Psychological treatment strategies for challenging behaviours in neurodevelopmental disorders: what lies beyond a purely behavioural approach? Clarification in response to Tincani, Travers and Dowdy
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: DISCUSSION Source Type: research

Do we need to go beyond a purely behavioral approach? A response to Woodcock and Blackwell
In their recent review, ‘Psychological treatment strategies for challenging behaviours in neurodevelopmental disorders: what lies beyond a purely behavioural approach?’ Woodcock and Blackwell discuss supposed deficiencies in applied behavior analysis (ABA) and positive behavior support (PBS) to address challenging behavior. This commentary highlights problems with Woodcock and Blackwell's critique based on substantial evidence that behavioral approaches including ABA and PBS are often the best available solution for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders who display challenging behavior. (Source: Current...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: DISCUSSION Source Type: research

Introduction to: exchange between Tincani and Woodcock
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: DISCUSSION Source Type: research

Digital technology for management of severe mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries
Purpose of review Increasingly, digital technologies, especially mobile telecommunications and smartphone apps, are seen as a novel tool for managing severe mental disorders (SMDs) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is a need to identify best practices in the use of digital technologies to effectively reach, support, and manage care for patients living with SMDs. In this review, we summarize recent studies using digital technology to manage symptoms and support clinical care for this patient population and discuss new opportunities to advance digital psychiatry research and practice in LMIC...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Community mental healthcare: new developments and innovative strategies
Purpose of review The aim of this scoping review was to identify and map the available evidence on recent innovations in community mental healthcare across the globe. Recent findings This review highlights the different innovative approaches and strategies being currently used in the field of community mental health. Key approaches found in the reviewed studies include collaborative care with the inclusion of peer workers, growing use of e-health and telepsychiatry, improved reforms on national mental health policies and de-institutionalization, modification of outreach models and mental health promotion in the commun...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

The onset and accumulation of physical multimorbidity in severe and common mental disorders
Purpose of review Despite of the heightened risks and burdens of physical comorbidities across the entire spectrum of mental disorders, relatively little is known about physical multimorbidity in this population. The aim of this narrative review is to present recent data regarding the onset and accumulation of physical multimorbidity and to assess its impact on the onset, course, treatment, and outcomes of mental disorders. Recent findings A substantial body of literature shows increased risk of physical multimorbidity among people with mental disorders. The disparity in physical multimorbidity occurs even before the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Structural imaging of the retina in psychosis spectrum disorders: current status and perspectives
Purpose of review Structural changes of the retina in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders seem plausible as these conditions are accompanied by widespread morphological abnormalities of the brain. Advances in structural retinal imaging have led to the possibility of precise quantification of individual retinal layers, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanners. Recent findings The aggregation of information related to OCT findings in schizophrenia has resulted in three metaanalyses, which are currently described. Areas where retinal changes were reported include retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglio...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Influence of social media on mental health: a systematic review
Purpose of review Social media's role in a user's life has increased dramatically over the past decade. It is used increasingly as a leisure activity amongst young adults. The types of social media have also diversified with time and the ease of access is worrying. Aim of the current review is to find the effect of social media use on mental health. Recent findings Systematic search of articles was carried out from different database from 1991 to February 2020 across five databases. The PICO guidelines, PRISMA flow diagram and Rayyan software were used in identifying relevant studies which were assessed using the risk...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Recent advances in diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome
Purpose of review This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome, with a focus on dietary and microbiota aspects. Recent findings From a pathophysiological point of view, IBS is a multifactorial condition with both peripheral (transit) as central (visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, depression) contribution in a cumulative fashion to the symptom pattern and severity. More recently, the focus has shifted to diet and microbiota. The number of dietary options that can be used for IBS and the understanding of determinants of their efficacy is rapidly increasing. Several ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Improving the physical health of the mentally ill: recent advances
Purpose of review This review of the literature examines the most recent advances in the battle to improve the physical health of people with severe mental illness. Covering the 2018/2019 time period, the article offers a glance of future healthcare models and research directions. Recent findings A systematic search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases, along with additional journal articles available online but not yet allocated to a journal edition, produced a total of 24 journal articles suitable for review. The review period was from January 2018 to December 2019. The four main themes of investigation, interventio...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Evolution of bodily distress disorders
Purpose of review The nomenclature and classification of somatoform disorders have undergone revisions in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM 5) and the upcoming eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The present review describes the changes that have evolved and highlight the possible challenges. Recent findings Bodily distress disorders replace the term somatoform disorders. The emphasis on the symptoms to be medically unexplained has been removed. The need to have a certain number of symptoms associated with different organ systems has made way to the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Developments in diagnosis and treatment of people with borderline personality disorder
Purpose of review Borderline personality disorder (BPD) attracts significant attention from clinicians and researchers alike. Despite increased recognition and willingness to diagnose BPD, most effective treatment approaches remain inaccessible to most. We consider recent developments in the diagnosis and treatment of BPD. Recent findings A literature search of EMBASE and PsychINFO, using the search terms ‘borderline personality disorder,’ ‘diagnosis’ and ‘treatment’ for publications since October 2018, yielded over 300 articles and reviews. The literature highlights the increasing ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Editorial
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PSYCHIATRY, MEDICINE AND THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES: Edited by Mohan Isaac and Igor Filipcic Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The role of diet in preventing and reducing cognitive decline
Purpose of review This review summarises the most recent evidence regarding the effects of diet in preventing and reducing age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates that nutraceuticals and whole diet approaches may protect against the development of age-related cognitive decline and pathological neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects are diverse depending on the nutrient employed and may involve a reduction of neuroinflammation, an activation of the endogenous antioxidant defence system and a modulation of the gut microbiota structure and function. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Source Type: research

