Autism: considerations for transitions of care into adulthood: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental outcomes in congenital heart disease through the lens of single ventricle patients
Purpose of review This review aims to summarize and organize the current body of literature on this contemporary topic, alongside a more general discussion of neurodevelopmental complications of congenital heart disease. Recent findings It is theorized that the causes of the neurodevelopment disabilities are multifactorial resulting from structural central nervous system abnormalities, haemodynamic alterations and/or biochemical changes. It is therefore imperative that all patients with single ventricle anatomy and physiology receive long-term neurologic and developmental assessments in addition to their cardiac...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

So your patient is a gamer: an exploration of benefits and harms
Purpose of review The appropriate amount and type of screen time for children remains a persistent topic of discussion between parents and pediatricians. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screen time has considerably increased. The need to quarantine and utilize remote learning prompted our review of the basis for current screen time recommendations and more recent research. Recent findings The broad stroke of recent research points to an association of increased video game screen time with sedentary lifestyle and its related harms. However, there also are specific instances where video games have been found to be t...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

Managing abnormal liver tests in children with inflammatory bowel disease
Purpose of review Liver test abnormalities in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are usually insidious in onset. By the time that symptoms referable to liver disease have appeared, the liver injury may be well advanced. It is, therefore, important that children with an incidental finding of abnormal liver tests are investigated in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent findings The most prevalent cause of liver test elevations in paediatric IBD is immune-related liver disease, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Although less common...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research

Recent advances in the use of ultrasound and related techniques in diagnosing and predicting outcomes in biliary atresia
Purpose of review Biliary atresia (BA) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease and the most common indication for pediatric liver transplantation. The use of ultrasound (US) and related techniques continues to evolve to help diagnose BA as well as potentially to help predict outcomes after treatment with the Kasai portoenterostomy (KP). Recent findings There are no US findings that are definitive for BA; however, signs which are consistent with BA include gallbladder abnormalities, the triangular cord sign, presence of hepatic subcapsular flow, and hilar lymphadenopathy. Elastography techniques to measure ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research

Paediatric polyposis syndromes: burden of disease and current concepts
Purpose of review Polyposis syndromes are rare but significant entities that often present during childhood and adolescence. Polyposis syndromes should remain high on the differential diagnoses for any child presenting with rectal bleeding, protein-losing enteropathy or intussusception in the setting of multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract. There are three primary paediatric polyposis syndromes: Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS), Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). This review will cover recent guidelines for these conditions and advances in genetic testing. Recent finding...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research

New therapies for esophageal strictures in children
We present new evidence about adjuvant treatments for recurrent and refractory strictures, including endoscopic incisional therapy, esophageal stenting, intralesional or topical mytomicin C and intralesional, systemic or topical steroids. Recent findings Current evidence on esophageal dilations is not sufficient to establish superiority of one of the available techniques, especially the use of balloon or bougie dilators, but a prospective international cohort study on anastomotic stricture in esophageal atresia is underway to address this issue. Recurrent and refractory strictures still represent a challenge, since ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research

Use of advanced cardiac imaging in congenital heart disease: growth, indications and innovations
Purpose of review Significant improvements in the diagnosis and management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have led to improved survival. These patients require life-long noninvasive evaluation. The use of advanced imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has increased to support this need. The purpose of this review is to discuss the basics of advanced cardiac imaging, indications and review the recent innovations. Recent findings Recent literature has demonstrated the increasing reliance of advanced imaging for CHD patients. In addition, res...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE: Edited by Alan Friedman Source Type: research

An introduction to and review of cardiac neurodevelopment: the risks and recommended approaches
Purpose of review To introduce the reader to the current understanding of the neurocognitive profile of congenital heart disease (CHD) survivors, the risk factors that may influence outcomes, and to the recommendations for cardiac neurodevelopmental care. Recent findings A growing body of literature has shown that survivors of CHD are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Multiple elements influence each patient's risk, which likely begins in utero and extends to perioperative management, surgical considerations, and long-term clinical care. Additionally, sociodemographic factors may compound the...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE: Edited by Alan Friedman Source Type: research

Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery: learning from the past to make advances in the future
Purpose of review To review anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) anatomy, prevalence, mechanism and risk of ischemia, presentation, evaluation, management, and future directions. Recent findings Although most anatomic variants of AAOCA are benign, a small number are associated with increased risk of sudden death. A complete evaluation, including the use of advanced noninvasive imaging and provocative testing should be performed on nearly every patient with AAOCA. On the basis of recent studies, the ischemic risk appears to be greatest with a left anomalous coronary artery but an anomalous right c...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE: Edited by Alan Friedman Source Type: research

