Update on genetics and molecular biology
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Diet and cognitive decline: considerations for reconciling heterogeneous findings
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Links lipoproteins to chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Monocytes and macrophages in atherogenesis
Purpose of review Monocytes and macrophages are key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and dictate atherogenesis growth and stability. The heterogeneous nature of myeloid cells concerning their metabolic and phenotypic function is increasingly appreciated. This review summarizes the recent monocyte and macrophage literature and highlights how differing subsets contribute to atherogenesis. Recent findings Monocytes are short-lived cells generated in the bone marrow and released to circulation where they can produce inflammatory cytokines and, importantly, differentiate into long-lived macrophages. In the co...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Trained immunity and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Purpose of review The two major challenges in cardiovascular medicine are to refine risk prediction and to improve pharmacological prevention and treatment. The concept of innate immune memory, which is called trained immunity, has the potential to improve clinical practice in these regards. Recent findings Monocytes and macrophages have the capability to develop a long-term proinflammatory and proatherogenic phenotype after brief exposure to inflammatory stimuli, such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles. This innate immune memory develops because of rewiring of intracellular metabolic pathways and epigeneti...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Maximizing the benefits of cholesterol-lowering drugs
Purpose of review Drugs to lower LDL-C levels are very widely used. In this brief review, I will use selected recent studies to delineate several important principles that provide a rationale for how to maximize the benefits of using LDL-C lowering drugs to reduce cardiovascular disease. The focus will be on using statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies as recent studies have predominantly utilized these agents. Recent findings The key principles to consider when using LDL-C-lowering drugs to reduce cardiovascular disease are: the lower the LDL-C the better; the sooner and the longer one lowers LDL-C the b...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

The role of the small intestine in modulating metabolism and inflammation in atherosclerosis and cancer
Purpose of review To discuss recent findings on the importance of the small intestine in modulating metabolism and inflammation in atherosclerosis and cancer. Recent findings Integrin β7+ natural gut intraepithelial T cells modulated metabolism and accelerated atherosclerosis in mice. Reducing the generation of lysophospholipids in the small intestine mimicked bariatric surgery and improved diabetes. Enterocyte-specific knockdown of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 significantly improved dyslipidemia in LDL receptor null (Ldlr−/−) mice fed a Western diet. Adding a concentrate of tomatoes transgenic for the a...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Neointimal hyperplasia: are fatty acid transport proteins a new therapeutic target?
Purpose of review High-fat diets contribute to hyperlipidemia and dysregulated metabolism underlying insulin resistant states and cardiovascular diseases. Neointimal hyperplasia is a significant resulting morbidity. Increased fatty acid (FA) levels lead to dysfunctional endothelium, defined as activated, proinflammatory and prothrombotic. The purpose of this review is to assess the recent literature on the emerging concept that uptake of FA into many tissues is regulated at the endothelial level, and this in turn contributes to endothelial dysfunction, an initiating factor in insulin resistant states, atherosclerosis and...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Intestinal lymphatic vessels and their role in chylomicron absorption and lipid homeostasis
Purpose of review In this review, we describe novel findings related to intestinal lipid transport in lymphatic vessels. Recent findings Studies have shown that chylomicron entry to lacteals and lymph movement in intestinal lymphatic capillaries is an active process. Regulators of this intestinal chylomicron transport include among others the autonomous nervous system, transcription factors like PLAGL2, and molecular regulators, such as VEGF-A/Nrp1/VEGFR1, VEGF-C/VEGFR3, DLL4, CALCRL and GLP-2. Chylomicron transport in intestinal lymphatics is now emerging not only as an option for drug delivery but also as a new cand...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Triglycerides and endothelial function: molecular biology to clinical perspective
Purpose of review Recently, a high level of triglycerides has attracted much attention as an important residual risk factor of cardiovascular events. We will review and show the mechanisms underlying the association of endothelial dysfunction with hypertriglyceridemia and present clinical evidence for a relationship between endothelial function and triglycerides. Recent findings Clinical studies have shown that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction. It is likely that hypertriglyceridemia impairs endothelial function through direct and indirect mechanisms. Therefore, hypertriglyceridemia is re...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Regulation of calcific vascular and valvular disease by nuclear receptors
Purpose of review This review addresses recent developments in studies of lipid regulation of calcific disease of arteries and cardiac valves, including the role of nuclear receptors. The role of lipid-soluble signals and their receptors is timely given the recent evidence and concerns that lipid-lowering treatment may increase the rate of progression of coronary artery calcification, which has been long associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Understanding the mechanisms will be important for interpreting such clinical information. Recent findings New findings support regulation of calcific vascular and valvul...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Low-energy diet and physical activity for the remission of type 2 diabetes: a paradigm shift
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Squalene: friend or foe for cancers
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Dietary patterns to mitigate genetic risk of obesity
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Inflammatory joint diseases and atherosclerosis: time to look beyond the ‘lipid paradox’
Purpose of review Uncertainty persists about the contribution of lipids to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory joint disease (IJD) patients. In reviewing recent research, we consider potential insights gained by quantifying lipoprotein particles directly, rather than by their lipid content. Recent findings Although inflammation often decreases LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and anti-inflammatory medications often increase LDL-C, both inflammation and anti-inflammatory medications can increase atherogenic Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoprotein particles...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

