Drug-induced maculopathy
Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of drug-induced maculopathies including their clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, and treatment options. With the increasing pace of development and arrival of drugs to the market, this review aims to inform retina specialists of relevant side effects that may be encountered in a clinical practice setting. Recent findings The major themes visited in this article focus on relevant findings of drugs that cause pigmentary and crystalline maculopathy, photoreceptor dysfunction, cystoid macular edema, central serous choroidopathy, uveitis, and...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Retinal manifestations of the neurocutaneous disorders
Purpose of review The neurocutaneous disorders are a genetically and phenotypically diverse group of congenital syndromes characterized by cutaneous, ocular, and central nervous system manifestations. This review provides an overview of the clinical features and retinal findings in selected neurocutaneous disorders. Recent findings Advances in genetics and diagnostic retinal and neuroimaging allow for the recognition of retinal features of common neurocutaneous syndromes and for improved characterization of rarer entities based on previously underdiagnosed or unrecognized retinal findings. Summary Better characteri...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

History through the eyes of a pandemic
Purpose of review This review provides a historic perspective of the impact that major pandemics have had on human and their relationship with ophthalmology. The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease. Results Smallpox is suspected to be present for more than 12 000 years. However, trachoma seems to be the first recorded ophthalmological infectious disease. The deadliest pandemics include the bubonic plague, smallpox, and Spanish flu. The CoVID-19 epidemic is still developing and measures need t...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of Blau syndrome
This article summarizes the systemic and ocular manifestations of Blau syndrome, its genetic basis, and reviews recently published literature. Recent findings A large multicenter prospective case series is underway, with 3-year preliminary results indicating the prevalence of uveitis, clinical characteristics and early data on its visual prognosis. Case reports have demonstrated the successful use of newer biologic agents. Summary Blau syndrome is an exceedingly rare autoinflammatory disorder with skin, joint and eye manifestations. It is caused by autosomal dominant mutations of the NOD2 protein. Eye involvement is ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

