Early or delayed parenteral nutrition for infants: what evidence is available?
Purpose of review To review the current evidence evaluating early versus delayed commencement of parenteral nutrition in infants. Recent findings Recent studies in very premature infants (3.5 g/kg/day immediately after birth) may cause metabolic acidosis, elevated blood urea, slower head growth and refeeding-hypophosphatemia syndrome. A recent multicentre randomized controlled trial found that commencement of parenteral nutrition within 24-h of admission increases the risk of infections and prolongs the duration of ventilation and ICU stay in full-term neonates, older infants and children. The study also found...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Ready-to-use therapeutic foods for the treatment of malnourished children and infants
Purpose of review Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) allow effective community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Current interest focuses on their optimal composition and use. Recent findings Studies of alternative RUTF have yielded differing results. Partial soybean, sorghum flour, and whey protein replacement RUTF were inferior to standard RUTF. In contrast, soy-based RUTF was as effective as milk-based RUTF and an alternative RUTF with added oats lead to superior recovery in comparison to standard RUTF. Reducing the dose of RUTF in the later phases of SAM recovery resulted in small re...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Large-scale food fortification has great potential to improve child health and nutrition
Purpose of review Undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, continues to plague children across the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The situation has worsened alongside the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic because of major systemic disruptions to food supply, healthcare, and employment. Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) is a potential strategy for improving micronutrient intakes through the addition of vitamins and minerals to staple foods and improving the nutritional status of populations at large. Recent findings Current evidence unquestionably supports the use of LSFF to im...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Iodine supplementation: is there a need?
Purpose of review To review the recent data on iodine deficiency, the impact of iodine deficiency on health outcomes and the need for iodine supplementation in at-risk populations, that is, pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children. Recent findings The 2019 Iodine Global Network Annual Report highlighted that only 23 countries worldwide (including Finland, Germany, and Norway in Europe) were classified as having insufficient iodine intake in 2019, down from 54 in 2003 and 113 in 1993. Even if severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy has a negative impact on cognitive outcomes later in life, the c...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Vitamin D requirements in infancy: an updated systematic review
Purpose of review Systematic review looking for new evidence for recommendations for vitamin D supplementation in healthy infants based upon the most recent (4 years) available literature. Recent findings Randomized controlled trials published since 1 January 2017 that related to vitamin D doses in infancy were reviewed. They do not provide any additional evidence that larger, more generous amounts of daily vitamin D beyond the customary recommended 400 international units (IU) daily dose, affect any significant outcome. Larger amounts may lead to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations that have be...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Human milk proteome: what's new?
Purpose of review The proteome is one of the most complicated and multifunctional components in human milk. Recently, numerous novel characteristics of the human milk proteome have been discovered, which are described and critically examined in this review. Recent findings Recent human milk proteomics studies have focused on how external factors like geography and environment, or maternal and infant's factors affect the milk proteins, endogenous peptides, their posttransitional modifications (PTMs) and infant utilization. Most of these studies have shown that major protein and endogenous peptide profiles are sim...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

The impact of feeding experiences during infancy on later child eating behaviours
Purpose of review Individual differences in appetite and eating behaviours appear early in infancy. This review synthesizes recent research investigating the impact of feeding experiences during infancy on later appetite and energy intake regulation, and appraises the consistency and longevity of any effects. Recent findings Three themes of early feeding experiences were identified; breastfeeding, infants’ first foods and caregivers’ feeding practices. Recent findings suggest that breastfeeding alone is unlikely to promote better regulation of food intake later in childhood. It remains unclear whethe...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Iron deficiency in infancy: current insights
Purpose of review Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency and infants are at particular risk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies that explored the metabolism of iron in infants as well as the risks and benefits of iron supplementation in different populations. Recent findings The ability of infants to regulate iron homeostasis is not fully known but most likely different from adults. Reducing iron deficiency has beneficial effects on neurodevelopment but iron overload may have adverse functional effects including diarrhea and even poor neurodevelopment. Recent studies h...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Editorial: Light shielding of bags and tubing used for parenteral nutrition of infants
Purpose of review In July 2019, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended light protection of all parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing amino acids (AA) and/or lipids, with or without admixture of vitamins or trace elements, during administration for preterm infants, term infants and children less than 2 years of age. The aim of the present paper was to review the available evidence and to provide recommendations for in hospital and home PN light protection in children. Recent findings Lipid emulsions and multivitamins are susceptible to ph...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and alterations of body composition
Purpose of review This manuscript reviews evidence collected during COVID-19 pandemic and provides information on the impact of body composition on severity and outcomes of the disease, analysing methods used for body composition assessment. Malnutrition-screening tools will also be discussed to screen and diagnose the patients at higher risk of COVID-19 severity and related worse outcomes. Recent findings COVID-19 can occur in a wide range of presentation, from asymptomatic to severe forms. Among the major risk factors for worse severity, overnutrition, undernutrition and body composition play a role in the abi...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Oral nutritional supplements, physical activity, and sarcopenia in cancer
Purpose of review Sarcopenia is prevalent in cancer patients and can occur as a result of cancer as well as cancer-related therapies. It is related to high postoperative complications, long hospitalization, slow recovery as well as low tolerance to chemotherapy. Patients with sarcopenia also have poor oncological outcomes. Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and physical activity have shown great potentials in managing this debilitating condition. We summarized the recent developments in the assessment of sarcopenia and its management with ONS and physical activity. Recent findings Many methods were developed to ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

