Potential and demonstrated impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexually transmissible infections
Purpose of review This review considers the potential and demonstrated impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the sexually transmissible infection (STI)/HIV transmission. Recent findings COVID-19 increases the vulnerability of those at highest risk of acquiring STI/HIV. Altered health-seeking behaviour, reductions in STI/HIV clinic capacity, service disruptions and redeployment of human resources to assist COVID-19 control efforts have impacted on STI/HIV control programmes. Reports of reduced STI incidence are emerging, but it is hard to determine whether this is real or due to decreased testing during COVID-19 lockdown peri...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: STD: Edited by Joseph A. Duncan Source Type: research

Effects of HIV voluntary medical male circumcision programs on sexually transmitted infections
Purpose of review Evidence of the protective effect of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) against HIV is well established. However, evidence of the protective effect of VMMC against other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been inconsistent or scarce across different populations and settings. This review summarizes the current evidence on the effect of VMMC for HIV prevention on acquisition and transmission of other STIs in heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Recent findings Recent findings continue to strongly support the protective effect of male medical circumcision a...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: STD: Edited by Joseph A. Duncan Source Type: research

Nonviral sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy: current controversies and new challenges
Purpose of review This review provides an update of nonviral, curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy and summarizes our understanding of the current issues and controversies surrounding risk factors, screening, and treatment of STIs in pregnancy primarily in high-income countries (using the United States and the United Kingdom as examples). The infections covered in this review are syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Recent findings Overall, limited modern data is available to update researchers and clinicians on the epidemiology and care of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: STD: Edited by Joseph A. Duncan Source Type: research

Emergence of a novel urogenital-tropic Neisseria meningitidis
Purpose of review Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is primarily associated with asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage and invasive meningococcal disease (sepsis and meningitis), but like N. gonorrhoea (Ng), Nm can colonize urogenital and rectal mucosal surfaces and cause disease. First noted in 2015, but with origins in 2011, male urethritis clusters caused by a novel Nm clade were reported in the USA (the US_NmUC). This review describes research developments that characterize this urogenital-tropic Nm. Recent findings The US_NmUC evolved from encapsulated Nm serogroup C strains. Loss of capsule expression, lipooligos...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: STD: Edited by Joseph A. Duncan Source Type: research

New management approaches to tuberculosis in people living with HIV
Purpose of review People living with HIV (PLWH) are commonly coinfected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in high-transmission resource-limited regions. Despite expanded access to antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis (TB) treatment, TB remains the leading cause of death among PLWH. This review discusses recent advances in the management of TB in PLWH and examines emerging therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes of HIV-associated TB. Recent findings Three recent key developments have transformed the management of HIV-associated TB. First, the scaling-up of rapid point-of-care urine-based tests f...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV INFECTIONS AND AIDS: Edited by David Dockrell Source Type: research

Risks of metabolic syndrome and diabetes with integrase inhibitor-based therapy
This article comprehensively reviews recent available evidence weight gain and the risks of metabolic syndrome and diabetes associated with INSTIs. Recent findings Recent evidence continues to contribute to the evidence for weight gain associated with INSTIs, especially when used with newer nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Although the literature suggests a neutral effect on lipids, there is evidence that INSTIs are associated with metabolic syndrome due to treatment-emergent obesity. The literature for short-term treatment-emergent diabetes and insulin resistance remains inco...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV INFECTIONS AND AIDS: Edited by David Dockrell Source Type: research

Long-acting injectable HIV therapies: the next frontier
Purpose of review There has been significant development of long-acting injectable therapy for the management of HIV in recent years that has the potential to revolutionise HIV care as we know it. This review summarises the data and outlines the potential challenges in the field of long-acting antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings In recent years, monthly and two monthly long-acting injectable ART in the form of cabotegravir and rilpivirine has shown safety and efficacy in large-scale phase 3 randomised control trials. Also, agents with novel mechanisms of action, such as Lenacapavir, have been tested in...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV INFECTIONS AND AIDS: Edited by David Dockrell Source Type: research