Editorial: Improving congenital cardiac care through a commitment to quality and safety
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE: Edited by Alan Friedman Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - September 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Sudden unexpected death in children: myth or reality?
Purpose of review Despite many years of study, sudden unexplained death remains a tenuous diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we discuss the current science behind the uncertainties of sudden death, as well as the questions that still remain. Recent findings Failure in any part of the complex interplay between peripheral sensors and central cardiorespiratory regulation can result in sudden death. Diagnostic testing with electrocardiograms, electroencephalogram, sleep studies, or even genetic studies have increased our ability to identify patients at the highest risk. Summary Advances in the understanding of sud...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

Wandering behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities
Purpose of review Approximately one in four children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ‘elope’ or wander away from supervision each year; however, many caregivers do not receive adequate information on how to address wandering behavior. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available research on elopement frequency, wandering patterns, and interventions to provide pediatricians and other childcare professionals with appropriate strategies to address wandering behavior. Recent findings Despite the high prevalence of wandering by children with ASD or other developmental disabilities, there i...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

Genetic evaluation in children with short stature
Purpose of review Short stature is a common clinical manifestation in children. Yet, a cause is often unidentifiable in the majority of children with short stature by a routine screening approach. The purpose of this review is to describe the optimal genetic approach for evaluating short stature, challenges of genetic testing, and recent advances in genetic testing for short stature. Recent findings Genetic testing, such as karyotype, chromosomal microarray, targeted gene sequencing, or exome sequencing, has served to identify the underlying genetic causes of short stature. When determining which short stature p...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

The link between obesity and puberty: what is new?
The objective of this review is to assess the most recent literature on pubertal trends in boys and girls as well as evaluate genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors implicated in the timing of pubertal progression. Recent findings Recent studies confirm the previously described link between increased adiposity and earlier onset of puberty in girls, and more recent studies shed light onto the previously unclear situation in boys as a preponderance of recent longitudinal studies suggests that increased adiposity is linked with earlier pubertal timing also in boys. Discoveries of novel pathways highlights the c...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children
Purpose of review In this review, we outline the usage and formulations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) in central precocious puberty (CPP), short stature, and gender diverse individuals, as well as adverse effects, long-term outcomes, and monitoring of therapy. There is a particular focus on citing references published within the last 24 months. Recent findings Long-acting formulations of GnRHa now include Federal Drug Administration approval for subcutaneous injections. Significant adverse events continue to be rarely reported; extremely rare events include arterial hypertension and pseudo...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

The effects of amiodarone on thyroid function in pediatric and adolescent patients
Purpose of review Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction is well established. The present review discusses recent literature related to the effects of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid function in pediatrics. Recent findings Current guidelines in adults treated with amiodarone recommend baseline thyroid function testing followed by initiation of thyroid hormone monitoring after 3 months on therapy. Two retrospective studies to evaluate amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in children and young adults reveal thyroid dysfunction as soon as 2 weeks after amiodarone initiation with a greater percentage...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas
Purpose of review Great progress has been made in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGLs). This review highlights the new standards in the diagnosis and management of pediatric PPGLs. Recent findings The vast majority of pediatric PPGLs have an associated germline mutation, making genetic studies imperative in the work up of these tumors. Somatostatin receptor-based imaging modalities such as 68Ga-DOTATATE and 64Cu-DOTATATE are shown to have the greatest sensitivity in pediatric PPGLs. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapies (PRRTs) such as 177Lu-DOTATATE are ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

Recent updates in the management of infants and children with hyperinsulinism
Purpose of review To highlight recent advances in early diagnosis and the changing treatment paradigm for hyperinsulinism (HI) which can result in shorter hospitalizations, higher rates of cure and improved neurological outcome. Recent findings Recent literature has shown that following publication of the pediatric endocrinology society guidelines for diagnosing hypoglycemia there have been higher rates of diagnosis of acquired and genetic HI. Studies of neurological outcome have found that poor outcomes are associated with delay between initial hypoglycemia and instigation of treatment for HI, hypoglycemic seiz...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

Editorial: Endocrinology and metabolism
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM: Edited by Sally Radovick Source Type: research

