Host transcriptional signatures as predictive markers of infection in children
Purpose of review Analyses of the host transcriptional response to infection has proved to be an alternative diagnostic strategy to standard direct pathogen detection. This review summarizes the value of applying blood and mucosal transcriptome analyses for the diagnosis and management of children with viral and bacterial infections. Recent findings Over the years, studies have validated the concept that RNA transcriptional profiles derived from children with infectious diseases carry a pathogen-specific biosignature that can be qualitatively and quantitively measured. These biosignatures can be translated into ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Prevention strategies for congenital cytomegalovirus infection
Purpose of review Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital infection, occurring in approximately 1–2% of live births worldwide. Given our increasing knowledge of risk, advances in the identification of maternal infection, and the extremely limited options for the treatment of fetal infection, the prevention is a promising direction for research efforts. Recently, there have been several exciting studies assessing different ways of preventing congenital infection in the fetus and one in particular has focused on the use of valaciclovir. Recent findings A recent study reported a 71%...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Congenital Chagas disease: progress toward implementation of pregnancy-based screening
Purpose of review Lack of recognition of congenital Chagas disease in infants of mothers from endemic regions who are living in countries nonendemic for Trypanosoma cruzi infection suggests a high rate of underdiagnosis. Pregnancy is the optimal access point for identifying Chagas disease in at-risk mothers and their infants. In this review, we update progress toward implementation of pregnancy-based screening for congenital Chagas disease in nonendemic settings. Recent findings International organizations have updated recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital Chagas disease. Reports ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Neonatal bloodstream infections
Purpose of review Neonatal bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality within neonatal intensive care units. BSI, including central line-associated BSI, have decreased over the past 15 years but remain common in extremely preterm infants. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the causes, diagnosis, management, and prevention of neonatal BSI. Recent findings Continued quality improvement efforts and bundles have reduced BSI incidence, and novel approaches are highlighted. An update of emerging pathogens as well as traditional pathogens with novel antim...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Recent advances in Clostridioides difficile infection epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment in children
Purpose of review The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified Clostridioides difficile as an ‘urgent’ public health threat that requires ‘urgent and aggressive action’. This call to action has led to new discoveries that have advanced C. difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, albeit predominantly in adults. In 2017, the Infectious Diseases Society of America and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America published clinical practice guidelines for both adults and children. At that time, recommendations in children were generally limited to rela...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Parental vaccine hesitancy: scope, causes, and potential responses
Purpose of review We reviewed the literature about parental vaccine hesitancy, focusing on publications from October 2019 to April 2021 to describe patterns and causes of hesitancy and interventions to address hesitancy. Recent findings Recent studies expand understanding of the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy globally and highlight associated individual and contextual factors. Common concerns underlying hesitancy include uncertainty about the need for vaccination and questions about vaccine safety and efficacy. Sociodemographic factors associated with parental vaccine hesitancy vary across locations and context...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus infections in children
Purpose of review Staphylococcus aureus is the most common invasive bacterial pathogen infecting children in the U.S. and many parts of the world. This major human pathogen continues to evolve, and recognition of recent trends in epidemiology, therapeutics and future horizons is of high importance. Recent findings Over the past decade, a relative rise of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) has occurred, such that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) no longer dominates the landscape of invasive disease. Antimicrobial resistance continues to develop, however, and novel therapeutics or preventive modalities...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Purpose of review Over the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has become clear that the clinical features, epidemiology, and outcomes of COVID-19 are distinct in children relative to adults. In this review, we will present recent pediatric studies informing our current understanding of COVID-19 in children, and review pediatric considerations surrounding disease transmission, currently available therapies, and vaccination. Recent findings Recent studies have shed light on the clinical epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children, identifying...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Scott H. James and David W. Kimberlin Source Type: research

Bacteriophages against enteropathogens: rediscovery and refinement of novel antimicrobial therapeutics
Purpose of review Alarming rates of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and gastrointestinal dysbiosis associated with traditional antimicrobial therapy have led to renewed interests in developing bacteriophages as novel therapeutics. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in bacteriophage therapeutic development targeting important enteropathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent findings Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, either to utilize the bacterial machinery to produce new progeny or stably integrate into the bacterial chromosome to ensure maintenance of the viral genome...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

