Tackling the question of micronutrients intake as one of the main levers in terms of Inuit food security
Purpose of review The Inuit population living in North Canada is facing a drastic change in lifestyle, which has brought about a dramatic nutrition transition characterized by a decrease in the traditional foods consumption and an increasing reliance on processed, store-bought foods. This rapid dietary shift leads to a significant public health concern, as wild-harvested country foods are rich in many micronutrients including vitamins, trace elements and minerals while the most frequently eaten Western foods mainly provide energy, fat, carbohydrates and sodium. This review addresses the emerging strategies to tackle food...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Protein intake and outcome in critically ill patients
The objective of this review is to describe the impact of protein intake on the outcomes of critically ill patients in the literature published in the preceding 2 years. Recent findings Observational studies showed inconsistent results regarding the association of higher protein intake and outcomes of critically ill patients. Randomized controlled trials that directly compared higher versus lower protein intake in ICU patients are scarce, varied considerably in their designs and primary outcomes, and generally had relatively small differences in the amount of delivered protein between the study arms. Systematic reviews ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation, dietary intake and circulating levels in cardiometabolic diseases: an updated review
Purpose of review Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids derived from diet. BCAA supplementation has been recommended in elderly and athletes, but recent studies suggest an association between high dietary BCAAs and blood levels of BCAAs with greater risk of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). This review aims to integrate current epidemiological evidence analyzing the association between BCAAs and related-CMD risk factors. Recent findings Most epidemiological studies consistently show that dietary BCAAs are associated with higher risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D) whereas there is limited evidence relate...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Arginine supplementation and cardiometabolic risk
Purpose of review Because arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, which is pivotal to vascular homeostasis and linked to the insulin response, it has long been posited that supplemental arginine could benefit cardiometabolic health. Recent findings Recent data have supported the view that supplemental arginine could alleviate the initiation and development of endothelial dysfunction and also shown that it may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. One important finding is that these effects may indeed vary as a function of the amount of arginine, its form and notably the metabolic status of the population. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Formate and its role in amino acid metabolism
Purpose of review The aim of this report is to examine critical relationships between amino acid and formate metabolism with particular reference to the production of formate, and to review novel functions of formate. Recent findings In addition to well established mechanisms in one-carbon metabolism, formate may play an important role in early pregnancy by preventing the onset of neural tube defects in sensitive strains of mice, including mice with deficiencies in MTHFD1L, the glycine cleavage system and the mitochondrial folate transporter. Markedly elevated, circulating levels of formate are found in late pregnancy...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Arginine therapy in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes
Purpose of review We would like to inform clinicians that the systematic administration of oral and intravenous L-arginine is therapeutically beneficial and clinically useful for patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), when they maintain plasma arginine concentration at least 168 μmol/l. Recent findings MELAS is associated with endothelial dysfunction by decreased plasma L-arginine, nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Endothelial dysfunction is also evident using flow-mediated vasodilation measurement by high-resolution Doppler ec...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro Laviano Source Type: research

Effects of Citrulline alone or combined with exercise on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance among older adults: a systematic review
Purpose of review To Establish the potential of Citrulline supplementation (CIT) combined or not with exercise on muscle function and physical performance via a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in human aged 50 years and older. Recent findings Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guideline, 103 references have been identified. Among this number, only six RCTs (250 participants) matched the inclusion criteria and were included in the present systematic review. Among the included studies, five of six reported beneficial effects of CIT on muscle mass. Then, f...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Vitamin D for the older patient: from hype to hope?
Purpose of review The review critically appraises the most recent and important meta-analyses that have assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone health in the older population. Recent findings Vitamin D status is generally lower in study participants with bone wasting. However, studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone health, summarized in different meta-analyses, have provided conflicting results, likely because of the heterogeneity between studies. Interventional studies performed using more physiological doses of vitamin D (i.e. avoiding very large, nonphysiological doses) or in s...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Editorial: Body composition measurements in older adults
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: AGEING: BIOLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Jürgen M. Bauer and John E. Morley Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - November 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Effects of chromium supplementation on body composition, human and animal health, and insulin and glucose metabolism
Purpose of review Chromium(III) has been proposed to have a nutritional or pharmacological role in changing body composition and improving symptoms of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and related conditions although the mode of action of Cr(III) at a molecular level has failed to be elucidated. This review details the current status of studies into Cr(III) supplementation. Recent findings Clinical trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews have failed to demonstrate clinically significant effects from Cr(III) supplementation on body composition or symptoms of insulin resistance and related conditions in humans a...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: MICRONUTRIENTS: Edited by Henry C. Lukaski and Véronique Coxam Source Type: research