From bench to bedside: updates in basic science, translational and clinical research on muscle fatigue in cancer cachexia
Purpose of review Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of loss of weight and muscle mass that leads to reduced strength, poor physical performance and functional impairment. Muscular fatigue is a distressing syndrome that patients with cachexia suffer from and can impair quality of life. Here, we review recent updates in muscular fatigue in cancer cachexia research with a focus on mechanisms, biomarkers and potential therapies. Recent findings Both in mice and humans, research has shown that muscle fatigue can be independent of muscular atrophy and can happen early in cancer development or in precachexia. Inflammatory ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and motoric-cognitive frailty in hospitalized older persons
Purpose of review In older people, many systems spontaneously change without diseases. Because of the ageing process, the gut microbiota undergoes a reduced species richness, altered balance between species, with an increased interindividual variability. The result is the reduced resilience in the presence of diseases and medications. These changes are more evident in older persons with neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive-motoric frailty. Recent findings A relationship between liver alteration, gut microbiota and the presence of viruses and gram-bacteria is conceivable. They determine the acceleration of ne...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Editorial: Interplay between systemic health features and gut dysbiosis in aging and clinical (wasting) conditions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Prioritizing nutrition during recovery from critical illness
Purpose of review Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) often experience a significant decline in nutritional status due to a combination of the physiologic response to critical illness and insufficient calorie intake. The majority of research related to nutrition interventions for this population focuses on nutrition support during the acute phase. Minimal attention is given to the nutritional status of ICU patients during the recovery phase. This review will describe calorie intake when ICU care ends, provide an overview of barriers that limit intake, and possible interventions to improve nutritional sta...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Should evidence generated in well developed countries inform critical care nutrition in all countries?
Purpose of review Critically ill patients who survive the ICU face issues such as reduced quality of life and increased disability and nutritional therapy during ICU stay may be used to reduce these adverse effects. Although evidence and guidelines are available to direct clinical nutrition for ICU patients, critical care practices and settings differ substantially between developed and developing countries. Recent findings The implementation of evidence generated in well developed countries regarding critical care nutrition depends heavily on factors such as operation model, the structure of the unit, different...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Using technology to assess nutritional status and optimize nutrition therapy in critically ill patients
Purpose of review Malnutrition is prevalent in critically ill patients and is linked to worse outcomes such as prolonged mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and increased mortality. Therefore, nutritional therapy is important. However, it is often difficult to accurately identify those at high malnutrition risk and to optimize nutritional support. Different technological modalities have therefore been developed to identify patients at high nutritional risk and to guide nutritional support in an attempt to optimize outcomes. Recent findings Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Are periods of feeding and fasting protective during critical illness?
Purpose of review To review the mechanisms how intermittent feeding regimens could be beneficial in critically ill patients. Recent findings Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have failed to demonstrate consistent benefit of early, enhanced nutritional support to critically ill patients, and some trials even found potential harm. Although speculative, the absence of a clear benefit could be explained by the continuous mode of feeding in these trials, since intermittent feeding regimens had health-promoting effects in healthy animals and humans through mechanisms that also appear relevant in critical illne...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Parenteral nutrition in critical illness: total, supplemental or never?
Purpose of review The current review summarizes recent evolutions in knowledge and discusses the concept of whom and when parenteral nutrition should be considered in critically ill patients as a total form of nutrition, in a supplemental form, or never. Recent findings Recent developments in our understanding of the application of parenteral nutrition in critical care include the phases of illness, avoidance of overfeeding and the population in whom parenteral nutrition may be appropriate for. Importantly, one of the greatest lessons of recent times may be who not to provide parenteral nutrition to; however, a ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Micronutrients early in critical illness, selective or generous, enteral or intravenous?
Purpose of review Micronutrients have essential antioxidant and immune functions, while low blood concentrations are frequently observed in critically ill patients. This has led to the concepts of complementation, repletion, or even pharmacological supplementation. Over the last three decades, many clinical studies have tested the latter strategy, with controversial or negative results. Therefore, this review aims at evaluating micronutrient-related interventions that are mandatory or need to be assessed in future trials or clinical registries in all or specific critically ill patients. Recent findings In the cr...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Enteral nutrition in circulatory shock: friend or foe?
Purpose of review Circulatory shock is associated with reduced splanchnic blood flow and impaired gut epithelial barrier function (EBF). Early enteral nutrition (EN) has been shown in animal models to preserve EBF. There are limited human data informing early EN in circulatory shock and critical care nutrition guidelines provide disparate recommendations regarding the optimal timing and dose. The purpose of this review is to describe the harms and benefits of early EN in circulatory shock by identifying and appraising recent human data. Recent findings The cumulative risk of nonocclusive bowel ischemia and necro...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Electrolyte disorders during the initiation of nutrition therapy in the ICU
Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence on prevalence, risk factors, significance, treatment, and prevention of electrolyte disorders in critically ill with a specific focus on disorders during the initiation of nutrition. Recent findings Electrolyte disturbances appear to occur often during critical illness, and most of them seem to be associated with impaired outcome. However, a recent systematic review indicated insufficient evidence to answer clinically relevant questions regarding hypophosphatemia. Similar questions (which thresholds of serum levels are clinically relevant; how serum levels should be...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Energy expenditure and delivery: does the Micawber principle apply during critical illness?
Purpose of review To determine from existing literature if achieving energy balance in critically ill patients improves outcome. Only randomized clinical trials were considered. Furthermore, the intent had to be that energy intake of the treatment group would reach 100% of requirement, and that the requirement was measured and not estimated. Recent findings Six studies meeting the above criteria were identified. Truly positive energy balance was rarely achieved in these studies and protein intake was a confounder because it often varied with the energy intake. The two studies in which energy balance came closest...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Editorial: Five false arguments for using parenteral nutrition during the first week of critical illness
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