The future of Clostridioides difficile diagnostics
Purpose of review Although the epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile has changed, this organism continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review addresses current and future approaches to the diagnosis of C. difficile disease. Recent findings Over the last several years, large prospective studies have confirmed that there is no single optimal test for the diagnosis of C. difficile disease. The pendulum has swung from a focus on rapid molecular diagnosis during the years of the ribotype 027 epidemic, to a call for use of algorithmic approaches that include a test for toxin detection. In addi...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

The impact of alteration in gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review We have increasing evidence that alterations of the intestinal microbiome have a strong influence on human health. Previous work has demonstrated the association between changes in the microbiome and metabolic risk factors. One related area of interest is the relationship between dysbiosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as the global prevalence of NAFLD, and its resultant complications, increases. Recent findings In this review, we summarize the hypothesized pathophysiology of dysbiosis-mediated progression of NAFLD, including promotion of an inflammatory intestinal environment, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review The ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors and its significance as the origin of viral entry have assisted in comprehending the pathophysiology of extrapulmonary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we focus on the clinical significance of gastrointestinal manifestations. Recent findings The global pandemic, a result of the widespread implications of SARS-CoV-2, remains a significant burden to current healthcare systems. Fever, dyspnea, and tussive symptoms have primarily been recognized as the most...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Shigellosis in young children in low-income and middle-income countries: insights from molecular diagnostics
Purpose of review To describe the impact of molecular diagnostics on our understanding of the burden and epidemiology of shigellosis in children in low-income and middle-income countries. Recent findings The incorporation of molecular diagnostics has led to a substantial increase in estimates of the burden of shigellosis and have allowed for further resolution of other aspects of Shigella epidemiology, including the clinical characteristics of shigellosis, the association between clinical and subclinical Shigella infection and linear growth shortfalls, protection after natural infection, duration of convalescent...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Emerging treatment options for cryptosporidiosis
Purpose of review Substantial progress has been made recently on the development of new therapeutics for cryptosporidiosis, an infection by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium that is associated with diarrhea, malnutrition, growth stunting, cognitive deficits, and oral vaccine failure in children living in low-resource settings. Recent findings Various drug discovery approaches have generated promising lead candidates. The repurposed antimycobacterial drug clofazimine was tested in Malawian HIV patients with cryptosporidiosis but was ineffective. Target-based screens identified inhibitors of lysyl-tRNA synthe...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Where was my patient born? The Intersection of tropical medicine and migrant health
Purpose of review There is unprecedented movement of people across international borders and parasitic infections, previously restricted to endemic regions, are now encountered in nonendemic areas of the world. Recent findings Migrants may import parasitic infections acquired in their countries of origin. Increasingly, clinicians in nonendemic regions are faced with patients with neglected diseases such as Chagas disease, malaria and strongyloidiasis. There are gaps in knowledge among physicians in nonendemic regions, which lead to missed opportunities for preventive strategies and early treatment. Both primary ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Alveolar echinococcosis: what triggers emergence in North America, Central Europe and Asia?
Purpose of review Infection with the larval (metacestode) stage of Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a serious hepatic disorder. The parasite has increased its infection extensity in wildlife and domestic dogs, mainly due to urbanization and spatial extension of wildlife hosts in Europe, Asia as well as North America, resulting in emerging infection risk for humans. Recent findings In hyperendemic areas such as Kyrgyzstan and China, ecological and socioeconomic changes have been associated with the unpredictable increase of AE cases. In North America, the appearance of the European...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Artemisinin and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum – a threat for malaria control and elimination
Purpose of review Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are globally the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria and new compounds will not be available within the next few years. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum emerged over a decade ago in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and, compounded by ACT partner drug resistance, has caused significant ACT treatment failure. This review provides an update on the epidemiology, and mechanisms of artemisinin resistance and approaches to counter multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. Recent findings An aggressive malaria elimination p...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in international travelers
Purpose of review Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria poses a major risk to global public health, with many factors contributing to the observed increase in AMR. International travel is one recognized contributor. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the acquisition, carriage and spread of AMR bacteria by international travelers. Recent findings Recent studies have highlighted that travel is an important risk factor for the acquisition of AMR bacteria, with approximately 30% of studied travelers returning with an acquired AMR bacterium. Epidemiological studies have shown ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

