Is it time to change conventional consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia in CR1?
Purpose of review: Choosing the most appropriate postremission therapy (PRT) for a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission remains a challenging task. Factors such as risk for disease relapse, nonrelapse mortality associated with different PRT approaches, donor availability, prospects for salvage should disease relapse, and patient preference all affect PRT choice. Recent findings: New genetic markers refine AML risk stratification and identify patients within the ‘classical’ risk groups who may benefit from transplant-based or chemotherapy-based PRT. The use of minimal residual di...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Novel strategies to prevent relapse after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes
Purpose of review: Relapse of haematological neoplasms after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains one of the leading causes of death. Treatment of relapse post-HSCT is frequently ineffective and outcomes are poor, necessitating preventive strategies that are reviewed below. Recent findings: Current strategies to prevent relapse after HSCT are geared towards four general principles: improving the antitumour effects of conditioning regimens prior to HSCT, improving graft selection and engineering to augment the graft-versus-leukaemia effect, post-HSCT chemotherapeutic interventions to impair gro...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Recent developments in the treatment of older individuals with acute myeloid leukemia: 2014
Purpose of review: The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in older persons remains a tremendous clinical challenge. AML in older patients is more often associated with biologically unfavorable features, and these patients are less likely to tolerate or accept intensive therapy. There have not been substantial improvements in outcome for this group of patients despite decades of research. In this review, we summarize the most substantial contributions in the past 2 years. Recent findings: There have been three major research themes in the recently published literature for older patients with AML: methods to predict r...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Approach to patients with primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia
Purpose of review: Despite successful remission induction in 60–80% of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia, there remain a significant number of patients who exhibit primary refractory disease. Here we examine the data for predicting likelihood of having refractory disease, available therapeutic options, and how to decide the appropriate treatment option for a patient. Recent findings: Recently identified recurrent molecular mutations and early response to chemotherapy as determined by kinetics of peripheral blast clearance or nadir bone marrow biopsy assist in determining the likelihood of primary r...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Mixed lineage rearranged leukaemia: pathogenesis and targeting DOT1L
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to explore the recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of leukaemias with a translocation involving the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene and therapeutic implications of these discoveries. Recent findings: The pathogenesis of MLL-rearranged leukaemias has recently been elucidated in a flurry of clinical studies that have appeared over the past 5 years. On the basis of these studies, a phase 1 clinical trial has been initiated targeting the histone methyltransferase DOT1L with interim clinical results reported at the American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting in ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in core binding factor acute myeloid leukaemia
Purpose of review: In acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), the presence of t(8;21)(q22;q22) and inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) and/or the corresponding molecular rearrangements RUNX1/RUNX1T1 and CBFB/MYH11 [collectively referred to as core binding factor (CBF) AML] predict for a more favourable outcome in patients receiving cytarabine-anthracycline based induction and upon achievement of complete remission, high-dose cytarabine consolidation chemotherapy. However, 40–45% of these patients eventually relapse and die of their disease. Here, we review emerging molecular and therapeutic results that may be used to guide the...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Preleukemia: the normal side of cancer
Purpose of review: In the present review, we will define the preleukemic state. We aim at increasing awareness and research in the field of preleukemia that will nurture targeted therapy for the earlier steps of leukemia evolution. Recent findings: Emerging evidence supports the role of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells carrying recurrent leukemia-related mutations as the cell of origin of both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. The preleukemic stem cells can maintain at least to some extent their functionality; however, they have increased fitness endowed by the preleukemic mutations that lead to clonal expansion. Summa...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

The best of times in hematologic malignancies
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Hematology)
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Hematology)
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - February 6, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: Editorial Introduction Source Type: research

Neutrophilic dermatosis: disease mechanism and treatment
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to describe the physiopathological and therapeutic aspects of neutrophilic dermatosis, taking into account their most frequent associated conditions. Recent findings: In autoinflammatory syndromes featuring neutrophilic dermatosis, the role of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of neutrophilic dermatosis has supported their classification as autoinflammatory diseases. In malignancy-associated neutrophilic dermatosis, the role of the malignant clone in myeloid neoplasms and the role of the monoclonal gammopathy and/or of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - January 1, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Hyper-IgE syndromes: recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnostics and clinical care
Purpose of review: This review provides an overview on recent data regarding pathogenesis, diagnostics and clinical care of hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES). HIES are a group of primary immunodeficiencies with overlapping and distinct features, most frequently caused by deficiency in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) or dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8). Recent findings: Particular progress has been made in deciphering the relevance of STAT3 and DOCK8 for B-cell, T-cell and natural killer-cell immunity as well as in understanding allergic features. Multisystemic features of STAT3-deficient HIES, for exa...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - January 1, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

