Is it time to reconcile HDL with cardiovascular diseases and beyond? An update on a paradigm shift
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

The interplay between serum amyloid A and HDLs
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Measurement of carotid plaque burden
Purpose of review To describe the uses of measurement of carotid plaque burden, as total plaque area (TPA), total plaque volume (TPV), and vessel wall volume (VWV), which includes plaque burden and wall volume. Recent findings Measurement of plaque burden is useful for risk stratification, research into the genetics and biology of atherosclerosis, for measuring effects of new therapies for atherosclerosis, and for treatment of high-risk patients with severe atherosclerosis. Summary Measurement of plaque burden is far superior to measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in many ways, and should replace it...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Atherosclerosis: cell biology and lipoproteins
Purpose of review Lipoproteins have significant role in both the promotion and prevention of atherosclerosis. This brief review will focus on recent reports on relationship between HDL and HDL subclasses and their composition and function, the role of apoC-III in metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, the impact of Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) on endothelial cells, and the mechanism of uptake of aggregated LDL by macrophages. Recent findings The complexity of the protein and lipid content of murine and human HDL and their relationship to its cholesterol efflux capacity have been examined. HDL has also been shown to ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Transport of LDLs into the arterial wall: impact in atherosclerosis
Purpose of review Atherosclerosis is a complicated cardiovascular disease characterized by unbalanced lipid metabolism and unresolved inflammation that occurred inside of arteries. The transcytosis of LDL across the endothelium and its accumulation in the arterial wall is the initial step of atherosclerosis. Here, we summarize recent research into the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of endothelial LDL transcytosis and its relevance in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent findings A number of recent studies have revealed the contribution of caveolae, activin-like kinase 1 (ALK1) or scavenger receptor B...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Fibroblasts in atherosclerosis: heterogeneous and plastic participants
Purpose of review Fibroblasts are very heterogeneous and plastic cells in the vasculature. A growing interest in fibroblasts in healthy and atherosclerotic vasculature is observed, next to macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this review, we discuss fibroblast presence, heterogeneity, origin, and plasticity in health and atherosclerosis based on latest literature. Recent findings With help of single cell sequencing (SCS) techniques, we have gained more insight into presence and functions of fibroblasts in atherosclerosis. Next to SMCs, fibroblasts are extracellular matrix-producing cells ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Age-associated arterial calcification: the current pursuit of aggravating and mitigating factors
Purpose of review The incidence of arterial calcification increases with age, can occur independently of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia, contributes to vessel stiffening, and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we provide an up-to-date review of how aging leads to arterial calcification and discuss potential therapies. Recent findings Recent research suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction (impaired efficiency of the respiratory chain, increased reactive oxygen species production, and a high mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA), cellular senescence, ectonucleotidases, and extrinsic factors suc...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: ATHEROSCLEROSIS: CELL BIOLOGY AND LIPOPROTEINS: Edited by Mohamad Navab and Menno de Winther Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - September 4, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Emerging insight into the role of cellular cholesterol in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis progression
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Dietary patterns to promote healthy aging
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

The potential role of the lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (Plpp3) gene in cardiovascular disease
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes of bariatric surgery
Purpose of review Bariatric surgery is an effective therapy for morbid obesity that also improves weight-related metabolic parameters and reduces morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to consolidate our current understanding of metabolic, macrovascular and microvascular benefits of bariatric surgery and to provide an update. Recent findings Early resolution of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies by type of bariatric surgery and appears to be mediated by changes in secretion of gut hormones, metabolism of bile acids, expression of glucose transporters and the gut microbiome. D...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

