The role of eosinophils in immunotherapy: Retraction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: RETRACTION Source Type: research

Microbiota in non-IgE-mediated food allergy
Purpose of review To perform a nonsystematic review of the literature on the microbiota in the different types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Recent findings The commonest non-IgE-mediated disorders managed by allergists include: eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enteropathy, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis. The review of the literature describes how at phylum level we observe an increase of Proteobacteria in eosinophilic esophagitis esophageal microbiota and in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, and food protein-induced allergic pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment
Purpose of review In the last years, the interest of the scientific community toward food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) has grown exponentially. We review here the peculiar characteristics of this syndrome. Recent findings The recent publication of the First International Consensus Guidelines allowed a positive interaction between different research groups with the aim of improving the diagnosis and management of patients affected by FPIES. Summary Several fixed points have been placed on the diagnosis and management, but further studies are needed to clarify the many shadows that still surround di...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment
Purpose of review Although several reviews concerning diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have been presented, there are few in regard to eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE). Fortunately, findings related to epidemiology, as well as diagnosis and treatment of this disease have recently been increasing. Recent findings The rates of incidence of both EoE and EGE have been reported to be increasing. For accurate diagnosis, plasma concentrations of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 may be useful as biomarkers, though consensus has not been reached, while increased eosinophil infiltration in gastr...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Atopic dermatitis and its relation to food allergy
Purpose of review To present the most recent evidence on atopic dermatitis and its relation to food allergy. Recent findings Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin characterized by impaired skin barrier because of multifactorial causes including genetic factors, immune dysregulation, and skin microbiome dysbiosis. Infants with temporary skin barrier disruption and/or persistent atopic dermatitis are particularly at risk of developing food allergy (during the so-called atopic march), with up to half of patients demonstrating positive food-specific IgE and one-third of severe cases of atopic de...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Unique features of non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy during infancy in Japan
Purpose of review An increase in incidence of unique phenotypic non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies (non-IgE GIFAs) has occurred in Japan ahead of Western countries. There are differences in clinical features of non-IgE GIFAs in Western and Japanese patients. As this phenotype has now come to be recognized internationally, we describe it in this review. Recent findings A large number of Japanese patients with non-IgE GIFAs present with vomiting accompanied by bloody stool, putting them between food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis. Some neonate...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Non-IgE-mediated food allergy during infancy
Purpose of review Is to highlight the recent advances in the diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated food allergy which is a common consideration in primary care and in allergy and gastroenterology subspecialty practices evaluating infants. Recent findings The review focuses on food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and includes other non-IgE-mediated food allergy in nursing infants, food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis, and food protein-induced enteropathy. For FPIES, we review the 2017 International Consensus Guidelines that provided the first comprehensive framework for its diagnosis and ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Editorial: Non-IgE-mediated food allergies
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro Ebisawa Source Type: research