Localized hair loss in infancy: a review
Purpose of review The current review will address the different causes of localized hair loss in infancy. The data presented here will provide clinicians with the latest understanding of different disorders leading to localized hair loss and will provide recommendations for further management of infants who present with alopecia. Recent findings Localized hair loss in infancy is common, but its underlying causes vary greatly. Alopecia in infants can be categorized into congenital, genetic, inflammatory, mechanical, and physiologic causes. Decisions regarding further management are complex, as they often involve ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

Common pediatric infestations: update on diagnosis and treatment of scabies, head lice, and bed bugs
Purpose of the review This review will update pediatric providers on the recent data regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of common skin infestations affecting children and adolescents. Recent findings Standard superficial skin biopsy for scabies and the vacuum method for head lice can increase diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. There is growing resistance to some of the traditional treatments for scabies and head lice, and progress has been made in finding newer and potentially more effective treatments, such as oral moxidectin for scabies and abametapir for head lice. Recent studies have estab...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

Shared decision making in pediatric dermatology: context, opportunities, and practical examples
This article highlights how to engage in SDM and presents opportunities for research and implementation in pediatric dermatology. (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

Novel treatments for pediatric atopic dermatitis
Purpose of review To describe new and emerging therapies for pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD). Recent findings Recent investigations have highlighted the importance of type 2 immunity and interrelationships among the skin immune system, epidermal barrier, and microbiome in the pathogenesis of AD, including in infants and children. These discoveries have translated into more targeted therapy. Crisaborole ointment, a topical phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, and dupilumab, a subcutaneously injected interleukin (IL)-4 receptor inhibitor, are now Food and Drug Administration-approved. Topical agents under invest...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

Tinea capitis: advances and a needed paradigm shift
Purpose of review Tinea capitis, a superficial infection of the scalp, is the most common pediatric dermatophyte fungal infection worldwide and is particularly common in the USA in low-income, low-resource settings. There are still gaps in knowledge and heterogeneities in practice in terms of diagnostic and management strategies. Furthermore, there are no clinical guidelines for management and treatment of tinea capitis in the USA. This review aims to summarize recent advances, recommend optimal management for the practicing pediatrician, and identify areas for future research for tinea capitis. Recent findings ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

Covid-19 skin manifestations: an update
Purpose of review Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 is a multisystemic disease manifesting mainly with dry cough, fever, and pneumonia and can present with a myriad of cutaneous manifestations. This chapter will review SARS-CoV-2 associated cutaneous findings, including incidence and relevance to the pediatric population. Recent findings The most commonly reported cutaneous findings described for COVID-19 in adults and children were chilblains-like lesions, followed by maculopapular eruption, urticarial lesions, vesicular lesions, and livedoid lesions. Children can also pre...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

Digital dermatoses: skin disorders engendered by social media in tweens and teens
Purpose of review Photograph-based social media use among children and adolescents has skyrocketed over the past decade, raising concerns about the implications for self-confidence and behavior in this population. Social media ‘challenges’ encourage participants to complete potentially dangerous tasks while sharing their completion of the tasks on social media. Many of these challenges affect the skin and lead to recognizable findings on physical examination. This review discusses the history of prominent social media challenges and their effects on the skin. Attention is also given to the effects of social...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert Yan Source Type: research

The set point: weight destiny established before adulthood?
Purpose of review Although the set point is one of the best understood weight defense mechanisms, how and when a set point is established and what causes its disruption are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to address these gaps in the literature by exploring studies on the establishment of the set point theory and the underlying metabolic processes that support its existence. Recent findings Research suggests that weight loss achieved through restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure is difficult to maintain and is often followed by greater weight gain over time. It is hypothesi...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ADOLESCENT MEDICINE: Edited by Sara F. Forman and Sarah Pitts Source Type: research

Integrating Health at Every Size principles into adolescent care
Purpose of review Weight trends continue to increase in adolescents, but current weight-focused interventions have not demonstrated any lasting impact on overall health. Among adolescents, experiencing weight bias increases risks of harmful weight-related behaviors and decreases engagement in health-promoting behaviors, thus leading to worsened health outcomes. The Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be an avenue to promote health holistically among adolescents without eliciting harmful weight-related behavior and improving provider-patient rapport. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on inte...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ADOLESCENT MEDICINE: Edited by Sara F. Forman and Sarah Pitts Source Type: research

