthesize the extant literature reporting on barriers of telemental health (TMH) during the COVID-19 pandemic and how facilities have worked to overcome these barriers, to inform best practices for TMH delivery. Recent findings Most recent findings came from case studies from mental health professionals which reported on barriers related to institutional, provider and pati...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

A systematic review of neuropsychological and psychiatric sequalae of COVID-19: implications for treatment
Purpose of review COVID-19 impacts multiple organ systems and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathogenesis of viral infection, co-morbidities, medical treatments, and psychosocial factors may contribute to COVID-19 related neuropsychological and psychiatric sequelae. This systematic review aims to synthesize available literature on psychiatric and cognitive characteristics of community-dwelling survivors of COVID-19 infection. Recent findings Thirty-three studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria for review. Emerging findings link COVID-19 to cognitive deficits, particularly attention, e...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on healthcare workers: systematic comparison between nurses and medical doctors
Purpose of review The COVID-19 outbreak has had major impact on individual's psychological health and overall well being worldwide. Evidence shows that these psychological challenges are especially prominent in healthcare workers (HCW); especially in nurses. Indeed, several studies report that nurses suffer more psychologically because of the consequences of the pandemic compared with medical doctors. To further look into this, we systematically review the recent literature to see whether the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic differs between medical doctors and nurses across studies and which aspects of men...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

The opioid overdose crisis as a global health challenge
Purpose of review To assess the current state of the opioid overdose crisis along three major axes: drug markets and patterns of use, the effectiveness of systems of care, and international developments. Recent findings Overdose is a major contributor to mortality and disability among people who use drugs. The increasing number of opioid overdoses in North America especially is an indication of changing drug markets and failing regional systems of care. Globally, we see three clusters of overdose prevalence: (1) a group of countries led by the United States with historically high rates of opioid overdose, (2) a ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Homelessness: care for the most vulnerable – a narrative review of risk factors, health needs, stigma, and intervention strategies
Purpose of review To summarize the most recent literature on risk factors of homelessness, mental, and somatic health needs, healthcare use, stigma as well as intervention strategies for people experiencing homelessness. Recent findings Studies identified adverse life events as well as mental health problems like drug use or suicidality as significant predictors of becoming homeless. Prevalence rates of mental disorders, especially substance use disorders, psychotic disorders, and depression are high. Barriers of healthcare use are financial resources and insurance status as well as experiences of discrimination...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Early childhood trauma, substance use and complex concurrent disorders among adolescents
Purpose of review To highlight the interdependence between early childhood trauma, substance use and complex concurrent disorders among adolescents and discuss the delayed response and gaps in the healthcare system. Recent findings High-risk behavior such as suicidality, self-harm and hazardous substance use including overdose and the use of psychotropic substances for self-medication of mental health challenges is a growing concern. These symptoms are often related to early childhood trauma, substance use and complex concurrent disorders. Most countries do not have a youth mental healthcare system, there are no...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

The effects of substance use on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection risks and outcomes
Purpose of review Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) infection rates are currently occurring at alarmingly accelerated rates. There is also a long-standing and concurrent rise in the prevalence and severity of substance use disorders (SUD). Therefore, the intersection between these two conditions needs to be carefully considered to ensure a more effective delivery of healthcare. Recent findings Generally, those with SUDs are more likely to have higher risk social determinants of health factors. Therefore, these patients are more likely to have barriers that can create difficulties in follo...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on alcohol use disorders and complications
Purpose of review To understand the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on persons with alcohol use disorders. Recent findings From a total of 455 titles on COVID-19 and alcohol, 227 abstracts were screened, and 95 articles were reviewed (on November 25th, 2020). The immediate effect was an increase in alcohol related emergencies including alcohol withdrawal, related suicides, and methanol toxicity. Although there are mixed findings with respect to changes in the quantity of drinking, there are reports of binge/heavy drinking during the lockdown as well as relapse postlockdown. Psychological, social, biolog...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Maintaining treatment and prevention programs for opioid use disorders during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Purpose of review The current article reviews the impact of the biggest health crisis for many decades, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), on opioid treatment programs and the strategies adopted for maintaining opioid treatment programs during the pandemic. Recent findings The difficulty of access to opioid treatment services and the mental health problems accompanying opioid use disorders are the two main challenges to maintaining accessible and effective opioid treatment. Many countries and institutions issued guidance and recommendations to address these challenges. General coping strategies, loosening of p...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Who complies with coronavirus disease 2019 precautions and who does not?
Purpose of review Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus imposes a higher risk of complications and mortality among people with mental disorders. Until widely available vaccines, adherence to preventive behaviours remains the most crucial tool to prevent SARS/COVID-19 virus transmission. Our review focuses on the determinants of adherence behaviours. Recent findings Adherence behaviours include the use of a face mask and protective gloves, personal hygienic behaviours (handwashing or using hand sanitiser), and keeping physical distance and avoiding social gatheri...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Opioids in the United Kingdom: safety and surveillance during COVID-19
Purpose of review Opioid use is prevalent in the United Kingdom and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic it had been recognized that the safety of opioids was an important issue to be monitored by the UK medicines regulatory agency. With the emergence of COVID-19, this requirement has been even greater. This review was undertaken to determine the impact of the pandemic on safety and surveillance of opioids in the United Kingdom. Recent findings During the COVID-19 pandemic, the surveillance of opioids in the United Kingdom continued, although primary research was often conducted with data prior to the pandemic. Of tho...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Substance use, mental disorders and COVID-19: a volatile mix
Purpose of review The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have uniquely and disproportionately affected vulnerable populations. This review summarizes recent evidence on the relationship between psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders and COVID-19, highlighting acute and long-term risks, pharmacotherapy interactions and implications regarding appropriate and timely evidence-based treatment. Recent findings Evidence points to a complex relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders and COVID-19. A range of risk factors associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders increase...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

