Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 28, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Editorial Introduction Source Type: research

The global state of cataract blindness
Purpose of review:Cataracts are a significant cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. The present article reviews the literature and describes the current extent of cataracts globally, barriers to treatment, and recommendations for improving the treatment of cataracts. Recent findings:Prevalence and absolute number of blind because of cataracts remain high, although rates are declining in many areas globally. The age-standardized prevalence of blindness in adults older than 50 remains highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, with a rate of 6.0%. The greatest declines in age-standardized blindness because of cata...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

The impact of age-related cataract on measures of frailty in an aging global population
Purpose of review:To review the associations among age-related cataract, frailty, and frailty outcomes (e.g., disabilities). Recent findings:It is predicted that the proportion of the population aged 65 and older, in developed and developing nations alike, will rise until at least 2050. The proportion of patients suffering from cataracts and frailty is expected to increase, as are age-related diseases. Although there are many papers reporting on the association between frailty outcomes, cataract, and visual impairment, there is a relative paucity of papers describing associations between frailty markers, cataract, and vis...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Update on congenital cataract surgery management
Purpose of review:The basic procedure of pediatric cataract surgery has not dramatically changed over the past few years. Recent multicenter study results along with technological innovations, however, have increased our understanding and armamentarium of techniques and devices used to improve outcomes. Recent findings:We review surgical techniques that have been recently applied to the management of pediatric cataracts and describe newer intraocular lenses that have become available for use in the pediatric population. The 5-year results of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, including visual outcomes and complications, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery: advantages and disadvantages
Purpose of review:The number of cataract surgeries performed globally will continue to rise to meet the needs of an aging population. This increased demand will require healthcare systems and providers to find new surgical efficiencies while maintaining excellent surgical outcomes. Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) has been proposed as a solution and is increasingly being performed worldwide. The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ISBCS. Recent findings:When appropriate patient selection occurs and guidelines are followed, ISBCS is comparable with delayed seque...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes after injection of a compounded pharmaceutical for prophylaxis after cataract surgery: a large-scale review
Purpose of review:To evaluate relevant clinical outcomes following a transzonular intravitreal injection of a compounded triamcinolone–moxifloxacin–vancomycin (TMV) formulation for postoperative prophylaxis after cataract surgery in a retrospective review of medical records from a private practice, single-specialty ambulatory center in New Jersey, USA. Recent findings:The analysis included 1541 cases from 922 patients who underwent cataract surgery with an intravitreal injection of TMV from November 2013 to December 2014. Cataract surgery was performed by a standard clear corneal phacoemulsification technique....
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: epidemiology, risk factors, and evidence on protection
Purpose of review:After publication of the results of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ESCRS) study, there is a lot of enthusiasm for using intracameral antibiotics for the prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis. However, despite level 1 evidence, the practice has not been adopted universally. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the articles published in the last 18 months on this topic. Recent findings:The published literature highlights that the incidence rate of endophthalmitis declined after 2007. Simultaneously, there is a rising trend for using intracameral injection of anti...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Triple procedure: cataract extraction, intraocular lens implantation, and corneal graft
Purpose of review:Corneal triple procedures consist of combined keratoplasty surgery and cataract surgery. Currently, anterior lamellar keratoplasty, endothelial keratoplasty, and conventional penetrating keratoplasty, are very often simultaneously performed with cataract surgery. The present article reviews the recent advances and current developments in corneal triple procedures. Recent findings:Many new findings have been reported. Core vitrectomy before host trephination and retroillumination during continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis has enabled us to perform penetrating keratoplasty triple procedures more safely. T...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Cataract surgery and age-related macular degeneration
Purpose of review:The following review describes the recent evidence regarding the effect of cataract surgery on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent findings:For patients with both visually significant cataracts and AMD, recent evidence supports the role of cataract surgery with reports demonstrating improved visual acuity, absence of significant disease progression, and improved quality of life. Summary:Recent evidence does not find cataract surgery to cause or worsen AMD. (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Current and effective advantages of femto phacoemulsification