When to lower triglycerides?
Purpose of review Substantial risk of ASCVD events persists despite intensive statin therapy and other agents to lower LDL-C. The optimal way to address other elements of dyslipidemia, such as triglyceride-rich particles (TRL) and when to treat has remained unclear. Recent findings Several lines of evidence indicate that TRL are associated with atherogenesis, partly because of associated factors, such as cholesterol-enriched remnant particles, high LDL particle number, high apo-B, high apo-CIII, and others. High triglyceride is increasingly prevalent because of worsening of lifestyle factors, obesity, and diabetes. Tr...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Genetic, biochemical, and clinical features of LCAT deficiency: update for 2020
Purpose of review Genetic LCAT deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by low-plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Clinical manifestations of the disease include corneal opacification, anemia, and renal disease, which represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality in carriers. Recent findings Biochemical and clinical manifestations of the disease are very heterogeneous among carriers. The collection of large series of affected individuals is needed to answer various open questions on this rare disorder of lipid metabolism, such as the cause of renal damage in patients with complete LCAT deficiency and t...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Dietary treatment to lower cholesterol and triglyceride and reduce cardiovascular risk
Purpose of review To provide an update on dietary measures to lower levels of LDL-C and triglyceride and reduce cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes. Recent findings Fifty-year follow-up in the Seven Countries Study confirmed that cholesterol levels correlate with saturated fat intake and all-cause mortality and age at death. In the PURE study, refined carbohydrate increased CVD risk whereas saturated fat did not despite increasing LDL-C levels; limitations are discussed. Reports on CVD risk with eggs provide conflicting results. Plant-based diets with healthful complex carbohydrates reduced CVD. The REDUCE-IT trial lowered ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Epigenetics of paraoxonases
Purpose of review Studies have shown the three-member paraoxonase (PON) multigene family to be involved in the development of a large variety of diseases with an inflammatory component. Environmental factors such as lifestyle-related factors differ widely between populations and it is important to consider that their impacts may be exerted through the epigenetic mechanisms, which connect genes, the environment and disease development and are a potential therapeutic avenue. Recent findings In the review period, very little was published on epigenetics of PON2 or PON3, mostly on their diagnostic value in cancer by measu...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein F: a natural inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism
Purpose of review The aim of this study is to highlight recent studies that have advanced our understanding of apolipoprotein F (ApoF) and its role in lipid metabolism. Recent findings Previous studies showed that ApoF hepatic mRNA levels are suppressed by fat-enriched diets. Recent studies show this downregulation is mediated by agonist-induced binding of liver X receptor (LXR) and PPARalpha to a regulatory element in the ApoF promoter. First-of-kind in-vivo studies show ApoF lowers low-density lipoprotein levels and enhances reverse cholesterol transport in fat-fed hamsters. Summary Diverse studies collectively p...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Can genetic testing help in the management of dyslipidaemias?
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of genetic testing, particularly next-generation DNA sequencing, in diagnosing and managing dyslipidaemias, particularly monogenic dyslipidaemias. Recent findings Targeted DNA sequencing of the genes causing monogenic dyslipidaemias is becoming more accessible. Some societies’ position statements advise selective utilization of DNA testing in combination with clinical and biochemical assessment. However, high-quality peer-reviewed evidence showing that a DNA-based diagnosis impacts upon long-term patient outcomes is currently lacking. Non...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Small interfering RNA to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9: transforming LDL-cholesterol-lowering strategies
Purpose of review Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition is a new strategy to reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), that is currently pursued by mAbs. A promising novel approach to target PCSK9 is using small interfering RNAs to inhibit hepatic PCSK9 synthesis. The first small interfering RNA developed for this purpose is inclisiran. Here, we review its clinical trial data and potential impact on patient management. Recent findings Inclisiran achieves sustained, additional 50% LDL-C reduction in patients receiving background statin therapy. Resulting LDL-C changes can be maintained by an infrequent...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Evidence for improved survival with treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
Purpose of review Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an orphan disease caused by biallelic mutations at the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene, with a prevalence estimated at 1 : 250 000 to 1 : 630 000. HoFH is characterized by extremely elevated plasma levels of LDL-C greater than 10 mmol/l (>387 mg/dl), tendinous and cutaneous xanthomas in youth and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The expected prevalence varies from country to country depending on the presence of founder effects, genetic probability and life expectancy. Untreated, HoFH is a fatal condition before age 3...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Non-HDL or LDL cholesterol in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: findings of the Simon Broome Register
We examined the implications of the use of non-HDL-C as opposed to LDL-C in 253 people with hypercholesterolaemia before treatment and 573 after treatment in whom fasting total serum cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C had been recorded and the diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) was investigated by genetic testing. The difference and the limits of agreement between non-HDL-C and LDL-C calculated using the Friedewald formula were assessed in those with and without heFH-causing mutations. Summary There were 147 mutation-positive and 106 mutation-negative pretreatment participants and 395 mutation-posi...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. Durrington Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - July 30, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Metabolism of lipoprotein(a): new findings, implications and outstanding issues
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

The LDL cholesterol in stroke limbo: how low can we go?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Regulation of lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis of triglycerides
Purpose of review To discuss the recent developments in structure, function and physiology of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) and the regulators of LpL, which are being targeted for therapy. Recent findings Recent studies have revealed the long elusive crystal structure of LpL and its interaction with glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1). New light has been shed on LpL being active as a monomer, which brings into questions previous thinking that LpL inhibitors like angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) and stabilizers like LMF1 work on disrupting or maintaining LpL in dimer form....
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein C-II: the re-emergence of a forgotten factor
Purpose of review Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a critical cofactor for the activation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TG) on TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL). Although apoC-II was first discovered nearly 50 years ago, there is renewed interest in it because of the recent efforts to develop new drugs for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). The main topic of this review will be the development of apoC-II mimetic peptides as a possible new therapy for cardiovascular disease. Recent findings We first describe the biochemistry of apoC-II and its role in TRL metabolism. We ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

