Safety profile of minimally invasive glaucoma surgery
This article reviews the safety profile of trabecular meshwork/Schlemm's canal-based, subconjunctival, and suprachoroidal minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). Recent findings Prospective randomized clinical trials and metaanalyses published during the 2019–2020 review period provided important data regarding the safety profile of trabecular meshwork/Schlemm's canal-based MIGS. Transient hyphema and intraocular pressure spikes are among the most common complications associated with this category of MIGS, but more serious adverse events such as cyclodialysis cleft formation may also occur. Trabecular bypa...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

History, presence, and future of mitomycin C in glaucoma filtration surgery
Purpose of review Mitomycin C (MMC) is an alkylating agent with extraordinary ability to crosslink DNA, preventing DNA synthesis. By this virtue, MMC is an important antitumor drug. In addition, MMC has become the gold standard medication for glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). This eye surgery creates a passage for drainage of aqueous humor (AqH) out of the eye into the sub-Tenon's space with the aim of lowering the intraocular pressure. A major cause of failure of this operation is fibrosis and scarring in the sub-Tenon's space, which will restrict AqH outflow. Intraoperative application of MMC during GFS has increase...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Is laser trabeculoplasty the new star in glaucoma treatment?
Purpose of review For decades, laser trabeculoplasty has been a well-proven therapeutic option in glaucoma management, and more recently, it has only gained in popularity. One reason for such popularity is that selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is a therapy independent of patient adherence, which is typically low among glaucoma patients. Consequently, the number of studies on SLT has multiplied throughout the past years. This review provides an overview of studies on SLT from the last 12 months. Recent findings The studies on treatment outcome show a wide range of success rates of SLT reaching between 18 and...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

New strategies for the management of ocular surface disease in glaucoma patients
Purpose of review Glaucoma patients commonly suffer from ocular surface disease (OSD). As treatment strategies, medications and devices for the treatment of OSD as well as glaucoma surgical approaches evolve rapidly, it is important to consider their application to these patients. Recent findings OSD in glaucoma patients may lead to reduced reliability of diagnostic tests, decreased medication compliance, poor surgical outcomes, and overall decreased quality of life. Chronic use of topical glaucoma medications has been linked to the development of limbal stem cell deficiency, and the role of preservatives in OSD...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Advances in medical therapy for glaucoma
Purpose of review To discuss a new class of medication that has recently become available for the treatment of glaucoma; as well as share insights into developments in glaucoma medicine administration which has the potential to revolutionize medical therapy for glaucoma. Recent findings Newly available eye drops, netarsudil 0.02% and latanoprostene bunod 0.024%, are improving aqueous outflow through the conventional outflow tract. Other new developments in medical glaucoma are focused on alternative methods for sustained glaucoma medication delivery. Summary Newer medications may be able to extend the dur...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma: from genes to disease mechanisms
Purpose of review The genetic basis of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, the most common identifiable cause of open-angle glaucoma, is steadily being elucidated. This review summarizes the recent advances on genetic risk factors for PEX syndrome/glaucoma and their potential functional implications in PEX pathophysiology. Recent findings As of today, seven loci associated with the risk of PEX surpassing genome-wide significance have been identified by well-powered genome-wide association studies and sequencing efforts. LOXL1 (lysyl oxidase-like 1) represents the major genetic effect locus, although the biological...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence and complex statistical modeling in glaucoma diagnosis and management
Purpose of review The field of artificial intelligence has grown exponentially in recent years with new technology, methods, and applications emerging at a rapid rate. Many of these advancements have been used to improve the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. We aim to provide an overview of recent publications regarding the use of artificial intelligence to enhance the detection and treatment of glaucoma. Recent findings Machine learning classifiers and deep learning algorithms have been developed to autonomously detect early structural and functional changes of glaucoma using different imaging and testing m...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Recent developments in the use of optical coherence tomography for glaucoma
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to summarize findings of recent reports highlighting the utility of novel optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Recent findings Optic nerve head (ONH), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and macular parameters show high levels of diagnostic capability. The Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) measurement is a novel ONH parameter obtained using the Spectralis SD-OCT device (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany). The inferotemporal BMO-MRW sector shows the highest diagn...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Advances in perimetry for glaucoma
Purpose of review Perimetry remains important for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma despite advances in imaging technology. The purpose of this review is to describe advances in the acquisition and analysis of visual field data and highlight novel techniques for performing perimetry. Recent findings Studies have focused on improving the detection of patients at highest risk of severe vision loss and the development of innovative testing strategies that allow for more frequent testing. Artificial intelligence has been utilized in research settings to improve detection and characterization of glaucomatous f...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

