Tumor Biomarkers and Interventional Oncology: Impact on Local Outcomes for Liver and Lung Malignancy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInterventional oncology (IO) loco-regional treatments are widely utilized in clinical practice. However, local tumor control rates are still widely variable. There is a need to identify and develop novel biomarkers prognosticators following IO therapies. Here, we review the current literature on molecular tumor biomarkers in IO, mainly focusing on patients with liver and lung cancers.Recent FindingsRAS mutation is a prognosticator for patients with colorectal liver metastases. Several promising serum metabolites, gene signatures, circulating tumor nucleotides, and peptides are being evaluated for p...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in Cervical Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize the current immunotherapy studies and the potential targeted therapies showing promise in the treatment of cervical cancer.Recent FindingsThere are promising ongoing monotherapy and combination therapy trials using different immune checkpoint inhibitors, poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase inhibitors, tumor angiogenesis inhibitors (i.e., bevacizumab), antibody-drug conjugates, therapeutic vaccines, and tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (adoptive immunotherapy). Some of these novel modalities are also being evaluated in combination with standard platinum-based c...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Organizational Strategies for Providing Cancer Palliative Care to Many
AbstractPurposeHospitals and healthcare organizations are today operating in an extremely competitive environment, with increasing pressure to improve quality while reducing costs. In responding to this dynamic situation, transformation of any organization requires the will to organize delivery around the needs of patients.Recent FindingsProviding palliative care to the many who require it needs the value agenda to be formulated based on mutually reinforcing components. Here we present an overview of the framework for a palliative care department in a comprehensive cancer center, which includes different levels that are em...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Reaching Across the Aisle: Cardio-Oncology Advocacy and Program Building
This study aims to assess the current state of cardio-oncology in reference to advocacy efforts, access to care, and perspective of stakeholders in their ability to provide patient care as well as development of “across the aisle” synergy among cardiologists and oncologists and academic and non-academic centers in various worldwide locations.Recent FindingsDuring the last decade, there has been a significant and diverse growth in cardio-oncology. We reviewed the experience from cardiologists and oncologists across different healthcare systems, the global trends, the role of collaborative networks, and the impor...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles and their associated miRNAs as potential prognostic biomarkers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
AbstractPurpose of reviewMany prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been proposed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Here, we aim to discuss the evidence showing a prognostic potential for extracellular vesicles (EV) and their associated microRNAs (miRNAs).Recent FindingsEV are produced by several cells in the body as a physiological event; however, there is evidence suggesting that an elevated EV concentration is present in the circulation of CLL patients. Moreover, some studies have associated EV concentration with advanced Rai stage and unmutated CLL while others have demonstrated its potential as an independe...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Update on Histological Reporting Changes in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClassification and nomenclature of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) have frequently changed over the last years. These changes reflect both increasing knowledge and international standardisation.Recent FindingsThe most recent changes in the Gastro-Entero-Pancreatic system induced the concept of well-differentiated NET with high proliferation rate (NET G3), explaining partially the heterogeneity of G3 NEN. Even if the nomenclature in pulmonary NEN is still different, the terms ‘carcinoid’ and ‘atypical carcinoid’ are widely overlapping with NET G1 and NET G2. Molecular data sho...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Managing Common Estrogen Deprivation Side Effects in HR+ Breast Cancer: an Evidence-Based Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe article reviews the consequences of estrogen deprivation during endocrine therapy for breast cancer and provides an update on alternative therapies for the management of symptoms.Recent FindingsEndocrine therapy has progressed substantially in recent years, and its use is recommended for all breast cancer patients expressing hormone receptors. The main adverse events of this treatment can be controlled with medications and nonpharmacological measures. Antidepressants are effective in controlling vasomotor symptoms. Vaginal discomfort can be treated with local lubricants and pelvic floor physiot...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Global Perspectives on Palliative Care for Cancer Patients: Not All Countries Are the Same
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe integration of cancer-related palliative care is essential to holistic, quality cancer care. While some similarities exist between countries, this manuscript will focus on five differences that impact palliative care for cancer patients including the epidemiology of cancer and related symptoms, cancer-specific integration into care, palliative care education, economic development of the country, and cultural and religious differences.Recent FindingsThe epidemiology of cancer varies around the world resulting in variable symptoms and the need for individualized approaches to palliative care....