The future of apolipoprotein E mimetic peptides in the prevention of cardiovascular disease
Purpose of review This review aims to discuss the recent developments in the area of apolipoprotein E (apoE) mimetics and their therapeutic potential for treating cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Recent findings Ongoing research efforts target the development of novel therapies that would not only reduce circulating levels of atherogenic lipoproteins, but could also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and/or improve HDL function. Among them, synthetic peptides that mimic the structure of natural human apoE, a component of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL,...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Role of serum amyloid A in atherosclerosis
Purpose of review Acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA) is persistently elevated in chronic inflammatory conditions, and elevated levels predict cardiovascular risk in humans. More recently, murine studies have demonstrated that over-expression of SAA increases and deficiency/suppression of SAA attenuates atherosclerosis. Thus, beyond being a biomarker, SAA appears to play a causal role in atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data supporting SAA as a key player in atherosclerosis development. Recent findings A number of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic activities have been ascribed to SAA. How...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

High-density lipoprotein: our elusive friend
Purpose of review Despite advances in the research on HDL composition (lipidomics and proteomics) and functions (cholesterol efflux and antioxidative capacities), the relationship between HDL compositional and functional properties is not fully understood. We have reviewed the recent literature on this topic and pointed out the difficulties which limit our understanding of HDL's role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings Though current findings strongly support that HDL has a significant role in CVD, the underlying mechanisms by which HDL mitigates CVD risk are not clear. This review focuses on studies that...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Inheritance of high and low HDL: mechanisms and management
Purpose of review The inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been unequivocally proven by many epidemiological studies. There are several genetic disorders affecting HDL-C plasma levels, either providing atheroprotection or predisposing to premature atherosclerosis. However, up to date, there has not been any pharmacological intervention modulating HDL-C levels, which has been clearly shown to prevent the progression of CVD. Thus, clarifying the exact underlying mechanisms of inheritance of these genetic disorders...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Monogenic, polygenic, and oligogenic familial hypercholesterolemia
Purpose of review Familial hypercholesterolemia has long been considered a monogenic disorder. However, recent advances in genetic analyses have revealed various forms of this disorder, including polygenic and oligogenic familial hypercholesterolemia. We review the current understanding of the genetic background of this disease. Recent findings Mutations in multiple alleles responsible for low-density lipoprotein regulation could contribute to the development of familial hypercholesterolemia, especially among patients with mutation-negative familial hypercholesterolemia. In oligogenic familial hypercholesterolemia, mu...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Is hypertriglyceridemia atherogenic?
Purpose of review Hypertriglyceridemia occurs mainly because of metabolic disorders secondary to diabetes, alcohol intake, and/or overweight. Genetic factors have also been clearly identified in most severe cases. Triglycerides are generally considered as ‘bystanders’ for cardiovascular diseases. However, biological and basic research provides strong data suggesting that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins could be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Recent findings The REDUCE-IT trial recently showed that icosapent ethyl reduces major cardiovascular events and related death. Summary ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Recent developments in lipodystrophy
Purpose of review Lipodystrophy syndromes have an estimated prevalence of 1.3–4.7 cases per million and as with other rare diseases conducting research can be challenging. The present review highlights recently published work that has provided insights into the field of non-HIV--associated lipodystrophy syndromes. Recent findings Lipodystrophies are a heterogenous group of disorders, as such research is often focused on specific subtypes of the condition. The identification of children carrying LMNA mutations has provided insights into the natural history of FPLD2, specifically that the adipose tissue phenotype ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Update on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol quantification
Purpose of review β-Quantification is considered the reference measurement procedure for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, this technique is time-consuming and thus is inappropriate for routine clinical practice. Therefore, the Friedewald equation or homogeneous assays have been widely utilized. As several pitfalls exist with these two methods, a novel method for estimating LDL-C was developed by Martin et al. Recent findings Martin's method uses a strata-specific median for the triglycerides/very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) ratio on the basis of triglycerides and non-HDL-C co...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Non-HDL cholesterol should not generally replace LDL cholesterol in the management of hyperlipidaemia
Purpose of review Non-HDL cholesterol was originally conceived as a therapeutic target for statin treatment in hypertriglyceridaemia when apolipoprotein B100 assays were not widely available. Recently non-HDL cholesterol has been recommended to replace LDL cholesterol in the clinical management of dyslipidaemia routinely in general medical practice. This is misguided. Recent findings Non-HDL cholesterol is heterogeneous, constituting a mixture of triglyceride-rich VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein and LDL in which small dense LDL is poorly represented and to which VLDL cholesterol contributes increasingly as trig...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 12, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease: new insights on lipoprotein(a)
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Eicosapentaenoic acid: maybe not the ‘Alpha,’ but is it the Omega?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Dietary patterns to reduce mortality and promote independent functioning
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Bile acid alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: what do the human studies tell?
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss the influence of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on bile acid metabolism and to analyze whether these findings reinforce current beliefs about the role of bile acids in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Recent findings Discordant results on plasma bile acid alterations in NAFLD patients have been reported. Obesity, insulin resistance, and T2D, common comorbidities of NAFLD, have been associated with bile acid changes, but the individual bile acid species variations differ between studies (su...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factors in control of lipid metabolism: from biological function to clinical application
Purpose of review Several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been identified as key regulators of energy metabolism in rodents and nonhuman primates. Translational studies show that their metabolic actions are largely conserved in humans, which led to the development of various FGF-based drugs, including FGF21-mimetics LY2405319, PF-05231023, and pegbelfermin, and the FGF19-mimetic NGM282. Recently, a number of clinical trials have been published that examined the safety and efficacy of these novel therapeutic proteins in the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

