Molecular Landscape of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe field of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been revolutionized in recent years by the advent of high-throughput techniques, such as next-generation sequencing. In this review, we will discuss some of the recently identified mutations that have defined a new molecular landscape in this disease, as well as their prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic implications.Recent FindingsRecent studies have shown how many cases of AML evolve from a premalignant period of latency characterized by the accumulation of several mutations and the emergence of one or multiple dominant clones. The pattern of co-oc...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - June 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact on the Cardio-Oncology Population
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV, COVID-19) is historically one of the most severe acute respiratory syndromes and pandemics to affect the globe in the twenty-first century. Originating in Wuhan, the virus rapidly spread and impacted subsets of populations with initial unclear risk factors contributing to worsening morbidity and mortality. Patients with diagnosis of cancer and undergoing treatment further represent a population at risk for worsening cardiopulmonary outcomes. This review explores specific risk factors, diagnoses, and treatment options that impact cardio-oncologic patients with COVID...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Checkpoint Inhibitor Pneumonitis: Mechanisms, Characteristics, Management Strategies, and Beyond
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCheckpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP) is a toxicity of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) that can be highly morbid and at times fatal. Here, we review the proposed biologic mechanisms of CIP, epidemiology and risk factors for CIP development, diagnostic work-up and management strategies for CIP, and future directions of CIP research.Recent FindingsCIP incidence appears to be greater in real-world populations and may continue to rise as FDA approvals for ICB continue to expand to multiple malignancies. Multiple retrospective studies and case series have identified potential risk factors for CIP. Sev...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Improving the Safety of Major Resection for Hepatobiliary Malignancy: Portal Vein Embolization and Recent Innovations in Liver Regeneration Strategies
AbstractPurpose of reviewFor three decades, portal vein embolization (PVE) has been the “gold-standard” strategy to hypertrophy the anticipated future liver remnant (FLR) in advance of major hepatectomy. During this time, CT volumetry was the most common method to preoperatively assess FLR quality and function and used to determine which patients are appropriate surgical candidates . This review provides the most up-to-date methods for preoperatively assessing the anticipated FLR and summarizes data from the currently available strategies used to induce FLR hypertrophy before surgery for hepatobiliary malignanc...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Smoking Cessation: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCigarette smoking is the primary cause of cancer and is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most well-established and efficacious interventions for smoking cessation. The study of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) has increased exponentially in recent years, showing efficacy for smoking cessation as well. This review highlights research from the past 5  years examining CBT and MBIs for smoking cessation.Recent FindingsBoth CBT and MBIs are efficacious for special populations (e.g., low SES; pregnant smokers) and have s...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sequencing Endocrine Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer: What Do We Do After Disease Progression on a CDK4/6 Inhibitor?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment landscape for patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and HER2-negative (HER2 −) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, optimal therapy after CDK4/6 inhibitors is unknown. This review provides an update on recent understanding of potential resistance mechanisms to CDK4/6 inhibitors and therapeutic strategies.Recent FindingsCDK4/6 inhibitors are broadly effective for HR+/HER2 − MBC. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance is inevitable. Although there are no established clinical predictors o...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dendritic Cell Leukemia: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to summarize the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).Recent FindingsSeveral case reports and series revealed new clinical, molecular, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the disease. The clinical presentation diversity has been confirmed, with frequent leukemic non-cutaneous or rare atypical manifestations. The clonal evolution in the development of BPDCN has not been sufficiently elucidated. Although certain immunophenotypic markers (CD4, TCL1, CD123, CD56, CD303) are indicative of BPDCN, the diagn...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Malnutrition and Muscle Wasting in Advanced Lung Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMalnutrition, cancer cachexia, and sarcopenia often co-occur in patients with advanced cancer and are associated with poorer response to chemotherapy and reduced survival. Here, we evaluate the current literature regarding the role of nutrition and these associated conditions in patients with advanced lung cancer.Recent FindingsWhile rates of malnutrition are high, nutritional intervention studies have generally been limited by small sample sizes. Novel strategies such as home-based meal delivery may have promise. While no therapy is approved for cancer cachexia, ghrelin agonists and other targeted...