Micronutrient deficiencies and their public health implications for South-East Asia
Purpose of review Micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent worldwide, including in South-East Asia, and have a profound impact on public health. Most efforts towards eliminating micronutrient deficiencies have focused on vitamin A, iron, and iodine deficiency. But deficiency of other micronutrients also affect public health. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of micronutrient deficiency prevalence in South-East Asia and potential public health impact. Recent findings Representative and up-to-date data on micronutrient status in South-East Asia is limited. Although anemia is still preval...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: MICRONUTRIENTS: Edited by Henry C. Lukaski and Véronique Coxam Source Type: research

Plant polyphenols, chemoreception, taste receptors and taste management
Purpose of review Polyphenols display beneficial health effects through chemopreventive actions on numerous chronic diseases including cancers, metabolic disorders, reproductive disorders and eating behaviour disorders. According to the principle of chemoreception, polyphenols bind cellular targets capable of accepting their stereochemistry, namely metabolizing enzymes and protein receptors, including taste receptors. The extraoral expression of taste receptors and their pharmacological interest in terms of novel drug therapies open up new perspectives on the potential use of these compounds and their interactions with o...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: MICRONUTRIENTS: Edited by Henry C. Lukaski and Véronique Coxam Source Type: research

Vitamin D, genetics, and bone mineral density during weight loss
Purpose of review The current review is to summarize the recent progress in the research of the relation between vitamin D and bone mineral density (BMD) during weight-loss interventions, and describe how genetic factors interact with weight-loss interventions on changes in bone health. Recent findings Obesity has shown to be a protective factor for bone health, whereas the relation between weight loss and BMD has yet to be well established. Although beneficial on a variety of metabolic outcomes, weight-loss interventions, such as dietary modifications and surgical treatment, showed adverse effects on bone health in s...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: MICRONUTRIENTS: Edited by Henry C. Lukaski and Véronique Coxam Source Type: research

Curcumin and arterial function in health and disease: impact on oxidative stress and inflammation
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide a concise overview of the polyphenol curcumin for improving arterial health, specifically endothelial function and arterial stiffness, to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to highlight potential mechanisms of action by which curcumin may improve artery function. Recent findings The primary findings of this review support the notion for curcumin to improve arterial health both with aging and obesity. There are few clinical trials on curcumin, and those that currently exist are small in scale but provide evidence for curcumin to improve endothelial fu...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: MICRONUTRIENTS: Edited by Henry C. Lukaski and Véronique Coxam Source Type: research

Vitamin D and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review Vitamin D deficiency may impact disease progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this work was to review recent studies examining either vitamin D status or the effects of supplementation in patients with NAFLD, along with investigating the roles of genetic polymorphisms and the gut microbiome. Recent findings Six heterogeneous observational studies of vitamin D status, and four randomized controlled intervention trials of vitamin D supplementation in NAFLD were conflicting. All studies were hampered by the challenges of diagnosing NAFLD, were underpowered, and lacked data ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Edited by Nathalie M. Delzenne Source Type: research

A place for vitamin supplementation and functional food in bariatric surgery?
This article summarizes recent literature concerning vitamin deficiency and required supplementation post-bariatric surgery, focusing on vitamin D (and associated clinical adverse effect on bone loss) and on the potential implication of the gut microbiota. Recent findings Bariatric surgery induces weight loss and metabolic improvements yet with major inter-individual variability. If it is efficient in most patients, some display poor response (i.e. patients with the lowest weight loss at 1 year or weight regain afterwards, or patients without metabolic disease remission). Despite systematic vitamin supplementation, some...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Edited by Nathalie M. Delzenne Source Type: research

Infant growth, neurodevelopment and gut microbiota during infancy: which nutrients are crucial?
Purpose of review To update the role of specific nutrients during infant development. Recent findings Several bioactive nutrients such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), iron, vitamins, proteins, or carbohydrates have been identified to exert an important role during the first 1000 days of life on infant growth, neurodevelopment, and gut microbiota establishment and maturation. LC-PUFAs are structural constituents of the central nervous system (CNS), being essential in retinal development or hippocampal plasticity. Recently, components of the milk fat globule membrane (MFG) are being added to infant...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Edited by Nathalie M. Delzenne Source Type: research