The role of clinical examination of the optic nerve head in glaucoma today
Purpose of review The study was undertaken to assess the current importance of clinical examination of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma management. Recent findings ONH changes in glaucoma are easily assessed with good specificity on examination, whereas imaging has not been able to identify pallor of the neuroretinal rim (NRR), disc hemorrhages, or vascular signs of acquired cupping. Glaucomatous neuropathy in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has extensive databases on imaging machines, however, other glaucomas such as primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), congenital...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Glaucoma care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Purpose of review The current article reviews the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the delivery of ophthalmic, and specifically, glaucoma care. Recent findings Literature from the review period includes case series demonstrating the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in the conjunctival secretions of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The global ophthalmology community published reports outlining the enhanced infection control measures undertaken by different institutions around the world to mitigate transmission of the novel coronavirus. Teleme...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - February 13, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Visual disturbances during prolonged space missions
This article reviews symptoms, likely causes, and potential solutions, such as lower body negative pressure, to counteract space-associated neuroocular syndrome (SANS). Recent findings Low gravity conditions and other aspects of spaceflight affect the eye detrimentally, causing SANS which is characterized by optic disc edema, choroidal thickening, cotton wool spots, and a hyperopic shift. SANS is probably caused by altered hemodynamic flows in the head and neck as well as mildly elevated intracranial and intraocular pressures. Carbon dioxide and other chemicals in space-craft may influence SANS as well. SANS may be ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: an update on recent advances
Purpose of review Prevention and management of postcataract endophthalmitis remain quite relevant for anterior segment and vitreoretinal surgeons. Although the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study, published in 1996, remains the only level 1 evidence for the management of postcataract endophthalmitis, recent advances have resulted in an evolution of practice patterns. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature regarding postcataract endophthalmitis with a focus on the last 18 months. Recent findings The IRIS registry indicates the rates of endophthalmitis are decreasing in the United States, and the outco...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Refractive enhancements for residual refractive error after cataract surgery
Purpose of review Advances in cataract surgery have allowed surgeons to achieve superior refractive outcomes but have also led to higher patient expectations. Despite ever-evolving technology, residual refractive errors still occur. Postcataract refractive enhancements may be required to deliver satisfactory visual outcomes. This review aims to discuss the potential causes of residual refractive errors and the various enhancement modalities to correct them. Recent findings A thorough preoperative workup to detect and address underlying pathologic causes of impaired vision should be performed prior to enhancement...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Use of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses in patients with prior corneal refractive surgery
Purpose of review Corneal refractive surgery has achieved spectacle-free vision for millions of patients, but this aging population is now developing cataracts. Many of these patients may wish to avoid reliance on glasses after cataract surgery. Presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs) offer a solution, but corneal changes after refractive surgery may compound higher order aberrations and dysphotopic symptoms associated with these IOLs. This review aims to discuss potential factors that could aid in determining suitable postkeratorefractive candidates for presbyopia-correcting IOLs. Recent findings Studie...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

A review of late intraocular lens opacifications
Purpose of review Phacoemulsification cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedure worldwide. In the majority of cases, intraocular lenses (IOLs) are implanted. Due to the increasing life expectancy and the fact that cataract surgery is performed in earlier stages, the anticipated IOL duration in the eye has increased over the last decades. The aim of this study was to review the types and describe the characteristics of late intraocular lens opacifications. Recent findings Calcification was the most commonly reported type of opacification in hydrophilic IOLs; it usually negatively i...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Refractive outcomes and complications following angle supported, iris fixated, and posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses bilensectomy
Purpose of review The manuscript presents a review of published studies regarding the outcomes, causes, and complications of phakic intraocular lens (pIOLs) bilensectomy. All pIOLs will be explanted at some point, therefore is important to know the visual and refractive outcomes following bilensectomy. Recent findings There are few publications about the outcomes following pIOL bilensectomy; in all of them, cataract remains the main cause of bilensectomy. Other causes are endothelial cell density loss and pupil ovalization. The mean time between pIOL implantation and bilensectomy is longer in eyes implanted w...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Flanged fixation: Yamane technique and its application
Purpose of review To review variations of flanged intraocular lens fixation (Yamane technique) and their outcomes. Recent findings Sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation has become popular, and many techniques have been reported. Among them, the Yamane technique has been widely used in recent years, and there are many variations. However, there are no reports that systematically compare them. Summary There are variations of the Yamane technique, such as those used to create a scleral tunnel or to dock needles and haptics. Although few reports have directly compared each technique, small scleral wounds appea...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Handling regular and irregular astigmatism during cataract surgery
Purpose of review There are several different approaches to handling regular and irregular astigmatism during cataract surgery, but still much debate on which solutions are most effective given unique patient circumstances. In this review, we examine recent literature and studies to highlight some of the most effective ways to plan preoperatively, manage regular and irregular astigmatism during cataract surgery, as well as managing postoperative complications. Recent findings Recent developments in technology have provided increased courses of action for astigmatism management during cataract surgery. Additional...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