Purpose of review:The purpose is to review the current and effective advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Recent findings:FLACS has advantages over manual phacoemulsification in its precision, and predictability and may be especially advantageous in difficult situations such as shallow anterior chamber, subluxated cataracts, white cataracts, and so on. However, the femtosecond capsulorhexis may not be as strong as a manual rhexis. Laser-induced miosis is also a potential disadvantage. Summary:There may be increased surgeon confidence and patient satisfaction with FLACS and it may be friendli...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Intraoperative management of anterior capsular tear
Purpose of review:The article reviews the current literature on intraoperative techniques to properly manage anterior capsular tears during cataract surgery. Recent findings:Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery creates a more consistent capsulorhexis than traditional capsulotomies, but can also present with new challenges. Irregularities, like microadhesions and tags, can lead to anterior tears if not properly treated. New technology, like the Zepto (Mynosys, Fremont, CA, USA) pulse precision capsulotomy, may produce a smoother edge and reduce the incidence of capsular tears. However, there are novel rescue techniq...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Descemet membrane detachment during cataract surgery: etiology and management
Purpose of review:The review updates the mechanisms, clinical presentations, diagnoses, and managements of Descemet membrane detachment during cataract surgery. Recent findings:The advent of new imaging techniques such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography and better comprehension of the clinical and pathological aspects of detachment have improved the diagnosis and treatment of this complication to the extent that the first algorithms and protocols have been proposed. Summary:Though infrequent, Descemet membrane detachment is a complication of intraocular surgery, including cataract surgery and phacoemulsific...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Floppy iris syndrome and cataract surgery
Purpose of review:Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) occurs in 2% of cataract surgeries and is associated with an increased risk of surgical complications. These complications can be avoided when high-risk patients are identified by preoperative screening and appropriate measures are used intraoperatively. The purpose of this article is to review emerging risk factors for IFIS and to summarize management strategies used in IFIS. Recent findings:Although α1-antagonists in general, and tamsulosin (Flomax, Jalyn) in particular, have long been associated with IFIS, recent studies have more firmly demonstrated th...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Management of macular oedema in diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery
Conclusion:All diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery should be treated with topical NSAIDs to prevent PME. Intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs and steroids, combined with cataract surgery, should be reserved for patients with preexisting DME. (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Intraocular lens calculations after laser vision correction
This article describes different strategies for corneal measurements and/or intraocular lens (IOL) calculations and proposes a systematic approach for IOL selection in patients who have undergone laser corneal refractive surgery. Recent findings:Corneal measurements and IOL calculations cannot be obtained accurately with the standard measuring technologies and formulas in patients with history of laser corneal refractive surgery; therefore a variety of methods and formulas, some of which required prerefractive surgery data, have been proposed to improve the accuracy of measurements and calculations. Formulas that do not r...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lenses: preoperative considerations and postoperative outcomes
Purpose of review:The manuscript presents a review of recently published studies reporting objective and subjective outcomes and preoperative considerations of asymmetrical multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Recent findings:Current publications suggest that asymmetrical multifocal IOLs provide good, distance, intermediate and near vision for cataract and clear lens extraction patients. The contrast sensitivity achieved is similar to monofocal IOLs. Photopic phenomenon such as glare and halos has been reduced through the use of these IOLs leading to better patient satisfaction. Centration plays a critical role and the l...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Benefits and barriers of accommodating intraocular lenses
Purpose of review:Presbyopia and cataract development are changes that ubiquitously affect the aging population. Considerable effort has been made in the development of intraocular lenses (IOLs) that allow correction of presbyopia postoperatively. The purpose of this review is to examine the benefits and barriers of accommodating IOLs, with a focus on emerging technologies. Recent findings:True accommodation of an IOL involves a dynamic increase in dioptric power to affect a shift from distance to intermediate or near focus. The Crystalens (Crystalens Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA) was the first IOL labeled by...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Patient-centered advancements in cataract surgery
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 8, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