Conjunctival cancer in people living with HIV
Purpose of review Historically, conjunctival cancer has been associated with HIV particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated as a potential causative agent without conclusive evidence. This review covers recent evidence of the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of conjunctival cancer in people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent findings HIV infection has been attributed to 33% of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in sub-Saharan Africa. Although clear evidence of the effect of immunodeficiency on conjunctival cancer risk has been demonstrated, the role of HPV on...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV INFECTIONS AND AIDS: Edited by David Dockrell Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The infant pharyngeal microbiomes: origin, impact and manipulation
Purpose of review There has been an exponential increase in research into infant microbiome evolution, and it appears that pharyngeal microbiota are associated with clinical phenotypes (e.g. infection and asthma). Although broad consensus views are emerging, significant challenges and uncertainties remain. Recent findings Infant pharyngeal microbiome research is limited by low biomass, high temporal diversity and lack of agreed standards for sampling, DNA sequencing and taxonomic reporting. Analysis of amplicon sequence variants and improved cost and availability of whole-genome sequencing are promising options ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Saul N. Faust Source Type: research

COVID-19 in children: current evidence and key questions
Purpose of review SARS-CoV-2 infection in children has been less well characterized than in adults, primarily due to a significantly milder clinical phenotype meaning many cases have gone undocumented by health professionals or researchers. This review outlines the current evidence of the epidemiology of infection in children, the clinical manifestations of disease, the role of children in transmission of the virus and the recently described hyperinflammatory syndrome observed later during the first phase of the pandemic. Recent findings International seroprevalence studies have found younger children to have lo...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Saul N. Faust Source Type: research

Clinical application of non-coding RNAs in sepsis
Purpose of review Studies indicating that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a regulatory role in sepsis are increasing rapidly. This present review summarizes recent publications on the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in sepsis. Recent findings MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs are being identified as potential sepsis biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Experimental studies have examined the biological mechanisms that might underpin the regulatory role of these ncRNAs in sepsis. Summary Clinical applications of miRNAs and lncRNAs in sepsis are on the horizon. These data could lead to the ide...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Saul N. Faust Source Type: research

The current state of immunization against Gram-negative bacteria in children: a review of the literature
Purpose of review Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are a major cause of infection worldwide and multidrug resistance in infants and children. The major pathogens include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. With new antibiotic options limited, immunization is likely to play a critical role in prevention. This review discusses their epidemiology, the current state of vaccine research and potential immunization strategies to protect children. A comprehensive review of the literature, conference abstracts along with web searches was performed to identi...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Saul N. Faust Source Type: research

Duration of antimicrobial therapy for Gram-negative infections
Purpose of review The potential benefits on antimicrobial resistance emergence, incidence of antibiotic-related adverse effects, and health costs have pushed to shorten therapeutic courses for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) infections. However, the safety of this approach is still under investigation. This review gathers recent contributions to the evaluation of the impact on antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome of shorter therapeutic courses against GNB infections, and highlights data on the modern approach of adjustable antibiotic duration. Recent findings Recent advances include data on the safety of 7-...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

Prolonged infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics for Gram-negative infections: rationale and evidence base
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale of and current evidence for prolonged beta-lactam infusion in the management of Gram-negative infections. Recent findings Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data from various in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies conclusively support prolonged infusion over intermittent infusion in terms of achieving effective beta-lactam exposure for maximal bacterial killing. Superior PK/PD target attainment has been demonstrated with prolonged beta-lactam infusion in patient populations that are more likely to have less susceptible Gram-negative inf...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

The role of new antimicrobials for Gram-negative infections in daily clinical practice
Purpose of review To discuss a possible clinical reasoning for treating resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in daily clinical practice, as well as developing a research agenda for the field. Recent findings Novel agents, both belonging to β-lactams and to other classes of antimicrobials, have recently become available, likely replacing polymyxins or polymyxin-based combination regimens as the preferred choices for the first-line treatment of severe resistant GNB infections in the near future. Summary The peculiar characteristics of novel agents for severe resistant GNB infections have a...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