An update on the diagnosis and management of ocular sarcoidosis
Purpose of review Ocular sarcoidosis is one of the most common causes of uveitis worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with ocular sarcoidosis remains challenging in some cases. It is important for clinicians to keep up to date with new diagnostic and treatment tools for this disease. Recent findings The International Workshop on Ocular Sarcoidosis diagnostic criteria were first proposed in 2009 and revised in 2017. The new criteria contained two parts: ocular presentation and systemic investigation. The diagnostic value of liver enzymes was reduced in the new criteria, whereas the value placed of lymphop...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Ocular leprosy: from bench to bedside
Purpose of review Ocular manifestations of leprosy do occur despite advances in the areas of leprosy research. Understanding the nuances in the domain shall guide the clinician for effective patient-centered care. Recent findings Despite the existence of microbiologic cure for leprosy, ocular manifestations of this disease do occur. Advances in genetic and genomic studies have better characterized the interaction that the bacteria has with the host. The ocular features vary with the spectrum of the disease. Its careful correlation can help to predict the bacillary load of the patient. Investigations are particularly r...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Retinal vascular manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to summarize up-to-date research on the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on retinal vascular conditions. Recent findings OSA is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and central serous chorioretinopathy. The severity of OSA and biomarkers such as the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) correlate with the severity of retinal disease. Dysregulation of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) genes that govern circadian rhythm is associated with development of proliferative retinal disease. Summary OSA and retinal vascu...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Ocular rosacea
Purpose of review To revisit ocular rosacea as an underappreciated condition which can cause permanent blindness if inadequately treated, and to review data supporting improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. Recent findings Ocular rosacea has an underrecognized prevalence in children and individuals with darker skin tone. Rosacea has several associations with other significant systemic diseases. Variations in local and systemic microbiome, including demodex infestation, may play a role in pathogenesis, severity, and in explaining the different phenotypes of rosacea. The National Rosacea Society Expert Committee ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of Susac syndrome
Purpose of review This review discusses general features and organ-specific presentations of Susac syndrome as well as diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings Latest literature regarding demographics, new diagnostic modalities such as optical coherence tomography and treatment options for Susac syndrome are discussed in detail in this review, summarizing the most recent updated information. Summary Susac syndrome is a rare, underdiagnosed, and often misdiagnosed disease that can lead to severe complications such as deafness, vision loss, dementia, and death. It involves the central nervous system and may mimic oth...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19
Purpose of review To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far. Recent findings A small but growing literature documents cases of new onset neuro-ophthalmic disease, in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset vision loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. Summary The literature on COVID-19 continues to evolve. Although COVID-19 primarily impacts ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Eye pain in the white and quiet eye
Purpose of review Eye pain is one of the most common presenting symptoms in ophthalmology. It can range from bothersome to debilitating for patients, and it can be vexing for clinicians, especially in the white and quiet eye. The purpose of this review is to provide updates of recent literature regarding eye pain and to communicate our current understanding regarding the evaluation and management of conditions that cause eye pain with a relatively normal examination. Recent findings This review concerns recent literature regarding eye pain in the white and quiet eye. It is arranged by cause of pain and discusses dry e...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Visual hallucinations in psychiatric, neurologic, and ophthalmologic disease
Purpose of review Recent studies have increased our understanding of the biochemical and structural bases of visual hallucinations in patients with a variety of underlying causes. Recent findings Visual hallucinations may be related to disruption of functional connectivity networks, with underlying biochemical dysfunction such as decreased in cholinergic activity. Structural abnormalities in primary and higher order visual processing areas also have been found in patients with visual hallucinations. The occurrence of visual hallucinations after vision loss, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, may have more functional similar...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Orbital disease in neuro-ophthalmology
Purpose of review Orbital disease represents a diverse spectrum of pathology and can result in a variety of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. The aim of this review is to provide updates on recent advances in our understanding of orbital disease secondary to thyroid eye disease, myositis, IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and various tumours. Recent findings With regards to thyroid eye disease, there have been recent advances in the development of steroid-sparing therapies, new modalities for objectively monitoring disease activity and increased understanding of the role of environment...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Update on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Purpose of review Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is an autoimmune disease that causes optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Attacks can cause severe neurological damage leading to blindness and paralysis. Understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this disease has led to major breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment. In the past 18 months, three successful phase 3 clinical trials have been published using targeted approaches to preventing relapses. Recent findings Updates in epidemiology, imaging, quality of life and treatment for acute relapse and prevention have been published in the past 18 months. Epide...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Optic nerve sheath meningioma
This article provides an overview as well as an update on the ONSMs with regards to cause, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management in adults and pediatric population. Recent findings The clinical presentation and prognosis of ONSMs can vary and largely depend on the location of tumor as well as the histologic type. Overall, the diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, examination, and neuroimaging findings. Nevertheless, delays in diagnosis or misdiagnosis are not uncommon and can result in higher morbidity rates. Recent advances in diagnostic as well as more effective and less-invasive treatm...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence in ophthalmology during COVID-19 and in the post COVID-19 era
Purpose of review To highlight artificial intelligence applications in ophthalmology during the COVID-19 pandemic that can be used to: describe ocular findings and changes correlated with COVID-19; extract information from scholarly articles on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 specific to ophthalmology; and implement efficient patient triage and telemedicine care. Recent findings Ophthalmology has been leading in artificial intelligence and technology applications. With medical imaging analysis, pixel-annotated distinguishable features on COVID-19 patients may help with noninvasive diagnosis and severity outcome predictions. U...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