Precision medicine in clinical oncology: the journey from IgG antibody to IgE
Purpose of review Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and the incidence rates are constantly rising. The heterogeneity of tumors poses a big challenge for the treatment of the disease and natural antibodies additionally affect disease progression. The introduction of engineered mAbs for anticancer immunotherapies has substantially improved progression-free and overall survival of cancer patients, but little efforts have been made to exploit other antibody isotypes than IgG. Recent findings In order to improve these therapies, ‘next-generation antibodies’ were engineered to enhance a specific featu...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Addressing the impact of ethnicity on asthma care
Purpose of review In asthma, there is an increasing focus on personalizing treatment by targeting treatable traits. Ethnicity has effects on many biological and behavioural traits, and so is an important consideration when personalizing asthma care. This review has particular relevance in light of current patterns of international migration, which are leading to unprecedented levels of ethnic heterogeneity in many geographic regions. Recent findings This review examines the effect of ethnicity on three key domains – biological traits, behavioural traits and health system behaviour. Ethnicity influences asthma bi...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Personalized medicine for asthma in tropical regions
Purpose of review Precision medicine could help to improve diagnosis and treatment of asthma; however, in the tropics there are special conditions to be considered for applying this strategy. In this review, we analyze recent advances of precision allergology in tropical regions, highlighting its limitations and needs in high-admixed populations living under environments with high exposure to house dust mites and helminth infections. Recent findings Advances have been made regarding the genetic characterization of the great diversity of populations living in the tropics. Genes involved in shared biological pathways be...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Clinically significant differences in patient-reported outcomes evaluations in chronic spontaneous urticaria
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to highlight the conceptual and practical knowledge for interpreting score changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) that have been validated for chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Recent findings The urticaria guidelines recommends to assess PROs as Health-Related Quality of Life, disease activity and disease control, to detect the CSU impact and the overall treatment effect. To this aim it is crucial to determine the minimal important difference (MID) to assess if changes in questionnaire scores represent either perceived improvement or deterioration for patients. Meth...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Angioedema without urticaria: novel findings which must be measured in clinical setting
Purpose of review Angioedema without urticaria is composed of an increasing subtype's variety and presents a challenging diagnosis. This review summarizes the subtypes recently described and subsequent new findings helpful within their classification. Recent findings New methods to measure cleaved high molecular weight kininogen and activated plasma kallikrein have emerged as potential biochemical tests to identify bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Three new subtypes of hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor were described in the past two years: HAE due to mutation in plasminogen gene, in kininogen gene, a...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis usefulness for idiopathic anaphylaxis
Purpose of review Molecular diagnosis has become an indispensable tool in allergy. In suspected idiopathic anaphylaxis, it is mandatory to extend the diagnostic search to its limits. The current review evaluates how molecular diagnosis allows to identify a number of difficult to prove potential culprits. Recent findings Depending on different geographical areas, it has been shown that the number of anaphylaxis labelled as idiopathic may decrease by the use of molecular diagnosis. The most relevant allergens identified are alpha-gal, omega-5-gliadin, Anisakis, lipid transfer proteins and oleosins. The role of cofactors...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Oral mite anaphylaxis: who, when, and how?
Purpose of review To present an update on the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and practical management of oral mite anaphylaxis (OMA, pancake syndrome). Recent findings Among novel observations regarding OMA, this review highlights the increased prevalence of aspirin/NSAID hypersensitivity inpatients affected by OMA, the association of OMA with exercise-induced anaphylaxis, the presentation of OMA simulating acute asthma, the occurrence of OMA in childhood, the high severity and lethal potential of OMA, the contamination of other foods, such as oat and corn flour with mites, and the simultaneous...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Precision medicine in cow's milk allergy
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to describe the role of precision medicine in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of cow's milk allergy. Recent findings The development of ‘omics’ sciences in the field of food allergy has led to a better understanding of the allergenicity of cow's milk proteins and significant advances in the knowledge of the pathogenesis and mechanisms of cow's milk allergy. Omics-based technologies allow the practitioner to better differentiate cow's milk allergy subtypes and to predict cow's milk allergy (CMA) persistence over time. Precision medicine extends the role o...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Genetics and epigenetics of allergy
Purpose of review Allergic diseases are prototypic examples for gene × environment-wide interactions. This review considers the current evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in allergic diseases and highlights barriers and facilitators for the implementation of these novel tools both for research and clinical practice. Recent findings The value of whole-genome sequencing studies and the use of polygenic risk score analysis in homogeneous well characterized populations are currently being tested. Epigenetic mechanisms are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, especia...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Editorial: The age of intelligence
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: Edited by Henry Milgrom and René Maximiliano Gómez Source Type: research