Unresolved issues in the identification and treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative organisms
Purpose of review Carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacterales, are a threat worldwide. This review will cover mechanisms of resistance within CROs and challenges with identification and treatment of these organisms while pointing out unresolved issues and ongoing challenges. Recent findings The treatment of CROs has expanded through newer therapeutic options. Guided utilization through genotypic and phenotypic testing is necessary in order for these drugs to target the appropriate mechanisms of resistance and select optimal antibiotic ther...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

Treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamases infections: what is the current role of new β-lactams/β-lactamase inhibitors?
Purpose of review The widespread diffusion of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Enterobacteriales currently represents a major threat for public health worldwide. Carbapenems are currently considered the first-line choice for serious ESBL infections. However, the dramatic global increase in ESBL prevalence has led to a significant overuse of carbapenems that has promoted the selection and spread of carbapenemases, which might further prejudicated our ability to treat infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens. Therefore, strategies to limit the use of carbapenems should be implemented. Recen...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

Current choices of antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
Purpose of review Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most feared nosocomial pathogens. Treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is challenging because of the limited choices of antibiotics and the emergent resistance of the pathogen. The present review aims at addressing the management of P. aeruginosa infections and highlighting the novel antibiotics that show a future promising role. Recent findings Novel fluoroquinolones have been recently introduced and show favorable activity. New combinations of β-lactams/β-lactamase inhibitors have been studied in various indications of infections because of P. a...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

Clinical and economic impact of bacterial resistance: an approach to infection control and antimicrobial stewardship solutions
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and economic burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to provide an expert opinion on different approaches to fight it. Recent findings For several decades now, it has been known that AMR among human pathogens is related to high clinical and economic burden. Different strategies have been implemented to control the clinical and economic burden of AMR. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASP), environmental cleaning and infection source control have been reported as the most effective interventions. There is a potential role f...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GRAM-NEGATIVE INFECTIONS: Edited by Matteo Bassetti Source Type: research

Infections after anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for hematologic malignancies: timeline, prevention, and uncertainties
Purpose of review Data on the infectious complications of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T-cell) therapies are scant. The approaches to preventing and managing infections among CAR-T-cell recipients are extrapolated from those of patients with other hematological malignancies. Understanding the incidence and risk factors of infections in these patients will improve clinical outcomes. Recent findings Infections occur in 23–42% of CAR-T-cell recipients and are most frequent in the first month after infusion, declining sharply thereafter. Risk factors include preinfusion (e.g., prior...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica A. Slavin Source Type: research

Mind the gaps: challenges in the clinical management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients
Purpose of review Strict adherence to clinical practice guidelines is recognized to improve outcomes but the inconvenient truth is that only a small subset of what is done in medicine has been tested in appropriate, well designed studies. In this article, we aim to review controversial aspects of the clinical management of invasive candidiasis recommended by guidelines. Recent findings Despite still being recommended by guidelines, we fail to identify a single randomized clinical trial documenting that the use of antifungal drugs in high-risk critically ill patients without microbiologic documentation of Candida...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica A. Slavin Source Type: research

Antibiotic treatment of common infections: more evidence to support shorter durations
Purpose of review Although there is increasing recognition of the link between antibiotic overuse and antimicrobial resistance, clinician prescribing is often unnecessarily long and motivated by fear of clinical relapse. High-quality evidence supporting shorter treatment durations is needed to give clinicians confidence to change prescribing habits. Here we summarize recent randomized controlled trials investigating antibiotic short courses for common infections in adult patients. Recent findings Randomized trials in the last five years have demonstrated noninferiority of short-course therapy for a range of cond...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica A. Slavin Source Type: research