The use of personal protective equipment in clinical ophthalmology during corona virus disease-2019: a review of international guidelines and literature
Purpose of review The use of nonpharmaceutical interventions can prevent viral spread in COVID-19 pandemic and PPE forms a crucial part of this strategy. However, there are discrepancies in existing guidelines and a lack of consensus among ophthalmic communities. This review aims to identify general consensus and provides recommendation of PPE for most common ophthalmological scenarios. With a global shortage of PPE, extended use and reuse strategies are also discussed. Recent findings In this review, guidelines and resources were selected, based on a three-tier process. The first-tier resources were from internationa...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Real-world vitreoretinal practice patterns during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide, aggregated health record analysis
Purpose of review The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to the healthcare community. To reduce disease transmission, national regulatory agencies temporarily recommended curtailment of all nonurgent office visits and elective surgeries in March 2020, including vitreoretinal outpatient care in the USA. The effect of these guidelines on utilization of vitreoretinal care has not been explored to date. Recent findings Retinal outpatient visits, new patient visits, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and in-office multimodal retinal imaging has seen a significant decline in u...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ocular trauma during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders: a comparative cohort study
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to report characteristics of patients presenting with serious ocular injuries during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Recent findings Of 1058 patients presenting for emergency evaluation during the stay-at-home order, 62 (5.9%) patients [mean (SD) age, 41.1 (19.2) years; 19 (31%) women; 31 (50%) white] presented with severe ocular trauma. The daily mean (SD) number of patients who presented for emergency evaluation decreased from 49.0 (9) to 36.4 (6) during the quarantine (P  (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ebola, COVID-19, and emerging infectious disease: lessons learned and future preparedness
Purpose of review To highlight the lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak that may inform our approach to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly related to the widespread disruption of healthcare, ophthalmic disease manifestations, and vision health systems strengthening for future outbreaks. Recent findings Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first detected in China in December 2019, has become a worldwide health emergency, with significant disruption of all aspects of society, including travel, business, and medical care. Although this pandemic has had unprecedented effects on healthcare delivery in the United States...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 and ocular side effects of investigational pharmacologic agents
Purpose of review To compile and report the ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and summarize the ocular side effects of investigational treatments of this disease. Recent findings Conjunctivitis is by far the most common ocular manifestation of COVID-19 with viral particles being isolated from tears/secretions of infected individuals. Multiple therapeutic options are being explored across a variety of medication classes with diverse ocular side effects. Summary Eye care professionals must exercise caution, as conjunctivitis may be the presenting or sole finding of an active COVID...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ophthalmology conferences in the coronavirus disease 2019 era
Purpose of review To discuss key considerations involved in adapting an in-person ophthalmology conference to a virtual medium. Recent findings In 2020, several ophthalmological societies have held or are planning to hold virtual conferences in lieu of their previously scheduled in-person ophthalmology conference because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The strategic meeting components attempted to be retained in these transitions include educational information disseminating, academic discussion with colleagues, sponsorships, and networking. Live-streamed components of a virtual conference may be entirely re...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Eye banking in the coronavirus disease 2019 era
Purpose of review Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is highly infectious; however, the different routes of transmission are not well understood. Transmission through tissue transplantation is possible and must be considered. This review will evaluate the current literature regarding routes of transmission, the likelihood of transmission through ocular tissue transplantation, and the guidelines in place to mitigate this risk. Recent findings Although respiratory droplets have been the primary route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, there is evi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Editorial: Perspectives from the front lines of COVID-19: New York City ophthalmology resident narratives
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Incorporating a virtual curriculum into ophthalmology education in the coronavirus disease-2019 era
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to describe the transition of ophthalmology education to a virtual curriculum during the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight innovative solutions ophthalmic educators implemented for medical students, residents, and fellows. Recent findings Clinical and surgical ophthalmology volume abruptly decreased in March 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 public health crisis. All didactics, grand rounds, and journal clubs shifted to an online format. Ophthalmic educators collaborated with other institutions in the United States and abroad on shared virtual curricula and seminars, and si...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Considerations in the use of slit lamp shields to reduce the risk of respiratory virus transmission in coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review The use of slit lamp shields has been recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology as an infection control measure during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there is limited evidence regarding its efficacy to reduce viral transmission risks. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach to optimize the use of slit lamp shields during clinical examination. Recent findings Respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing can travel up to 50 m/s and over a distance of 2 m, with a potential area of spread of 616 cm2. Slit lamp shields confer added protection against large droplet...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Teleophthalmology: an essential tool in the era of the novel coronavirus 2019