The enigma of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: an update for the comprehensive ophthalmologist
Purpose of review:Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of acute optic nerve injury, and frequently presents to comprehensive ophthalmologists. We review the typical and atypical clinical features and current literature on various treatment modalities for NAION. Recent findings:The epidemiology and clinical presentation of this disease can be variable, making a definitive diagnosis difficult in many cases. In addition, the differential diagnoses for this disorder, although comprising much less prevalent entities, are quite broad and can have substantial systemic implications if t...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Venous sinus stenting in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a safer surgical approach?
Purpose of review:The purpose is to summarize treatment strategies in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a potentially sight-threatening disease, with a focus on the most current outcome data for venous sinus stenting. Recent findings:Historically, the primary treatment options for medically refractory IIH consisted of either optic nerve sheath fenestration or cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures. The visual outcomes of these procedures are favorable, though they tend to be associated with a high rate of complication and failure. Recent trials suggest that venous sinus stenting offers both comparable rates of...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Dominant optic atrophy: updates on the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of the optic atrophy 1 mutation
Purpose of review:Review recent advances in clinical and experimental studies of dominant optic atrophy (DOA) to better understand the complexities of pathophysiology caused by the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) mutation. Recent findings:DOA is the most commonly diagnosed inherited optic atrophy, causing progressive bilateral visual loss that begins early in life. During the past 25 years, there has been substantial progress in the understanding of the clinical, genetic, and pathophysiological basis of this disease. The histopathological hallmark of DOA is the primary degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, preferentially in the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Current and future molecular diagnostics for ocular infectious diseases
Purpose of review: Confirmation of ocular infections can pose great challenges to the clinician. A fundamental limitation is the small amounts of specimen that can be obtained from the eye. Molecular diagnostics can circumvent this limitation and have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional culture. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular methods and to discuss the applications of next-generation sequencing-based approaches in the diagnosis of ocular infections. Recent findings: Efforts have focused on improving the sensitivity of pathogen detection using molecular methods. This review describes ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease
Purpose of review: Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are numerous and can often involve the eye. This review highlights the ocular complications associated with IBD including the critical role the ophthalmologist can play in the diagnosis of IBD, the pathogenesis of IBD, its ocular complications, and the treatment of ocular inflammation associated with IBD. Recent findings: Polygenic and environmental influences, as well as gut microbial dysbiosis, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD and its EIMs appear to respond well to TNFα-targeted biologics. Summary: IBD...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

Ophthalmic manifestations of leukemia
This article aims to describe the ocular manifestations of leukemia, resulting both from direct infiltration of neoplastic cells and from the more common secondary effects of leukemia and its treatment. The prevalence of these findings is also discussed, along with their clinical significance, association with hematologic markers and the ophthalmologist's role caring for these patients. Recent findings: Recent studies have included a large case series examining the prevalence of ocular manifestations in newly diagnosed leukemic patients as well as case reports of ocular manifestations of leukemia. Summary: Patients with ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

Ebola virus disease and the eye
Purpose of review: The world has witnessed the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa with an unprecedented number of infected individuals and survivors. Many systemic and ocular complications have been reported in survivors. Herein, we review the ophthalmic complications associated with Ebolavirus. Recent findings: EVD causes ocular disease during acute infection and during convalescence. Acute patients manifest with conjunctivitis, subconjunctival hemorrhages, and acute vision loss of unclear cause. The most common complication during recovery is uveitis with live virus implicated in the pathogenesis ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