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Cancer: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged to be the biggest global health threat worldwide, which has now infected over 1.7 million people and claimed more than 100,000 lives around the world. Under these unprecedented circumstances, there are no well-established guidelines for cancer patients.Recent FindingsThe risk for serious disease and death in COVID-19 cases increases with advancing age and presence of comorbid health conditions. Since the emergence of the first case in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, tremendous research efforts have been underway to understand...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Present and Future of Liquid Biopsies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Combining Four Biosources for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Prediction, and Disease Monitoring
The original version of this review article unfortunately contained a mistake in the Funding section. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - May 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Applying the New Guidelines of HER2 Testing in Breast Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThehuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in the breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathology (ASCO/CAP) has published HER2 testing guidelines in breast cancer. We herein reviewed the HER2 testing guidelines in breast cancer with a focus on the application of the current guidelines.Recent FindingsThe continual investigation of HER2 testing in breast cancer has resulted in updates in the HER2 testing guidelines. The current guidelines focus on the uncommon clinical scenarios and emphasize the coord...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Physical Consequences of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of numerous chemotherapy drugs. CIPN negatively impacts function and quality of life during and after treatment. We will provide a review of the data describing the physical consequences of CIPN and discuss the possible long term impact on emotional well-being and quality of life.Recent FindingsCIPN negatively affects physical function and many aspects of quality of life. Exercise interventions are likely to reduce the risk of falls associated with CIPN.SummaryThere remains a need for evidence-based interventions focused on i...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Updates on Imaging of Liver Tumors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review advances in imaging of liver tumors, by particularly focusing on the utility of novel imaging in diagnosis and management of these lesions.Recent FindingsContrast-enhanced CT and/or MRI are currently utilized for accurate diagnosis of liver tumors, but several ongoing studies are examining the use of other advanced techniques. Novel CT (i.e., dual-energy CT and perfusion CT), MRI (diffusion-weighted imaging, MR elastography, and T1 mapping), and image processing (texture analysis and artificial intelligence –based methods) techniques have emerged and can be used for precise characte...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Therapy of Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma: Focus on Nodal Subtypes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with inferior prognosis compared with their B cell counterparts characterized by frequent relapses, resulting in a median 5-year survival of approximately 30%. Their diverse clinicopathologic features challenge existing treatment paradigms that treat all patients uniformly. Here we review recent advances in the treatment of these diseases.Recent FindingsWhile current treatment still relies largely on combination chemotherapy, the introduction of more effective novel and targeted therapies has improved outcomes in...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

New Targets in Lung Cancer (Excluding EGFR, ALK, ROS1)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOver the last two decades, the identification of targetable oncogene drivers has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The extraordinary progresses made in molecular biology prompted the identification of several rare molecularly defined subgroups. In this review, we will focus on the novel and emerging actionable oncogenic drivers in NSCLC.Recent FindingsRecently, novel oncogene drivers emerged as promising therapeutic targets besides the well-established EGFR mutations, and ALK/ROS1 rearrangements, considerably expanding the list of potential exploitable ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Developing Real-world Evidence-Ready Datasets: Time for Clinician Engagement
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReal-world data (RWD) applications in healthcare that support learning health systems and pragmatic clinical trials are gaining momentum, largely due to legislation supporting real-world evidence (RWE) for drug approvals. Clinical notes are thought to be the cornerstone of RWD applications, particularly for conditions with limited effective treatments, extrapolation of treatments from other conditions, or heterogenous disease biology and clinical phenotypes.Recent FindingsHere, we discuss current issues in applying RWD captured at the point-of-care and provide a framework for clinicians to engage i...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hairy Cell Leukaemia
