Metabolic regulation of cardiac regeneration: roles of hypoxia, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dynamics
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 11;70:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe adult mammalian heart cannot regenerate after myocardial injury because most cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate. In contrast, cardiomyocytes of vertebrates such as zebrafish and urodele amphibians, but also those of fetal and early neonatal mammals, maintain the ability to proliferate and therefore support regeneration of injured tissue and recovery of cardiac function. Whether evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of cardiomyocyte proliferation exist and, if so, whether they are modifiable to a...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 15, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Akane Sakaguchi Wataru Kimura Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation of cardiac regeneration: roles of hypoxia, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dynamics
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 11;70:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe adult mammalian heart cannot regenerate after myocardial injury because most cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate. In contrast, cardiomyocytes of vertebrates such as zebrafish and urodele amphibians, but also those of fetal and early neonatal mammals, maintain the ability to proliferate and therefore support regeneration of injured tissue and recovery of cardiac function. Whether evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of cardiomyocyte proliferation exist and, if so, whether they are modifiable to a...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 15, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Akane Sakaguchi Wataru Kimura Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation of cardiac regeneration: roles of hypoxia, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dynamics
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 11;70:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe adult mammalian heart cannot regenerate after myocardial injury because most cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate. In contrast, cardiomyocytes of vertebrates such as zebrafish and urodele amphibians, but also those of fetal and early neonatal mammals, maintain the ability to proliferate and therefore support regeneration of injured tissue and recovery of cardiac function. Whether evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of cardiomyocyte proliferation exist and, if so, whether they are modifiable to a...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 15, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Akane Sakaguchi Wataru Kimura Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

RNA interference therapeutics for cardiac regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;70:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an impelling need to develop new therapeutics for myocardial infarction and heart failure. A novel and exciting therapeutic possibility is to achieve cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of the endogenous capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate. Proof-of-concept evidence of microRNA-induced cardiac regeneration is available in both small and large animals using viral vectors. However, a clinically more applicable strategy is the development of lipid-mediated nanotechnologies for the administration of R...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josef Huntington Manendra Pachauri Hashim Ali Mauro Giacca Source Type: research

Communication between chromatin and homologous recombination
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 4;71:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigher-order chromatin packing serves as a structural barrier to the recognition and repair of genomic lesions. The initiation and outcome of the repair response is dictated by a highly coordinated yet complex interplay between chromatin modifying enzymes and their cognate readers, damage induced chemical modifications, nucleosome density, transcriptional state, and cell cycle-dependent availability of DNA repair machinery. The physical and chemical properties of the DNA lesions themselves further regulate the nature of en...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 7, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Priyanka Verma Roger A Greenberg Source Type: research

Regional patterning and regulation of melanin pigmentation in insects
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 1;69:163-170. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInsects display an immense diversity in melanin pigmentation, which is generated by the interplay between the regulatory genes (that provide general patterning information) and effector genes (that provide coloration of the pattern). However, recent studies encompassing several different orders (Hemiptera, Blattodea, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera) have shown that knockdowns of melanin producing genes alone can generate distinct region-specific patterns. This review surveys the most recent studies to further document the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Aleksandar Popadi ć Despina Tsitlakidou Source Type: research

Reprogramming lineage identity through cell-cell fusion
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 1;70:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe conversion of differentiated cells to a pluripotent state through somatic cell nuclear transfer provided the first unequivocal evidence that differentiation was reversible. In more recent times, introducing a combination of key transcription factors into terminally differentiated mammalian cells was shown to drive their conversion to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These discoveries were transformative, but the relatively slow speed (2-3 weeks) and low efficiency of reprogramming (0.1-1%) made deciphering the...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Karen E Brown Amanda G Fisher Source Type: research