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-Targeted Radionuclide Therapies for Prostate Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProstate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is a promising investigational treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This review describes the available data with PSMA TRT.Recent FindingsConjugates used for PSMA TRT include antibodies or small molecules PSMA-radiolabeled with beta (most commonly 177Lu) or alpha emitters (commonly 225Ac). 177Lu-J591 demonstrated accurate targeting of known metastatic sites, based on post-treatment scintigraphy, in study populations that were not selected for PSMA expression, with evidence of dose-respons...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 29, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integrating Adjuvant Radiation with Post-Neoadjuvant Therapies in Early Breast Cancer
AbstractPurpose of reviewBecause of the strong prognostic value of pathologic complete response (pCR) in early breast cancer (EBC), patients who fail to achieve this outcome have increasingly been eligible to a new treatment modality, namely post-neoadjuvant systemic therapy (PNT). However, adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) retains a crucial role in EBC, and also needs to be timely administered to patients. To address how modern PNT optimally integrates with adjuvant RT is therefore the purpose of this review.Recent FindingsHow PNT administration optimally integrates with adjuvant RT has varied depending on the type of syste...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging Therapeutics for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
AbstractPurpose of reviewTriple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for approximately 10 –15% of all breast cancers and it is associated with a poor prognosis. However, recent new effective treatment strategies have improved its outcomes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the emerging therapeutics for TNBC, describing both previously approved therapies that are curre ntly being repurposed, as well as new target therapies that may improve patient outcomes.Recent findingsEmerging therapies are forthcoming in TNBC ’s treatment landscape, including new post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy strategies, ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Improving Breast Cancer Responses to Immunotherapy —a Search for the Achilles Heel of the Tumor Microenvironment
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo explore the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in breast cancer, identify the changes that occur in the TME during breast cancer progression, and explore the possibility of modifying the TME to improve immune checkpoint inhibitor responses.Recent findingsEmerging evidence shows the TME may be shaped by internal and external factors. Preclinical data suggests it may be possible to shift the TME to allow for better immune infiltration. In this review, we summarize emerging evidence of changes in the TME and how it can affect prognosis and responses to therapy. We also examine pre-clinical an...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Childhood Acute Leukemias in Developing Nations: Successes and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute leukemias represent a tremendous threat to public health around the globe and the main cause of death due to disease in scholar age children from developing nations. Here, we review their current status in Mexico, as a paradigm of study, and the major challenges to control systemic diseases like childhood cancer.Recent FindingsA unique molecular epidemiology, late/low precision diagnosis, limited access to treatment, toxicity associated with therapy, continuous exposure to environmental risk factors, and the high frequency of early relapses are some of the factors cooperating to low rates of ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Rare Breast Cancer Subtypes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBreast cancer is a collection of diseases including the more common invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas and rarer subtypes of breast cancer. This review summarizes the features of rare breast cancers.Recent FindingsEach of the rare tumors has defined pathological and clinical features that impact treatment recommendations. In this review, we summarize these for each rare type of breast cancer and where available we include molecular features of each tumor.SummaryRare subtypes of breast cancer each have unique features. In many cases, data is limited for the optimal treatment approaches. (Source:...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Percutaneous Management of Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer: Current Role and Evolving Principles in the Multidisciplinary Setting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we will outline the role of percutaneous interventional radiological management of recurrent head and neck (H&N) cancer in the context of a multidisciplinary setting which consists of surgery, radiation therapy, as well as established and evolving systemic therapies that may impact current practice.Recent FindingsManagement of recurrent H&N cancer is complex, with attention to the preservation of function and minimal treatment-related morbidity. The favored treatment modalities in local recurrence previously treated with radiotherapy are surgical resection, and if unresectab...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: An Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight the new developments in the management of advanced giant cell tumor of bone, a rare locally aggressive benign tumor, which was traditionally managed with surgery alone by either curettage and local adjuvant therapy, wide resection, or marginal excision. Here, we review the current role of systemic therapy for management of locally advanced or metastatic giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB).Recent FindingsThe elucidation of the pathophysiology of giant cell tumor of bone, especially with regards to the role of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), has led to the Food and Drug Administration...