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to assess the current state of teleophthalmology given the sudden surge in telemedicine demand in response to the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Recent findings Recommendations and policies from government and national health organizations, combined with social distancing, have led to exponential increases in telemedicine use. Teleophthalmology can be integrated into ophthalmic care delivery. In the emergency room, teleophthalmology can be utilized to triage patients and diagnose common ophthalmic eye diseases. Ophthalmology practices can utilize real-time medicine to c...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence for diabetic retinopathy screening, prediction and management
Purpose of review Diabetic retinopathy is the most common specific complication of diabetes mellitus. Traditional care for patients with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy is fragmented, uncoordinated and delivered in a piecemeal nature, often in the most expensive and high-resource tertiary settings. Transformative new models incorporating digital technology are needed to address these gaps in clinical care. Recent findings Artificial intelligence and telehealth may improve access, financial sustainability and coverage of diabetic retinopathy screening programs. They enable risk stratifying patients based on individua...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Interpretation of artificial intelligence studies for the ophthalmologist
Purpose of review The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in ophthalmology has increased dramatically. However, interpretation of these studies can be a daunting prospect for the ophthalmologist without a background in computer or data science. This review aims to share some practical considerations for interpretation of AI studies in ophthalmology. Recent findings It can be easy to get lost in the technical details of studies involving AI. Nevertheless, it is important for clinicians to remember that the fundamental questions in interpreting these studies remain unchanged – What does this study show, and how do...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Accelerating ophthalmic artificial intelligence research: the role of an open access data repository
Purpose of review Artificial intelligence has already provided multiple clinically relevant applications in ophthalmology. Yet, the explosion of nonstandardized reporting of high-performing algorithms are rendered useless without robust and streamlined implementation guidelines. The development of protocols and checklists will accelerate the translation of research publications to impact on patient care. Recent findings Beyond technological scepticism, we lack uniformity in analysing algorithmic performance generalizability, and benchmarking impacts across clinical settings. No regulatory guardrails have been set to m...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Delivering personalized medicine in retinal care: from artificial intelligence algorithms to clinical application
Purpose of review To review the current status of artificial intelligence systems in ophthalmology and highlight the steps required for clinical translation of artificial intelligence into personalized health care (PHC) in retinal disease. Recent findings Artificial intelligence systems for ophthalmological application have made rapid advances, but are yet to attain a state of technical maturity that allows their adoption into real-world settings. There remains an ‘artificial intelligence chasm’ in the spheres of validation, regulation, safe implementation, and demonstration of clinical impact that needs t...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Controversies in artificial intelligence
Purpose of review To review four recent controversial topics arising from deep learning applications in ophthalmology. Recent findings The controversies of four recent topics surrounding deep learning applications in ophthalmology are discussed, including the following: lack of explainability, limited generalizability, potential biases and protection of patient confidentiality in large-scale data transfer. Summary These controversial issues spanning the domains of clinical medicine, public health, computer science, ethics and legal issues, are complex and likely will benefit from an interdisciplinary approach if ar...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Big data requirements for artificial intelligence
Purpose of review To summarize how big data and artificial intelligence technologies have evolved, their current state, and next steps to enable future generations of artificial intelligence for ophthalmology. Recent findings Big data in health care is ever increasing in volume and variety, enabled by the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and standards for health data information exchange, such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources. Simultaneously, the development of powerful cloud-based storage and computing architectures supports a fert...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence for retinopathy of prematurity
Purpose of review In this article, we review the current state of artificial intelligence applications in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and provide insight on challenges as well as strategies for bringing these algorithms to the bedside. Recent findings In the past few years, there has been a dramatic shift from machine learning approaches based on feature extraction to ‘deep’ convolutional neural networks for artificial intelligence applications. Several artificial intelligence for ROP approaches have demonstrated adequate proof-of-concept performance in research studies. The next steps are to determin...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Fundamentals of artificial intelligence for ophthalmologists
Purpose of review As artificial intelligence continues to develop new applications in ophthalmic image recognition, we provide here an introduction for ophthalmologists and a primer on the mechanisms of deep learning systems. Recent findings Deep learning has lent itself to the automated interpretation of various retinal imaging modalities, including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) represent the primary class of deep neural networks applied to these image analyses. These have been configured to aid in the detection of diabetes retinopathy, AMD, retinal detachmen...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Techniques of noncircular corneal transplantation
Purpose of review The management of peripheral corneal diseases, including Mooren's ulcer, Terrien's marginal degeneration, peripheral ulcerative keratitis and pellucid marginal degeneration is challenging. Circular grafts must either be very large, resulting in the excision of healthy tissue, or eccentric, leading to high levels of astigmatism. This review summarizes the range of noncircular keratoplasty procedures available to surgeons, in addition to their indications, and surgical techniques. Recent findings Noncircular grafts have been demonstrated to be useful in the management of peripheral corneal diseases. Th...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORNEAL AND EXTERNAL DISORDERS: Edited by Shahzad I. Mian Source Type: research