Regional patterning and regulation of melanin pigmentation in insects
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 1;69:163-170. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInsects display an immense diversity in melanin pigmentation, which is generated by the interplay between the regulatory genes (that provide general patterning information) and effector genes (that provide coloration of the pattern). However, recent studies encompassing several different orders (Hemiptera, Blattodea, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera) have shown that knockdowns of melanin producing genes alone can generate distinct region-specific patterns. This review surveys the most recent studies to further document the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Aleksandar Popadi ć Despina Tsitlakidou Source Type: research

Reprogramming lineage identity through cell-cell fusion
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 1;70:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe conversion of differentiated cells to a pluripotent state through somatic cell nuclear transfer provided the first unequivocal evidence that differentiation was reversible. In more recent times, introducing a combination of key transcription factors into terminally differentiated mammalian cells was shown to drive their conversion to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These discoveries were transformative, but the relatively slow speed (2-3 weeks) and low efficiency of reprogramming (0.1-1%) made deciphering the...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Karen E Brown Amanda G Fisher Source Type: research

Regional patterning and regulation of melanin pigmentation in insects
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 1;69:163-170. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInsects display an immense diversity in melanin pigmentation, which is generated by the interplay between the regulatory genes (that provide general patterning information) and effector genes (that provide coloration of the pattern). However, recent studies encompassing several different orders (Hemiptera, Blattodea, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera) have shown that knockdowns of melanin producing genes alone can generate distinct region-specific patterns. This review surveys the most recent studies to further document the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Aleksandar Popadi ć Despina Tsitlakidou Source Type: research

Reprogramming lineage identity through cell-cell fusion
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 Jun 1;70:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe conversion of differentiated cells to a pluripotent state through somatic cell nuclear transfer provided the first unequivocal evidence that differentiation was reversible. In more recent times, introducing a combination of key transcription factors into terminally differentiated mammalian cells was shown to drive their conversion to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These discoveries were transformative, but the relatively slow speed (2-3 weeks) and low efficiency of reprogramming (0.1-1%) made deciphering the...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Karen E Brown Amanda G Fisher Source Type: research

A cross-comparison of cognitive ability across 8 genomic disorders
This study aims to understand whether existing data can be leveraged for a cross-comparison of cognitive ability among multiple CNV. We found there is a lack of harmonization among assessment instruments and little standardization for reporting summary data across studies. Despite these limitations, we identified a differential impact of CNV loci on cognitive ability. Our data suggest that future cross-comparisons of CNV disorders will reveal meaningful differences across the phenotypic spectrum, especially if standardized phenotypic assessment is achieved.PMID:34082144 | DOI:10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.001 (Source: Current Opin...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Michael Mortillo Jennifer G Mulle Source Type: research

A cross-comparison of cognitive ability across 8 genomic disorders
This study aims to understand whether existing data can be leveraged for a cross-comparison of cognitive ability among multiple CNV. We found there is a lack of harmonization among assessment instruments and little standardization for reporting summary data across studies. Despite these limitations, we identified a differential impact of CNV loci on cognitive ability. Our data suggest that future cross-comparisons of CNV disorders will reveal meaningful differences across the phenotypic spectrum, especially if standardized phenotypic assessment is achieved.PMID:34082144 | DOI:10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.001 (Source: Current Opin...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Michael Mortillo Jennifer G Mulle Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Rare CNV disorders and neuropsychiatric phenotypes: opportunities, challenges, solutions
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28:S0959-437X(21)00056-3. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.002. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34059379 | DOI:10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.002 (Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development)
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jennifer Gladys Mulle Patrick F Sullivan Jens Hjerling-Leffler Source Type: research

Pancreatic cell fate specification: insights into developmental mechanisms and their application for lineage reprogramming
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28;70:32-39. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDiabetes is a group of metabolic disorders, which results from insufficient functional pancreatic β-cell mass either due to the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells, or their death or de-differentiation as compensation for insulin resistance. The ability to reprogram cell types within close developmental proximity to β-cells offers a strategy to replenish β-cell mass and a future possible treatment of diabetes. Here, we review recent advances in the fields of pancreas development and l...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Abigail Isaacson Francesca M Spagnoli Source Type: research