Editorial Introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Food allergy in adults in Europe: what can we learn from geographical differences?
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to characterize the present state-of-the-art on the topic of food allergies across Europe. Recent findings A systematic review and metaanalysis on the epidemiology of food allergy in Europe have been performed by the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. The authors had made an extensive search of four different electronic databases which retrieved thousands of hits. A critical appraisal of the documents reduced their number to just over 100 articles covering the period 2000–2012, revealing striki...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Observational human studies in allergic diseases: design concepts and highlights of recent National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-funded research
Purpose of review To present and discuss key design concepts for optimizing the impact of observational studies in the field of allergy and to highlight recent findings from NIAID-funded research networks. Recent findings We discuss three concepts. First, the benefit of prospective, longitudinal observational studies exemplified by recent findings on the seasonal nature of all rhinitis phenotypes in children with asthma and the protective effects of high house dust allergen content during the first year of life on the development of asthma at age 7 years. Second, the benefit of detailed (deep) phenotyping exemplified ...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Severe asthma: what is new in the new millennium
Purpose of review Severe asthma remains a debilitating disease and a challenge for the clinicians. Novel therapies have been introduced and have greatly improved asthma control and more are under development or in clinical studies. These include anti-IL5/IL5R, anti-IL4/IL4R, anti IL13, anti- thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and more, and severe asthma is currently managed in personalized medicine approach. However, there is still an unmet need to discover new, clinically available biomarkers and targeted therapies for a large group of severe asthma patients, particularly those with T2-low asthma. In this review, we br...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

The role of eosinophils in immunotherapy
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide a brief discussion on the differential diagnosis for peripheral eosinophilia. We will then focus on targeted immunotherapies for atopic disease, their effects on absolute peripheral eosinophil counts, and use of peripheral eosinophils as a predictor of treatment response. Recent findings In atopic disease, lower absolute peripheral eosinophil counts are typically associated with improved outcomes. Much of the current evidence on eosinophils as a biomarker comes from post-hoc analyses in therapeutic immunotherapy. While changes in eosinophilia were not the prim...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Food allergy: how expensive are they?
Purpose of review Food allergy remains a disease of global public health significance well known to impact social, emotional, and financial well being. This review aims to summarize the existing literature focused on the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of food allergy at the household and healthcare system levels, and begin to discuss how emerging treatment and prevention strategies may be leveraged to comprehensively care for the food allergic population with the efficient use of health resources. Recent findings Food allergy imposes significant costs to multiple stakeholders and largely impact families at the...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Vitamin D: can the sun stop the atopic epidemic?
Purpose of review To review recent evidence on the capacity of vitamin D to prevent atopic disease, focussing on food allergy and asthma, and potential underlying mechanisms. Recent findings The incidence of allergic disease continues to increase worldwide. Vitamin D status is influenced by sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D deficiency is linked to an increased incidence of allergic disease and asthma. These associations are generally strongest in early life. The capacity of vitamin D to enhance antimicrobial pathways, promote peripheral immunological tolerance and maintain mucosal barrier integrity may underl...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Systemic hypereosinophilic syndromes: when autoimmunity is Th2 mediated
Purpose of review Clinical conditions associated with hypereosinophilia represent a field of particular interest, taking into account the epidemiological impact of the different primary and secondary forms. In addition to a classical Th1 response, also Th2 cells can be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, among them eosinophilic forms such as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Recent findings In patients with severe asthma, recent evidence highlights the role of pathogenic autoantibodies against autologous eosinophil proteins (e.g. eosinophil peroxidase) suggest the role of autoimmune mecha...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: epidemiology and comorbidities
Purpose of review First described in the mid 20th century, it was just in the last decade that diagnostic and treatment guidelines for food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) were established. Awareness of the diagnosis is improving, and epidemiologic data are emerging. Recent findings Recent studies suggest that FPIES may affect as many as 0.5% of children worldwide. FPIES in adults is usually triggered by seafood and may be more common than previously thought. Many patients with FPIES have other allergic disorders. Summary With refined diagnostic criteria and improved awareness, FPIES is now diagnosed...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni Source Type: research