Dealing with saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism for anticancer therapy
Purpose of review Although saturated fatty acid (FA) (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) are synthesized in cancer cells from acetyl-CoA, polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) are necessarily obtained from diet. Depending on concentrations and metabolism, these different FAs may support tumor proliferation but also exert growth inhibitory effects. The mutual interplay between them also requires to integrate the FA oxidation component that may be concomitant with FA synthesis is cancer cells. Recent findings New molecular mechanisms driving FA synthesis, lipotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of eicosanoids in mouse and hum...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Edited by Nathalie M. Delzenne Source Type: research

Editorial: Nutrient supplementation during lifespan: how to innovate?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Edited by Nathalie M. Delzenne Source Type: research

Lessons learned from recent clinical trials of ketogenic diet therapies in adults
Purpose of review Although ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) were first developed as a treatment for patients with epilepsy, their potential efficacy for a broader number of neurologic and nonneurologic disorders and conditions has been explored over the last 10–20 years. The most recent clinical trials of KDTs in adults have highlighted common methodological aspects that can either facilitate or thwart appropriate risk/benefit analyses, comparisons across studies, and reproducibility of findings in future studies. Recent findings Recent evidence suggests that KDTs not only improve seizure control, but also improv...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: Edited by Labros S. Sidossis and Annemie M.W. Schols Source Type: research

Breastfeeding and postpartum weight loss
Purpose of review Postpartum weight retainment is common in women, increasing the long-term likelihood of overweight and/or obesity. On the other hand, breastfeeding entails a high energy cost that contributes to the total energy expenditure of the mother, increasing the chances of a negative energy equilibrium that could potentially lead to weight loss. This review explores this association as depicted in the latest literature available. Recent findings Several studies reported a positive association between breastfeeding and postpartum weight loss while others reported no significant association. Several potential m...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: Edited by Labros S. Sidossis and Annemie M.W. Schols Source Type: research

Fatty acid-binding proteins: functional understanding and diagnostic implications
Purpose of review Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of small, abundant proteins with highly tissue-specific expression patterns whose different functions remain incompletely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings regarding FABP functions and mechanisms of action, including their potential utilization as serum markers of tissue-specific metabolic diseases. Recent findings FABPs are important not only in their tissues of origin but also appear to influence the metabolism and function of tissues distal to their sites of expression. This may be secondary to metabolic changes ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: Edited by Labros S. Sidossis and Annemie M.W. Schols Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The Mediterranean diet and its association with selected gut bacteria
Purpose of review Mediterranean diet is often viewed in the context of impact on composition of gut microbiota and its consequences on prevention and treatment of various diseases. It is known how complex carbohydrates present in this type of dietary pattern are fermented by healthy gut microbiota, producing in turn short-chained fatty acids with purported benefits for human health, whereas other mechanisms and interactions play a role as well. Recent findings Recent research endeavors take a step further and demonstrate how exactly Mediterranean diet can affect the composition, activity, and diversity of intestinal m...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: promising prospects for clinical interventions?
Purpose of review Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most important cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries but no pharmacological therapy is currently available. Growing evidence suggests that the microbiota plays a role in the occurrence and evolution of this disease, namely through the production of bioactive metabolites. Recent findings Omics technologies (metagenomic, metabolomic, and phenomic data) allow providing a robust prediction of steatosis. More than just correlations, causative effects of certain bacterial metabolites have been evidenced in vitro and in rodent models. Bu...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Chronic inflammatory liver diseases and coffee intake
Purpose of review To review the healthy protective effects of coffee against several metabolic diseases and some types of cancer. In this short review, the possible preventive and/or therapeutic actions of coffee on liver function is focused. Recent findings The protective mechanisms of coffee are various and because of several components with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in addition to caffeine. As a matter of the fact, polyphenols in decaffeinated coffee have a similar effect on liver fibrosis and on serum levels of liver enzymes as those in caffeinated coffee. Furthermore, diterpenes may exert a d...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease in adult patients
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to give up-to-date information on intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) and how its investigation and management has evolved. Despite advances in treatment for patients with intestinal failure, IFALD remains a significant cause of mortality. Recent findings Liver biopsy remains as the gold standard for the diagnosis of IFALD, but its invasive nature has prompted assessment of noninvasive techniques. Risk factors for IFALD are both nonnutritional (e.g. sepsis) and nutritional. Strict protocols for the prevention of central venous catheter infections in patients ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Irritable bowel syndrome: how can symptoms and quality of life be improved with diet?
This article aims to review the current scientific evidence of dietary approaches to control the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent findings In the last decade, there was an important evolution in the study of the low fermentable oligo, di, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD). Current scientific evidence suggests a significant efficacy in the overall control of symptoms. LFD seems to be effective in improving quality of life. Recent studies suggest that LFD is effective and nutritionally well tolerated also in the long term, and longer adherence may contribute to greater effectiveness in imp...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Citrulline production and protein homeostasis
Purpose of review Protein homeostasis is crucial for maintaining cell functions. Citrulline, an endogenous amino acid, is considered as an efficient source of arginine at systemic and cellular level. Accumulating evidence, obtained from citrulline supplementation studies, suggest anabolic properties especially in malnourished rodents and human. Although these studies might suggest a key role for citrulline in protein homeostasis, the supraphysiological concentrations of citrulline do not allow to conclude on a physiological role. This review aimed to assess the role of endogenous citrulline production on protein homeosta...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Zinc deficits, mucositis, and mucosal macrophage perturbation: is there a relationship?
Purpose of review Mucositis is a common and therapy-limiting adverse effect of cancer treatments including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. The optimal zinc formulation, dosage, and timing of administration warrant further research as does the efficacious prevention of febrile mucositis that predisposes to febrile neutropenia. Recent findings Metaanalyses concluded that zinc sulfate failed to significantly reduce the incidence or severity of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, whereas polaprezinc was associated with a significant reduction. Three new trials were published in 2018. The first trial found ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Editorial
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by M. Isabel T.D. Correia and André Van Gossum Source Type: research