Digital interventions in adult mental healthcare settings: recent evidence and future directions
Purpose of review Internet and mobile-based interventions (IMI) can be used as online delivered forms of psychotherapeutic mental health treatments. These interventions can be an effective as well as time and cost-efficient treatment with the potential to scale up mental healthcare. In this review, we map implementation possibilities into routine mental healthcare settings and provide the most recent evidence. Recent findings Fourteen articles on digital mental healthcare approaches published in the last 18 months were included. Despite the limited number, the studies provide evidence for the effectiveness of IMI in t...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Psychosocial therapies in severe mental illness: update on evidence and recommendations
Purpose of review To provide an overview of the update of the evidence-based and consensus-based German S3 guideline on psychosocial therapies for severe mental illnesses (SMI), with particular attention to current developments and future research tasks. Recent findings There has been a significant increase in studies on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of people with SMI. In the guideline a distinction is made between system-level interventions (e.g. multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care) and single-handed (nonteam-based) interventions (e.g. psychoeducation). Furthermore,...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Technostress at work and mental health: concepts and research results
This article describes the concept of technostress and discusses possible risks and opportunities of digital technologies at work and their effect on mental health. Recent findings Studies report that the use of digital technologies is associated with specific psychosocial demands (e.g. higher workload, complexity, conflicts between work and other life domains) and resulting psychobiological stress reactions. It is, however, still unclear if this kind of technostress causes mental disorders because epidemiological studies are missing. Yet, an increasing number of studies suggests that well designed digital work may prom...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Forty-five years later: the challenge of optimizing assertive community treatment
Purpose of review: Assertive Community Treatment is an established evidenced based practice that provides intensive community treatment for individuals with severe mental illness with recurrent hospitalizations and/or homelessness. Emerging evidence indicates limitations in its implementation in terms of to the original ACT model and its current relevance. Recent findings: Findings from recent studies (2018–2020) reveals challenges with implementation centered around basic implementation activities, such as changes in the psychosocial context of individuals with SMI, clinicians’ abilities to demonstrate co...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

The effectiveness, feasibility and scalability of the school platform in adolescent mental healthcare
Purpose of review Schools are increasingly at the forefront of mental healthcare for young people internationally. This review aims to describe recent developments in school-based mental health activities to respond to mental health needs in adolescents, with a focus on empirical studies aimed at preventing, ameliorating or treating mental disorders. Recent findings The field is characterized by substantial heterogeneity in program design and research methods. Evidence for effectiveness of single-faceted school-based mental health programs is equivocal. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported mixed f...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

The future of community psychiatry and community mental health services
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to provide a framework and analysis of a series of critical components to inform the future design, development, sustaining, and monitoring of community mental health services. Recent findings Many mental health services remain too hospital-centric, often without adequate outreach services. On the basis of outcome evidence, we need to shift the balance of mental health services from hospital-centered with community outreach when convenient for staff, to community-centered and mobile, with in-reach to hospital only when necessary. Too few training programs those with emphasi...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

Can machine-learning methods really help predict suicide?
Purpose of review In recent years there has been interest in the use of machine learning in suicide research in reaction to the failure of traditional statistical methods to produce clinically useful models of future suicide. The current review summarizes recent prediction studies in the suicide literature including those using machine learning approaches to understand what value these novel approaches add. Recent findings Studies using machine learning to predict suicide deaths report area under the curve that are only modestly greater than, and sensitivities that are equal to, those reported in studies using more co...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: PROVISION OF SERVICES TO PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESSES: Edited by Giovanni de Girolamo and Thomas Becker Source Type: research