Discussion of prognosis and current treatment indications including novel therapies, linked to understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenesis.Recent FindingsImproved understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of HCLc, particularly the causative mutation BRAF V600E, leading to constitutive activation of the MEK/ERK signalling pathway and increased cell proliferation.SummaryHCLc is caused by BRAF V600E mutation in most cases. Purine nucleoside analogue (PNA) therapy is the mainstay of treatment, with the addition of rituximab, improving response and minimal residual disease (MRD) clearance. Despite excellent respon...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Percutaneous Management of Cancer Pain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe several effective imaging-guided, minimally invasive treatments to relieve cancer-associated pain in oncologic patients. Clinical applications, technical considerations, and current controversies are addressed.Recent FindingsThe great variability in tumor subtype, location, and growth rates dictate the necessity for a tailored treatment approach. While opioids and radiotherapy may provide adequate relief for some patients, alternative minimally invasive procedures may augment theses more traditional treatments or even provide superior palliative relief. Recent image-guided percutaneous ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hyperprogressive Disease upon Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Focus on Non –small Cell Lung Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDescribe the controversial aspects of hyperprogressive disease (HPD) definition, mechanisms, and biomarkers.Recent FindingsAlthough immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrated a survival benefit in non –small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), an acceleration of tumor growth during ICI, defined as HPD, was reported in ~ 13–26% of NSCLC patients and correlated with worse survival compared with conventional progression. Different criteria have been used for HPD definition. The main limitation for the u se of tumor growth rate and tumor growth kinetics variations is its inapplicability ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Liver Transplantation for Cholangiocarcinoma: Insights into the Prognosis and the Evolving Indications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare malignancy of the biliary ducts that can be classified as intrahepatic, perihilar, or distal based on anatomic location. Although surgical resection can be curative, complete excision with negative margins is often difficult to achieve. In patients with unresectable disease, long-term survival is rarely seen with medical therapy alone. A multimodal treatment approach, including liver transplantation (LT) for select patients with unresectable CCA, should be considered.Recent FindingsWhile currently only an approved indication for early, liver-limited, perihilar cho...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Targeting and Therapeutic Monitoring of H3K27M-Mutant Glioma
The original version of this review article unfortunately contained a mistake in the author group section. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Status of the Management of Stage I Rectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the current available treatments for stage I rectal cancer and the evidence that supports them.Recent FindingsRadical surgery, or total mesorectal excision (TME) without neoadjuvant therapy, reports excellent oncologic outcomes, with 5-year disease-free survival of approximately 95%. Alternative therapies include local excision, which has acceptable long-term outcomes in some low-risk T1 tumors; but overall local excision, with or without additional chemotherapy or radiation, generally reports 5-year disease-free survival less than TME alone. New research is showing complete clinical r...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - April 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs): Diagnosis, Management, and Clinical Pearls
We present one such reference here, covering management of common and/or serious irAEs. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Treatment Options for Advanced Melanoma After Anti-PD-1 Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile anti-PD-1 antibodies have been a breakthrough in the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma, a substantial proportion of patients are still refractory to or progress after treatment with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Here, we review the post anti-PD-1 therapy alternatives that may be possible for patients with unresectable or metastatic stage 3 or 4 melanoma.Recent FindingsCurrently available treatment options include BRAF-targeted and MEK inhibitor –targeted therapies for those with BRAFV600 mutant melanoma, while for patients with BRAF-WT melanoma or those who have already received p...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Critical Role of Parents in Pediatric Cancer-Related Pain Management: a Review and Call to Action
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEven with optimized medical management, pain remains an inevitable part of pediatric cancer care. The most effective interventions for nonpharmacologic pain management within pediatric psychology include parent skills training. This review specifically explored the role of parents in cancer-related pain management with the goal of defining a set of evidence-based skills that could translate to improved pediatric cancer pain management.Recent FindingsPain is now widely understood to be both a sensory and emotional experience. As a result, within pediatric non-cancer pain management there is increasi...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia in 2020: the Future Has Arrived