HDL from an Alzheimer's disease perspective
Purpose of review We review current knowledge regarding HDL and Alzheimer's disease, focusing on HDL's vasoprotective functions and potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for the vascular contributions of Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings Many epidemiological studies have observed that circulating HDL levels associate with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk. However, it is now understood that the functions of HDL may be more informative than levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Animal model studies demonstrate that HDL protects against memory deficits, neuroinflammation, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Regulation of lipid rafts, angiogenesis and inflammation by AIBP
Purpose of review Recent studies demonstrate an important role of the secreted apolipoprotein A-I binding protein (AIBP) in regulation of cholesterol efflux and lipid rafts. The article discusses these findings in the context of angiogenesis and inflammation. Recent findings Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich and sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains in which many receptor complexes assemble upon activation. AIBP mediates selective cholesterol efflux, in part via binding to toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in activated macrophages and microglia, and thus reverses lipid raft increases in activated cells. Recent articles report ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein M/sphingosine-1-phosphate: novel effects on lipids, inflammation and kidney biology
Purpose of review In 2011, the crystal structure of apolipoprotein M (apoM) and its capacity to bind sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was characterized. Since then, a variety of studies has increased our knowledge on apoM biology and functionality. From being an unknown and hardly significant player in overall metabolism, apoM has gained significant interest. Recent findings Key discoveries in the last 2 years have indicated that the apoM/S1P complex has important roles in lipid metabolism (affecting triglyceride turnover), inflammation (a marker of severe sepsis and potentially providing anti-inflammatory signaling) and...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

New insights into angiopoietin-like proteins in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk
Purpose of review The angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), consisting of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL8, have gained significant interest for their role as inhibitors of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and for their potential as therapeutic targets for correcting dyslipidemia. This review provides an overview of the most relevant new insights on the connection between ANGPTLs, plasma lipids, and coronary artery disease. Recent findings Carriers of loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 have a reduced risk of coronary artery disease and reduced plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL-C, while carriers of loss-of-function variant...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Role of sortilin in lipid metabolism
Purpose of review Sortilin, encoded SORT1 gene at chromosome 1p13.3, is a multiligand receptor that traffics protein from the Golgi to the endosomes, secretory vesicles, and the cell surface. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed an association between sortilin and reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as reduced coronary artery disease (CAD). This review explores the various lipid metabolism pathways that are affected by alterations in sortilin expression. Recent findings The effects of increased hepatic sortilin on plasma LDL-C levels are mediated by increased clearance of LDL-C and decreased very...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

The E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDL receptor/myosin light chain interacting protein in health and disease
Purpose of review The RING E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDL receptor (IDOL, also known as MYLIP) promotes ubiquitylation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR), thus acting to limit uptake of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol into cells. Next to the LDLR, IDOL also promotes degradation of two related receptors, the very LDL receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (APOER2), which have important signaling functions in the brain. We review here the emerging role of IDOL in lipoprotein and energy metabolism, neurodegenerative diseases, and the potential for therapeutic targeti...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 and lipid metabolism
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent findings of one of the most promising therapeutic targets in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) management, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Recent findings Endoplasmic reticulum cargo receptor, surfeit locus protein 4 interacts with PCSK9 and regulates its exit from endoplasmic reticulum and its secretion. Once secreted, PCSK9 binds to heparin sulfate proteoglycans on the hepatocyte surface and this binding is required for PCSK9–LDL receptor (LDLR) complex formation and LDLR degradation. Posttranscriptionally, recent work has sho...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Senescent cells in the development of cardiometabolic disease
Purpose of review Senescent cells have recently been identified as key players in the development of metabolic dysfunction. In this review, we will highlight recent developments in this field and discuss the concept of targeting these cells to prevent or treat cardiometabolic diseases. Recent findings Evidence is accumulating that cellular senescence contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction, presumably through induction of low-grade inflammation and inhibition of adipogenic differentiation leading to insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Senescent cells modulate their surroundings through their bioactive secretome an...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