Editorial: A broader perspective of nutritional therapy for the critically ill
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. Deane Source Type: research

n – 3 Docosapentaenoic acid: the iceberg n – 3 fatty acid
Purpose of review Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is a minor omega-3 fatty acid (FA) which has been frequently overlooked in lipid research. This review examines the biochemical and physiological outcomes of human trials which have used pure preparations of DPA (n − 3 DPA) and also recent developments in specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) derived from n − 3 DPA. Recent findings There have been only been two human studies and eleven animal studies with pure n − 3 DPA. The doses of n − 3 DPA used in the human trials have been 1–2 g/day. n − 3 DPA a...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Emerging roles of bile acids in control of intestinal functions
Purpose of review Bile acids and their signalling pathways are increasingly recognized as potential therapeutic targets for several diseases. This review summarizes new insights in bile acid physiology, focussing on regulatory roles of bile acids in intestinal functions. Recent findings Recent studies have highlighted the interactions between bile acids and gut microbiome: interfering with microbiome composition may be beneficial in treatment of liver and metabolic diseases by modulating bile acid composition, as different bile acid species have different signalling functions. In the intestine, bile acid recepto...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Recent insights into low-density lipoprotein metabolism and therapy
Purpose of review Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are causal to atherosclerosis and, thus, the reduction of LDL-C represents a major objective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Aim of this review is to provide an overview on novel strategies to lower LDL-C. Recent findings Although inhibiting liver cholesterol biosynthesis by statins is used as the main therapeutic approach to increase hepatic LDL-receptor expression and lower plasma cholesterol levels, novel insights into lipid and lipoprotein biology have led to the development of additional lipid-lowering therapies t...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and human skeletal muscle
Purpose of review To examine recent findings related to the influence of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid supplementation on skeletal muscle anabolism with a particular focus on situations of skeletal muscle disuse. Recent findings Skeletal muscle disuse results in a reduction in fed and fasted rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis leading to the loss of skeletal muscle mass. Recent evidence has suggested that supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids during a period of skeletal muscle disuse increases the ω-3 fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle membranes, heightens rates of skeletal muscle prote...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Editorial: Omega-3 fatty acids: new studies, new data, new questions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