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic lymphocytic leukaemia is now recognised as a heterogenous disease with a variety of clinical outcomes. Here we summarise the way it is currently stratified according to genetic risk and patient characteristics and the treatment approaches used for these different subgroups.Recent FindingsCertain patients appear to sustain MRD negativity after combination chemoimmunotherapy, leading to the suggestion that their CLL may be cured. However, 17p-deleted, p53-mutated or IGHV-UM subgroups are generally resistant to FCR, and much better responses are seen with ibrutinib and venetoclax, frequently i...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Redefining the Role of Surgical Management of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe treatment landscape for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) continues to evolve with ongoing advancements in systemic therapy, raising further questions about the optimal role of surgery in the management of mRCC. Herein, we provide a context and review of the recent evidence concerning the role of surgical therapy for patients with mRCC including cytoreductive nephrectomy and distant metastatectomy.Recent FindingsOne randomized trial has been published in the targeted therapy era suggesting that initial systemic therapy is non-inferior to cytoreductive nephrectomy among patients with interm...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Stringent Control of Opioids: Sound Public Health Measures, but a Step Too Far in Palliative Care?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioids are the only class of drug with the proven ability to control severe pain. The introduction of stringent opioid prescribing restrictions has inevitably impacted upon the ability of those prescribing opioids for advanced life-limited disease to practice as previously and could limit the supply of adequate pain relief to patients with cancer. This review considers the evidence that symptom management of patients with advanced cancer contributes to the “opioid problem” and whether there is adequate recognition of the risks involved.Recent FindingsThe literature suggests that the ri...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Burkitt and Burkitt-Like Lymphomas: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBurkitt ’s lymphoma and its leukemic form (Burkitt cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) are a highly aggressive disease. We review the classification, clinical presentation, histology, cytogenetics, and the treatment of the disease.Recent FindingsBurkitt ’s lymphoma might be associated with tumor lysis syndrome which is a potentially fatal complication that occurs spontaneously or upon initiation of chemotherapy. Major improvements were made in the treatment of pediatric and adults population using short-course dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens , usually 1 week after a prephase in...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evolving Strategies to Potentially Further Optimize Surgical Interventions in Brain Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProvide an overview, the indications for use, and a synopsis of current literature regarding two evolving neurosurgical interventions —GammaTile therapy (GTT) and laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT).Recent FindingsGTT delivers immediate, uniform, high-dose radiation with avoidance of direct brain-to-seed contact. Innate properties of the novel carrier system and cesium-131 source may explain lower observed rate of radiation-induced necrosis (RIN) and support use in larger and previously irradiated lesions. LITT delivers focal laser energy to cause heat-generated necrosis. Case series su...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Locally Advanced, Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTreatment of locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has recently been revolutionized by the incorporation of immunotherapy to standard platinum-based concurrent chemoradiation. This review examines the current standard practices and ongoing studies on the management of locally advanced, unresectable NSCLC.Recent FindingsConcurrent chemoradiation is the cornerstone of treatment of unresectable, locally advanced NSCLC. However, chemoradiation can be associated with high therapy-related toxicities, and risk of disease relapse remains significantly elevated despite treatment ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - March 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Proton Beam Therapy in Liver Malignancies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProton beam therapy (PBT) allows for improved sparing of surrounding normal tissues compared with X-ray-based radiation therapy. This is especially important in the setting of liver malignancies, where an increase in integral dose leads to a higher risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) as well as close proximity to vital gastrointestinal (GI) organs.Recent FindingsWe have data from multiple centers demonstrating that PBT can safely deliver high, ablative doses of radiation therapy conferring excellent local control with good tolerance of treatment.SummaryPBT is an effective treatment with ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PARP Inhibitors in Gynecologic Cancers: What Is the Next Big Development?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewConventional and novel applications of Poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) are reviewed in the context of recently published clinical trials and preclinical data supporting rapidly expanding uses of this class of chemotherapy.Recent FindingsPARPi block a pathway of DNA repair and target defects in homologous recombination repair (HRR), a pathway responsible for high-fidelity repair of double-strand breaks in DNA. BRCA1/2 proteins are essential to this pathway. Approximately 15 –30% of women with ovarian cancer will have a germline or somaticBRCA mutat...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of Stage IIB Cervical Cancer: an Overview of the Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review and discuss the present evidence of surgery- and radiation-based treatment strategies for stage IIB cervical cancer.Recent FindingsRecently, two randomized controlled trials compared the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical hysterectomy (NACT + RH) with that of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for stage IB3 –IIB cervical cancer. When these studies were combined (N = 1259), NACT + RH was associated with a shorter disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–1.64], but with a similar overall survival (HR 1....