CRISPR: a promising tool for lipid physiology and therapeutics
Purpose of review The purpose is to review recent progress in applying the CRISPR/Cas9 system to lipid metabolism and therapeutics. Recent findings The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used to generate knockout animals for lipid genes in multiple species. Somatic genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 can efficiently disrupt genes in adult animals, including a new strategy for generating atherosclerosis. Refinements to the CRISPR/Cas9 system including epigenetic modulators and base editors offer new avenues to manipulate gene expression. The recent report of germline genome editing in humans highlights the promise as well as peri...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Integrative roles of microRNAs in lipid metabolism and dyslipidemia
This article reviews examples of miRNAs that bridge disparate metabolic pathways in the liver. For example, we highlight miRNAs that are regulated by the sterol-sensing pathway in the liver that in turn regulate cellular or systemic cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose levels. Recent findings The most widely studied of these miRNAs are miR-33a/b; however, we recently reported that miRNAs in the miR-183/96/182 cluster are also likely regulated by hepatic cholesterol content and mediate the observed glucose-lowering effects of the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam through the sterol-sensing pathway. In addition, several o...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Genetics-driven discovery of novel regulators of lipid metabolism
Purpose of review Residual cardiovascular disease risk and increasing metabolic syndrome risk underscores a need for novel therapeutics targeting lipid metabolism in humans. Unbiased human genetic screens have proven powerful in identifying novel genomic loci, and this review discusses recent developments in such discovery. Recent findings Recent human genome-wide association studies have been completed in incredibly large, detailed cohorts, allowing for the identification of more than 300 genomic loci that participate in the regulation of plasma lipid metabolism. However, the discovery of these loci has greatly outpa...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 2, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 in mice and monkeys
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Endoscopic bariatric treatments: new toolkit in the armamentarium against obesity
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Genomics of familial hypercholesterolaemia
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Cannabis effects on lipoproteins
Purpose of review The endocannabinoid system affects several physiological functions. A family of endocannabinoid receptors is susceptible to cannabis constituents. Cannabis is widely used in our society and following its recent legalization in Canada, we focus on how exposure to cannabis and pharmacologic cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) inhibition affect lipoprotein levels. Recent findings Several groups have reported that exposure to cannabis does not increase weight despite the marked increase in caloric intake. In observational studies, the effect of smoked cannabis exposure on plasma lipids is variable. Some st...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Chylomicron retention disease: genetics, biochemistry, and clinical spectrum
Purpose of review Chylomicron retention disease (CRD) is an autosomic recessive disorder, in which intestinal fat malabsorption is the main cause of diverse severe manifestations. The specific molecular defect was identified in 2003 and consists of mutations in the SAR1B or SARA2 gene encoding for intracellular SAR1B GTPase protein. The aim of this review is first to provide an update of the recent biochemical, genetic and clinical findings, and second to discuss novel mechanisms related to hallmark symptoms. Recent findings CRD patients present with SAR1B mutations, which disable the formation of coat protein complex...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Unaccounted risk of cardiovascular disease: the role of the microbiome in lipid metabolism
Purpose of review Not all of the risk of cardiovascular disease can be explained by diet and genetics, and the human microbiome, which lies at the interface of these two factors, may help explain some of the unaccounted risk. This review examines some of the well established links between the microbiome and cardiovascular health, and proposes relatively unexplored associations. Recent findings Byproducts of microbial metabolism are associated with health and disease: Trimethylamine N oxide is associated with atherosclerosis; whereas short-chain fatty acids are associated with decreased inflammation and increased energ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Pathways of smooth muscle foam cell formation in atherosclerosis
Purpose of review Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major cell type in human atherosclerosis-prone arteries and take up excess lipids, thereby contributing to luminal occlusion. Here we provide a focused review on pathways by which smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can become foam cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings A synthesis of recent and older investigations provides key mechanistic insights into SMC foam cell formation. LDL and other apoB-containing lipoproteins are modified by a diverse array of oxidative, enzymatic, and nonenzymatic processes present in the arterial intima. These modifications of LDL all promot...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 7, 2019 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research