A brief discussion of the benefit and mechanism of vitamin D supplementation on coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review Vitamin D exerts extraskeletal functions, including immunomodulatory activity, protection against respiratory tract infections and pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several articles have suggested the potential involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk and severity of the disease. Recent findings Epidemiological and observational studies support the hypothesis of a protective role of vitamin D but most studies are retrospective or based on small samples. However, the pandemic progression and the increase...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: HOT TOPIC Source Type: research

Protein and amino acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review In this review, the latest evidence on the influence of dietary protein and plasma amino acids in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is discussed. Recent findings Increasing protein consumption during weight loss and maintenance may help reduce liver fat content. Conversely, high protein intake characteristic of the unhealthy Western diet is associated with increased NAFLD prevalence and severity. Plasma concentration of several amino acids, including branched-chain (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA), is altered in NAFLD. Excess amino acid availability contributes t...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

Essential amino acid formulations to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress
Purpose of review Both restriction and supplementation of specific amino acids or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are described to improve metabolic homeostasis, energy balance, and health span. This review will discuss the recent findings of the role of amino acid supplements in the regulation of mitochondrial health. Recent findings A mixture of essential amino acids (EAAs), BCAA enriched mixture, was found to extend healthy life span in elderly mice and prevent multiple diseases associated with an energy deficit, similarly to caloric restriction or fasting-mimicking diets. A growing body of evidence highli...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

Dietary protein interventions to improve nutritional status in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis
Purpose of review Poor nutritional status is prevalent among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Chronic hemodialysis patients show an accelerated decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength, which is associated with higher mortality rates and a reduced quality of life. The current review aims to summarize recent advances regarding underlying causes of muscle loss and interventions that support muscle mass maintenance in patients with chronic hemodialysis. Recent findings Muscle maintenance in chronic hemodialysis patients is compromised by low dietary protein intake levels, anabolic resis...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

Protein absorption and kinetics in critical illness
Purpose of review Timing, dose, and route of protein feeding in critically ill patients treated in an ICU is controversial. This is because of conflicting outcomes observed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This inconsistency between RCTs may occur as the physiology of protein metabolism and protein handling in the critically ill is substantially different from the healthy with limited mechanistic data to inform design of RCTs. This review will outline the current knowledge and gaps in the understanding of protein absorption and kinetics during critical illness. Recent findings Critically ill patients, bot...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

Inherited disorders of sulfur amino acid metabolism: recent advances in therapy
Purpose of review Metabolism of sulfur amino acids (SAA) provides compounds important for many cellular functions. Inherited disorders of SAA metabolism are typically severe multisystemic diseases affecting brain, liver, connective tissue, or vasculature. The review summarizes the present therapeutic approaches and advances in identifying novel treatment targets, and provides an overview of new therapies. Recent findings Current treatments of genetic disorders of SAA metabolism are primarily based on modulation of affected pathways by dietary measures and provision of lacking products or scavenging of toxic mole...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

Determinants of amino acid bioavailability from ingested protein in relation to gut health
Purpose of review The current review provides an update on the recent research developments regarding amino acid bioavailability in conditions of both good health and gut disorders. Recent findings Determination of amino acid bioavailability is complex and invasive. Minimally invasive methods using stable isotopes have been developed for humans. Data were collected in different models – humans, pigs and rats with various procedures – leading to interstudy variability. They mainly focused on either plant protein or the effect of food processing on animal protein. Plant protein in their original food m...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

Editorial: Distinct roles for dietary protein and amino acids in health and disease
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and René Koopman Source Type: research