COVID-19 transmission and the safety of air travel during the pandemic: a scoping review
Purpose of review To examine the literature assessing safety of air travel relating to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission from January 2020 to May 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on air travel and global mobility, and various efforts are being implemented to determine a safe way forward. As the pandemic evolves, so do the challenges that force various stakeholders, including the aviation industry, health authorities, and governments, to reassess and adapt their practices to ensure the safety of travellers. Recent findings The literature was reviewed for multiple aspects ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

How coronavirus disease will change the face of travel medicine
Purpose of review The current article will review how the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has changed travel and travel medicine. Recent findings Travelers spread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 globally and continue to spread variants. The characteristics of the virus, the place, and time created a perfect storm that allowed the virus to quickly spread globally. The virus spread by every mode of travel with risk of transmission influenced by proximity to an infected person, duration of trip, physical characteristics of the space, and ventilation. Superspreading events were common; a small perc...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Global health security as it pertains to Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19
Purpose of review Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic this past year, we have witnessed a significant acceleration in the science, technology, and policy of global health security. This review highlights important progress made toward the mitigation of Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19 outbreaks. These epidemics and their shared features suggest a unified policy and technology agenda that could broadly improve global health security. Recent findings Molecular epidemiology is not yet in widespread use, but shows promise toward informing on-the-ground decision-making during outbreaks. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Policy and planning for large epidemics and pandemics – challenges and lessons learned from COVID-19
Purpose of review The COVID-19 pandemic is a global catastrophe that has led to untold suffering and death. Many previously identified policy challenges in planning for large epidemics and pandemics have been brought to the fore, and new ones have emerged. Here, we review key policy challenges and lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic in order to be better prepared for the future. Recent findings The most important challenges facing policymakers include financing outbreak preparedness and response in a complex political environment with limited resources, coordinating response efforts among a growing and di...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Zoonoses and global epidemics
Purpose of review The purpose of the review is to summarize recent advances in understanding the origins, drivers and clinical context of zoonotic disease epidemics and pandemics. In addition, we aimed to highlight the role of clinicians in identifying sentinel cases of zoonotic disease outbreaks. Recent findings The majority of emerging infectious disease events over recent decades, including the COVID-19 pandemic, have been caused by zoonotic viruses and bacteria. In particular, coronaviruses, haemorrhagic fever viruses, arboviruses and influenza A viruses have caused significant epidemics globally. There have...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina M. Coyle Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The front-line during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: healthcare personnel
Purpose of review An estimated four to 11% of reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases occurs in healthcare personnel (HCP). HCP are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) given their close contact with individuals with recognized and unrecognized COVID-19. We summarize the literature to date describing the epidemiology, identifying risk factors associated with COVID-19, and analyzing clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCP. Recent findings The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among HCP ranges from 0.7 to 4...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

MDRO transmission in acute hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic
Purpose of review The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in necessary modifications of infection control policies and practices in acute healthcare facilities globally. This is often accompanied by infrastructure modifications, ward redesignations, as well as healthcare staff redeployments and changes to infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. We review the potential for both negative and positive impacts these major changes can have on nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Recent findings Healthcare facilities around the world have reported outbreaks of MD...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Predisposition of COVID-19 patients to secondary infections: set in stone or subject to change?
Purpose of review There likely are several predisposing factors to secondary infections in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some of which may be preventable. The aim of this review is to explore the literature, summarize potential predisposing factors to secondary infections and their incidence. It also summarizes a variety of healthcare scenarios in which different kinds of secondary infections occur. Recent findings Apart from immune dysregulation, severe resource limitations in healthcare settings have made COVID-19 units conducive to a variety of secondary infections. Long-term effect of ex...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Infection prevention measures in acute care settings based on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission patterns and risk: a review
Purpose of review During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, when facing extraordinary infection prevention challenges, acute care settings have balanced routine patient safety needs while minimizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission risk to patients and healthcare personnel (HCP). Mitigation strategies in acute care settings are based on a combination of basic science, environmental, and epidemiologic evidence. Here, we review the literature on SARS-CoV-2 transmission, how it has shaped infection prevention interventions in acute care settings, and the results of such measure...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Techniques in bacterial strain typing: past, present, and future
Purpose of review The advancement of molecular techniques such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revolutionized the field of bacterial strain typing, with important implications for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigations. This review summarizes state-of-the-art techniques in strain typing and examines barriers faced by clinical and public health laboratories in implementing these new methodologies. Recent findings WGS-based methodologies are on track to become the new ‘gold standards’ in bacterial strain typing, replacing traditional methods like pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Modeling transmission of pathogens in healthcare settings
Purpose of review Mathematical, statistical, and computational models provide insight into the transmission mechanisms and optimal control of healthcare-associated infections. To contextualize recent findings, we offer a summative review of recent literature focused on modeling transmission of pathogens in healthcare settings. Recent findings The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic shift in the modeling landscape as the healthcare community has raced to characterize the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and develop effective interventions. Inequities in COVID-19 outcomes have inspired new efforts to quanti...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