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Patient Support Groups in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to establish the role patient support groups play in NENs.Recent FindingsPublished data on the role and work done by these groups is extremely sparse, so the review references publications in the wider cancer advocacy context. For the purposes of the review, a survey was carried out among the members of a global umbrella organization to ascertain the level of activities undertaken in support of the NEN patient community.SummaryThe concept of “support groups” has changed significantly, as these groups have evolved from patient peer-to-peer support provision ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of Platinums in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPlatinum compounds are used in the treatment of various types of cancer. Here, we review the current role of cisplatin and carboplatin in the treatment of early stage and advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and the use of biomarkers in predicting response to platinum therapy.Recent FindingsAddition of carboplatin to a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen can result in improvement in the pathological complete response rates. The long-term benefit of the addition of carboplatin to standard chemotherapy regimens remains unproven. Single-agent platinum is an option in the treatment of advanced b...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Inhibition: a Treatment Strategy in Cancer?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMitochondria have a major impact on virtually all processes linked to oncogenesis. Thus, mitochondrial metabolism inhibition has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. In this review, we discuss the anticancer potential of mitochondrial inhibitors, with particular focus on metformin, in the context of more effective, targeted therapeutic modalities, and diagnostic strategies for cancer patients.Recent FindingsMetformin has gained interest as an antitumor agent. However, promising results have not been translated into remarkable advances in the clinical practice. Recent findings emphasize the n...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Updates in Cardiac Amyloidosis Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac amyloidosis is an underrecognized cause of heart failure. We review clinical clues to the diagnoses, a rational approach to testing, and current and emerging therapies.Recent FindingsAdvances in the diagnosis of amyloid cardiomyopathy include (1) use of99mtechnetium (99mTc) bone-avid compounds which allow accurate noninvasive diagnosis of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CM) in the context of a negative monoclonal light chain screen; and (2) the use of serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis with serum free light chains as an accurate first diagnostic step for light chain card...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Carcinoid Heart Disease: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe development of carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a fibrotic complication of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) which is associated with a poor prognosis. This review aims to summarise the clinical features, investigations and management of this condition.Recent FindingsCHD can affect up to 50% of NET patients with carcinoid syndrome. However, it is often not screened for appropriately and recognised late when patients become symptomatic. A screening strategy with biomarkers and multimodality imaging is necessary for early recognition. Management by an experienced multidisciplinary team with appropri...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Strategies Towards Improving Clinical Outcomes of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate is an effective and safe second- or third-line treatment option for patients with low-grade advanced gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). In this review, we will focus on possible extensions of the current use of PRRT and on new approaches which could further improve its treatment efficacy and safety.Recent FindingsPromising results were published regarding PRRT in other NENs, including lung NENs or high-grade NENs, and applying PRRT as neoadjuvant or salvage therapy. Furthermore, a diversity of ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Neurofibromatosis in the Era of Precision Medicine: Development of MEK Inhibitors and Recent Successes with Selumetinib
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at increased risk for benign and malignant neoplasms. Recently, targeted therapy with the MEK inhibitor class has helped address these needs. We highlight recent successes with selumetinib while acknowledging ongoing challenges for NF1 patients and future directions.Recent FindingsMEK inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy for NF1-related conditions, including plexiform neurofibromas and low-grade gliomas, two common causes of NF1-related morbidity. Active investigations for NF1-related neoplasms have benefited from advanced understanding of the genom...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Liver-Directed Therapies for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo comprehensively synthesise and appraise the available evidence regarding therapies for metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms that exploit the hepatic vasculature to deliver therapy to liver metastases.Recent FindingsVarious techniques including transarterial embolisation/chemoembolisation (TAE/TACE) and selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT, also termed radioembolisation [RE]) have been examined in patents with neuroendocrine liver metastases. Variations in the radioactive agents for selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) have been explored, such as the use of Holmium-166, in addition to more esta...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Desmoid Fibromatosis: Management in an Era of Increasing Options