The rise of illicit fentanyls, stimulants and the fourth wave of the opioid overdose crisis
Purpose of review This review provides an update on recently published literature on the rise of illicit fentanyls, risks for overdose, combinations with other substances, e.g. stimulants, consequences, and treatment. Recent findings Overdose due to illicit synthetic opioids (e.g. fentanyl and fentanyl analogs) continues to rise in the US both preceding and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fentanyl-related overdose is rising in new geographic areas e.g. the western USA. Stimulant-related overdose is also increasing nationwide driven by methamphetamine and cocaine. Polysubstance use, e.g. the use of a stimulant alon...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

The impact of COVID-19 on gambling and gambling disorder: emerging data
Purpose of review The lockdown response to the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted commercial gambling in many jurisdictions around the world. The goal of this review is to systematically identify and describe the survey data and findings to date examining the effect on individual gambling and gambling disorder. Recent findings Of the 17 publications meeting inclusion criteria, the majority reported cross-sectional assessments (n = 11, 65%) and remainder were longitudinal in that they had earlier gambling data for participants (n = 6, 35%). Not surprisingly given the closure of land-based gambli...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Converging public health crises: substance use during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Purpose of review The international, public health crisis caused by the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in unforeseen medical and psychiatric consequences. We reviewed publications from January 2020 to January 2021, given that earlier documents were not relevant, to review findings on changes in substance use and overdoses during the pandemic. Additionally, this review of the literature also documents advocacy efforts, health service modification and challenges, as well as COVID-related health complications associated with substance use. Recent findings Recent work focused on identifying changes in the d...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Childhood disadvantage, neurocognitive development and neuropsychiatric disorders: Evidence of mechanisms
Purpose of review Children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged households have excess risks of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric problems. The purpose of this review is to synthesize evidence for mechanisms that may contribute to these excess risks. Recent findings The majority of the 60 studies included in our review focused on children's neurocognitive development and behavioural problems. About half conducted mediation analyses of factors in the family and neighbourhood environments, including access to resources (e.g. cognitive inputs within the home environment) and exposure to stressors (e.g. n...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Suicide prevention efforts in the United States and their effectiveness
This article reviews recent work about these contributors to suicide and how they may inform prevention efforts. Recent findings Current research has shown that suicide is more than a mental health problem with a psychiatric or medical solution. Universal screening and referral by gatekeepers target a large group with a low baseline risk, and there are few treatments proven to reduce death by suicide, as well as a severe shortage of mental health providers in the United States to provide them. Instead, suicide prevention polices can target various other factors that contribute to elevated suicide risk at the populat...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Urbanization and mental health as a research problem in Latin America (with a focus on Brazil)
Purpose of review The basic hypothesis of this paper is that, in Latin America, the nature of the set of variables or determinants regarding the relationships of urbanization (and correlated processes of social change, modernization, acculturation, and economic inclusion) and mental health varies with the political context or historical phase considered. To assess the validity of the hypothesis, I propose a periodization of the economic, political, and social changes that occurred in Latin America in the past decades. Recent findings A brief review of recent studies on social determinants of mental health (with ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Urbanization and eating disorders: a scoping review of studies from 2019 to 2020
Purpose of review This review scoped recent (2019–2020) literature investigating the association between urbanization and eating disorders, and the putative role of urbanization as a direct or indirect risk factor. Recent findings There are few epidemiological studies which investigated adequately direct or indirect association between urban domicile and eating disorders. Findings suggest that urbanization is a complex phenomenon and its effects on eating behaviour are indirect, for example, because of other important social and environmental features, such as the amount of ‘green’ space, &lsqu...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Future perspectives of robot psychiatry: can communication robots assist psychiatric evaluation in the COVID-19 pandemic era?
Purpose of review Direct face-to-face interview between a psychiatrist and a patient is crucial in psychiatric evaluation, however, such traditional interviews are becoming difficult to conduct because of the infection risk in the COVID-19 era. As telepsychiatry, video interviews using internet are suggested to be useful to evaluate and assist individuals with mental disorders. However, some patients especially with social phobia, depression, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hesitate to use even such face-to-face-like tools. Communication robots have been proposed as future assistant tools for such patients. Herein, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Editorial: Cities and population mental health: present and future
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari and Sandro Galea Source Type: research

Ageing with schizophrenia: an update
Purpose of review The aim of this review was to summarize the recent literature on the clinical symptoms, functioning, outcomes and treatments for older adults with chronic schizophrenia. Recent findings The number and proportion of older adults with schizophrenia is rapidly increasing. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder and older adults with schizophrenia display significant variability in symptom severity, quality of life and overall outcomes. Many achieve stable disease remission, some display persistent nonremission and others experience fluctuating symptoms. Depression is commonly reported, and altho...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research