A trauma-informed guide to caring for adolescents following sexual assault
Purpose of review Sexual assault is common among adolescents worldwide. Survivors of sexual assault may experience various immediate and long-term effects on their physical and mental health. It is important that pediatric healthcare providers (HCPs) are aware of the high prevalence of sexual assault and recognize the impact on their adolescent patients. The aim of this update is to discuss how pediatric HCPs can embody a trauma-informed approach when caring for survivors of sexual assault across various settings. Recent findings All adolescent patients should be screened for sexual assault during routine clinic...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ADOLESCENT MEDICINE: Edited by Sara F. Forman and Sarah Pitts Source Type: research

Addressing long-acting reversible contraception access, bias, and coercion: supporting adolescent and young adult reproductive autonomy
This article reviews reproductive justice, discusses contraceptive coercion, examines bias, and highlights interventions that promote equitable reproductive healthcare. Recent findings Research indicates that both bias and patient characteristics influence provider LARC practices. AYA access to comprehensive LARC services is limited, as counseling, provision, management, and removal are not offered at all sites providing reproductive healthcare to AYAs. Interventions aimed at addressing provider bias and knowledge, clinic policies, confidentiality concerns, insurance reimbursement, and systems of oppression can impr...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ADOLESCENT MEDICINE: Edited by Sara F. Forman and Sarah Pitts Source Type: research

Editorial: COVID catastrophe
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: ADOLESCENT MEDICINE: Edited by Sara F. Forman and Sarah Pitts Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - July 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Maternal postpartum depression: risk factors, impacts, and interventions for the NICU and beyond
Purpose of review Postpartum depression (PPD) negatively impacts caregivers, infants, siblings, and entire families. Mothers with infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) face additional risk for PPD, coupled with risk factors extending beyond a NICU admision. The novelty of this review is the focus on maternal PPD for mothers with infants admitted to the NICU. Interventions aimed at limiting and preventing PPD in this population include: prenatal and postpartum depression screening, PPD symptom awareness and monitoring, and trauma-informed care. Recent findings PPD, the most frequent complica...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a microcosm of challenges and opportunities for translational bioinformatics in pediatric research
Purpose of review Despite significant progress in our understanding and clinical management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), significant challenges remain. Here, we review recently published studies on the clinical diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment of MIS-C, highlighting key gaps in research progress that are a microcosm for challenges in translational pediatric research. We then discuss potential solutions in the realm of translational bioinformatics. Recent findings Current case definitions are inconsistent and do not capture the underlying pathophysiology of MIS-C, which r...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research

Prone positioning in children with respiratory failure because of coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common manifestation of severe COVID-19. Prone positioning has been used successfully in adult patients with ARDS and has been shown to decrease mortality. The efficacy of prone positioning in pediatric ARDS is less clear. In this review, we discuss the physiologic principles and literature on prone positioning in adults and children relative to COVID-19. Recent findings There are limited published data on prone positioning in respiratory failure because of COVID-19. The use of proning in nonintubated patients with COVID-19 may improve oxygenation...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research

Invasive and noninvasive ventilation strategies for acute respiratory failure in children with coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 presents as symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease in susceptible patients. Severe pediatric COVID-19 disease is rare, limiting potential data accumulation on associated respiratory failure in children. Pediatric intensivists and pulmonologists managing COVID-19 patients look to adult guidelines and pediatric-specific consensus statements to guide management. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and recommended strategies for the escalation of noninvasive and invasive respiratory support for acute respiratory f...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory disease in children: clinical presentation and pathophysiology
Purpose of review Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory disease is a distinct entity from adult illness, most notable in its milder phenotype. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the clinical patterns, cellular pathophysiology, and epidemiology of COVID-19 respiratory disease in children with specific attention toward factors that account for the maturation-related differences in disease severity. Recent findings Over the past 14 months, knowledge of the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of COVID-19 pneumonia has rapidly expanded. The decreased disease severity of COVID-19...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research

Management of chronic pulmonary disease in the time of coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent data describing the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the pediatric population with chronic pulmonary disease. We specifically focus on children with asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and lung transplant recipients. Recent findings Children with asthma, CF, and lung transplant recipients do not appear to have an increased risk of morbidity or mortality with COVID-19 infection compared to the general pediatric population. Data does not support the change or withdrawal of any asthma or CF maintenance medications; however, does ad...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research