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia in Its Niche: the Bone Marrow Microenvironment in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy for which treatment options remain suboptimal. It is clear that a greater understanding of the biology of the AML niche will enable new therapeutic strategies to be developed in order to improve treatment outcomes for patients.Recent FindingsRecent evidence has highlighted the importance of the bone marrow microenvironment in protecting leukaemia cells, and in particular leukaemic stem cells from chemotherapy-induced cell death. This includes mesenchymal stem cells supporting growth and preventing apoptosis, and altered action and secretio...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integrative Approaches to Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common complication of cancer treatment, with conventional treatment limited in its ability for prevention or treatment of symptoms. This review addresses the research assessing the effectiveness and safety of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) in preventing and treating CIPN-related symptoms.Recent FindingsThe CIM modalities acupuncture, classical massage, omega-3 fatty acids, and the Japanese Kampo medicine Goshanjishen may be of benefit in preventing or treating CIPN. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), glutamine/glutamate, alpha-lipoic ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Cognitive Function in Prostate Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAndrogen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used in prostate cancer. Interest in assessing how ADT impacts cognition is growing.Recent FindingsStudies in animals and humans suggest that androgens may affect cognitive function. However, extant studies utilizing common neurocognitive tests have not consistently demonstrated ADT-induced cognitive impairment. Retrospective analyses investigating the association between ADT and risk of dementia in large electronic patient databases have also produced conflicting results. There is only limited data on ADT-induced changes in the brain as detected by func...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic Biomarkers for Melanoma Immunotherapy
We describe immune response biomarkers along with new developments that could translate into advances. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current State of Systemic Therapies for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDue to the rapidly changing field of kidney cancer therapeutics, addressing the state of the art systemic therapy regimens, and sequencing with cytoreductive nephrectomy are the primary focus of this review. We will also discuss the role of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets in the management of renal cell carcinoma.Recent FindingsThe management of metastatic renal cell cancer has undergone a paradigm shift with immune checkpoint inhibitors being used in the frontline setting. Over the last 4  years, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors as well as programmed cell death ligand-1 inhi...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integration of Patient Reported Outcomes in Drug Development in Genitourinary Cancers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatient reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly utilized in cancer drug development, and are of particular importance in genitourinary cancers due to symptom burden, multiple treatment options with similar efficacy, and often prolonged duration of disease. Here we review current data and perspectives related to use of PROs in drug development for genitourinary cancers, including insights on the regulatory process for drug approval.Recent FindingsThe FDA is committed to incorporating PRO data into the regulatory process for development and approval of new cancer drugs, but challenges exist due to ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lymphadenectomy in Ovarian Cancer: Is It Still Justified?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to determine, in the light of recent evidences, the role of lymphadenectomy in ovarian cancer.Recent FindingsThe lymphadenectomy in ovarian neoplasms (LION) trial reports no better outcomes and higher complication and mortality rates associated with lymphadenectomy. Even if performed by expert hands, lymphadenectomy has a cost in terms of longer operative time, blood loss, higher rates of transfusions, and intensive unit care.SummaryIf on the one hand retroperitoneal staging is not correlated to survival benefits both in early and advanced ovarian cancer, on the other hand...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dashing Decades of Defeat: Long Anticipated Advances in the First-line Treatment of Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSmall cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an exceptionally lethal subtype of lung cancer. For patients with extensive-stage (ES) disease, which is the majority of patients, platinum-doublet chemotherapy has been the standard of care for decades. Dozens of phase III trials have failed to improve survival over standard platinum plus etoposide. Recent results, however, have met with long-overdue success. This manuscript reviews the new standards of care for ES-SCLC.Recent FindingsTwo recent phase III trials have shown an improvement in overall survival with concurrent immunotherapy and chemotherapy. In IMpower...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pharmacogenomics of Pain Management: The Impact of Specific Biological Polymorphisms on Drugs and Metabolism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPain is multifactorial and complex, often with a genetic component. Pharmacogenomics is a relative new field, which allows for the development of a truly unique and personalized therapeutic approach in the treatment of pain.Recent FindingsUntil recently, drug mechanisms in humans were determined by testing that drug in a population and calculating response averages. However, some patients will inevitably fall outside of those averages, and it is nearly impossible to predict who those outliers might be. Pharmacogenetics considers a patient ’s unique genetic information and allows for anticipat...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting and Therapeutic Monitoring of H3K27M-Mutant Glioma
