Nutrition in times of Covid-19, how to trust the deluge of scientific information
Purpose of review The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

The role of brown adipose tissue and the thermogenic adipocytes in glucose metabolism: recent advances and open questions
Purpose of review Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the thermogenic adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are considered emerging targets against obesity-related metabolic perturbations given their high capacity for thermogenesis and glucose and lipid disposal. This manuscript summarizes and critically evaluates the recent advances on the role of BAT and thermogenic adipocytes in glucose homeostasis in humans. Recent findings Recent studies support that BAT has high capacity for glucose disposal not only during cold but during rewarming and thermoneutrality as well. Moreover, BAT is now considered a metabolic sink for...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle Ljungqvist Source Type: research

Carbohydrate composition in breast milk and its effect on infant health
Purpose of review This narrative review presents the current state of available evidence regarding the role of breast milk carbohydrates on infant outcomes, with a primary focus on growth and body composition. Recent findings To date, there is a paucity of available data that exists in this realm. The current literature focuses on the role of two carbohydrate fractions in breast milk, and their relationships with infant outcomes in the first six months of life: oligosaccharides and fructose. A small but growing body of research indicates robust associations of both oligosaccharides and fructose in breast milk with inf...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle Ljungqvist Source Type: research

Prehabilitation: metabolic considerations
Purpose of review The major components of ERAS attenuate the inflammatory response and modulate metabolism in direction of sparing body protein and preserving function. However, these perioperative interventions might have limited effectiveness on postoperative outcomes if preoperative risk factors are not addressed and optimized. Recent findings The preoperative metabolic perturbations characterized by insulin resistance and sarcopenia might predispose patients to a higher degree of postoperative catabolism. High-risk populations for such metabolic disturbances include elderly and frail patients, and patients with me...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle Ljungqvist Source Type: research

Preoperative carbohydrates: what is new?
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to give an overview of recently published articles covering preoperative carbohydrate loading in surgical patients. Recent findings Between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019, 26 publications addressing the effect of carbohydrate load were retrieved through a systematic search. Seventeen were randomized clinical trials, three prospective observational studies and six retrospective series with case-control comparison. Most of the studies were underpowered, addressed surrogate endpoints, and variability among dose and timing of carbohydrate (CHO) treatment was high. The mo...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle Ljungqvist Source Type: research

Insulin resistance in bariatric surgery
Purpose of review To give an updated review on the underlying mechanisms and clinical effects of improved glucose control after bariatric surgery. Recent findings The basic principles of the mechanism for the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery can be categorized into calorie restriction, deviation of nutrients, and reduced amounts of adipose tissue. Recent findings suggest the importance of early changes following deviation of nutrients to more distal parts of the small bowel resulting in altered release of gastrointestinal hormones, altered gut microbiota, and weight-reduction. In the long-term, loss of adipose t...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle Ljungqvist Source Type: research

Editorial: Glucose metabolism in infancy, obesity and pre and post-surgery
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle Ljungqvist Source Type: research

Deoxyuracil in DNA in health and disease
Purpose of review Genome instability has long been implicated as a primary causal factor in cancer and diseases of aging. The genome is constantly under attack from extrinsic and intrinsic damaging agents. Uracil misincorporation in DNA and its repair is an intrinsic factor resulting in genomic instability and DNA mutations. Additionally, the presence of uracil in DNA can modify gene expression by interfering with promoter binding and transcription inhibition or upregulation of apoptotic proteins. In immune cells, uracil in DNA drives beneficial genomic diversity for antigen-driven immunity. This review addresses disease...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research

Immunodeficiency and inborn disorders of vitamin B12 and folate metabolism
Purpose of review Immune dysfunction, including severe combined immunodeficiency, has been described in genetic disorders affecting the metabolism of the vitamins cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate. We have reviewed reports of clinical findings in patients with a number of inborn errors of cobalamin or folate metabolism, specifically looking for immune problems. Recent findings There is little evidence that immune function is affected in most of the disorders. Exceptions are Imerslund–Gräsbeck syndrome and hereditary folate malabsorption (affecting intestinal absorption of cobalamin and folate, respectively...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research