World vaping update
Purpose of review Although death and injury related to e-cigarette use and vaping products has decreased since the peak in 2019, concern over the popularity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS – a term which includes vape pens, electronic or e-cigarettes, and products that produce vapor for inhaling rather than combusting to produce smoke) continues. ENDS are used as an aid to quit smoking and for harm reduction. Recent findings This review covers peer-reviewed literature from January 2019 through February 2020 on vaping (the process of using ENDS). Prevalence, risk factors for use, and health risks an...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Current cannabis-related situation in the Asia-Pacific region
We present information on cannabis policy, demand, and supply in the Asia-Pacific region. Method A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using PubMed, MEDLINE, and reliable sources was conducted. We classified the policy implemented in each country into conducting research, legalization of medical and recreational use, decriminalization, cultivation, and others. Recent findings In Australia, New Zealand, and Thailand, medical use has been approved, whereas it is limited in South Korea and Singapore and illegal in other countries. Except Australia, none of the Asia-Pacific region countries allows recreational us...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

New psychoactive substances in Australia: patterns and characteristics of use, adverse effects, and interventions to reduce harm
Purpose of review To summarize the most recent peer-review literature on new psychoactive substances (NPS) within Australia. Recent findings NPS use among the general Australian population is low, yet more pervasive among specific subpopulations. There is considerable heterogeneity among people who use NPS, however, overall, they are not unique from those who use more established illicit drugs. NPS have been shown to be highly adulterated, used as contaminants, variable in dose, and changeable as to the specific substances available over time. Further, analyses of coroners’ cases highlight the importance of cons...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Machine-learning approaches to substance-abuse research: emerging trends and their implications
Purpose of review To provide an accessible overview of some of the most recent trends in the application of machine learning to the field of substance use disorders and their implications for future research and practice. Recent findings Machine-learning (ML) techniques have recently been applied to substance use disorder (SUD) data for multiple predictive applications including detecting current abuse, assessing future risk and predicting treatment success. These models cover a wide range of machine-learning techniques and data types including physiological measures, longitudinal surveys, treatment outcomes, national...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Advances in prescription drug monitoring program research: a literature synthesis (June 2018 to December 2019)
Purpose of review Nearly every U.S. state operates a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to monitor dispensing of controlled substances. These programs are often considered key policy levers in the ongoing polydrug epidemic. Recent years have seen rapid growth of peer-reviewed literature examining PDMP consultation and the impacts of these programs on diverse patient populations and health outcomes. This literature synthesis presents a review of studies published from June 2018 to December 2019 and provides relevant updates from the perspective of three researchers in this field. Recent findings The analyzed s...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Introducing the National Drug Early Warning System
This article provides an overview of four primary NDEWS components: core staff; an approach to detecting and monitoring emerging drug trends including community-based epidemiologists and national databases; small rapid follow-up studies; and innovative multimedia approaches for disseminating information. Recent findings The cornerstones for detecting and monitoring are the 1700+ member NDEWS Network and a coalition of local epidemiologists. Follow-up studies are designed with local researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on local trends. Among NDEWS accomplishments are developing protocols for expanded uri...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): worldwide issues
Purpose of review To inform readers about the increasingly popular Western dietary supplement, kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and how the products are available in the Western world compared with traditional Southeast Asian use. Kratom has been traditionally used for increasing stamina of outdoor laborers (farmers), mood enhancement, pain, and opium addiction. Interestingly, kratom has been reported to have a paradoxical effect in that stimulant feelings, and sedative feelings can be obtained depending on the amount utilized. There are several biologically active alkaloids present in kratom. Recent findings Recent studie...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