We present current treatment and monitoring techniques as well as novel approaches in identifying and targeting H3K27M-mutant gliomas. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Revolution of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Therapy: the Chemo-Free Treatment Paradigm
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOver the last years, targeted anticancer therapy with small molecule inhibitors and antibodies has much replaced chemoimmunotherapy, which has been the gold standard of care for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here we give an overview of novel targeted agents used in therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as efforts to overcome resistance development, focusing on approved drugs since they gained high relevance in clinical practice.Recent FindingsNovel agents moved to the forefront as a treatment strategy of CLL due to their outstanding efficacy, almost irrespectively of ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pregnancy and Cancer: the INCIP Project
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancer diagnosis in young pregnant women challenges oncological decision-making. The International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy (INCIP) aims to build on clinical recommendations based on worldwide collaborative research.Recent FindingsA pregnancy may complicate diagnostic and therapeutic oncological options, as the unborn child must be protected from potentially hazardous exposures. Pregnant patients should as much as possible be treated as non-pregnant patients, in order to preserve maternal prognosis. Some approaches need adaptations when compared with standard treatment for fetal...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oligometastatic Breast Cancer: Is This a Curable Entity? A Contemporary Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOligometastatic breast cancer (OMBC) remains a poorly understood entity for which no standard of care exists at this time. This review will focus on our biologic understanding of OMBC and provide an update on current treatment strategies.Recent FindingsThe introduction of micro RNA expression profiling has advanced our understanding of the biologic underpinnings of OMBC. Although most of the data regarding treatment have come from retrospective studies, there are now prospective randomized trials reporting progression-free survival and overall survival improvements with stereotactic ablative radiot...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antibody-Drug Conjugates in Urothelial Carcinomas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUrothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common malignancy with an urgent need for more effective and less toxic treatment strategies. Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) represents a novel therapeutic approach, which combines the high specificity of monoclonal antibodies covalently linked with highly active cytotoxic agents. UC is an appropriate candidate for these drugs, as it expresses unique cell surface antigens that allow for specific targeting of these cells. We hereby present a review of the current literature and future perspectives of ADC treatment in early-stage and metastatic UC.Recent FindingsSeveral ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Recent Advances and Unanswered Questions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBladder-sparing trimodality therapy (TMT) has become an accepted alternative to cystectomy for selected muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients unfit for cystectomy or opting for bladder preservation. This review will summarize recent advances in TMT for MIBC.Recent FindingsA growing body of literature has emerged which supports the use of TMT. However, its delivery is yet to be standardized. The role of chemotherapy and predictive biomarkers remain to be elucidated. Novel bladder-sparing approaches, drug combinations including immunotherapy and targeted therapies are under investigation in ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmunotherapy for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) broadens therapeutic options beyond chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Here, we review the use of monoclonal antibody-based drugs and cellular therapies to treat ALL. We discuss the challenges facing the field regarding the optimal timing and sequencing of these therapies in relation to other treatment options as well as considerations of cost effectiveness.Recent FindingsBy early identification of patients at risk for leukemic relapse, monoclonal antibody and cellular immunotherapies can be brought to the forefront of treatment ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research