An infectious diseases perspective on the microbiome and allogeneic stem cell transplant
Purpose of review The gut microbiome presents a novel source of diagnostic and therapeutic potential to modify post allogeneic stem cell transplant complications. There is an explosion of interest in microbiome research, mostly in the form of single-centre prospective time-series cohorts utilizing a variety of sampling frequencies and metagenomic technologies to sequence the microbiome. The purpose of this review is to summarize important recent publications and contextualize them within what has already been described in this rapidly growing field. Recent finding Results from observational human cohort and anim...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica A. Slavin Source Type: research

Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients
Purpose of review Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Several elements increase the risk of UTI and/or modify its clinical presentation among KTRs (e.g. immunosuppressive therapy, kidney allograft denervation, and use of urinary catheters). Also, KTRs may have UTIs because of difficult-to-identify and/or difficult-to-treat organisms. We provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding bacterial UTIs in KTRs, with a focus on recent findings. Recent findings There is accumulating evidence from clinical trials that screening for and treating asymp...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica A. Slavin Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Updates on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome
The objective of the current review is to provide an update on recent evidence published in the past 2 years describing advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of PI-IBS. Recent findings Significant proportion of research in the recent past was preclinical in nature. Epidemiological studies continue to highlight the risk of IBS after infection, with recent studies documenting postprotozoal effects. Advances in pathogenic mechanisms included clinical studies, which documented micro-RNA down-regulation and Peroxiredoxin-1 up-regulation in colonic mucosa of PI-IBS patients....
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Final frontiers of the polio eradication endgame
Purpose of review Focusing on the key developments since January 2019, this review aims to inform policymakers and clinical practitioners on the latest on evolving global polio epidemiology and scientific advancements to guide strategies for eradication. Recent findings An upsurge in wild poliovirus type 1 cases in Pakistan and Afghanistan and an expansion of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus transmission in multiple countries threaten the remarkable progress made over past several decades by the global eradication program. These challenges have also spurred innovation on multiple fronts, including earlier...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Pediatric acute gastroenteritis associated with adenovirus 40/41 in low-income and middle-income countries
Purpose of review To review the roles of enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41 and nonenteric adenoviruses in the global burden of pediatric diarrhea. Recent findings Large studies using highly sensitive, type-specific molecular diagnostics have demonstrated a substantial and previously under-estimated burden of pediatric diarrheal disease because of enteric infections with adenovirus types 40/41. However, the true epidemiology of adenovirus 40/41 remains incompletely understood. Similarly, additional adenovirus types may also be implicated as agents of community-acquired pediatric gastroenteritis but current data are to...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Sapovirus: an emerging cause of childhood diarrhea
Purpose of review Sapovirus, a genus in the Caliciviridae family alongside norovirus, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of childhood diarrhea. Some challenges exist in our ability to better understand sapovirus infections, including the inability to grow sapovirus in cell culture, which has hindered diagnosis and studies of immunity. Another challenge is that individuals with sapovirus infection are commonly coinfected with other enteric pathogens, complicating our ability to attribute the diarrhea episode to a single pathogen. Recent findings Development of molecular methods for sapovirus detection has...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Update on nonantibiotic therapies for acute gastroenteritis
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to provide an update of nonantibiotic therapies for acute gastroenteritis (AGE), focusing on antiemetics and probiotics. Recent findings The mainstay of therapy for nonsevere AGE remains oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Recent randomized controlled trials and metaanalyses have further strengthened the evidence-base supporting single-dose ondansetron administration in emergency departments to facilitate ORT based on evidence that it safely reduces intravenous fluid administration and hospitalization rates. Intravenous ondansetron administration and multiple-dose use should be ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Updates on defining and detecting diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes
Purpose of review Several types of Escherichia coli cause acute diarrhea in humans and are responsible for a large burden of disease globally. The purpose of this review is to summarize diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotype definitions and discuss existing and emerging molecular, genomic, and gut microbiome methods to detect, define, and study DEC pathotypes. Recent findings DEC pathotypes are currently diagnosed by molecular detection of unique virulence genes. However, some pathotypes have defied coherent molecular definitions because of imperfect gene targets, and pathotype categories are complicated by hy...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Scrub typhus: a reemerging infection
Purpose of review Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a widely neglected disease which is gaining global momentum because of its resurgence patterns. The disease is now being reported in newer regions as well as areas previously endemic areas. In this review, we aim to comprehensively review the data available to assist physicians in making an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of the disease. Recent findings Several diagnostic tests have been developed for confirming scrub typhus. However, there is lack of clarity on which tests are most appropriate in a given clinical scenario. A recent stu...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Giardiasis treatment: an update with a focus on refractory disease
Purpose of review Giardiasis remains a common cause of diarrhea and intestinal enteropathy globally. Here we give an overview of clinical treatment studies and discuss potential mechanisms and molecular targets for in-vitro testing of drug resistance. Recent findings Giardia is a cause of disease both in diarrheal and nondiarrheal cases. The prevalence of treatment refractory giardiasis is increasing. Recent studies reveal 5-nitroimidazole refractory infection occurs in up to 50% of cases. Mechanisms of drug resistance are not known. Placebo controlled studies of drug efficacy, taking the self-limiting course of giard...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Drug resistance in Salmonella Typhi: implications for South Asia and travel
Purpose of review Recent attempts at mapping Typhoid epidemiology have revealed an enormous burden of disease in developing countries. Countries hitherto believed to have a low incidence, such as the African subcontinent, on accurate mapping were found to have a significant burden of disease. Drug resistance, because of rampant overuse of antibiotics, has driven selection pressure to extensively drug-resistant typhoid becoming a reality in the Indian subcontinent. With widespread travel, importation of this variety of typhoid to nonendemic countries is likely to lead to outbreaks in a nonimmune population. Recent findin...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis: emerging concepts and treatment
Purpose of review Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (SUBNCC) is caused by a morphologically unique proliferative form of Taenia solium involving the subarachnoid spaces. Prolonged therapy based upon the pathophysiology of SUBNCC and long-term follow-up have shed light on the course of disease and led to highly improved outcomes. Recent findings SUBNCC has a prolonged incubation period of between 10 and 25 years characterized by cyst proliferation and growth and invasion of contiguous spaces leading to mass effect (Stage 1). With induction of the host-immune responses, cysts degenerate leading to a predominately inflamma...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Brain calcification because of neurocysticercosis: a vast field to be explored
Purpose of review Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Endemic regions include Latin American countries, sub-Saharan Africa, and large regions of Asia, including the Indian subcontinent and is a global health problem. Seizures are the most common manifestation and approximately 30% of adult-onset seizures in endemic regions are attributable to NCC. Calcifications because of neurocysticercosis is the most common finding on imaging in endemic regions and are important seizure foci contributing to the burden o...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Tropical and travel-associated diseases
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