DNA methylation and incident cardiovascular disease
Purpose of review DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that reflects both genetic and environmental influences over the life course and has the potential to be a robust biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, standard association studies linking DNA methylation and CVD are susceptible to reverse causation and may not directly translate into useful biomarkers of future disease. Studies of incident CVD represent a crucial tool for improving this evidence base. Recent findings Recent investigations have started to provide links between DNA methylation and incident CVD. Epigenome-wide association studie...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research

Editorial: Challenges and Insights amidst the Covid-19 pandemic: Nutrition, the immune system and disease risk
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Title of review article admissible daily intake for glutamate: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Nutrition and health of edible insects
Purpose of review Elucidate the effect of insects as feed and food on nutrition and health of humans and animals. Recent findings A new sector is developing of insects as food and feed. The academic interest is growing exponentially. In addition to their high nutritional values, there are also health benefits. These relate to prebiotic effects of insect products, such as chitin on humans and animals. Insects have a large reservoir of antimicrobial peptides. Some insect species have shown to have antioxidant properties. Summary The increasing demand for meat and the limited amount of land availability prompt the sea...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: HOT TOPIC Source Type: research

Evolution of the gut microbiome in infancy within an ecological context
Purpose of review Humans and their commensal microbiota coexist in a complex ecosystem molded by evolutionary and ecological factors. Ecological opportunity is the prospective, lineage-specific characteristic of an environment that contains both niche availability leading to persistence coupled with niche discordance that drives selection within that lineage. The newborn gut ecosystem presents vast ecological opportunity. Herein, factors affecting perinatal infant microbiome composition are discussed. Recent findings Establishing a healthy microbiota in early life is required for immunological programming and preventi...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins: an update
Purpose of review Human milk contains a variety of bioactive proteins, and some of the bioactivities are exerted only after proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract. This review aims to overview recent studies on bioactive peptides in human milk and gastric digesta of breast-fed infants. Recent findings Milk protein-derived peptides are endogenously present in human milk, and some of them have been reported to be bioactive peptides, such as a homologue of caseinophosphopeptide, an antimicrobial peptide, and an immunomodulatory peptide. A larger number of peptides are identified in gastric aspirates from bre...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Dietary treatment of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders in children
Purpose of review To provide an overview of recent developments on dietary treatment of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) in children. Recent findings Food antigens are the main triggers of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE); however, currently available allergy tests cannot reliably identify eliciting antigens. Studies evaluating the six-food empiric elimination diet (6FED-milk, wheat/gluten, egg, soy/legumes, nuts and fish/seafood) have shown histological remission rates of 72%. Milk, egg, wheat/gluten, and, to a lesser extent, soy/legumes were the most frequent food triggers with only one or two culprit fo...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Pediatric screening tools for malnutrition: an update
We present recent studies about newly developed or adjusted tools, the applicability of nutritional screening tools in specific populations, and how to implement screening in the overall process of improving nutritional care in the pediatric hospital setting. Summary Three new screening tools have been developed for use on admission to hospital: two for the mixed pediatric hospitalized population and one for infants. A simple weekly rescreening tool to identify hospital-acquired nutritional deterioration was developed for use in children with prolonged hospital stay. Different from most previous studies that only assess...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Food allergy prevention: current evidence
Purpose of review The aim of the article is to critically appraise the most relevant studies in the rapidly advancing field of food allergy prevention. Recent findings Epidemiologic studies identified atopic dermatitis as a strong risk factor for food allergy, with mounting evidence for impaired skin barrier and cutaneous inflammation in the pathogenesis. Additional risk factors include a family history of atopy, the timing of allergenic food introduction into the infant's diet, dietary diversity, vitamin D, and environmental factors, such as dog ownership. Early introduction of allergenic foods (such as peanut) into ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Indirect health sector actions and supportive strategies to prevent malnutrition
Purpose of review Malnutrition is a pervasive problem that causes negative acute, long-term, and intergenerational consequences. As we have begun to move from efficacy to effectiveness trials of nutrition interventions, and further still to more holistic case study approaches to understanding how and why nutrition outcomes change over time, it has become clear that more emphasis on the ‘nutrition-sensitive’ interventions is required. Recent findings In this article, we propose recategorizing the nutrition-specific and sensitive terminology into a new framework that includes direct and indirect health secto...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir Source Type: research