The regulatory role of serum response factor pathway in neutrophil inflammatory response
Purpose of reviewNeutrophils rapidly migrate to sites of injury and infection. Egress of neutrophils from the circulation into tissues is a highly regulated process involving several distinct steps. Cell–cell interactions mediated by selectins and integrins and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton are key mechanisms facilitating appropriate neutrophil recruitment. Neutrophil function is impaired in inherited and acquired disorders, such as leukocyte adhesion deficiency and myelodysplasia. Since the discovery that deletion of all or part of chromosome 5 is the most common genetic aberration in myelodysplasia, the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

The role of neutrophils in causing antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis
Purpose of reviewAntineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-activated phagocytes cause vasculitis and necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. Experimental data support the notion that activation of neutrophils and monocytes by ANCA immunoglobulin G with generation of reactive oxygen species, degranulation of proteases, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps play a role in tissue injury. Recent findingsWe discuss novel findings regarding the expression of ANCA antigens and the mechanisms involved in myeloid cell activation by ANCA immunoglobulin G. The contribution of neutrophil serine proteases and their specif...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

The physiological roles of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 in neutrophil migration into tissues
Purpose of reviewNeutrophil extravasation from the blood into tissues is initiated by tethering and rolling of neutrophils on endothelial cells, followed by neutrophil integrin activation and shear resistant arrest, crawling, diapedesis and breaching the endothelial basement membrane harbouring pericytes. Endothelial intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-2, in conjunction with ICAM-1 on pericytes, critically contribute to each step. In addition, epithelial ICAM-1 is involved in neutrophil migration to peri-epithelial sites. The most recent findings on the role of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 for neutrophil migration ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Idiopathic lymphocytopenia
Purpose of reviewIdiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is defined by the reduction of the main lymphocyte subtype in peripheral blood and CD4+ T cells below 300/μl in the absence of any secondary known causes of lymphopenia, including viral causes. The present review aims to state the latest available data on clinical, pathological and therapeutic aspects related to ICL, published from 1990 to 2014. The last observed clinical presentation and complications of ICL patients are described. The latest findings and possible mechanisms involved in the development of ICL features are included in the present review; however, pa...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Chronic granulomatous disease – conventional treatment vs. hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an update
Purpose of reviewWe update and summarize the recent findings in conventional treatment and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We also summarize the contemporary view on when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be the preferred treatment of choice in CGD. Recent findingsAzole antifungal treatment in CGD has improved survival. With prolonged survival, inflammatory complications are an emerging problem in CGD. Several studies now present excellent results with stem cell transplantation in severe CGD, also with reduced intensity conditioning. SummarySeveral lines of evide...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Leukoreduction and blood-borne vCJD transmission risk
Purpose of reviewRisk assessments for transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease predicted that leukocyte reduction would be inefficient at preventing transmission of the disease by blood transfusion. Nevertheless, approximately 14 years ago, a significant proportion of European countries decided to implement leukocyte reduction treatment within their human blood supplies in order to mitigate the risk of human prion disease transmission. Recent findingsCurrent epidemiological studies seem to indicate that leukocyte reduction has had a positive impact on reducing the risk. In addition, over the last 5 years, va...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

How methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus evade neutrophil killing
Purpose of reviewMethicillin-resistant strains of the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus pose a significant public health threat in the community, as they are easily transmitted, especially prone to cause invasive disease, and infect otherwise healthy individuals. The mechanistic basis for the ability of these organisms to evade the innate immune responses remains incompletely defined. Recent findingsThe success of pathogens such as S. aureus rests, in part, on their capacity to overcome neutrophil-mediated host defense to establish infection and cause human disease. S. aureus has the potential to thwart effect...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Neutrophilic dermatosis: disease mechanism and treatment
Purpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the physiopathological and therapeutic aspects of neutrophilic dermatosis, taking into account their most frequent associated conditions. Recent findingsIn autoinflammatory syndromes featuring neutrophilic dermatosis, the role of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of neutrophilic dermatosis has supported their classification as autoinflammatory diseases. In malignancy-associated neutrophilic dermatosis, the role of the malignant clone in myeloid neoplasms and the role of the monoclonal gammopathy and/or of the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Hyper-IgE syndromes: recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnostics and clinical care
Purpose of reviewThis review provides an overview on recent data regarding pathogenesis, diagnostics and clinical care of hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES). HIES are a group of primary immunodeficiencies with overlapping and distinct features, most frequently caused by deficiency in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) or dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8). Recent findingsParticular progress has been made in deciphering the relevance of STAT3 and DOCK8 for B-cell, T-cell and natural killer-cell immunity as well as in understanding allergic features. Multisystemic features of STAT3-deficient HIES, for example...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