What is new with hand hygiene?
Purpose of review Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) challenge healthcare systems worldwide. As healthcare workers’ hands are considered the main vector for transmission of pathogens, effective hand hygiene is the single most important action to prevent HAIs. We sought to highlight new developments and advances in hand hygiene. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance averages at 38%. A sustained increase of compliance with a subsequent decrease of HAIs may be achieved by national, systematic and rigorous education, and auditing programs. Periodically deployed self-operating hand hygiene surveillance systems...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Healthcare associated diarrhea, not Clostridioides difficile
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, cause, diagnostic evaluation, and management of healthcare-associated diarrhea (HCAD) with particular attention to current epidemiology and recent developments in diagnostics. Recent findings Multiplex polymerase chain reaction gastrointestinal panels allow rapid detection of a wide array of potential enteropathogens but the role, yield, and utility of these tests have not been systematically assessed in patients with HCAD. Recent epidemiologic studies reaffirm that HCAD is predominantly a noninfectious condition most often caused by medications ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Beyond personal protective equipment: adjunctive methods for control of healthcare-associated respiratory viral infections
Purpose of review Prevention of nosocomial transmission of respiratory viruses is a priority in all healthcare settings and often achieved with the use of personal protective equipment. Several adjunctive infection prevention methods are in common use but their effectiveness in reducing healthcare-associated respiratory viral infections is unclear. In this review, recent advances regarding the effectiveness of several adjunctive infection prevention methods to reduce healthcare-associated respiratory viral infections are discussed. Recent findings Training and education on hand hygiene guidelines, mandatory influenza ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Laboratory-developed test regulation and the immunocompromised patient: uncertainty ahead
Purpose of the review Laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) are essential for the clinical care of immunocompromised individuals. These patients often require specialized testing not available from commercial manufacturers and are therefore dependent on the laboratory to create, validate, and perform these assays. Recent paradigm-shifting legislation could alter the way that LDTs are operationalized and regulated. Recent findings On March 5th, 2020 the Verifying Accurate and Leading-Edge In-Vitro Clinical Tests Development Act (VALID) was introduced in the US Congress. This statute would overhaul existing regulatory frame...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Barbara D. Alexander and Rachel A. Miller Source Type: research