New psychoactive substances in Taiwan: challenges and strategies
Purpose of review Abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been a new global concern. So far, there has been no international consensus on legislative control of NPS. Scrutiny of Taiwan's illegal drug use history reveals that legislation and policy play an important role in tackling the drug issues. Recent findings Since the early 2000s, use of club drugs (mostly NPS) has become popular in local rave parties and dance clubs in Taiwan. Some NPS, such as ketamine, synthetic cathinones, and para-methoxymethamphetamine, have posed a risk to public health and a challenge to drug policy. Summary The illegal drug us...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Drug checking to detect fentanyl and new psychoactive substances
Purpose of review Drug checking services invite drug consumers to anonymously submit drug samples for chemical analysis and provide feedback of results. Drugs are tested for strength/dose and/or presence of adulterants. Drug checking appears to be more common in recent years in response to increases in fentanyl-related deaths and the proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We aim to provide information regarding the current state of drug checking in relation to analysis methods, adulteration rates, and behavioral responses to results. Recent findings Various technologies are being used to detect the presen...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Global strategy for New Psychoactive Substances: an update
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent trends of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and the current global strategies implemented to manage them. Recent findings The number of NPS has increased from 166 in 2009 to 892 in 2018, with about 36% having stimulant effects. Such trend revels some unprecedented patterns. The decline in the emergence of new synthetic cannabinoids has coincided with rising deaths due to overdose of fentanyl and non-fentanyl compounds in North America and Europe. The detection of new stimulant NPS has stabilized since 2015. Although the level of seizures of mep...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADDICTIVE DISORDERS: Edited by John B. Saunders and Linda B. Cottler Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry and its impact on mental health in China
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Passive antiamyloid immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease
Purpose of review Antiamyloid therapy of Alzheimer's disease tackles the overproduction and clearance of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). Immunotherapeutic compounds were tested in large-scale trials. We revisit the recent literature focusing on randomized-controlled trials (RCT) using monoclonal anti-Aβ antibodies. Recent findings Forty-three articles on anti-Aβ passive immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease were published between January 2016 and October 2019 regarding 17 RCTs: 13 phase III trials using the monoclonal antibodies bapineuzumab, solanezumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab, and aducanumab; three p...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Source Type: research

Down syndrome and dementia: advances in the field
Purpose of review People with Down syndrome represent the world's largest population with a genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. This review will provide a short summary of what is known and will include recent findings from the field. Recent findings There has been an increasing focus on biomarker research in this population, with a number of studies presenting findings on promising new markers – Neurofilament Light (NfL) appears to be one such promising marker that has emerged. Imaging studies have increased our knowledge on the progression of Alzheimer's disease in this population. Summary The inclusion o...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Source Type: research

The importance of faith-based mental healthcare in African urbanized sites
Purpose of review This review highlights what current research says about how local beliefs and norms can facilitate expansion of mental healthcare to meet the large unmet need for services in Africa. Recent findings In contemporary Africa, religious beliefs exert important influences on mental health as well as the way people with mental illnesses are viewed and cared for. Mental healthcare practices based on traditional and other religious beliefs, and offered by complementary and alternative health providers (CAPs), reflect the people's culture and are often preferentially sought by a majority of the population. De...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

Internet society, internet addiction, and pathological social withdrawal: the chicken and egg dilemma for internet addiction and hikikomori
Purpose of review Internet society has made our daily life more convenient, while its negative consequences especially internet, smartphone, and gaming addiction are emerging. At the same time, the phenomenon of pathological social withdrawal called ‘hikikomori’ has been increasingly highlighted as a problematic behavior in Japan. Now hikikomori is becoming a global mental health issue. The interaction between internet society, internet addiction, and hikikomori has not been well clarified. Recent findings A case vignette survey among psychiatrists suggested that hikikomori cases could be comorbid with int...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

How can schools be integrated in promoting well-being, preventing mental health problems and averting substance-use disorders in urban populations?
Purpose of review Mental health and substance use problems are among the most prevalent and challenging problems faced by both high-income and low-income countries worldwide. This review will focus on summarizing scattered evidence of school-based interventions to promote well-being and prevent mental health problems and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. Recent findings We focus on two main areas of research: promotion of healthy school climate and prevention of bullying. Choosing among available interventions might be challenging, both because of the difficulties in assessing their efficacy and tai...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

Proneness, urbanicity, trauma, and cannabis triggering psychotic states in large urban centers
Purpose of review The two past decades have seen the production of a vast amount of evidence about the genetic and nongenetic factors that contribute to the onset of psychosis from various fields of research. The present article reviews recent evidence from four of these fields that were shown to be strongly associated with psychosis: proneness, urbanicity, trauma, and cannabis use. Recent findings The evidence reviewed shows that all four sets of factors investigated here are implicated in the occurrence of psychosis. The specificity and complexity of these associations, however, are not yet clear and recent findings...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