Reprogramming cellular identity during intestinal regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 29;70:40-47. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe intestine is a vital organ mediating absorption of nutrients and water. Following tissue damage, the intestine mounts a remarkable regenerative response by reprogramming cellular identity to facilitate reinstatement of homeostasis. Here we review recent advances within intestinal regenerative biology and the emerging concept of fetal-like reprogramming, in which the adult intestinal epithelium transiently enters a repair-associated state reminiscent of ontologically pre-existing stages. We focus on molecular mechani...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hjalte L Larsen Kim B Jensen Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Rare CNV disorders and neuropsychiatric phenotypes: opportunities, challenges, solutions
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28:S0959-437X(21)00056-3. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.002. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34059379 | DOI:10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.002 (Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development)
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jennifer Gladys Mulle Patrick F Sullivan Jens Hjerling-Leffler Source Type: research

Pancreatic cell fate specification: insights into developmental mechanisms and their application for lineage reprogramming
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28;70:32-39. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDiabetes is a group of metabolic disorders, which results from insufficient functional pancreatic β-cell mass either due to the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells, or their death or de-differentiation as compensation for insulin resistance. The ability to reprogram cell types within close developmental proximity to β-cells offers a strategy to replenish β-cell mass and a future possible treatment of diabetes. Here, we review recent advances in the fields of pancreas development and l...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Abigail Isaacson Francesca M Spagnoli Source Type: research

Reprogramming cellular identity during intestinal regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 29;70:40-47. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe intestine is a vital organ mediating absorption of nutrients and water. Following tissue damage, the intestine mounts a remarkable regenerative response by reprogramming cellular identity to facilitate reinstatement of homeostasis. Here we review recent advances within intestinal regenerative biology and the emerging concept of fetal-like reprogramming, in which the adult intestinal epithelium transiently enters a repair-associated state reminiscent of ontologically pre-existing stages. We focus on molecular mechani...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hjalte L Larsen Kim B Jensen Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Rare CNV disorders and neuropsychiatric phenotypes: opportunities, challenges, solutions
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28:S0959-437X(21)00056-3. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.002. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34059379 | DOI:10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.002 (Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development)
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - June 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jennifer Gladys Mulle Patrick F Sullivan Jens Hjerling-Leffler Source Type: research

Trends and variation in vertebrate patterns as outcomes of self-organization
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28;69:147-153. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.05.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn extant vertebrates, natural motifs such as coat markings, spongy bone structures, neuronal arborescence or collective swarms correspond to diverse pattern types, from fractals to periodic stripes or tessellations, and so on. In this subphylum, evolution produced an apparent paradox: a given pattern may vary tremendously in its extent, periodicity or regularity, but follows general geometrical trends and is produced with meticulous precision. In this review, we discuss the role of self-organization, a patterning str...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 31, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Camille Curantz Marie Manceau Source Type: research

Something old, something new, something borrowed, something red: the origin of ecologically relevant novelties in Hemiptera
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28;69:154-162. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTComparative transcriptomics, applied in an evolutionary context, has transformed the possibilities for studying phenotypic evolution in non-model taxa. We review recent discoveries about the development of novel, ecologically relevant phenotypes in hemipteran insects. These discoveries highlight the diverse genomic substrates of novelty: 'something old', when novelty results from changes in the regulation of existing genes or gene duplication; 'something new', wherein lineage-restricted genes contribute to the evoluti...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 31, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Elizabeth L Jockusch Cera R Fisher Source Type: research

Epigenetic memory in reprogramming
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 28;70:24-31. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA central question of biology is the basis of stable cell fates. Cell fates are formed during development, where the zygote progresses from totipotency to terminal differentiation. Each step of lineage commitment involves establishment of stable states encoding-specific developmental commitments that can be faithfully transmitted to daughter cells - a 'memory' of cell fate is acquired. However, this cell-fate memory is reversible and can be changed when experimental reprogramming procedures such as nuclear transfer to e...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 31, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Eva H örmanseder Source Type: research