FOCUSED (Femtosecond Optimized Continuous Uncorrected Sight with EDOF and Diffractive Multifocal IOLs) - A Review
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to review techniques to maximize all-distance uncorrected visual acuity and minimize photic phenomena after the implantation of multifocal and extended-depth of focus (EDOF) intraocular lenses (IOLs). This review examines the role of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) in postoperative minimization of astigmatism and optimization of outcomes with multifocal and EDOF lenses. Recent findings By incorporating intraoperative and preoperative imaging, femtosecond platforms such as those that utilize iris or conjunctival vessel registration, can enable a pre...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Editorial: Advances in cataract surgery planning, methods, and outcomes in the pandemic era
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CATARACT SURGERY AND LENS IMPLANTATION: Edited by Natalie A. Afshari Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - December 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Drug-induced maculopathy
Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of drug-induced maculopathies including their clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, and treatment options. With the increasing pace of development and arrival of drugs to the market, this review aims to inform retina specialists of relevant side effects that may be encountered in a clinical practice setting. Recent findings The major themes visited in this article focus on relevant findings of drugs that cause pigmentary and crystalline maculopathy, photoreceptor dysfunction, cystoid macular edema, central serous choroidopathy, uveitis, and...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Retinal manifestations of the neurocutaneous disorders
Purpose of review The neurocutaneous disorders are a genetically and phenotypically diverse group of congenital syndromes characterized by cutaneous, ocular, and central nervous system manifestations. This review provides an overview of the clinical features and retinal findings in selected neurocutaneous disorders. Recent findings Advances in genetics and diagnostic retinal and neuroimaging allow for the recognition of retinal features of common neurocutaneous syndromes and for improved characterization of rarer entities based on previously underdiagnosed or unrecognized retinal findings. Summary Better characteri...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

History through the eyes of a pandemic
Purpose of review This review provides a historic perspective of the impact that major pandemics have had on human and their relationship with ophthalmology. The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease. Results Smallpox is suspected to be present for more than 12 000 years. However, trachoma seems to be the first recorded ophthalmological infectious disease. The deadliest pandemics include the bubonic plague, smallpox, and Spanish flu. The CoVID-19 epidemic is still developing and measures need t...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of Blau syndrome
This article summarizes the systemic and ocular manifestations of Blau syndrome, its genetic basis, and reviews recently published literature. Recent findings A large multicenter prospective case series is underway, with 3-year preliminary results indicating the prevalence of uveitis, clinical characteristics and early data on its visual prognosis. Case reports have demonstrated the successful use of newer biologic agents. Summary Blau syndrome is an exceedingly rare autoinflammatory disorder with skin, joint and eye manifestations. It is caused by autosomal dominant mutations of the NOD2 protein. Eye involvement is ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