Endemic parasitic infections in donors and recipients of stem cell and solid organ transplants: focus on strongyloidiasis and Chagas disease
Purpose of review The aim of the article is to review recent recommendations on the management of Strongyloidiasis and Chagas disease (ChD) in the context of stem-cell or solid-organ transplantation. Recent findings An update on laboratory screening, detection of acute disease or reactivation and recommended preventive or therapeutic options in the transplant recipients and donors is presented. Recent epidemiological data showing new estimates on the worldwide burden of both diseases and changes in the classical distribution around the globe should increase awareness and will impact the evaluation and management...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant, gram-negative infections in high-risk haematologic patients: an update on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment
Purpose of review Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk hematologic patients. Early diagnosis and management of antibiotic treatment in these patients is a challenge for physicians. This review focuses on the latest literature reports that concern the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of MDR-GNB infections in this population. Recent findings High-risk haematological patients have several risk factors that make them particularly susceptible to MDR-GNB infections. Few studies have examined the implementation of rapid diagn...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Update on cytomegalovirus in transplant recipients: new agents, prophylaxis, and cell-mediated immunity
Purpose of review This review is an overview of recent advances in diagnostics, therapies, and prevention strategies for cytomegalovirus (CMV), focusing on solid-organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Recent findings A randomized trial of prophylaxis vs preemptive therapy in donor-seropositive, recipient-seronegative liver transplant recipients found significantly less CMV disease in the preemptive group. Maribavir has shown promise for the treatment of resistant/refractory CMV and for uncomplicated CMV DNAemia. A post hoc mortality analysis, as well as emerging reports of real-world...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Choice and duration of antifungal prophylaxis and treatment in high-risk haematology patients
Purpose of review This review aims to summarize available guidelines as well as the emerging evidence for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in high-risk haematology patients. Recent findings Primary mould-active prophylaxis is the strategy used in many centres to manage the risk of invasive fungal disease in high-risk haematology patients, and posaconazole remains the antifungal of choice for most of these patients. Data on the use of other antifungals for primary prophylaxis, including isavuconazole, are limited. There is considerable interest in identifying a strategy that would limit th...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Managing uncertainty in antifungal dosing: antibiograms, therapeutic drug monitoring and drug-drug interactions
Purpose of review A number of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors in critically ill or severely immunosuppressed patients influence the effectiveness of antifungal therapy making dosing less certain. Recent position papers from infectious diseases societies and working groups have proposed methods for dosage individualization of antibiotics in critically ill patients using a combination of population pharmacokinetic models, Monte-Carlo simulation and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to guide dosing. In this review, we examine the current limitations and practical issues of adapting a pharmacometrics-guided dos...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in transplant recipients
Purpose of review Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is considered one of the most promising and socioeconomically sustainable strategy to help control the pandemic and several vaccines are currently being distributed in nationwide mass immunization campaigns. Very limited data are available on benefits and risks of COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised patients and in particular in solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as they were excluded from phase III trials. This review summarizes current knowledge, international guidelines and controversies regarding COVID-19 vaccination i...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Editorial: Transplant infectious disease landscape in the COVID19-Era
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Genovefa A. Papanicolaou and Dionysios Neofytos Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Arboviral central nervous system infections
Purpose of review This review provides an overview of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections that are important causes of human neurological infections world-wide. As many of the individual viruses in a specific genus or family cause overlapping clinical syndromes, this review discusses important viruses in groups to highlight some of the similarities and differences in groups of neuroinvasive arbovirus infections. Recent Findings Arboviruses that cause neurological infections in humans continue to emerge and distribute to new regions. The geographic range of the vectors, the hosts and subsequent arbovirus...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

Antimicrobial use in central nervous system infections
Purpose of review Central nervous system (CNS) infections are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to summarize current antimicrobial therapies, as well as, updates in the management of community-acquired meningitis and healthcare-associated meningitis and ventriculitis. Recent findings Due to the increasing rates of multidrug resistant and extensively-drug resistant organisms, available antimicrobials are limited. Novel treatment options include newer systemic antimicrobials and antimicrobials that have previously limited data in the management of CNS infections. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