Exercise in patients on chronic hemodialysis: current evidence, knowledge gaps and future perspectives
Purpose of review Physical inactivity is common in hemodialysis patients, and is associated with disability and poor outcomes. We summarize the effects of aerobic, resistance or mixed exercise training on aerobic capacity, muscle mass and strength, dialysis efficiency, quality of life and cardiovascular adaptation according to clinical studies on this population, also focusing on knowledge gaps as topics for future research. Finally, we put evidence into clinical context deriving practical indications for exercise implementation in these patients. Recent findings In hemodialysis patients, aerobic or mixed exercise tra...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

An update on nutrient modulation in the management of disease-induced muscle wasting: evidence from human studies
Purpose of review Skeletal muscle has many essential roles in maintaining human health, not only being crucial for locomotion, but further as a metabolically important organ. Muscle wasting in disease (cachexia) is highly prevalent, associated with poor clinical outcomes and is not fully reversible with nutritional interventions. Understanding proteostasis in diseased states is of great importance to design novel, effective nutritional/nutraceutical strategies aimed at alleviating muscle wasting. In this review, we will provide an update on muscle kinetics in disease and the effects of nutritional interventions. Recent ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Fish oil supplementation and maintaining muscle mass in chronic disease: state of the evidence
Purpose of review Providing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the form of fish oils, to benefit muscle is an emerging area of interest. The aim of this work was to evaluate the current literature that has assessed muscle mass as an outcome during a fish oil intervention in any chronic disease. Recent findings The vast majority of studies published in the last 3 years (12 of 15) have been conducted in the oncological setting, in patients undergoing treatment for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, head and neck, lung, cervix, and hematological cancers. Three studies were conducte...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

MicroRNAs as potential therapeutic targets for muscle wasting during cancer cachexia
Purpose of review Muscle wasting in cancer cachexia remains an unmet clinical need due to lack of effective therapies associated with the complexity of the disease. Here, we discuss microRNAs, robust regulators of the expression of multiple genes, only recently characterized in cancer cachexia in humans and their therapeutic potential for muscle wasting. Recent findings Changes in microRNAs in muscle of cancer patients have been demonstrated for the first time and these are associated with dysregulated signalling networks during muscle wasting. These data, together with studies in animal models, indicate that microRNA...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Editorial: Energy needs: quick and easy to measure
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN WASTING DISEASES: Edited by Claude Pichard and Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - April 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Editorial: Vegan diets: what is the benefit?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: HOT TOPICS Source Type: research

Veganism, aging and longevity: new insight into old concepts
Purpose of review Plant-based diets are associated with better health and longevity. Veganism is a strict form of vegetarianism, which has gained increasing attention in recent years. This review will focus on studies addressing mortality and health-span in vegans and vegetarians and discuss possible longevity-enhancing mechanisms. Recent findings Studies in vegans are still limited. Epidemiologic studies consistently show lower disease rates, such as lower incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease, but mortality rates are comparable with rates in vegetarians and occasional meat eaters. Reasons for following stri...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: HOT TOPICS Source Type: research

Alcoholism and nutrition: a review of vitamin supplementation and treatment
Purpose of review This is a review of the research on the effectiveness of vitamin supplementation for alcoholism and alcohol-related illnesses. The focus is on research, both clinical and basic on alcohol treatment and nutritional effectiveness of these vital nutrients. Recent findings Most of the research involves basic experiments exploring the impact of vitamin depletion or deficits on physiological systems, especially liver and brain, in rodents. These often include behavioral measures that use cognitive, learning/memory and motivation experiments that model clinical studies. These provide support for hypotheses ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Title of review article: admissible daily intake for glutamate
Purpose of review Total glutamate (Glu) intake is 5–20 g/day in adults and about 40 mg/kg in breast-fed infant. Glu intake is constituted by Glu from protein and free Glu from certain foods and flavor-enhancing additive. The admissible intake of free Glu additive is addressed. Recent finding In the gut, Glu is actively metabolized by enterocytes and because of this metabolism, the systemic availability of ingested Glu remains relatively low. Human studies are preferred to assess the transfer in blood of dietary free Glu salts and their possible risks. When human data are not available, experimental animal mo...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY Source Type: research

Defining sarcopenia: some caveats and challenges
Purpose of review To summarize the latest advances and caveats in defining sarcopenia and discuss the implications of the most recent worldwide initiatives which are trying to harmonize the definition. Recent findings The evolution over time of the definitions of sarcopenia is discussed, with a focus on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) definition and the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) conference. The EWGSOP2 and the SDOC agree on the overall concept of sarcopenia, which involves both impaired function (low muscle strength) and structural damage (low muscle mas...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION Source Type: research