Assessing autophagy in murine skeletal muscle: current findings to modulate and quantify the autophagic flux
Purpose of review In addition to the currently available lysosomotropic drugs and autophagy whole-body knockout mouse models, we provide alternative methods that enable the modulation and detection of autophagic flux in vivo, discussing advantages and disadvantages of each method. Recent findings With the autophagosome–lysosome fusion inhibitor colchicine in skeletal muscle and temporal downregulation of autophagy using a novel Autophagy related 5-short hairpin RNA (Atg5-shRNA) mouse model we mention two models that directly modulate autophagy flux in vivo. Furthermore, methods to quantify autophagy flux, such a...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

Should we consider subcellular compartmentalization of metabolites, and if so, how do we measure them?
Purpose of review To examine the consequences of metabolism compartmentalized at the subcellular level, provide prototypical examples of compartmentalized metabolism, and describe methods to examine compartmentalized metabolism. Recent findings Progress in metabolomics and isotope tracing has underscored the importance of subcellular compartments of metabolism. The discovery of biological effects of metabolites as bioenergetic intermediates, anabolic building blocks, signaling mediators, and effectors in posttranslation modifications of proteins and nucleic acids have highlighted the role of compartmentalization in de...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

New advances in stable tracer methods to assess whole-body protein and amino acid metabolism
Purpose of review Stable isotope methods have been used for many years to assess whole-body protein and amino acid kinetics in healthy conditions and in response to aging, exercise and (clinically stable) disease states. Recent findings In recent years, tracer research expanded to the anabolic response to feeding in critical illness and its use during acute metabolic stressors. Furthermore, new isotope approaches and tracer insights have been obtained. In the postabsorptive state, the novel tracer pulse approach has several advantages above the established continuous tracer approach because of the metabolic informatio...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

Are there dietary requirements for dispensable amino acids and if so, how do we assess requirements?
Purpose of review Nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) represent a relevant portion of dietary protein(s), yet their requirement(s) has not been determined. Despite their nature as dispensable substrates, should either shortage of any NEAA precursor or impaired synthetic reactions occur, NEAA dietary intake may become insufficient. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent hypotheses and data on individual NEAA requirements and metabolism. Recent findings A minimum total NEAA requirement can simply be estimated by subtraction of essential amino acid (EAA) total RDAs, from recommended ‘safe’ protein intak...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

Current nutritional status assessment tools for metabolic care and clinical nutrition
Purpose of review The aim of this report is to critically review existing questionnaires and tools to assess nutritional status in different populations and pathological conditions. Recent findings A total of 16 instruments to evaluate nutritional status were recorded, which were based on anthropometrical determinations, biochemical markers, clinical examinations and subjective questionnaires, depending on the nutritional assessment focus, involving different concepts: screening of the risk, diagnosis and severity of malnutrition, as well as the consequences of undernutrition or overnutrition. Summary A variety of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

Editorial: From the macro to the micro: assessment of nutritional and metabolic status
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

A ketogenic diet for reducing obesity and maintaining capacity for physical activity: hype or hope?
Purpose of review This review will evaluate the recent scientific literature on the efficacy of the ketogenic diet for enhancing weight loss and maintaining capacity for physical activity. Recent findings With the increasing obesity epidemic, the 21st century has witnessed the emergence of various diet programs aimed at promoting weight loss and enhancing physical performance. The ketogenic diet, a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has been at the forefront. Recent literature has documented significant weight-loss following ketogenic diet interventions. This has been associated with a decrease in systemic inf...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: HOT TOPIC Source Type: research