The returned traveler with neurologic manifestations: could my patient have a parasite?
Purpose of review The present review focuses on parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) that can affect the international traveler. Recent findings The epidemiology of imported parasitic infections is changing and clinicians are treating increasing numbers of returned travelers with parasitic infections in the CNS with which they are not familiar. Summary The epidemiology, life cycle, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of parasites that affect the CNS will be discussed. (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

Central nervous system infections associated with neurologic devices
Purpose of review To review recent data on the epidemiology, microbiology, diagnosis, and management of central nervous system (CNS) infections associated with neurologic devices. Recent findings The increasing use of implanted neurologic devices has led to an increase in associated infections. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation may be present after a neurosurgical procedure, complicating the diagnosis of CNS infection. Newer biomarkers such as CSF lactate and procalcitonin show promise in differentiating infection from other causes of CSF inflammation. Molecular diagnostic tests including next-generation or...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

Neuroradiology of infectious diseases
Purpose of review Early diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections is crucial given high morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging in CNS infections is widely used to aid in the diagnosis, treatment and to assess the response to antibiotic and neurosurgical interventions. Recent findings The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines have clear recommendations for obtaining a computerized tomography of the head (CTH) prior to lumbar puncture (LP) in suspected meningitis. In the absence of indications for imaging or in aseptic meningitis, cranial imaging is of low utility. In contrast, cranial...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

Neurologic aspects of coronavirus disease of 2019 infection
Purpose of review Central and peripheral nervous system manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been frequently reported and may cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review details the latest evidence on the neuropathogenesis and neurologic complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Recent findings Commonly reported neurologic complications include toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disorders, seizures, and anoxic-brain injury. These complications represent secondary injury due to COVID-19 related hypoxia, sepsis, hype...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

Central nervous system infections after solid organ transplantation
Purpose of review Significant advances to our understanding of several neuroinfectious complications after a solid organ transplant (SOT) have occurred in the last few years. Here, we review the central nervous system (CNS) infections that are relevant to SOT via a syndromic approach with a particular emphasis on recent updates in the field. Recent findings A few key studies have advanced our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of several CNS infections in SOT recipients. Risk factors for poor prognosis and protective effects of standard posttransplant prophylactic strategies have been...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

Editorial: What's hot in neurologic infections?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CNS INFECTIONS: Edited by Adarsh Bhimraj Source Type: research

The intracellular phase of extracellular respiratory tract bacterial pathogens and its role on pathogen-host interactions during infection
Purpose of review An initial intracellular phase of usually extracellular bacterial pathogens displays an important strategy to hide from the host's immune system and antibiotics therapy. It helps the bacteria, including bacterial pathogens of airway diseases, to persist and eventually switch to a typical extracellular infection. Several infectious diseases of the lung are life-threatening and their control is impeded by intracellular persistence of pathogens. Thus, molecular adaptations of the pathogens to this niche but also the host's response and potential targets to interfere are of relevance. Here we discuss exam...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE: Edited by Dennis L. Stevens and Dimitri Diavatopoulos Source Type: research

Bacterial RTX toxins and host immunity
Purpose of review RTX toxin action often defines the outcome of bacterial infections. Here, we discuss the progress in understanding the impacts of RTX toxin activities on host immunity. Recent findings Bordetella pertussis CyaA activity paralyzes sentinel phagocytic cells by elevating cellular cAMP levels and blocks differentiation of infiltrating monocytes into bactericidal macrophages, promoting also de-differentiation of resident alveolar macrophages into monocyte-like cells. Vibrio cholerae multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX), through Rho inactivating and α/β-hydrolase (ABH) ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE: Edited by Dennis L. Stevens and Dimitri Diavatopoulos Source Type: research

Mucosal immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection
Purpose of review Despite its crucial role in protection against viral infections, mucosal immunity has been largely understudied in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review outlines the current evidence about the role of mucosal immune responses in the clearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as well as potential mucosal mechanisms of protection against (re-)infection. Recent findings The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cellular entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is most highly expressed in the upper respiratory tract and most SARS-CoV-2 shedding occ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE: Edited by Dennis L. Stevens and Dimitri Diavatopoulos Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research