Risk factors for postlaser refractive surgery corneal ectasia
Purpose of review To summarize newly reported and update previously known risk factors for post laser vision correction (LVC) corneal ectasia. Recent findings Advances in corneal topography and tomography have improved detection of preclinical ectasia-related changes. This has allowed for enhanced screening of surgical candidates. There are also known genetic predispositions for corneal ectasia, and recent genetic analyses have revealed various genes and inflammatory biomolecular markers related to corneal biomechanical integrity. Other models of risk assessment such as finite element biomechanical modeling and artifi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORNEAL AND EXTERNAL DISORDERS: Edited by Shahzad I. Mian Source Type: research

Intraocular lens calculations in patients with keratoectatic disorders
Purpose of review Intraocular lens (IOL) calculations in patients with keratoconus and other keratoectatic disorders continues to be a challenge for today's cataract surgeon. In this article, we review data published over the past 18 months (June 2018 to January 2020). Recent findings Cataract surgery in keratoconus patients has the potential to greatly improve patients’ vision. However, keratoconic eyes are notorious for unpredictable outcomes because of difficulty in obtaining proper preoperative biometry and lack of data and consensus on IOL calculation formulas that can reliable in providing the desired outc...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORNEAL AND EXTERNAL DISORDERS: Edited by Shahzad I. Mian Source Type: research

Potential benefits of modified corneal tissue grafts for keratoconus: Bowman layer ‘inlay’ and ‘onlay’ transplantation, and allogenic tissue ring segments
Purpose of review Keratoconus can be surgically challenging, especially in advanced cases. Classic corneal transplantation techniques, may often be associated with complications. New alternative procedures like isolated Bowman layer transplantation (as a corneal stromal inlay or as a corneal onlay) and corneal allogenic intrastromal ring segments (CAIRS) have recently shown promising results. The aim of this review is to describe the main new surgical developments for treating keratoconus. Recent findings Intrastromal Bowman layer transplantation has recently shown to be effective in halting keratoconus progression an...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORNEAL AND EXTERNAL DISORDERS: Edited by Shahzad I. Mian Source Type: research

Optimizing outcomes for keratoplasty in ectatic corneal disease
Purpose of review Advanced keratectasia often requires corneal transplantation for restoration of vision. This review discusses the surgical approach suitable for these cases including significant updates in the current literature. Recent findings With greater understanding of ectatic corneal disease and its associated operative challenges, several modifications in the surgical approach have been developed. Identified predictive factors for successful pneumatic dissection and intraoperative complications have informed surgical planning and decision-making. In the setting of failed pneumatic dissection, sequential use ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORNEAL AND EXTERNAL DISORDERS: Edited by Shahzad I. Mian Source Type: research