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation in older persons – an update
Purpose of review The interest in the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as an intervention to prevent and treat sarcopenia has increased over recent years. The purpose of this review is to explore recent evidence pertaining to the mechanism of action of HMB and how this may influence changes in lean mass and strength in older persons who are both hospitalized and living in the community. Recent findings No new studies have been published over the last 2 years investigating the effect of HMB in older persons who are hospitalized, aside from one posthoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial explori...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Protein and physical activity in older persons
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on protein requirement and physical activity recommendations in older adults and their interrelationship. Recent findings Higher protein intake in older adults is beneficial for better physical function, reduced fracture risk, healthy ageing and lower mortality. However, the association between protein quality and health remains inconsistent. Higher physical activity is associated with a lower risk of physical dependence, frailty, cognitive impairment and mortality. Prospectively increasing or even sustaining physical activity can be protec...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Therapeutic strategies for sarcopenic obesity: a systematic review
Purpose of review Tough plenty of literature investigated therapeutic options for body composition changes targeting elderly people, evidence concerning potential treatments of sarcopenic obesity as a unique condition is scarce. The aim of the present review was to summarize recent evidence regarding treatment of sarcopenic obesity in adult and older individuals. Recent findings Exercise-based interventions were effective in ameliorating lean mass or sarcopenia-related indices and reducing total adiposity. Importantly, in one study, modifications of body composition were obtained in the absence of significant ch...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Nutrients to mitigate osteosarcopenia: the role of protein, vitamin D and calcium
Purpose of review Osteosarcopenia (the joint loss of bone density and muscle mass and function) is an emerging geriatric syndrome, which associates with poor health outcomes. Several nutrients including protein, vitamin D and calcium interact (directly or through absorption properties) to regulate muscle and bone metabolism. We provided an update on the efficacy of these nutrients on musculoskeletal outcomes in older adults with, or at risk of, osteosarcopenia. Recent findings Randomized trials show that correcting vitamin D and calcium deficiencies to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) increases bone ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Obesity, vitamin D deficiency and old age a serious combination with respect to coronavirus disease-2019 severity and outcome
Purpose of review Old age, obesity and vitamin D deficiency are considered as independent risk factors for severe courses of COVID-19. The aim of the review is to discuss common features of these risk factors and the impact of vitamin D. Recent findings The recently discovered relationship between vitamin D and the infection pathway of the virus via the renin--angiotensin system (RAS) and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin play an important role. The frequency of studies showing a relationship between a low vitamin D status in comorbidities and severe COVID-19 courses makes an impact of vitamin D effects like...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Protein intake and renal function in older patients
Purpose of review Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in elderly patients. There is growing recognition of the importance of attention to dietary protein intake (DPI) in this population given their predisposition to age-related changes in kidney function and coexisting comorbidities (i.e., hypertension). We reviewed the impact of DPI on kidney health and survival and the role of dietary protein management in older CKD patients. Recent findings While kidney function parameters including glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow are slightly lower in elderly patients irrespective of CKD s...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

A year with the GLIM diagnosis of malnutrition – does it work for older persons?
Purpose of review In early 2019, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) concept was published advocating a two-step procedure, that is, screening followed by confirmation of the malnutrition diagnosis requiring a combination of phenotypic and etiologic criteria. This review summarizes 14 publications that have applied the GLIM criteria in older populations. Recent findings Four studies miss data on muscle mass. The mandatory screening appears missing in some studies. Two studies report that criterion validity is fair to good when compared with Subjective Global Assessment as semigold standard. M...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Editorial: COVID-19 in older persons: the role of nutrition
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - December 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Dietary lipids and cardiometabolic health: a new vision of structure–activity relationship
Purpose of review The impact of dietary lipids on cardiometabolic health was mainly studied considering their fatty acid composition. This review aims to present the recent change in paradigm whereby the food matrix, the molecular and supramolecular structures of dietary lipids modulate their digestive fate and cardiometabolic impact. Recent findings Epidemiological studies have reported that the metabolic impact of full-fat dairy products is better than predictable upon saturated fatty acid richness. Milk polar lipid supplementation reduced adiposity and inflammation in rodents by modulating gut microbiota and barrie...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 8, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS: Edited by Nathalie M. Delzenne and Henry C. Lukaski Source Type: research