Editorial: Ketogenic diets: what is the benefit?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: HOT TOPIC Source Type: research

Using trehalose to prevent and treat metabolic function: effectiveness and mechanisms
Purpose of review Trehalose is a disaccharide with manifold industrial, commercial and biomedical uses. In the decade following its initial definition as an autophagy-inducing agent, significant advances have been realized in regard to the applicable clinical and preclinical contexts in which trehalose can be deployed. Moreover, the mechanisms by which trehalose exerts its metabolic effects are only beginning to gain clarity. In this review, we will highlight the most recent advances regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of trehalose actions in metabolic disease, and discuss barriers and opportunities for this class...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Postprandial hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery: from pathogenesis to diagnosis and treatment
Purpose of review The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) improves glucose control in majority of patients with type 2 diabetes. However, a minority group of individuals develop a life-threatening complication of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The goal of this review is to identify underlying mechanisms by which RYGB cause hypoglycemia and describe pathogenesis-driven strategies to diagnose and treat this condition. Recent findings Gastric bypass leads to higher and earlier peak levels of glucose and lower nadir glucose after eating along with larger insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, resetting...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Endogenous fructose production: what do we know and how relevant is it?
Purpose of review Excessive sugar and particularly fructose consumption has been proposed to be a key player in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and kidney disease in humans and animal models. However, besides its dietary source, fructose can be endogenously produced in the body from glucose via the activation of the polyol pathway. In this review, we aim to describe the most recent findings and current knowledge on the potential role of endogenous fructose production and metabolism in disease. Recent findings Over the recent years, the activation of the polyol pathway and endogenous fructose production has been...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Intestinal lipogenesis: how carbs turn on triglyceride production in the gut
Purpose of review To review recent evidence for the role of carbohydrates in the promotion of de novo lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion from the intestine. Recent findings The consumption of diets rich in carbohydrates have been shown to promote elevations in circulating lipids. In particular, the consumption of monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, have been shown to induce increases in intestinal de novo lipogenesis, as well as be used as a substrate for the synthesis of triglycerides and lipoprotein export in the form of chylomicrons. Recently, various systematic reviews have analyzed the relative cont...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Recent evidence for the effects of nonnutritive sweeteners on glycaemic control
Purpose of review By replacing sugar, nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) are thought to aid in weight management and decrease insulin resistance. We reviewed the latest randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effects NNSs on glycaemic control. Recent findings Six RCTs addressed this topic between 2017 and 2018; the majority tested artificial NNS (sucralose or aspartame), with only one testing natural NNS (stevia and monk fruit extract). Most found no effect of NNS on blood glucose, insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels; however, two trials showed an effect of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Methodology for the assessment of added/free sugar intake in epidemiological studies
Purpose of review High-sugar intake has been linked to increased risk of diseases but an accurate assessment of added/free sugar intake has always been a challenge in research. This review summarizes the methodologies for assessing added/free sugar intake reported in recent literature. Recent findings Four different methods for added/free sugar-intake assessment are discussed, including the carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) method, Food Patterns Equivalent Database, disaggregation method and the 10-step systematic method. These methods have different strengths and limitations in terms of requirement for background kno...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Editorial: Sugar in its many colors: some sweeter than others
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer Source Type: research

Ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy and beyond
Purpose of review The ketogenic diet, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate therapy, has become an established treatment for pediatric epilepsy since 1921. There has recently been an increase in important studies on the ketogenic diet, and this review will highlight the most recent in order to provide a synthesis of where this field stands today. Recent findings Clinical studies continue to support the use of ketogenic diets in epilepsy, with more recent trials supporting its use in adults. Clinical recommendations published in 2018 based on a decade of practice and research, guide implementation and management of the ketogeni...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by George Grimble and James Ryall Source Type: research

Hypoxia as a signal for prison breakout in cancer
Purpose of review We discuss recent discoveries in hypoxic cellular pathophysiology and explore the interplay between hypoxic malignant cells and other stromal elements. This review will provide an update on the effects of hypoxia on cancer outcomes and therapeutic resistance. Recent findings Hypoxia has been discovered to be a key driver for tumor progression, both because of impacts on tumor cells and separately on the wider tumor microenvironment. The latter effects occur via epithelial mesenchymal transition, autophagy and metabolic switching. Through epithelial mesenchymal transition, hypoxia both drives metastas...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by George Grimble and James Ryall Source Type: research