The diversity of mutations and clinical outcomes for ELANE-associated neutropenia
This study summarized data from the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry (SCNIR) on genotype–phenotype relationships of ELANE mutations to important clinical outcomes. We also summarize findings for ELANE mutations not observed in SCNIR patients. Recent findingsThere were 307 SCNIR patients with 104 distinctive ELANE mutations who were followed longitudinally for up to 27 years. The ELANE mutations were diverse; there were 65 single amino acid substitutions; 61 of these mutations (94%) were ‘probably’ or ‘possibly damaging’ by PolyPhen-2 analysis, and one of the ‘benign&rsqu...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Intersections of hematology, immunology, dermatology and infectious diseases
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Hematology)
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Hematology)
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - December 5, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Postpartum hemorrhage: state and national response
Purpose of reviewThe rise in maternal mortality has raised a significant concern for epidemiologists and providers. One of the most preventable and frequent causes of maternal death is hemorrhage-related events. Most providers of obstetrical care see such complications on a frequent basis, and the costs in maternal lives and blood usage have become a universal concern. As a result, a number of important responses by state and national groups have taken place to address these preventable bad outcomes. Recent findingsA number of well designed step-by-step protocols have had success in preventing morbidity and mortality. Expe...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Prophylactic platelet transfusions: should they be a treatment of the past?
Purpose of reviewFor decades, prophylactic platelet transfusions have been a standard practice for treatment-related thrombocytopenia in patients with hematologic malignancies, although evidence supporting this practice was limited. Two recent randomized controlled studies were carried out to challenge this practice by comparing prophylactic to therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategies. This review compares and contrasts the study findings to provide further insight into the study conclusions and their application to practice. Recent findingsPast studies exploring platelet transfusion in this patient population focu...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Hardwiring patient blood management: harnessing information technology to optimize transfusion practice
Purpose of reviewThis review will describe recent applications of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) in transfusion medicine and other novel ways information technology is being applied to support patient blood management (PBM) efforts. Recent findingsCPOE with CDSS can be used to encourage appropriate transfusion practices as part of an institutional PBM program. The impact of CPOE with CDSS is enhanced when the laboratory information system (LIS) can be linked to the electronic medical record (EMR) to enable adaptive alerts that query transfusion orders against current ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Emerging microbial threats to the United States blood supply
Purpose of reviewIn this short review, several emerging agents are described to demonstrate potential responses of the blood community to emerging and potentially emerging infections. Recent findingsCritical questions are raised as we consider appropriate approaches to these agents. Can we identify risk thresholds below which interventions are not required, that is, are there tolerable infectious risks of transfusion? Who are the stakeholders responsible for that determination? What is the role of health economic analysis for informing those decisions? If we decide that cost–utility thresholds for transfusion medicin...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Adjunct agents for bleeding
Purpose of reviewThis review provides a summary of the most recent clinical trials evaluating the hemostatic agents for the treatment of coagulopathy associated with critical bleeding. In particular, antifibrinolytic agents (i.e., aprotinin, tranexamic and ε-aminocaproic acids), desmopressin, recombinant activated factor VII, fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrates are evaluated. Recent findingsAmong the various therapeutic options available, tranexamic acid is emerging as the most promising. Indeed, a recent randomized trial has shown a benefit survival of the early administration of tranexamic acid in pat...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Promoting national blood systems in developing countries
This article reviews many recent findings of the experts leading these international projects. Recent findingsThe majority of current research is focused on blood donation and patient blood management in sub-Saharan Africa, with contributions to other fields of blood safety in Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia. Countries collecting blood from the replacement donors are challenging the notion that replacement donors are inherently a higher risk group than voluntary donors. Simultaneously, many countries are considering how best to improve the management of their blood inventories and to optimize their national standards...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Novel platelet storage conditions: additive solutions, gas, and cold
Purpose of reviewPlatelets are a frequently requested blood product today and are often in limited supply because of a shelf life of 5–7 days, depending on the country. Room temperature storage is associated with an increased risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Plasma used for platelet storage is unavailable for other uses, and allogeneic plasma carries with it risks for adverse transfusion reactions. This review looks at recent activities evaluating alternative conditions for the storage of platelets. Recent findingsNew-generation platelet additive solutions are being evaluated and applied as a strategy to re...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY: Edited by Jed B. Gorlin Source Type: research