A finger on the pulse of regeneration: insights into the cellular mechanisms of adult digit tip regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 24;70:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mammals, multi-tissue regeneration is largely restricted to the distal portion of the digit tip and involves the formation of a blastema, a transient, proliferating cell mass that reforms the diverse tissues of the digit. Historically little was known about the mammalian blastema but with recent advances in single cell transcriptomic approaches and genetic lineage tracing, a more precise understanding of this critical structure has begun to emerge. In this review we summarise the cellular mechanisms underlying adult ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mekayla A Storer Freda D Miller Source Type: research

A finger on the pulse of regeneration: insights into the cellular mechanisms of adult digit tip regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 24;70:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mammals, multi-tissue regeneration is largely restricted to the distal portion of the digit tip and involves the formation of a blastema, a transient, proliferating cell mass that reforms the diverse tissues of the digit. Historically little was known about the mammalian blastema but with recent advances in single cell transcriptomic approaches and genetic lineage tracing, a more precise understanding of this critical structure has begun to emerge. In this review we summarise the cellular mechanisms underlying adult ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mekayla A Storer Freda D Miller Source Type: research

A finger on the pulse of regeneration: insights into the cellular mechanisms of adult digit tip regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 24;70:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mammals, multi-tissue regeneration is largely restricted to the distal portion of the digit tip and involves the formation of a blastema, a transient, proliferating cell mass that reforms the diverse tissues of the digit. Historically little was known about the mammalian blastema but with recent advances in single cell transcriptomic approaches and genetic lineage tracing, a more precise understanding of this critical structure has begun to emerge. In this review we summarise the cellular mechanisms underlying adult ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mekayla A Storer Freda D Miller Source Type: research

A finger on the pulse of regeneration: insights into the cellular mechanisms of adult digit tip regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 24;70:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mammals, multi-tissue regeneration is largely restricted to the distal portion of the digit tip and involves the formation of a blastema, a transient, proliferating cell mass that reforms the diverse tissues of the digit. Historically little was known about the mammalian blastema but with recent advances in single cell transcriptomic approaches and genetic lineage tracing, a more precise understanding of this critical structure has begun to emerge. In this review we summarise the cellular mechanisms underlying adult ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mekayla A Storer Freda D Miller Source Type: research

The evolution and genetics of lepidopteran egg and caterpillar coloration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 20;69:140-146. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInsect colors and color patterns have fascinated biologists for centuries. While extensive research has focused on the adult colors of Drosophila and butterflies, our understanding of how colors are generated and diversified in embryonic and larval stages remains limited, especially, the genetics behind the protective coloration of the immobile embryonic and larval stages. Lepidoptera, one of the most widespread and species-rich insect orders, are extremely helpful uncovering those mechanisms due to their remarkable d...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xiaoling Tong Liang Qiao Jiangwen Luo Xin Ding Songyuan Wu Source Type: research

The evolution and genetics of lepidopteran egg and caterpillar coloration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 20;69:140-146. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInsect colors and color patterns have fascinated biologists for centuries. While extensive research has focused on the adult colors of Drosophila and butterflies, our understanding of how colors are generated and diversified in embryonic and larval stages remains limited, especially, the genetics behind the protective coloration of the immobile embryonic and larval stages. Lepidoptera, one of the most widespread and species-rich insect orders, are extremely helpful uncovering those mechanisms due to their remarkable d...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xiaoling Tong Liang Qiao Jiangwen Luo Xin Ding Songyuan Wu Source Type: research