The eye and tick-borne disease in the United States
Purpose of review: Tick-borne diseases are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution. Several diseases endemic to the United States have ophthalmic manifestations, including the most common tick-borne disease, Lyme borreliosis. As ocular complaints may lead a patient to seek medical evaluation, it is important to be aware of the systemic and ophthalmic manifestations of tick-borne diseases in order to make the correct diagnosis. Recent findings: Vision-threatening ophthalmic manifestations are relatively common in Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Ocular involvement is rare in babesiosis, tick-borne...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of Stevens–Johnson syndrome and their management
Purpose of review: Recent advances and outcomes data in the management of Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) demonstrate the need for a universal standard of care for patients admitted with the disease. Recent findings: Amniotic membrane transplantation, aggressive topical corticosteroids, and lubrication in the acute stage are necessary to prevent or mitigate long-term ocular sequelae. If chronic ocular disease does occur, several interventions can be employed to prevent progressive vision loss and discomfort. The earliest interventions are the ones most likely to prevent chronic comp...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

Hypertension and the eye
Purpose of review: Hypertension is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality that consists a major public health issue worldwide. Hypertension triggers a series of pathophysiological ocular modifications affecting significantly the retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve circulations that result in a range of ocular effects. The retina is the only place in the body where microvasculature can be directly inspected, providing valuable information on hypertension related systemic risks. The aim of this review is to provide an update on latest advances regarding the detection and significance of hypertensi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1
Purpose of review: The ocular manifestations in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1) are frequent and have a poor prognosis. The phenotype of these APS1-associated ocular features have been recently characterized in molecularly confirmed patients with APS1. Recent findings: Keratopathy and retinopathy can be severe manifestations of APS1. Heterogeneous corneal involvement can be observed, ranging from minimal superficial punctate staining to severe stromal scarring with deep corneal neovascularization. This phenotypic heterogeneity, observed even in patients with identical AIRE mutations, is suggestive of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

The enigma of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: an update for the comprehensive ophthalmologist
Purpose of review: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of acute optic nerve injury, and frequently presents to comprehensive ophthalmologists. We review the typical and atypical clinical features and current literature on various treatment modalities for NAION. Recent findings: The epidemiology and clinical presentation of this disease can be variable, making a definitive diagnosis difficult in many cases. In addition, the differential diagnoses for this disorder, although comprising much less prevalent entities, are quite broad and can have substantial systemic implications if...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Update on the evaluation of pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Purpose of review: Papilledema associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may result in irreversible, progressive visual loss. The development of tools for the evaluation of pediatric patients with IIH is particularly relevant as many patients may not be able to comply with the detailed clinical evaluation utilized in adults for the treatment and management of this disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant articles on the diagnostic tools used in evaluation and management of pediatric IIH. Recent findings: Studies suggest that characteristic pediatric IIH MRI findings include empty sella...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

An approach to anisocoria
Purpose of review: Anisocoria is a finding seen on a daily basis in nearly every eye clinic. Although often benign, it can also represent the sole sign of a life-threatening disease making an up-to-date understanding of pathophysiology and diagnosis essential for anyone practicing medicine. Recent findings: Many aspects of the traditional approach to anisocoria still hold true today, but advancements in imaging technology and changing trends in pharmacologic diagnosis and localization have led many to rethink that approach. In addition, the differential diagnosis for anisocoria continuously expands with identification and...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Venous sinus stenting in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a safer surgical approach?
Purpose of review: The purpose is to summarize treatment strategies in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a potentially sight-threatening disease, with a focus on the most current outcome data for venous sinus stenting. Recent findings: Historically, the primary treatment options for medically refractory IIH consisted of either optic nerve sheath fenestration or cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures. The visual outcomes of these procedures are favorable, though they tend to be associated with a high rate of complication and failure. Recent trials suggest that venous sinus stenting offers both comparable rates ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Dominant optic atrophy: updates on the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of the optic atrophy 1 mutation
Purpose of review: Review recent advances in clinical and experimental studies of dominant optic atrophy (DOA) to better understand the complexities of pathophysiology caused by the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) mutation. Recent findings: DOA is the most commonly diagnosed inherited optic atrophy, causing progressive bilateral visual loss that begins early in life. During the past 25 years, there has been substantial progress in the understanding of the clinical, genetic, and pathophysiological basis of this disease. The histopathological hallmark of DOA is the primary degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, preferentially in th...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Current indications for pegging in the anophthalmic socket: are there any?
Purpose of review:To highlight the development, problems, and current status of coupling porous orbital implants to the overlying prosthetic eye. Recent findings:Although increasing the risk of complications, pegging significantly contributes to prosthesis motility and satisfies the cosmetic expectations of some patients. Patients should be counseled regarding the increased risks in approximately one-third of individuals and that complications can occur even 10 years following implantation. Summary:Although implant peg placement has declined dramatically over the past decade, a precise and meticulous technique under intr...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