Mucormycosis: a new concern in the transplant ward?
This study focuses on the epidemiology and management of mucormycosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients, a life-threatening mold infection whose incidence has increased over the past decades. Recent findingsMucormycosis may occur in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with severe graft-versus-host disease, steroids, neutropenia, iron overload, diabetes, and malnutrition, or those who received antifungals not active against Mucorales. Its incidence in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is around 0.3%. As Mucorales are not susceptible to voriconazole and candins, and as mucormycosis often mi...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo Source Type: research

Epstein–Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplant
Purpose of reviewEpstein–Barr virus (EBV) reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delays in reconstitution of EBV-specific T lymphocyte activity can lead to life-threatening EBV lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD). This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of EBV viremia and PTLD. Recent findingsDuring the past decade, early detection strategies, such as serial measurement of EBV-DNA load, have helped identify high-risk patients and diagnose early lymphoproliferation...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo Source Type: research

Diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus 2013
Purpose of reviewDespite significant improvements in the management of patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation, including anticytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis and treatment, clinical handling of CMV infection remains challenging in the light of high morbidity and mortality rates. Thus, novel strategies and agents to control CMV infection and disease will be discussed. Recent findingsNovel assays to quantify viral load and detect antiviral resistance mechanisms on the basis of next-generation sequencing have been described and will help to earlier and more effectively control CMV infection. In addition, sa...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo Source Type: research

The role of cytomegalovirus serostatus on outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Purpose of reviewThe aim of this review is to discuss recent developments regarding the impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) serological status of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients and their donors on transplant outcome. Recent findingsCMV seropositivity of the recipient is still a negative factor for transplant outcome. The use of a CMV seropositive donor has a negative impact on survival in patients receiving unrelated but not human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling grafts. In CMV seropositive patients, the donor serological status influences outcome in patients receiving unrelated donor grafts after myeloa...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo Source Type: research

Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive fungal diseases in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Purpose of reviewKnowledge of the epidemiology and the risk factors of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is a critical determinant of the prevention, diagnosis and therapeutic antifungal strategy. Transplant procedures are characterized by a continuous evolution; therefore, an update of the epidemiological findings of IFDs in HSCT populations is needed. Recent findingsIn the last few years, the incidence and the clinical risk factors of IFD, mainly in allogeneic HSCT populations, have been investigated in prospective, multicenter studies. New findings in the different t...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo Source Type: research

Bacterial infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients
Purpose of reviewBacterial infections are among the most frequent complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). This review describes current epidemiology and management of bacterial infections. Recent findingsMultidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasingly frequent in HSCT recipients, but significant differences in etiology of bacterial infections and prevalence of resistant strains exist between different transplant centers. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginos...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Hematology)
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - October 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Understanding platelets in malaria infection
Purpose of reviewPlatelets are most identified as the cellular mediator of thrombosis. It is becoming increasingly evident that platelets also have complicated roles in vascular inflammatory and infectious diseases. Platelets have been linked to initiating or accelerating the pathogenesis of diverse pathologies, such as atherosclerosis acute and chronic transplant rejection, arthritis, influenza, and malaria infection. Platelets may also have protective roles in killing microbes, such as bacteria. Malaria kills over 500 000 people per year, so understanding the multifaceted roles for platelets in malaria infection is of cr...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Emerging pathophysiological roles for fibrinolysis
Purpose of reviewThe fibrinolytic system plays a key role in the regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis; however, it also has multiple pleiotropic effects. In this review, we examine the studies that investigated the role of the plasminogen activator system and its inhibitors outside the context of clot lysis. Recent findingsActivators of plasminogen, plasminogen receptors, and inhibitors of plasminogen activation all play a role in the proliferation, migration, and metastasis of tumor cells in many cancer types and may serve as prognostic and diagnostic markers. The plasminogen activator system is also involved in the pa...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Stem cells, megakaryocytes, and platelets
Purpose of reviewStem cells are an important tool for the study of ex-vivo models of megakaryopoiesis and the production of functional platelets. In this manuscript, we review the optimization of megakaryocyte and platelet differentiation and discuss the mechanistic studies and disease models that have incorporated stem cell technologies. Recent findingsMechanisms of cytoskeletal regulation and signal transduction have revealed insights into hierarchical dynamics of hematopoiesis, highlighting the close relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and cells of the megakaryocyte lineage. Platelet disorders have been succes...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