The evolution and genetics of lepidopteran egg and caterpillar coloration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 20;69:140-146. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInsect colors and color patterns have fascinated biologists for centuries. While extensive research has focused on the adult colors of Drosophila and butterflies, our understanding of how colors are generated and diversified in embryonic and larval stages remains limited, especially, the genetics behind the protective coloration of the immobile embryonic and larval stages. Lepidoptera, one of the most widespread and species-rich insect orders, are extremely helpful uncovering those mechanisms due to their remarkable d...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xiaoling Tong Liang Qiao Jiangwen Luo Xin Ding Songyuan Wu Source Type: research

Distinct fibroblasts in scars and regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 19;70:7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe skin is home to a collection of fibroblastic cell types from varying embryonic origins. These varying fibroblastic lineages display unique genetic programs and in vivo functions. Studying the diversity of fibroblastic cells is emerging as an important area for cutaneous biology, wound repair and regenerative medicine. In this mini-review we discuss the distinct embryonic origins, microenvironments, and transcriptomic profiles of fibroblastic lineages, and how these varying lineages shape the skin's wound response acr...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 22, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dongsheng Jiang Yuval Rinkevich Source Type: research

Distinct fibroblasts in scars and regeneration
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 19;70:7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.04.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe skin is home to a collection of fibroblastic cell types from varying embryonic origins. These varying fibroblastic lineages display unique genetic programs and in vivo functions. Studying the diversity of fibroblastic cells is emerging as an important area for cutaneous biology, wound repair and regenerative medicine. In this mini-review we discuss the distinct embryonic origins, microenvironments, and transcriptomic profiles of fibroblastic lineages, and how these varying lineages shape the skin's wound response acr...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 22, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dongsheng Jiang Yuval Rinkevich Source Type: research

Use of mouse models to investigate the contributions of CNVs associated with schizophrenia and autism to disease mechanisms
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 3;68:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman genetics is providing much needed clues to mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) were among the first genetic variants confidently associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Despite their structural complexity, the high penetrance of CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric disorders suggested utility for construction of cellular and animal models. Human cellular models that carry disease associated alleles have the advantage of human g...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Steven E Hyman Source Type: research

Use of mouse models to investigate the contributions of CNVs associated with schizophrenia and autism to disease mechanisms
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 3;68:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman genetics is providing much needed clues to mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) were among the first genetic variants confidently associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Despite their structural complexity, the high penetrance of CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric disorders suggested utility for construction of cellular and animal models. Human cellular models that carry disease associated alleles have the advantage of human g...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Steven E Hyman Source Type: research

Use of mouse models to investigate the contributions of CNVs associated with schizophrenia and autism to disease mechanisms
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 3;68:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman genetics is providing much needed clues to mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) were among the first genetic variants confidently associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Despite their structural complexity, the high penetrance of CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric disorders suggested utility for construction of cellular and animal models. Human cellular models that carry disease associated alleles have the advantage of human g...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Steven E Hyman Source Type: research

Use of mouse models to investigate the contributions of CNVs associated with schizophrenia and autism to disease mechanisms
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 3;68:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman genetics is providing much needed clues to mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) were among the first genetic variants confidently associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Despite their structural complexity, the high penetrance of CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric disorders suggested utility for construction of cellular and animal models. Human cellular models that carry disease associated alleles have the advantage of human g...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Steven E Hyman Source Type: research

Use of mouse models to investigate the contributions of CNVs associated with schizophrenia and autism to disease mechanisms
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 3;68:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman genetics is providing much needed clues to mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) were among the first genetic variants confidently associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Despite their structural complexity, the high penetrance of CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric disorders suggested utility for construction of cellular and animal models. Human cellular models that carry disease associated alleles have the advantage of human g...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Steven E Hyman Source Type: research

Use of mouse models to investigate the contributions of CNVs associated with schizophrenia and autism to disease mechanisms
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2021 May 3;68:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman genetics is providing much needed clues to mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) were among the first genetic variants confidently associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Despite their structural complexity, the high penetrance of CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric disorders suggested utility for construction of cellular and animal models. Human cellular models that carry disease associated alleles have the advantage of human g...
Source: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development - May 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Steven E Hyman Source Type: research