The new focus on epicanthoplasty for Asian eyelids
Purpose of review:Purpose of review is to emphasize the clinical significance of the epicanthal fold when evaluating Asian eyelids. Advances in Asian eyelid research have improved the understanding of the epicanthal fold and highlighted key steps to performing successful epicanthoplasty. Up-to-date epicanthoplasty surgical techniques are also discussed. Recent findings:The epicanthal fold is common in the Asian population. It is composed of the preseptal part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Various epicanthoplasty techniques have been described and can be broadly categorized into two types based on the type of skin flap ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

Current treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma
Purpose of review:The traditional treatment for lacrimal gland carcinoma is orbital exenteration followed by radiation therapy. However, orbital exenteration does not prevent distant relapse and death, and some patients experience local–regional recurrence after exenteration. More recently, eye-sparing surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy have gained popularity in the treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma. Preliminary studies show that these approaches are associated with reasonable local control rates and ocular toxicity profiles. In this review, we discuss recent studies of treatment of lacrimal ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

Orbital sarcomas in retinoblastoma patients: recommendations for screening and treatment guidelines
Purpose of review:Retinoblastoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in children. Although currently retinoblastoma has an excellent survival rate in developed countries, hereditary retinoblastoma survivors as well as those with a history of radiation therapy as children are at an increased risk for second primary tumors (SPTs), and specifically, for orbital sarcomas. Despite the known increased risk for SPTs in retinoblastoma survivors and the associated morbidity and mortality, no screening or treatment guidelines exist. Recent findings:Understanding of retinoblastoma tumorigenesis and genomic expression has ex...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with Jones tube: a history and update
This article includes a brief review of the fascinating history of the development of the Jones tube, which sets the perspective for the current scientific dialog. Recent findings:First, many design modifications have been proposed to reduce the risk of tube migration and extrusion, with no consensus on the best tube. Second, the issue of retrograde airflow through the Jones tube with the use of continuous positive airway pressure is an increasingly common and challenging problem. Third, bacterial biofilms on the surface of the Jones tube can play a role in recalcitrant infections. Jones tubes can be cleaned or replaced i...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

Management of epiblepharon: state of the art
Purpose of review:Epiblepharon is prevalent in East-Asian children. As the population in Asia is increasing, so is the demand for epiblepharon surgery. Surgeons should be familiar with the standards of beauty and needs of Asian people for epiblepharon management. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the published studies on the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of epiblepharon. Recent findings:Astigmatism is prevalent in epiblepharon patients, which can contribute to amblyopia. Early surgery and visual rehabilitation is important for epiblepharon patients with a high degree of astigmatism...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

Applications of stem cell biology to oculoplastic surgery
Purpose of review:The review examines the utility of stem cell biology in ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. Recent findings:The applicability of stem cell biology varies across a range of different subfields within ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. Resident stem cells have been identified in the lacrimal gland, corneal limbus, orbital fat, and muscles of the eye, and can potentially be applied for in-vitro cell and organ cultures with the intent of disease modeling and transplants. The discovery of adipocyte-derived stem cells offered a potentially powerful tool for a variety of oculoplastic applications, such...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