Allergen immunotherapy for pediatric asthma: current evidence and knowledge gaps
Purpose of review The introduction of high-quality and standardized extracts for immunotherapy has renewed the interest in the treatment of pediatric allergic asthma that represents a high-prevalence disease. Recent findings In addition to clinical trials, several systematic reviews and metaanalyses were published, confirming overall the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in pediatric asthma. In addition, new data on the preventive effect of the treatment on asthma onset were published. Despite this, many intriguing questions emerged, in parallel to the development of knowledge. Summary Allergen immunother...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Andy Liu and Pasquale Comberiati Source Type: research

Childhood asthma in the new omics era: challenges and perspectives
Purpose of review Childhood asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease comprising different phenotypes and endotypes and, particularly in its severe forms, has a large impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. The application of advanced omics technologies provides useful insights into underlying asthma endotypes and may provide potential clinical biomarkers to guide treatment and move towards a precision medicine approach. Recent findings The current article addresses how novel omics approaches have shaped our current understanding of childhood asthma and highlights recent findings from (pharmaco)...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Andy Liu and Pasquale Comberiati Source Type: research

How molecular allergology can shape the management of allergic airways diseases
Purpose of review In allergy, personalized medicine passes through the assessment of molecular allergens sensitization profiles. Such technique may help to better diagnose and treat patients suffering from allergic respiratory diseases. Recent findings Different laboratory tests are available today to assess sensitization to molecular allergens, from singleplex assays, to unspecific, screening multiplex assays, mainly performed through microarrays or macroarrays. It is important to collect both results from specific IgE toward allergen extracts and toward molecular allergens, to collect the most complete information o...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Andy Liu and Pasquale Comberiati Source Type: research

Host–microbiome intestinal interactions during early life: considerations for atopy and asthma development
Purpose of review The body's largest microbial community, the gut microbiome, is in contact with mucosal surfaces populated with epithelial, immune, endocrine and nerve cells, all of which sense and respond to microbial signals. These mutual interactions have led to a functional coevolution between the microbes and human physiology. Examples of coadaptation are anaerobes Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides, which have adjusted their metabolism to dietary components of human milk, and infant immune development, which has evolved to become reliant on the presence of beneficial microbes. Current research suggests that specific c...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Andy Liu and Pasquale Comberiati Source Type: research

The role of atopy in asthma development and persistence
Purpose of review Asthma is the most common chronic disease in pediatric age. Childhood-onset asthma, as opposed to adult-onset asthma, is typically characterized by a personal and often a family history of atopy and related markers of type 2-mediated inflammation. However, the interplay between atopy and asthma development is more complex than a linear dose–response relationship. Recent findings Family and personal history of atopic diseases have been confirmed as major risk factors for asthma occurrence and persistence in children. Early life and multiple sensitizations to aeroallergens significantly increase ...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Andy Liu and Pasquale Comberiati Source Type: research