An update on the diagnosis and management of ocular sarcoidosis
Purpose of review Ocular sarcoidosis is one of the most common causes of uveitis worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with ocular sarcoidosis remains challenging in some cases. It is important for clinicians to keep up to date with new diagnostic and treatment tools for this disease. Recent findings The International Workshop on Ocular Sarcoidosis diagnostic criteria were first proposed in 2009 and revised in 2017. The new criteria contained two parts: ocular presentation and systemic investigation. The diagnostic value of liver enzymes was reduced in the new criteria, whereas the value placed of lymphop...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Ocular leprosy: from bench to bedside
Purpose of review Ocular manifestations of leprosy do occur despite advances in the areas of leprosy research. Understanding the nuances in the domain shall guide the clinician for effective patient-centered care. Recent findings Despite the existence of microbiologic cure for leprosy, ocular manifestations of this disease do occur. Advances in genetic and genomic studies have better characterized the interaction that the bacteria has with the host. The ocular features vary with the spectrum of the disease. Its careful correlation can help to predict the bacillary load of the patient. Investigations are particularly r...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Retinal vascular manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to summarize up-to-date research on the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on retinal vascular conditions. Recent findings OSA is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and central serous chorioretinopathy. The severity of OSA and biomarkers such as the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) correlate with the severity of retinal disease. Dysregulation of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) genes that govern circadian rhythm is associated with development of proliferative retinal disease. Summary OSA and retinal vascu...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Ocular rosacea
Purpose of review To revisit ocular rosacea as an underappreciated condition which can cause permanent blindness if inadequately treated, and to review data supporting improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. Recent findings Ocular rosacea has an underrecognized prevalence in children and individuals with darker skin tone. Rosacea has several associations with other significant systemic diseases. Variations in local and systemic microbiome, including demodex infestation, may play a role in pathogenesis, severity, and in explaining the different phenotypes of rosacea. The National Rosacea Society Expert Committee ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of Susac syndrome
Purpose of review This review discusses general features and organ-specific presentations of Susac syndrome as well as diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings Latest literature regarding demographics, new diagnostic modalities such as optical coherence tomography and treatment options for Susac syndrome are discussed in detail in this review, summarizing the most recent updated information. Summary Susac syndrome is a rare, underdiagnosed, and often misdiagnosed disease that can lead to severe complications such as deafness, vision loss, dementia, and death. It involves the central nervous system and may mimic oth...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19
Purpose of review To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far. Recent findings A small but growing literature documents cases of new onset neuro-ophthalmic disease, in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset vision loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. Summary The literature on COVID-19 continues to evolve. Although COVID-19 primarily impacts ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Eye pain in the white and quiet eye
Purpose of review Eye pain is one of the most common presenting symptoms in ophthalmology. It can range from bothersome to debilitating for patients, and it can be vexing for clinicians, especially in the white and quiet eye. The purpose of this review is to provide updates of recent literature regarding eye pain and to communicate our current understanding regarding the evaluation and management of conditions that cause eye pain with a relatively normal examination. Recent findings This review concerns recent literature regarding eye pain in the white and quiet eye. It is arranged by cause of pain and discusses dry e...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Visual hallucinations in psychiatric, neurologic, and ophthalmologic disease
Purpose of review Recent studies have increased our understanding of the biochemical and structural bases of visual hallucinations in patients with a variety of underlying causes. Recent findings Visual hallucinations may be related to disruption of functional connectivity networks, with underlying biochemical dysfunction such as decreased in cholinergic activity. Structural abnormalities in primary and higher order visual processing areas also have been found in patients with visual hallucinations. The occurrence of visual hallucinations after vision loss, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, may have more functional similar...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Orbital disease in neuro-ophthalmology
Purpose of review Orbital disease represents a diverse spectrum of pathology and can result in a variety of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. The aim of this review is to provide updates on recent advances in our understanding of orbital disease secondary to thyroid eye disease, myositis, IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and various tumours. Recent findings With regards to thyroid eye disease, there have been recent advances in the development of steroid-sparing therapies, new modalities for objectively monitoring disease activity and increased understanding of the role of environment...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Update on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Purpose of review Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is an autoimmune disease that causes optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Attacks can cause severe neurological damage leading to blindness and paralysis. Understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this disease has led to major breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment. In the past 18 months, three successful phase 3 clinical trials have been published using targeted approaches to preventing relapses. Recent findings Updates in epidemiology, imaging, quality of life and treatment for acute relapse and prevention have been published in the past 18 months. Epide...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Optic nerve sheath meningioma
This article provides an overview as well as an update on the ONSMs with regards to cause, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management in adults and pediatric population. Recent findings The clinical presentation and prognosis of ONSMs can vary and largely depend on the location of tumor as well as the histologic type. Overall, the diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, examination, and neuroimaging findings. Nevertheless, delays in diagnosis or misdiagnosis are not uncommon and can result in higher morbidity rates. Recent advances in diagnostic as well as more effective and less-invasive treatm...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence in ophthalmology during COVID-19 and in the post COVID-19 era
Purpose of review To highlight artificial intelligence applications in ophthalmology during the COVID-19 pandemic that can be used to: describe ocular findings and changes correlated with COVID-19; extract information from scholarly articles on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 specific to ophthalmology; and implement efficient patient triage and telemedicine care. Recent findings Ophthalmology has been leading in artificial intelligence and technology applications. With medical imaging analysis, pixel-annotated distinguishable features on COVID-19 patients may help with noninvasive diagnosis and severity outcome predictions. U...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