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDesmoid fibromatosis (DF) is a locally aggressive clonal neoplasm with locally aggressive behavior and no metastatic potential. Historical treatment of DF has consisted primarily of up-front surgery when feasible. In recent years, recognition that DF can spontaneously stabilize or involute has allowed for many patients to be managed with watchful waiting rather than intervention. This review is intended to review recent developments in the treatment of DF.Recent FindingsRecent studies have demonstrated prospectively that patients with DF often have improvement in their lesions without intervention,...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Childhood
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is rare in children, requiring extrapolation from treatment of adults. In this review, we explore similarities and differences between adult and pediatric CML with a focus on therapeutic advances and emerging clinical questions.Recent FindingsPediatric CML is effectively treated with long-term targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Newly diagnosed pediatric patients in chronic phase can now be treated with imatinib, dasatinib, or nilotinib without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. While treatment-free remission is possible in a...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Discussing Prognosis with Empathy to Cancer Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOur goal was to provide healthcare professionals (HCPs) with evidence-based data about what can be done to handle prognostic discussions with empathy.Recent FindingsFirst, disclosing prognosis involves a good reason to do so and making sure that the patient will be able to process the discussion. Second, communication tips are given for the three dimensions of empathy: “establishing rapport with the patient,” which should not be overlooked; the emotional dimension, which involves an accurate understanding of the patient and communication skills; and the “active/positive” dim...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Sexual and Gender Minority Cancer Survivors: a Review of Current Research and Recommendations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSexual and gender minority (SGM) cancer survivors (post-diagnosis to end-of-life) can face inadequate services along the cancer care continuum, including palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care. A growing literature base calls for more research on factors influencing palliative and EOL care access, outcomes, and distinct needs of SGM cancer survivors and caregivers. We analyzed peer-reviewed articles published 2015-present to identify trends.Recent FindingsTen articles were SGM-focused or inclusive, cancer-focused, and included substantive discussion of palliative and/or EOL care. Four were research ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Incidence, and Prevalence of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Are There Global Differences?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of our review is to explore global epidemiologic trends of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Specifically, we sought to examine whether there are differences in incidence, prevalence, distribution (by primary tumor site, tumor grade, tumor stage at presentation), and overall survival of GEP NETs between different regions of the world.Recent FindingsGEP NET incidence rates are rising steadily in North America, Asia, and Europe, though this rise appears to be most profound in North America. The distribution of GEP NETs differs regionally as in North America small ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Psychological Aspects to Consider in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBreast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the West World. Coping with cancer is cause of extreme stress for patients and their family. The purpose of this review is to evaluate possible approaches to follow to control those situations that can impact on quality of life (QoL) and compliance to treatments.Recent FindingsAnxiety, distress, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder are the most frequent psychological disorders in BC patients. Cognitive disorders and sexual dysfunction can also be important in affecting QoL both in younger and older patients. Younger and old...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Post-Diagnostic Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Prostate Cancer Recurrence, Progression, and Mortality
This study aimed to summarize evidence published between 1999 and June 2020 examining diet and lifestyle after prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis in relation to risk of biochemical recurrence, PC progression, and PC-specific mortality.Recent FindingsSecondary prevention is an important research area in cancer survivorship. A growing number of studies have reported associations between post-diagnostic modifiable behaviors and risk of PC outcomes.SummaryEvidence on modifiable lifestyle factors and PC remains limited. Where multiple studies exist, findings are often mixed. However, studies consistently suggest that smoking and co...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lack of Evidence Does Not Equal Lack of Benefit: Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Trimodality Therapy in Selected Patients with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
(Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Updates on Surgical Management and Advances for Brain Tumors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the modern approach to surgical management of malignant brain tumors, highlighting new technology and multimodal treatment paradigms.Recent FindingsOutcomes in patients with glioblastoma are strongly correlated with extent of initial surgical resection. Intraoperative MRI, 5-ALA, and neuronavigation are surgical tools that can help achieve a maximal safe resection. Stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy can be used to enhance local control for brain metastases in conjunction with surgery, while combinatorial approaches are increasingly employed in patients with multiple ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 25, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Advanced imaging techniques for neuro-oncologic tumor diagnosis, with an emphasis on PET-MRI imaging of malignant brain tumors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will explore the latest in advanced imaging techniques, with a focus on the complementary nature of multiparametric, multimodality imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET).Recent FindingsAdvanced MRI techniques including perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and MR chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) offer significant advantages over conventional MR imaging when evaluating tumor extent, predicting grade, and assessing treatment response. PET performed in addition to advanced MRI pr...