Posttraumatic stress disorder in urban women
Purpose of review To provide an update of recent or relevant studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in urban women, with a special focus on biopsychosocial risk factors. Recent findings Urbanization itself can increase the risk for PTSD due to the concentration of poverty, substance use and crime. Women are usually at a greater social and economic disadvantage and are victims of collective and domestic violence more often than men. Accordingly, urban women are more exposed to traumatic events that increase the prevalence of PTSD than rural women and both rural and urban men, especially those with lack of soci...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

Urbanization, urbanicity, and depression: a review of the recent global literature
Purpose of review One of the defining trends of population movement in the last half century has been global urbanization. Depression is the most common mental disorder in the world, but it is unclear how urbanization and urban living affect depression outcomes. Grounded in a previously articulated conceptual framework, we systematically reviewed recently published studies on urbanization, urbanicity, and depression. Recent findings Eleven articles were included in this review. Four studies found that living in urban areas was associated with elevated odds or more symptoms of depression. Three studies – all done...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

Editorial: Mental health in big cities
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry)
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: Edited by Jair Mari Source Type: research

Antipsychotics and the microbiota
Purpose of review The gut microbiota has been speculated to underpin metabolic changes associated with chronic antipsychotic use. The change in the gut microbiota can also cause abnormal absorbtion from the gut into the blood stream (leaky gut syndrome) that can lead to inflammatory reactions, and thus, secondary damage to the brain and central nervous system. Our article aims to highlight relevant research on antipsychotic's effect on the microbiota and to point out future directions. Recent findings Antipsychtoic use can result in specific microbiota changes, and it is important to differentiate this from the innate...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Opioid use and schizophrenia
Purpose of review To summarize the current literature regarding comorbid schizophrenia and opioid use disorder (OUD). Recent findings Epidemiological evidence is unclear on whether patients with schizophrenia have a higher rate of OUD. Patients with OUD have been shown to have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia. However, it is clear that patients with both schizophrenia and OUD are less likely to receive standard of care including medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opiate use disorder and have worse outcomes compared with patients with schizophrenia who do not abuse opioids. OUD significantly increases the...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Anomalies in language as a biomarker for schizophrenia
This article reviews current advances in evaluating the use of language as a diagnostic or prognostic tool in schizophrenia. Recent findings The development of computational linguistic tools to quantify language disturbances is rapidly gaining ground in the field of schizophrenia research. Current applications are the use of semantic space models and acoustic analyses focused on phonetic markers. These features are used in machine learning models to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls or to predict conversion to psychosis in high-risk groups, reaching accuracy scores (generally ranging from 80 ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Deafferentation as a cause of hallucinations
Purpose of review The association between hallucinations and sensory loss, especially vision- and hearing-impairment, has been firmly established over the past years. The deafferentation theory, a decrease of the threshold for activation in the brain and the consequential imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory brain networks, is hypothesized to underly this relationship. Here we review the studies investigating this theory with a focus on the most recent literature to better understand the contribution of sensory loss to hallucinations. Recent findings A large cross-sectional study has recently confirmed the rela...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Dopamine D2 up-regulation in psychosis patients after antipsychotic drug treatment
Purpose of review Recently, it has been questioned whether the re-emergence of psychotic symptoms following antipsychotic discontinuation or dose reduction is attributable to underlying psychotic vulnerability or to rebound effects of chronic use of antipsychotic medication. It was repeatedly shown that relapse rates are high after discontinuation of maintenance treatment. A potential contributing factor could be the increase in density of postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum and the higher affinity of D2 receptors for dopamine after chronic blockade. Recent findings To date, little clinical evidence is ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Do we need sex-oriented clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia?
Purpose of review Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) do not usually offer a sex-specific approach for the management of schizophrenia. With this narrative review, we aim to give an integrated and synthesized overview of the current state of knowledge regarding sex-specific aspects in schizophrenia and how this topic may be adapted in the development of CPGs. Recent findings Recent studies further suggest sex-specific differences in epidemiologic features, the course of illness, underlying pathomechanisms, response likelihood to antipsychotic medication and differences in tolerability. Beyond this, selective estrogen ...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Cannabidiol as a treatment option for schizophrenia: recent evidence and current studies
Purpose of review The most recent studies published or initiated in the last 18 months, investigating cannabidiol in the treatment of symptoms of schizophrenia and related conditions are summarized, including observed tolerability and reported side-effects. Recent findings Recent studies focused on patients with sub-acute psychotic syndromes of schizophrenia, clinical high-risk state for psychosis (CHR-P), or frequent cannabis users, as well as cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia. There is further, although not consistent evidence for cannabidiol-reducing positive symptoms, but not negative symptoms. Eviden...
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry - April 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Lynn E. DeLisi and Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research