Current Advances in Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review seeks to inform oncology clinicians and researchers about the development of novel immunotherapies for the treatment of glioblastoma. An enumeration of ongoing and recently completed clinical trials will be discussed with special attention given to current technologies implemented to overcome central nervous system –specific challenges including barriers to the peripheral immune system, impaired antigen presentation, and T cell dysfunction.Recent FindingsThe success of immunotherapy in other solid cancers has served as a catalyst to explore its application in glioblastoma, which h...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IDH-Mutant Low-grade Glioma: Advances in Molecular Diagnosis, Management, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIDH-mutant low-grade gliomas (LGG) have emerged as a distinct clinical and molecular entity with unique treatment considerations. Here, we review updates in IDH-mutant LGG diagnosis and classification, imaging biomarkers, therapies, and neurocognitive and patient-reported outcomes.Recent FindingsCDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytoma is associated with shorter survival, similar to WHO grade 4. The T2-FLAIR mismatch, a highly specific but insensitive sign, is diagnostic of IDH-mutant astrocytoma. Maximal safe resection is currently indicated in all LGG cases. Radiotherapy with subseq...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 25, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Survivorship with a Focus on the Low-grade and Benign Brain Tumor Populations
AbstractPurpose of Review“Brain tumor is a bump in the road.” Sheryl Crow a famous singer was quoted talking about her meningioma, a benign brain tumor that caused her to forget her lyrics. In this review, we focus on low-grade gliomas in adults and benign brain tumors, such as meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and p ituitary tumors, since these individuals survive a long time and morbidity is a major issue.Recent FindingsAs per the NCI dictionary definition, cancer survivorship focuses on thehealth and well-being of a person with cancer from the time of diagnosis until the end of life. This includes the phy...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lacking Evidence to Recommend Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Definitive Radiotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
AbstractWe comment on the paper of Di Maria Jiang et al. published in Current Oncology Reports 2020,https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-020-0880-5. We disagree on a major recommendation of the authors because of lacking evidence. This response is considered to be important for readers of Current Oncology Reports. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identifying and Meeting the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are a vulnerable population with unique needs that are under-recognized and often overlooked by healthcare providers. This review focuses on identifying and meeting some of those needs including adherence to treatment, financial implications, impact on fertility and intimacy, issues with work/school, isolation, challenges with re-entry, and long-term side effects and survivorship.Recent FindingsSurvival rates have not improved in adolescents and young adults with cancer at the same rate as in children and older adults (the so called “AYA gap&rdq...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Emerging Paradigms in Genetics and New Approaches to Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children remains a challenging disease to cure with suboptimal outcomes particularly when compared to the more common lymphoid leukemias. Recent advances in the genetic characterization of AML have enhanced understanding of individualized patient risk, which has also led to the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we review key cytogenetic and molecular features of pediatric AML and how new therapies are being used to improve outcomes.Recent FindingsRecent studies have revealed an increasing number of mutations, includingWT1,CBFA2T3-GLIS2, andKAT6A fusion...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical and Biological Features of Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive histologic subtype of prostate cancer that most commonly arises in later stages of prostate cancer as a mechanism of treatment resistance. The poor prognosis of NEPC is attributed in part to late diagnosis and a lack of effective therapeutic agents. Here, we review the clinical and molecular features of NEPC based on recent studies and outline future strategies and directions.Recent FindingsNEPC can arise “de novo” but most commonly develops as a result of lineage plasticity whereby prostate cancer cells adopt alternative lineage pr...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chemotherapy and Radiation-Associated Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (AD) among cancer survivors is increasingly being recognized. However, the mechanisms and incidence are poorly understood. In this review, the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, proposed mechanisms, and currently available treatments of cardiovascular AD in cancer survivors are described.Recent FindingsMuch of our current understanding of cardiovascular AD is based on disease states such as diabetes, multisystem atrophy, and Parkinson ’s disease. Several non-invasive tests, measurements, and scoring systems have been developed as surrogates for auto...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Toxicity of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Clinical Risk Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmune checkpoint inhibitors, such as monoclonal antibodies targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, have improved the outcome of many malignancies, but serious immune-related cardiovascular adverse events have been observed. Patients ’ risk factors for these toxicities are currently being investigated.Recent FindingsInterfering with the CTLA-4 and PD-1 axes can bring to several immune-related adverse events, including cardiotoxic events such as autoimmune myocarditis, pericarditis, and vasculitis, suggesting that these molecules play an important role in preventing autoimmunity.SummaryRisk factors...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Its Polymorphic Variants as Predictive Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers of NSCLCs: a Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNon-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) account for ~  85% of all lung cancers, and 5-year survival in Europe and the USA is ~ 13–17%. In this review, we focus on the significance of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) as a diagnostic or post-therapeutic prognostic marker for various forms of NSCLCs.Recent FindingsThe lungs have the highest levels of basal RAGE expression in mammals. The physiologic RAGE in lungs may be involved in adhesion and spreading of AT-1 cells and maintenance of pulmonary homeostasis. However, high level expression of RAGE complicates variou...