The use of personal protective equipment in clinical ophthalmology during corona virus disease-2019: a review of international guidelines and literature
Purpose of review The use of nonpharmaceutical interventions can prevent viral spread in COVID-19 pandemic and PPE forms a crucial part of this strategy. However, there are discrepancies in existing guidelines and a lack of consensus among ophthalmic communities. This review aims to identify general consensus and provides recommendation of PPE for most common ophthalmological scenarios. With a global shortage of PPE, extended use and reuse strategies are also discussed. Recent findings In this review, guidelines and resources were selected, based on a three-tier process. The first-tier resources were from internationa...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Real-world vitreoretinal practice patterns during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide, aggregated health record analysis
Purpose of review The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to the healthcare community. To reduce disease transmission, national regulatory agencies temporarily recommended curtailment of all nonurgent office visits and elective surgeries in March 2020, including vitreoretinal outpatient care in the USA. The effect of these guidelines on utilization of vitreoretinal care has not been explored to date. Recent findings Retinal outpatient visits, new patient visits, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and in-office multimodal retinal imaging has seen a significant decline in u...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ocular trauma during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders: a comparative cohort study
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to report characteristics of patients presenting with serious ocular injuries during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Recent findings Of 1058 patients presenting for emergency evaluation during the stay-at-home order, 62 (5.9%) patients [mean (SD) age, 41.1 (19.2) years; 19 (31%) women; 31 (50%) white] presented with severe ocular trauma. The daily mean (SD) number of patients who presented for emergency evaluation decreased from 49.0 (9) to 36.4 (6) during the quarantine (P  (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ebola, COVID-19, and emerging infectious disease: lessons learned and future preparedness
Purpose of review To highlight the lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak that may inform our approach to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly related to the widespread disruption of healthcare, ophthalmic disease manifestations, and vision health systems strengthening for future outbreaks. Recent findings Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first detected in China in December 2019, has become a worldwide health emergency, with significant disruption of all aspects of society, including travel, business, and medical care. Although this pandemic has had unprecedented effects on healthcare delivery in the United States...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 and ocular side effects of investigational pharmacologic agents
Purpose of review To compile and report the ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and summarize the ocular side effects of investigational treatments of this disease. Recent findings Conjunctivitis is by far the most common ocular manifestation of COVID-19 with viral particles being isolated from tears/secretions of infected individuals. Multiple therapeutic options are being explored across a variety of medication classes with diverse ocular side effects. Summary Eye care professionals must exercise caution, as conjunctivitis may be the presenting or sole finding of an active COVID...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Ophthalmology conferences in the coronavirus disease 2019 era
Purpose of review To discuss key considerations involved in adapting an in-person ophthalmology conference to a virtual medium. Recent findings In 2020, several ophthalmological societies have held or are planning to hold virtual conferences in lieu of their previously scheduled in-person ophthalmology conference because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The strategic meeting components attempted to be retained in these transitions include educational information disseminating, academic discussion with colleagues, sponsorships, and networking. Live-streamed components of a virtual conference may be entirely re...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Eye banking in the coronavirus disease 2019 era
Purpose of review Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is highly infectious; however, the different routes of transmission are not well understood. Transmission through tissue transplantation is possible and must be considered. This review will evaluate the current literature regarding routes of transmission, the likelihood of transmission through ocular tissue transplantation, and the guidelines in place to mitigate this risk. Recent findings Although respiratory droplets have been the primary route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, there is evi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Editorial: Perspectives from the front lines of COVID-19: New York City ophthalmology resident narratives
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology)
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Incorporating a virtual curriculum into ophthalmology education in the coronavirus disease-2019 era
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to describe the transition of ophthalmology education to a virtual curriculum during the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight innovative solutions ophthalmic educators implemented for medical students, residents, and fellows. Recent findings Clinical and surgical ophthalmology volume abruptly decreased in March 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 public health crisis. All didactics, grand rounds, and journal clubs shifted to an online format. Ophthalmic educators collaborated with other institutions in the United States and abroad on shared virtual curricula and seminars, and si...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research

Considerations in the use of slit lamp shields to reduce the risk of respiratory virus transmission in coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review The use of slit lamp shields has been recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology as an infection control measure during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there is limited evidence regarding its efficacy to reduce viral transmission risks. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach to optimize the use of slit lamp shields during clinical examination. Recent findings Respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing can travel up to 50 m/s and over a distance of 2 m, with a potential area of spread of 616 cm2. Slit lamp shields confer added protection against large droplet...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - August 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COVID19: Edited by Allen Chiang and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya Source Type: research