Diagnostic approach to occupational rhinitis: the role of nasal provocation tests
Purpose of review The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis is a challenge. Underdiagnosis is substantial as the clinical presentation is nonspecific and often no occupational history is taken. Detection of occupational rhinitis can be improved by including screening questions on occupational exposure in the assessment of every patient with adult-onset rhinitis. Recent findings Case reports, case series and epidemiological studies continuously demonstrate new sensitizers and irritants capable of inducing allergic or nonallergic (irritant-induced) occupational rhinitis. Recent reviews have focused on the value of immunolo...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Mechanism and diagnosis of protein contact dermatitis
Purpose of review Protein contact dermatitis (PCD) is a chronic eczema because of immediate hypersensitivity to protein and not related to haptens. As it has to be diagnosed by prick tests, it is probably under-recorded and under-estimated that is why it is important for dermatologists, allergists and occupational physicians to better know this peculiar contact dermatitis. Recent findings Some recent series have emphasized that PCD is mainly an occupational dermatosis, mainly observed in food handlers. Summary PCD is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggested if associated with inflamm...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Current state of occupational latex allergy
Purpose of review During the 1980s, natural rubber latex (NRL) emerged as a major cause of occupational allergy and asthma, especially in healthcare workers using powdered NRL gloves. Increased recognition of NRL allergies and transfer of research findings into prevention strategies resulted into an almost elimination of this health problem. Here, the current knowledge on allergens, their use in diagnostics, prevalence data of occupational NRL allergy and the status of prevention strategy are summarized. Recent findings While the current studies conducted in high-income countries show that prevention measures have red...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Occupational exposures and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Purpose of review A recent meta-analysis of data from international case–control studies reports a population attributable fraction of 16% for occupational factors in the cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Smoking, genetic factors and other prevalent diseases only partly explain IPF, and so this review aims to summarize recent progress in establishing which occupational exposures are important in cause. Recent findings IPF is a rare disease, although it is the commonest idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Epidemiological study suggests that incidence of IPF is increasing, particularly in older men. The...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Prevention of baker's asthma
Purpose of review Baker's allergy and asthma continue to represent an important contributor of occupational asthma globally. This review identified recent studies related to the prevention of baker's allergy and asthma. Recent findings Studies with respect to regulatory exposure standards, workplace control measures aimed at reduction of flour dust exposures, surveillance programmes (exposure monitoring, medical surveillance) and workplace information, education and training programmes were identified. Summary Detailed knowledge on risk factors and detection methods to assess exposure and early identification of hi...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Occupational aspects of irritable larynx syndrome
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to provide an update on occupational aspects of irritable larynx syndrome (ILS). Recent findings It is being increasingly recognized that ILS is common amongst certain occupations. This is particularly true of occupations that require frequent voice use such as teachers; where there is exposure to workplace irritants such as World Trade Center responders; or mechanical factors that cause laryngeal dysfunction such as elite athletes. Work associated ILS impacts on quality of life but responds to speech and language therapy focusing on education, vocal hygiene, and laryngeal ...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Update on exhaled breath condensate analyses in occupational disease
Purpose of review The present work represents an update of the review published in this journal by Corradi et al., regarding the use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) to investigate occupational lung diseases. Recent findings The relevant literature was searched in the Medline database, assessed through PubMed using key terms such as ‘breath AND condensate AND occupational’. Eleven pertinent publications were retrieved between January 2018 and October 2019. One article only was related to occupational allergy, and the conclusion is that EBC hydrogen peroxide is not an useful marker in laboratory animal al...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Pulmonary rehabilitation: promising nonpharmacological approach for treating asthma?
Purpose of review Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation with a history of respiratory symptoms that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation. The goal of asthma treatment is to reach symptoms control, reduction in future risk and improvement in quality of life (QoL). Guideline-based pharmacologic therapies and the effect of inhaled steroids and bronchodilators have been widely studied over the past decades. We provide an overview of the available evidence on pulmonary rehabilitation as a nonpharmacologic therapy in asthmatic pa...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Systemic and breath biomarkers for asthma: an update
Purpose of review Finding suitable biomarkers to phenotype asthma, identify individuals at risk of worsening and guide treatment is highly prioritized in asthma research. We aimed to provide an analysis of currently used and upcoming biomarkers, focusing on developments published in the past 2 years. Recent findings Type 2 inflammation is the most studied asthma mechanism with the most biomarkers in the pipeline. Blood eosinophils and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) are those most used clinically. Recent developments include their ability to identify individuals at higher risk of exacerbations, faster decline i...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Biologicals for severe asthma: what we can learn from real-life experiences?
Purpose of review Severe asthma is a serious disease affecting about 5–10% of asthmatic patients. Often patients with this kind of asthma requires periodical courses or daily intake of oral corticosteroids, to control symptoms. In the last few years several biological drugs have been developed with the aim to decrease exacerbations and reduce or suspend intake of systemic steroids in severe asthmatic patients. Clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy and the safety of biological antibodies in asthma, but it is already known that randomized controlled trials alone are not sufficient to provide complete information ...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Regulation of allergic inflammation by dendritic cells
Purpose of review Dendritic cells are critical in directing inflammatory versus tolerogenic responses. As the burden of allergic disease rises worldwide, increased understanding of mechanisms underlying these diseases is needed. This review highlights research demonstrating how dendritic cells influence allergic disease development, providing important mechanistic insights into current clinical management strategies as well as potential areas of focus for future development of novel therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Recent studies continue to elucidate dendritic cell-associated pathways which can either promote ...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