The coagulopathy of cancer
Purpose of reviewTo provide an updated overview of the complex coagulopathy associated with malignancy, together with the advances in our knowledge of the interactions of cancer with the hemostatic system. Also, to offer an update of the recent progresses in the risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of thrombohemorrhagic complications in cancer patients. Recent findingsMechanisms underlying the hemostatic derangement caused by cancer include many prothrombotic properties of tumor tissues. Of extreme interest are the most recent findings that the regulation of tumor cell hemostatic protein expression is driven by oncog...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Zebrafish as a model system for the study of hemostasis and thrombosis
Purpose of reviewAlthough the zebrafish has been established as a research tool over the past two to three decades, in hematology it has primarily been used to investigate areas distinct from coagulation. The advantages of this vertebrate model include high fecundity, rapid and external development, and conservation of virtually all clotting factors in the zebrafish genomic sequence. Here, we summarize the growing application of this technology to the study of hemostasis and thrombosis. Recent findingsLoss of function studies have demonstrated conservation of function for a number of zebrafish coagulation factors. These in...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Shaping the platelet response to vascular injury
Purpose of reviewSeveral decades of work by many investigators have elucidated the major signaling pathways responsible for platelet activation. Still to be fully understood is how these pathways are integrated into a single network and how changing conditions within a growing thrombus affect that network. In this review we will consider some of the recent studies that address these issues and describe a model that provides insights into platelet activation as it occurs in vivo. Recent findingsGenetic and pharmacologic studies performed in vivo have demonstrated that platelet activation during hemostasis and thrombosis is ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy
Purpose of reviewHemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death following injury. Excessive and uncontrolled bleeding, commonly referred to as trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), affects a quarter of all trauma patients and is associated with substantial injuries, increased transfusion requirements, and poor outcomes. Recent data have contributed to our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving TIC. Recent findingsThe current literature offers evidence supporting proposed mechanisms that induce TIC, such as platelet dysfunction, endogenous anticoagulation, endothelial activation, fibrinogen...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Global assays of hemostasis
Purpose of reviewThere exists an imbalance between our understanding of the physiology of the blood coagulation process and the translation of this understanding into useful assays for clinical application. As technology advances, the capabilities for merging the two areas have become more attainable. Global assays have advanced our understanding of the dynamics of the blood coagulation process beyond end point assays and are at the forefront of implementation in the clinic. Recent findingsWe will review recent advances in the main global assays with a focus on thrombin generation that have potential for clinical utility. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Polyphosphate: a new player in the field of hemostasis
Purpose of reviewPolyphosphate (polyP) is an inorganic polymer that has recently been shown to be secreted by activated platelets. It is a potent modulator of the blood clotting and complement systems in hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. Recent findingsThis review focuses on what is currently known about which blood cells secrete polyP, and the roles that polyP plays in modulating the blood clotting and complement systems in health and disease. SummaryPolyP is a novel player in normal hemostasis and likely plays roles in thrombotic diseases and also in host responses to pathogens. It is also potentially a drug targ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Advances in the pathophysiology and treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
Purpose of reviewTo review the recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and in applying this knowledge to the treatment of patients with suspected and proven HIT. Recent findingsHIT pathophysiology is dynamic and complex. HIT pathophysiology is initiated by four essential components – heparin (Hep), platelet factor 4 (PF4), IgG antibodies against the Hep–PF4 complex, and platelet FcγRIIa. HIT is propagated by activated platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, and coagulation proteins. Insights into the unique HIT antibody response continue to emerg...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Recent advances in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
The objective of this review is to examine the advances in this field and highlight the areas of further investigation. Recent findingsSeveral mechanisms of thrombosis and pregnancy loss in APS have been proposed. These include activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets, and/or inhibition of natural anticoagulant and fibrinolytic systems by antiphospholipid antibodies. However, in many cases the underlying molecular mechanisms and their relevance to the human disorder remain uncertain. New therapeutic agents such as statins, hydroxychloroquine, rituximab, complement inhibitors, and interventions aimed at dis...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS: Edited by Joseph E. Italiano and Jorge A. Di Paola Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Hematology)
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - September 1, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research