Bacteriophage therapy as a treatment option for transplant infections
Purpose of review Since initial description of the successful use of intravenous bacteriophage therapy in the United States in 2017, there is widespread interest in using bacteriophage therapy for multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections. Recent findings Recent published cases of bacteriophage therapy in transplant candidates and recipients are reviewed highlighting its safety and potential efficacy when used as an adjunct to systemic antibiotics for a variety of clinical indications. An overview of access to bacteriophage therapy in the United States is also provided. Summary The reviewed cases form the basis for ongo...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Barbara D. Alexander and Rachel A. Miller Source Type: research

Aspergillus fumigatus and pan-azole resistance: who should be concerned?
Purpose of review Although clinical outcomes in the treatment of aspergillosis have markedly improved with the availability of newer triazoles, the development of resistance to these antifungals, especially in Aspergillus fumigatus, is a growing concern. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on azole resistance mechanisms and their epidemiology in A. fumigatus, the clinical implications of azole resistance, and to discuss future treatment options against azole-resistant aspergillosis. Recent findings Resistance may develop through either patient or environmental azole exposure. Environmental exposure is t...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Barbara D. Alexander and Rachel A. Miller Source Type: research

Infections associated with the new ‘nibs and mabs’ and cellular therapies
Purpose of review In recent years, we have witnessed a remarkable surge in the clinical development of effective biological and cellular therapies for the treatment of neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. The present review summarizes our understanding of the pathogen-specific infection risk associated with the use of such therapies. Recent findings A variety of biologics, in the form of either monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or small molecule kinase inhibitors (Nibs), are continuously introduced in the clinic for the management of autoimmune and malignant diseases. In addition, cellular therapies such as the infusion of...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Barbara D. Alexander and Rachel A. Miller Source Type: research

Editorial: Infections of the immunocompromised host: a musing on the changing times
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Barbara D. Alexander and Rachel A. Miller Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Central nervous system infections produced by varicella zoster virus
Purpose of review Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella, establishes latency, then reactivates to produce herpes zoster. VZV reactivation can also cause central nervous system (CNS) disease with or without rash. Herein, we review these CNS diseases, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent findings The most common CNS manifestation of VZV infection is vasculopathy that presents as headache, cognitive decline, and/or focal neurological deficits. VZV vasculopathy has also been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and moyamoya syndrome. Rarely, VZV will produce a meningitis, encephalitis, cerebelliti...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

CNS infections in HIV
Purpose of review Central nervous system (CNS) infections associated with HIV remain significant contributors to morbidity and mortality, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH) in resource-limited settings worldwide. In this review, we discuss several recent important scientific discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and management around two of the major causes of CNS opportunistic infections-tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis including immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) associated with cryptococcal meningitis. We also discuss the CNS as a possible viral reservoir, highlighting Cere...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research