The role of epigenetics in allergy and asthma development
Purpose of review Epigenetic mechanisms are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and other allergic disorders, especially through mediating the effects of the environmental factors, well recognized allergy-risk modifiers. The aim of this work was to provide a concise but comprehensive review of the recent progress in the epigenetics of allergic diseases. Recent findings Recent few years have substantially expanded our knowledge on the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis and clinical picture of allergies. Specifically, it has been shown that...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Asthma/obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: update on definition, biomarkers, and therapeutics
Purpose of review Asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO) continues to be a poorly understood condition. This review discusses newly proposed criteria and potential biomarkers in ACO, to aid in diagnosis and research studies, and prudent therapeutic approaches. Recent findings A global expert panel proposed an operational definition consisting of major and minor criteria as a step toward defining ACO. Serum periostin and YKL-40 may serve as biomarkers for ACO. Clinically, a reasonable therapeutic approach to ACO is the early addition of a long-acting β-agonist (LABA) and/or a long-acting muscar...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Mechanisms of allergy and adult asthma
Purpose of review Allergic asthma reflects the interplay between inflammatory mediators and immune, airway epithelial, and other cells. This review summarizes key insights in these areas over the past year. Recent findings Key findings over the past year demonstrate that epithelial cells mediate tight junction breakdown to facilitate the development of asthma-like disease in mice. Innate lymph lymphoid cells (ILC), while previously shown to promote allergic airway disease, have now been shown to inhibit the development of severe allergic disease in mice. Fibrinogen cleavage products (previously shown to mediate allerg...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J. Andrew Grant and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Current advances on the microbiome and role of probiotics in upper airways disease
We present here the studies on the nasal microbiota in healthy infants, allergic rhinitis, and CRS. The results demonstrate that there are stable and unstable profiles of microbiota during infancy. Decreased diversity or an imbalance of the microbial composition could be an important factor in the development of both allergic rhinitis and CRS. We also discuss here several recent animal and human studies that demonstrate the effect of probiotics in allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Results from human studies (clinical trials) have demonstrated that probiotics may be effective for allergic rhinitis, but there are...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: RHINITIS, SINUSITIS AND UPPER AIRWAY DISEASE: Edited by Ruby Pawankar and David P. Skoner Source Type: research

Systemic biomarkers of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis
Purpose of review The current understanding of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has developed rapidly over the past decades. Classification of CRS based on the inflammatory endotype more accurately reflects the underlying pathophysiology and better directs treatment. Corticosteroids and more recently biologic agents, target the eosinophil inflammatory that drives this subtype of CRS. Tissue sampling is not always accessible or available and surrogate markers are sought to define this endotype of CRS. The purpose of this review is to assess current systemic predictors of eosinophilic CRS (eCRS) diagnosis. Recent...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: RHINITIS, SINUSITIS AND UPPER AIRWAY DISEASE: Edited by Ruby Pawankar and David P. Skoner Source Type: research

Differential expression and role of S100 proteins in chronic rhinosinusitis
Purpose of review Immune system modulators have been under investigation to help elucidate the underlying pathophysiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Psoriasin (S100A7) and calgranulins (S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12) are S100 proteins that have been studied for their immune-mediating responses to pathogens within the context of CRS. This review highlights the expression patterns and proposed roles of S100 proteins in CRS with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps. Recent findings Elevated levels of S100A7 and S100A12 were measured in the sinonasal tissues of patients with CRSsNP compared with CRSwNP and con...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: RHINITIS, SINUSITIS AND UPPER AIRWAY DISEASE: Edited by Ruby Pawankar and David P. Skoner Source Type: research