The evolving role of the oculoplastic surgeon in skull base surgery
Purpose of review:Classical orbital approaches in skull base surgery have involved large incisions with extensive bone removal resulting in prolonged recovery with associated morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to explore recent advances in skull base surgery that are applicable to the orbital surgeon. Recent findings:Transnasal endoscopic surgery provides access to the medial 180 degrees of the orbit. Access to the lateral 180 degrees may be obtained using transmaxillary and transcranial techniques. Transorbital approaches and multiport techniques further expand the reach of the skull base surgeon. The...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULOPLASTIC AND ORBITAL SURGERY: Edited by Richard C. Allen Source Type: research

Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri
Purpose of review:Recent findings in the literature regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) are described. In the past, children with PTC have been treated like adult cases; however, the literature highlights important differences between children and adults with PTC. Recent findings:Revised diagnostic criteria define an opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure greater than 28 cm water as elevated in the pediatric population. Obesity is an important risk factor for primary and secondary PTC in post-pubertal children. Magnetic resonance imaging shows findings suggestive of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: PEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS: Edited by Kammi B. Gunton Source Type: research

Update on orbital lymphatic malformations
Purpose of review:The purpose of this article is to review the recent published literature in 2015 on lymphatic malformation and provide updated information on the disease. Specifically, this article will describe recent advances in identifying and managing lymphatic malformations. Recent findings:All articles discussed in this article emphasize the difficulty in treating lymphatic malformations. Most patients have long complicated histories with multiple recurrences. Studies are trying to identify which lesions will be successful treated by certain therapeutic modality. Treatment includes nonsurgical and surgical therapi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: PEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS: Edited by Kammi B. Gunton Source Type: research

A review of the current practice in diagnosis and management of visual complaints associated with concussion and postconcussion syndrome
Purpose of review:Concussions and their related sequelae have received significant attention given the high-profile media coverage from professional sports and recreational leagues. A better understanding of the diagnosis and symptom management may limit the long-term impact these injuries have on the affected individual. The aim of this review is to provide updated information for both diagnosis and ongoing management for visual symptoms of concussions. Recent findings:New testing including a brief vestibular/ocular motor screening assessment and the importance of near point of convergence measurements may prove benefici...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: PEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS: Edited by Kammi B. Gunton Source Type: research

Update on myopia
Purpose of review:Myopia is progressing at faster than predicted rates for reasons that are still unknown. The public health consequences worldwide, are also becoming a burden on healthcare costs. There have been numerous studies published attempting to determine the cause of myopia progression and methods of prevention. Recent findings:The review examines recent articles that have tried to explain myopia progression and the increase in prevalence across the globe. Additionally, this review provides up-to-date research on current treatment options and their efficacy. Summary:Although this topic has been an increased area...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: PEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS: Edited by Kammi B. Gunton Source Type: research

Instrument-based pediatric vision screening
Purpose of review:The purpose is to review currently available instruments for vision screening in young children. Recent findings:Instrumentation continues to evolve. Although the current generation of photoscreeners and autorefractors strive to identify amblyopia risk factors, newer technology aims to directly identify amblyopia in young children. Acceptance of instrument-based vision screening for this population has led to increased reimbursement for the procedure in primary care practices. Summary:Instrument-based vision screening in the young child is an accepted method of screening for amblyopia. Innovations in in...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: PEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS: Edited by Kammi B. Gunton Source Type: research

Refractive changes after strabismus surgery
Purpose of review:The purpose of this review is to report the impact of strabismus surgery on refractive error. Recent findings:Vector analysis was recently employed to show that refractive changes often occur after strabismus surgery but are transient and regress over time. Summary:Studies have shown that while transient changes in refractive error often occur, even statistically significant shifts are often not clinically important, and regress with long-term follow-up. (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: PEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS: Edited by Kammi B. Gunton Source Type: research