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Progress Update in Pediatric Renal Tumors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPediatric renal tumors account for 7% of new cancer diagnoses in children. Here, we will review results from recently completed clinical trials informing the current standard of care and discuss targeted and immune therapies being explored for the treatment of high risk or relapsed/refractory pediatric renal malignancies.Recent FindingsCooperative group trials have continued to make improvements in the care of children with pediatric tumors. In particular, trials that standardize treatment of rare cancers (e.g., bilateral Wilms tumor) have improved outcomes significantly.SummaryWe have seen improve...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Presence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Recommendations in Head and Neck Cancer Guidelines: Systematic Review and Quality Assessment
AbstractPurpose of reviewA high proportion of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), however, healthcare professionals generally have little knowledge about the safety and efficacy of these therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity and assess the quality of CAM recommendations across clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the treatment and/or management of HNC.Recent findingsMEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were systematically searched for HNC CPGs published between 2009 and April 2020; the Guidelines International Network and the National Center for Compl...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Issues in Genomics and Therapeutics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a type of thyroid carcinoma with the most aggressive biological behaviour amongst thyroid cancer. Here, we review the current genomic and the impacts of advances in therapies to improve the management of patients with the cancer.Recent FindingsCommon mutations being identified in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arep53 andTERT promoter mutations. Other common mutated genes includedBRAF,RAS,EIF1AX,PIK3CA,PTEN andAKT1,SWI/SNF,ALK andCDKN2A. Changes in expression of different microRNAs are also involved in the pathogenesis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Curative resection...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Microtubule Inhibitors and Cardiotoxicity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancer and heart disease are the leading causes of mortality in the USA. Advances in cancer therapies, namely, the development and use of chemotherapeutic agents alone or in combination, are becoming increasingly prevalent.Recent FindingsMany chemotherapeutic agents have been associated with adverse cardiovascular manifestations. The mechanisms of these sequelae remain incompletely understood. In particular, microtubule inhibitor (MTI) agents have been related to the development of heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and conduction abnormalities. At present, there are no guidelines for patients und...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Statins as Potential Chemoprevention or Therapeutic Agents in Cancer: a Model for Evaluating Repurposed Drugs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRepurposing established medicines for a new therapeutic indication potentially has important global and societal impact. The high costs and slow pace of new drug development have increased interest in more cost-effective repurposed drugs, particularly in the cancer arena. The conventional drug development pathway and evidence framework are not designed for drug repurposing and there is currently no consensus on establishing the evidence base before embarking on a large, resource intensive, potential practice changing phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT). Numerous observational studies have s...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting KRAS in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMutations in kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog(KRAS) are the most frequently observed genomic alterations in human cancers. No KRAS targeting therapy has been approved despite more than three decades of efforts. Encouraging progress has been made in targeting KRASG12C with KRASG12C specific covalent inhibitors in the past few years. Herein, we review the recent breakthroughs in KRAS targeting.Recent FindingsKRASG12C mutation was found in 14% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 3% of colorectal cancer. Recently, highly potentKRASG12C specific inhibitors have been developed and demonst...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acute Leukemia in Infants