Refractive approaches to visual rehabilitation in patients with keratoconus
Purpose of review As keratoconus is a chronic disease affecting young people, vision-related quality of life is often significantly impaired in patients with this disease. However, successful management of keratoconus, including visual rehabilitation strategies, can improve quality of life in these patients. This review will describe clinical approaches that improve vision-related quality of life in patients with stable keratoconus. Recent findings Several types of contact lenses including scleral lenses have been used successfully to manage keratoconus. Eyes with severe keratoconus, even those in which fitting with o...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORNEAL AND EXTERNAL DISORDERS: Edited by Shahzad I. Mian Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence in cornea, refractive, and cataract surgery
Purpose of review The subject of artificial intelligence has recently been responsible for the advancement of many industries including aspects of medicine and many of its subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, artificial intelligence technology has found ways of improving the diagnostic and therapeutic processes in cornea, glaucoma, retina, and cataract surgery. As demands on the modern ophthalmologist grow, artificial intelligence can be utilized to help address increased demands of modern medicine and ophthalmology by adding to the physician's clinical and surgical acumen. The purpose of this review is to highlight the...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REFRACTIVE SURGERY: Edited by Jimmy K. Lee Source Type: research

Refractive surgery for the patient with autoimmune diseases
Purpose of review Autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases are considered contraindications for laser refractive surgeries according to the US Food and Drug Administration's guideline. This guideline, however, is based on limited case reports or complications reported during other intraocular procedures. There have been only a handful of new clinical studies that evaluate the efficacy and safety of refractive surgery in this specific patient population. The aim of this article is to review currently available research and offer updated recommendations for the evaluation and management of laser refractive surgery (LRS) in ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REFRACTIVE SURGERY: Edited by Jimmy K. Lee Source Type: research

Oculoplastic considerations for refractive procedures
Purpose of review Refractive surgery is one of the most popular elective procedures performed in the world. Given that dry eye is a common complaint following keratorefractive surgery, evaluation, and treatment of periocular conditions that further predispose the patient to dry eye symptoms is an important part of the presurgical assessment. Periocular conditions and surgeries can also affect the ocular surface and keratometry, and should be addressed. For example, ptosis, orbital fat herniation, ectropion, and eyelid masses have been shown to induce corneal topography changes and astigmatism. The oculoplastic considerat...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REFRACTIVE SURGERY: Edited by Jimmy K. Lee Source Type: research

Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative assessment of corneal biomechanics in refractive surgery
Purpose of review To review current and emerging methods and utilities of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measurements of corneal biomechanics and their effects on refractive surgery decision-making. Recent findings Several recent clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated the utility of corneal biomechanical analysis in refractive surgery. These studies focus on both screening surgical candidates for keratoconic disease as well as intraoperative and postoperative monitoring. The measurement of spatially resolved biomechanics is beginning to be studied in humans. Summary Clinically available...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REFRACTIVE SURGERY: Edited by Jimmy K. Lee Source Type: research

Redefining vision assessment
Purpose of review This review outlines ophthalmic diagnostic systems, which objectively evaluates the human visual system and its potential beyond that of Snellen acuity. Recent findings Advances in ophthalmic diagnostic systems have allowed for a deeper understanding of the optical principles of the human eye and have created the opportunity to evolve our current standards of vision assessment beyond Snellen acuity charts. Definitive comparative and validation trials will continue to be necessary in order for these advanced diagnostics to gain more widespread acceptance in the specialty, in addition to providing the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REFRACTIVE SURGERY: Edited by Jimmy K. Lee Source Type: research

Editorial: the new normal for refractive surgery
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REFRACTIVE SURGERY: Edited by Jimmy K. Lee Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research