Is slower advancement of enteral feeding superior to aggressive full feeding regimens in the early phase of critical illness
Purpose of review An excessive caloric intake during the acute phase of critical illness is associated with adverse effects, presumably related to overfeeding, inhibition of autophagy and refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this review is to summarize recently published clinical evidence in this area. Recent findings Several observational studies, a few interventional trials, and systematic reviews/metaanalyses were published in 2017–2019. Most observational studies reported an association between caloric intakes below 70% of energy expenditure and a better vital outcome. In interventional trials, or systematic r...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

Dietary management of blood glucose in medical critically ill patients with overweight/obesity
Purpose of review As the obesity epidemic continues, there is a greater proportion of patients with overweight, obesity, and other forms of adiposity-based chronic disease that require intensive care. Nutrition therapy in the ICU is a vital part of critical care but can be challenging in this setting because of the increased risk of stress hyperglycemia and adverse impact of obesity- and diabetes-related complications. Recent findings Current guidelines favor early nutritional therapy with a hypocaloric, high-protein diet in patients with overweight/obesity. More aggressive protein intake may be useful in those with g...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

Nutrition intake in the post-ICU hospitalization period
Purpose of review The care of critically ill patients has evolved over recent years, resulting in significant reductions in mortality in developed countries; sometimes with prolonged issues with recovery. Nutrition research has focused on the early, acute period of critical illness, until more recently, where the post-ICU hospitalization period in critical care survivors has become a focus for nutrition rehabilitation. In this period, nutrition rehabilitation may be a vital component of recovery. Recent findings Overall, oral nutrition is the most common mode of nutrition provision in the post-ICU period. Compared wit...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

Do micronutrient deficiencies contribute to mitochondrial failure in critical illness?
Purpose of review Mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be the common denominator of several critical care conditions and particularly of sepsis. Faced with relative failure, and limited progress of sepsis therapies aiming at blocking some oxidative and/or inflammatory pathways, the question of antioxidants micronutrient therapy, particularly of selenium, ascorbic acid and thiamine remains open. Recent findings The rationale for the essentiality of numerous micronutrients within the mitochondria is well established. Many studies have tested single micronutrients in animal and in-vitro models and provide positive evidence...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

Metabolic aspects of muscle wasting during critical illness
Purpose of review Skeletal muscle wasting during critical illness is the result of disturbed metabolism. No proven effective interventions targeting skeletal muscle mass and function during critical illness currently exist. This review summarizes recent advances regarding the complexity of metabolic factors involved and the challenge of establishing the clinical effects of metabolic interventions targeting the muscle. Recent findings Although the catabolic state is limited to the acute phase of critical illness, its subsequent impact on muscle mass and function persists long after ICU discharge. Immobilization, inflam...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

Evaluating the TARGET and EAT-ICU trials: how important are accurate caloric goals? Point-counterpoint: the pro position
Purpose of review Controversies about the adequate amount of energy to deliver to critically ill patients are still going on, trying to find if hypocaloric or normocaloric regimen is beneficial in this population. Our purpose is to review recent publications using or not indirect calorimetry. Recent findings Numerous studies have compared hypocaloric to normocaloric regimen using predictive equations. However, these equations have been demonstrated to be inaccurate in most of the cases. Some recent PRCT using indirect calorimetry are finding some advantages to isocalorie regimens, but others not. Timing of the nutriti...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

Editorial: The relevance of nutrition therapy on outcome from critical illness: early feeding in the ICU versus ongoing support following discharge to the ward
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Peter J.M. Weijs and Stephen A. McClave Source Type: research

N − 3 fatty acids during chemotherapy: toward a higher level of evidence for clinical application
Purpose of review Recommendations for intakes of n − 3 fatty acids (FAs) in patients who are receiving chemotherapy for cancer are based on weak evidence. This review highlights themes within the emergent literature to suggest improvements in the design of studies that provide n − 3 FA supplements concurrent with cytotoxic agents. Recent findings Following earlier research in animal models and human pilot studies, recent human studies have evaluated the effect of providing n − 3 FAs during delivery of single agent and multiagent chemotherapy regimens for breast and gastro-intestinal cance...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Pro-resolving lipid mediators in sepsis and critical illness
Purpose of review Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by a dysregulated host response to infection that remains a huge clinical challenge. Recent evidence indicates that bioactive lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids termed specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are promising new candidates for treating critical illness. Recent findings We highlight herein the protective actions of SPMs in experimental sepsis, cardiac dysfunction, and also lung and cerebral injury, and discuss their mechanisms of action. We also emphasize that failed resolution responses and dysregulated SPM pathways ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