The next generation of triglyceride-lowering drugs: will reducing apolipoprotein C-III or angiopoietin like protein 3 reduce cardiovascular disease?
This article aims to review the role of apoC-III and angptl3 in triglyceride metabolism and combine early clinical evidence of CVD reducing potential of these new therapeutic targets. Recent findings Angptl3 inhibition by mAb or antisense therapy has recently completed phase I and II studies, respectively and demonstrate robust apolipoprotein B (apoB) lowering up to 46%. Volanesorsen is an antisense therapy approved for patients with extremely elevated plasma triglyceride levels in which it showed no consistent apoB reduction. However, the GalNAc-conjugated oligonucleotide showed moderate (up to ∼30%) apoB reduction...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

Remnant lipoproteins: are they equal to or more atherogenic than LDL?
Purpose of review To critically appraise new insights into the biology of remnant lipoproteins and their putative role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and to compare the atherogenicity of remnant particles with that of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Recent findings New in-vivo stable isotope tracer studies of the kinetics of apoB48 and apoB100-containing lipoproteins in postprandial conditions have revealed that apoB48-containing very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) accumulated markedly in hypertriglyceridemic patients. These intestinally-derived particles were cleared slowly, and re...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

Lipoprotein(a): is it more, less or equal to LDL as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality?
Purpose of review To summarize the recent studies directly comparing LDL and lipoprotein(a) as causal factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Recent findings In approximately 100,000 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for risk of myocardial infarction, in observational analyses per 39 mg/dl (1 mmol/l) cholesterol increase, the hazard ratio was 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.2–1.3) for LDL cholesterol and 1.6 (1.4–1.9) for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol. In corresponding genetic analyses, the causal risk ratio was 2.1 (1.3–3.4) for LDL and 2.0 (1.6–2.6) for lipopro...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: what treatments are on the horizon?
Purpose of review Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disorder associated with early atherosclerotic disease due to impairment of the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Because of their molecular defect, current treatment options have limited success in bringing HoFH patient to LDL-C target and morbidity and mortality remain high. We review current and upcoming therapies directed at HoFH, including gene therapy. Recent findings Recent real-world studies have confirmed the strength in lomitapide as a treatment adjunct to statins and other lipid-lowering therapies in HoFH patients. The approval of propro...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