Editorial: Covid-19 and respiratory illness in children: seeking knowledge, discerning truth
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and critically ill children
Purpose of review Amidst an ongoing pandemic, the delineation of the pediatric consequence of infection from the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) virus is emerging. This review summarizes available pediatric data and covers the aspects of epidemiology, critical illness with acute infection [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)], the discovered multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and management options. Recent findings The available data from the source of the initial viral transmission and then through Europe, Africa, and the Western Hemisphere identifies important as...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EMERGENCY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE: Edited by Jean E. Klig and Clifford W. Bogue Source Type: research

The clinical epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents mirrors the widening gap in healthcare disparities
Purpose of review The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has exacerbated the longstanding racial/ethnic health disparities in the USA, with a disproportionately negative effect on children of color. This review summarizes recently published studies that describe the clinical epidemiology and racial/ethnic disparities associated with SARS-CoV-2 in children. Recent findings Children with SARS-CoV-2 infections manifest with a wide spectrum of disease. Most are either asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic with fever, gastrointestinal, and/or upper respiratory disease. Some children ca...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EMERGENCY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE: Edited by Jean E. Klig and Clifford W. Bogue Source Type: research

Testing for and identification of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children in the pediatric emergency department
Purpose of review The current article summarizes updates on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) research and focuses on strategies to diagnose and manage these patients in the emergency department. Recent findings MIS-C is an inflammatory syndrome that occurs approximately 4-5 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. It is associated with symptoms such as fever, shock, abdominal pain, rash, and conjunctivitis along with laboratory abnormalities such as elevated inflammatory markers, coagulation factors, and cytokines. Patients fall into the following three subcateg...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EMERGENCY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE: Edited by Jean E. Klig and Clifford W. Bogue Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 in the pediatric emergency department: unique considerations in preparation and response
Purpose of review Pediatric Emergency Departments (PEDs) have experienced unique considerations throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We review the adaptations and challenges surrounding the preparation and response for pediatric emergency patients, with a specific focus on operational modifications, evolving personal protected equipment (PPE) needs, protected resuscitation responses, clinical characteristics in children, and the unintended effects on children and youth. Recent findings COVID-19 has thus far proven to have a milder course in children, with manifestations ranging from asymp...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EMERGENCY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE: Edited by Jean E. Klig and Clifford W. Bogue Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - May 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Ten tips for improving your clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic
Purpose of review This review provides ten tips for improving clinical practice during COVID-19 as pandemic fatigue begins to complicate personal and professional lives of clinicians. Recent findings COVID-19 has created unique and unexpected challenges to healthcare delivery, but has also provided opportunities for re-evaluation of practice patterns to optimize high-value practices. With ongoing uncertainty, key factors to appreciate for patient and population health include the continued touchstones of empathy and compassion, the use of effective risk communication with shared clinical decision-making when app...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - March 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

Alternative diets among adolescents: facts or fads?
Purpose of review With rising rates of chronic noninfectious diseases across the United States thought to be associated with the average American diet, many have adopted alternative diets. Most of these diets promise weight reduction via adherence to strict dietary guidelines, often removing certain types of food. With access to a plethora of information online, it is easy for adolescents to become confused when making dietary decisions. Although these diets promise benefits, it is important to understand common shortcomings and how to overcome them for safe implementation among adolescents. Recent findings This...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - March 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research

Kidney damage associated with vesico ureteric reflux
We examined the most recent research regarding these two conditions. Summary The most recent articles focus on an understanding and the possible interventions for the congenital and acquired abnormalities of the kidney, associated with reflux. Of particular interest in congenital disorders, is the importance of urothelium and gene mutations in normal and aberrant development of the urinary tract. As regards the predisposition to urinary tract infections and kidney scarring, the importance of uromodulin in the defence mechanism preventing infection, and the role of interventions aimed at reducing scarring, such as vi...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - March 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: NEPHROLOGY: Edited by Michel Baum Source Type: research

Surgical indications for operative management of vesicoureteral reflux in children
This article reviews the mainstays of treatment in addition to newer therapeutic modalities. Summary The decision to operate on any patient, particularly pediatric patients, must be preceded by sound clinical judgment. Thoughtful planning must be utilized to ensure every patient receives individualized and up-to-date VUR management. This article reviews indications for surgical intervention to consider when managing these patients. (Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics)
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - March 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: NEPHROLOGY: Edited by Michel Baum Source Type: research