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewInfant leukemia is a rare, distinct subgroup of pediatric acute leukemias diagnosed in children under 1  year of age and characterized by unique, aggressive biology. Here, we review its clinical presentation, underlying molecular biology, current treatment strategies, and novel therapeutic approaches.Recent FindingsInfant leukemias are associated with high-risk molecular features and high rates of chemotherapy resistance. International collaborative clinical trials have led to better understanding of the underlying molecular biology, refined risk-based stratification, and investigated the ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Richter Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRichter syndrome (RS) is an uncommon but aggressive evolution of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). RS is an unmet clinical need in the field of CLL. Recent advances in understanding the biology of this condition provide the rationale for testing new therapeutic concepts in order to improve the outcome of patients developing RS, which is so far poor. In this review, we summarize disease characteristics and available therapeutic options for RS.Recent FindingsCurrent regimens with novel agents in monotherapy have shown little impact on survival. Nevertheless, the bette...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of Clinically Regional Node-Positive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClinically regional node-positive (cN+) urothelial carcinoma of the bladder requires a multi-modal management approach amidst growing recognition that it represents a spectrum of disease. Herein, we review the contemporary evidence for the natural history, evaluation, and management of clinically regional node-positive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, highlighting recent changes in lymph node staging.Recent FindingsDespite advances in techniques, cross-sectional imaging remains relatively insensitive for the detection of lymph node metastases. Recent changes to nodal staging that distinguish be...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Concept of Respite in Palliative Care: Definitions and Discussions
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe definition of respite care remains unclear and its purpose and effectiveness are unproven till date. This paper reviews the current evidence regarding definition and efficacy of respite care, as well as the different programs, models, and interventions employed to deliver the same.Recent FindingsA scoping search identified the relevant literature to be included in the review. The current evidence reiterates the lack of clarity in defining and delineating the purpose of respite care. Recent empirical evidence supports the effectiveness of respite care with clear benefits for the carers, pati...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor and Systemic Immunomodulatory Effects of MEK Inhibition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) is an integral component of the RAS signaling pathway, one of the most frequently mutated pathways in cancer biology. MEK inhibitors were initially developed to directly target oncogenic signaling, but are recognized to have pleiotropic effects on both tumor cells and lymphocytes. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical evidence that MEK inhibition is immunomodulatory and discuss the potential rationale for combining MEK inhibitors with systemic immunotherapies.Recent FindingsMEK inhibition may modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) throu...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia: Current Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia with features of both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The review examines current definitions and controversies in classification of MPAL, new insights into genomic drivers and pathogenesis, recent evidence to support treatment recommendations, and opportunities for future research.Recent FindingsRecent collaborative efforts have made progress in understanding the genomic landscape and optimal therapy for MPAL. The preponderance of retrospective data supports beginning therapy with ALL dir...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Advances in Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review seeks to inform oncology clinicians and researchers about the development of novel immunotherapies for the treatment of glioblastoma. An enumeration of ongoing and recently completed clinical trials will be discussed with special attention given to current technologies implemented to overcome central nervous system –specific challenges including barriers to the peripheral immune system, impaired antigen presentation, and T cell dysfunction.Recent FindingsThe success of immunotherapy in other solid cancers has served as a catalyst to explore its application in glioblastoma, which h...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IDH-Mutant Low-grade Glioma: Advances in Molecular Diagnosis, Management, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIDH-mutant low-grade gliomas (LGG) have emerged as a distinct clinical and molecular entity with unique treatment considerations. Here, we review updates in IDH-mutant LGG diagnosis and classification, imaging biomarkers, therapies, and neurocognitive and patient-reported outcomes.Recent FindingsCDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytoma is associated with shorter survival, similar to WHO grade 4. The T2-FLAIR mismatch, a highly specific but insensitive sign, is diagnostic of IDH-mutant astrocytoma. Maximal safe resection is currently indicated in all LGG cases. Radiotherapy with subseq...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 25, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Survivorship with a Focus on the Low-grade and Benign Brain Tumor Populations
AbstractPurpose of Review“Brain tumor is a bump in the road.” Sheryl Crow a famous singer was quoted talking about her meningioma, a benign brain tumor that caused her to forget her lyrics. In this review, we focus on low-grade gliomas in adults and benign brain tumors, such as meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and p ituitary tumors, since these individuals survive a long time and morbidity is a major issue.Recent FindingsAs per the NCI dictionary definition, cancer survivorship focuses on thehealth and well-being of a person with cancer from the time of diagnosis until the end of life. This includes the phy...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lacking Evidence to Recommend Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Definitive Radiotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
AbstractWe comment on the paper of Di Maria Jiang et al. published in Current Oncology Reports 2020,https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-020-0880-5. We disagree on a major recommendation of the authors because of lacking evidence. This response is considered to be important for readers of Current Oncology Reports. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research