Familial hypercholesterolemia: is it time to separate monogenic from polygenic familial hypercholesterolemia?
Purpose of review This review explores the concepts of monogenic and the so-called polygenic familial hypercholesterolemia and how the identification of familial hypercholesterolemia as a monogenic condition and its separation from polygenic primary hypercholesterolemia may have implications for clinical practice. Recent findings Through genetic testing, a mutation in any of the three known autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia-causing genes is found in 60–80% of cases with a clinical diagnosis of definite familial hypercholesterolemia. As individuals with a polygenic basis for their hypercholesterole...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Henry Ginsberg Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - May 1, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Reducing residual cardiovascular risk with novel therapies
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Editorial: Nitro-fatty acids: novel drug candidates for the co-treatment of atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Editorial: Clonal hematopoiesis: a link between inflammation, ageing and cardiovascular disease
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Are dietary fish oil supplements appropriate for dyslipidemia management? A review of the evidence
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to assess whether dietary fish oil supplements can be appropriate for patients with elevated triglycerides and cardiovascular risk based on a comprehensive analysis of their composition, and level of regulatory oversight. Recent findings Approximately 19 million people in the United States take fish oil supplements, many for the purpose of treating or preventing heart disease. Unlike prescription products, fish oil supplements are classified as food by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are not required to undergo manufacturing oversight or clinical testing. Anal...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Using the electronic health record for genomics research
Purpose of review Although primarily designed for medical documentation and billing purposes, the electronic health record (EHR) has significant potential for translational research. In this article, we provide an overview of the use of the EHR for genomics research with a focus on heritable lipid disorders. Recent findings Linking the EHR to genomic data enables repurposing of vast phenotype data for genomic discovery. EHR data can be used to study the genetic basis of common and rare disorders, identify subphenotypes of diseases, assess pathogenicity of novel genomic variants, investigate pleiotropy, and rapidly ass...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Tangier disease: update for 2020
Purpose of review To appraise recent advances in our knowledge of the severe genetic HDL deficiency disorder, Tangier disease. Recent findings While Tangier disease can cause premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), new evidence suggests that heterozygous ABCA1 variant carriers are also at increased risk. Advances have been made in the study of the neurological abnormalities observed in Tangier disease, both in their assessment and the identification of potential new therapies. Summary Tangier disease is an extremely rare condition and, as such, the published literature around its range of clinical...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Novel lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-based therapeutic approaches
Purpose of review To review recent lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferas (LCAT)-based therapeutic approaches for atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndrome, and LCAT deficiency disorders. Recent findings A wide variety of approaches to using LCAT as a novel therapeutic target have been proposed. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human LCAT is the most clinically advanced therapy for atherosclerosis and familial LCAT deficiency (FLD), with Phase I and Phase 2A clinical trials recently completed. Liver-directed LCAT gene therapy and engineered cell therapies are also another promising approach. Peptide and small m...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Inborn errors of apolipoprotein A-I metabolism: implications for disease, research and development
Purpose of review We review current knowledge regarding naturally occurring mutations in the human apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) gene with a focus on their clinical complications as well as their exploitation for the elucidation of structure–function–(disease) relationships and therapy. Recent findings Bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in APOA1 cause HDL deficiency and, in the majority of patients, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and corneal opacities. Heterozygous HDL-cholesterol decreasing mutations in APOA1 were associated with increased risk of ASCVD in several but not all stu...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia: update for 2020
Purpose of review This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) and provides new insight into the natural history and therapeutic management of this lipid disorder. Recent findings Novel homozygous and compound heterozygous ARH-causing mutations have been reported in the literature, to date. The long-term follow-up of a cohort of ARH patients demonstrated that, despite intensive treatment with conventional lipid-lowering therapies, their low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels remain far from target and this translates into a poor cardiovascular prognosi...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Hypobetalipoproteinemia and abetalipoproteinemia: liver disease and cardiovascular disease
Purpose of review Several mutations in the apolipoprotein (apo) B, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein genes result in low or absent levels of apoB and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma which cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) and abetalipoproteinemia (ABL). Mutations in the angiopoietin-like protein 3 ANGPTL3 gene cause familial combined hypolipidemia (FHBL2). Clinical manifestations range from none-to-severe, debilitating and life-threatening disorders. This review summarizes recent genetic, metabolic and clinical findings and management strategies. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Familial combined hypolipidemia: angiopoietin-like protein-3 deficiency
Purpose of review Angiopoietin-like protein-3 (ANGPTL3) is emerging as a key player in lipoprotein transport with an expanding role on fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Its deficiency is associated with a favorable metabolic profile. The present review will highlight the recent understanding of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of ANGPTL3 inactivation by considering both genetic and pharmacological investigations. Recent findings Experimental studies have further illustrated the complex interplay between ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4–8 in orchestrating lipid transport in different nutritional status. Individuals ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert A. Hegele Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - March 6, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the impact of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - January 2, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Atherosclerosis: cell biology and lipoproteins
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - January 2, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Therapy and clinical trials
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology)
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - January 2, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: BIMONTHLY UPDATE: Edited by Alan Rees Source Type: research

Fatty liver, cardiometabolic disease and mortality
Purpose of review We discuss the findings of the most recent metanalyses on the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiometabolic disease and mortality. Recent findings Recent metanalyses have shown that NAFLD is associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which can be diagnosed by liver biopsy only in tertiary care centers, is often associated with liver fibrosis, which has been shown by metanalyses to increase both cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. Hyperlipidemia, lipotoxicity and impaired insu...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - January 2, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Frank M. Sacks and Majken K. Jensen Source Type: research

Dietary fructose and dyslipidemia: new mechanisms involving apolipoprotein CIII
Purpose of review Chronic consumption of fructose and fructose-containing sugars leads to dyslipidemia. Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII is strongly associated with elevated levels of triglycerides and cardiovascular disease risk. We reviewed the effects of fructose consumption on apoCIII levels and the role of apoCIII in fructose-induced dyslipidemia. Recent findings Consumption of fructose increases circulating apoCIII levels compared with glucose. The more marked effects of fructose compared with glucose on apoCIII concentrations may involve the failure of fructose consumption to stimulate insulin secretion. The increase ...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - January 2, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Frank M. Sacks and Majken K. Jensen Source Type: research

Metabolomic and gene expression analysis to study the effects of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated fats
Purpose of review Give an update on recent dietary intervention studies that have used peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression analysis and/or metabolic profiling to understand how intake of polyunsaturated and saturated fat affects and biological pathways linked to cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Several studies showed that intake of fish oil and vegetable oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids, reduced expression level of genes involved in inflammation. One intervention study showed that gene transcripts encoding genes involved inflammation and lipid metabolism increased after intake of polyunsaturated f...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - January 2, 2020 Category: Lipidology Tags: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Frank M. Sacks and Majken K. Jensen Source Type: research