The fat brain
Purpose of review The purpose of this brief review is to gain an understanding on the multiple roles that lipids exert on the brain, and to highlight new ideas in the impact of lipid homeostasis in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Recent findings Recent data underline the crucial function of lipid homeostasis in maintaining neuronal function and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, new advances in analytical approaches to study lipid classes and species is opening a new door to understand and monitor how alterations in lipid pathways could shed new light into the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Summary Lipids ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Editorial: Is it time to separate EPA from DHA when using omega-3 fatty acids to protect heart and brain?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - February 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Tackling the question of micronutrients intake as one of the main levers in terms of Inuit food security
Purpose of review The Inuit population living in North Canada is facing a drastic change in lifestyle, which has brought about a dramatic nutrition transition characterized by a decrease in the traditional foods consumption and an increasing reliance on processed, store-bought foods. This rapid dietary shift leads to a significant public health concern, as wild-harvested country foods are rich in many micronutrients including vitamins, trace elements and minerals while the most frequently eaten Western foods mainly provide energy, fat, carbohydrates and sodium. This review addresses the emerging strategies to tackle food...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Protein intake and outcome in critically ill patients
The objective of this review is to describe the impact of protein intake on the outcomes of critically ill patients in the literature published in the preceding 2 years. Recent findings Observational studies showed inconsistent results regarding the association of higher protein intake and outcomes of critically ill patients. Randomized controlled trials that directly compared higher versus lower protein intake in ICU patients are scarce, varied considerably in their designs and primary outcomes, and generally had relatively small differences in the amount of delivered protein between the study arms. Systematic reviews ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation, dietary intake and circulating levels in cardiometabolic diseases: an updated review
Purpose of review Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids derived from diet. BCAA supplementation has been recommended in elderly and athletes, but recent studies suggest an association between high dietary BCAAs and blood levels of BCAAs with greater risk of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). This review aims to integrate current epidemiological evidence analyzing the association between BCAAs and related-CMD risk factors. Recent findings Most epidemiological studies consistently show that dietary BCAAs are associated with higher risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D) whereas there is limited evidence relate...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Arginine supplementation and cardiometabolic risk
Purpose of review Because arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, which is pivotal to vascular homeostasis and linked to the insulin response, it has long been posited that supplemental arginine could benefit cardiometabolic health. Recent findings Recent data have supported the view that supplemental arginine could alleviate the initiation and development of endothelial dysfunction and also shown that it may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. One important finding is that these effects may indeed vary as a function of the amount of arginine, its form and notably the metabolic status of the population. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Formate and its role in amino acid metabolism
Purpose of review The aim of this report is to examine critical relationships between amino acid and formate metabolism with particular reference to the production of formate, and to review novel functions of formate. Recent findings In addition to well established mechanisms in one-carbon metabolism, formate may play an important role in early pregnancy by preventing the onset of neural tube defects in sensitive strains of mice, including mice with deficiencies in MTHFD1L, the glycine cleavage system and the mitochondrial folate transporter. Markedly elevated, circulating levels of formate are found in late pregnancy...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Arginine therapy in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes
Purpose of review We would like to inform clinicians that the systematic administration of oral and intravenous L-arginine is therapeutically beneficial and clinically useful for patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), when they maintain plasma arginine concentration at least 168 μmol/l. Recent findings MELAS is associated with endothelial dysfunction by decreased plasma L-arginine, nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Endothelial dysfunction is also evident using flow-mediated vasodilation measurement by high-resolution Doppler ec...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Effects of Citrulline alone or combined with exercise on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance among older adults: a systematic review
Purpose of review To Establish the potential of Citrulline supplementation (CIT) combined or not with exercise on muscle function and physical performance via a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in human aged 50 years and older. Recent findings Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guideline, 103 references have been identified. Among this number, only six RCTs (250 participants) matched the inclusion criteria and were included in the present systematic review. Among the included studies, five of six reported beneficial effects of CIT on muscle mass. Then, f...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research