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiogenomics in Interventional Oncology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRadiogenomics is a growing field that has garnered immense interest over the past decade, owing to its numerous applications in the field of oncology and its potential value in improving patient outcomes. Current applications have only begun to delve into the potential of radiogenomics, and particularly in interventional oncology, there is room for development and increased value of these applications.Recent FindingsThe field of interventional oncology (IO) has seen valuable radiogenomic applications, from prediction of response to locoregional therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma to identificatio...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Considerations in Surgical Management of Gastrointestinal Cancer in Older Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this manuscript is to present new and thought-provoking information related to the surgical care of older patients. We focused on four main areas including communication, surgical pathways, the care of emergency surgery patients, and functional recovery and quality of life. We sought to answer how these areas have evolved, affecting the care of older patients.Recent FindingsOlder patients with cancer present particular challenges in relation to communication, goals, surgical treatment, and post-surgical outcomes. Communication should be clear early and during the treatment course. A mul...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Upfront Management of ALK-Rearranged Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: One Inhibitor Fits All?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements represent a seldom event in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Given the oncogene alteration, ALK targeting represents the main therapeutic strategy. Here, we review evidence regarding ALK inhibitors (ALKi): clinical activity, safety profiles, financial costs, and biomarkers of efficacy.Recent FindingsDuring the past 10  years, multiple ALKi have been developed, and four different compounds are currently available as upfront options for ALK+ NSCLC patients: crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, and brigatinib. Second-generation (2G) ALKi demonstrate...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Radiation Therapy in the Older Patient
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder patients represent a unique subgroup of the cancer patient population for which the role of radiation therapy (RT) requires special consideration. This review will discuss many of these considerations as well as various radiation treatment techniques in the context of a variety of disease sites.Recent FindingsSeveral recent studies give insight into the management of older cancer patients considering their age, performance status, comorbid conditions, quality of life, genetics, cost, and individual goals. RT plays an evolving and pivotal role in providing optimal care for this population. Rec...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - January 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer Risk in the Heart Failure Population: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Clinical Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlong with population aging, the incidence of both heart failure (HF) and cancer is increasing. However, little is known about new-onset cancer in HF patients. This review aims at showing recent discoveries concerning this subset of patients.Recent FindingsNot only cancer and HF share similar risk factors but also HF itself can stimulate cancer development. Some cytokines produced by the failing heart induce mild inflammation promoting carcinogenesis, as it has been recently suggested by an experimental model of HF in mice.SummaryThe incidence of new-onset cancer is higher in HF patients compared t...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - December 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

How to Measure Pain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPain is a multi-faceted symptom. Effective pain assessment involves properly defining the pain syndrome, utilizing various assessment tools, and recognizing different conditions which may affect the expression and the management of pain.Recent FindingsPain results from multiple physical and psychosocial etiological interplay. It has traditionally been categorized as acute or chronic with chronic pain having been categorized further into 6 categories in ICD 11. At the same time, the opioid epidemic and the recent surge in cannabis popularity further complicates pain assessment and effective pain man...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Vitamin D in Head and Neck Cancer: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of reviewObservational studies have shown that serum 25-OH vitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with overall cancer risk in many malignancies. We performed a systematic literature review to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is related to head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology and outcome.Recent findingsThe search yielded five prospective studies reporting 25(OH)D levels prior to cancer diagnosis and their effect on the risk of HNC. Eight studies were cross-sectional or case-control studies, in which 25(OH)D levels were only measured after cancer diagnosis. Two studies found an inverse association b...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy Combinations for Lung Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPositive results from recent immunotherapy trials of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have coincided with a greater appreciation for the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on tumor immunity. Here, we summarize key clinical findings and ongoing efforts to combine immunotherapy and RT for the treatment of NSCLC.Recent FindingsThe role of immunotherapy for NSCLC has expanded significantly following the pivotal approvals of nivolumab and pembrolizumab for metastatic NSCLC, maintenance durvalumab in unresectable stage III NSCLC, and atezolizumab for metastatic NSCLC. Several small early-phase trials hav...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Advances in the Management of Pediatric Sarcomas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prognosis of pediatric patients who present with metastatic or recurrent sarcomas remains poor. In this review, we summarize the advances in the management of metastatic and relapsed pediatric sarcoma by highlighting recent and future clinical trials.Recent FindingsResearch into the identification of novel therapies for refractory pediatric sarcomas continues to advance. Outcomes have not improved in several decades underlying a need for improved understanding of the biology behind these tumors and the identification of novel therapeutic molecular targets that can be exploited pharmacologically...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of the Neck in Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this narrative review, we discuss the indications for elective and therapeutic neck dissections and the postoperative surveillance and treatment options for recurrent nodal disease in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer.Recent FindingsIncreased availability of advanced imaging modalities has led to an increased detection rate of previously occult nodal disease in thyroid cancer. Nodal metastases are more common in young patients, large primary tumors, specific genotypes, and certain histological types. While clinically evident nodal disease in the lateral neck compartments has a sig...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic Impact of Somatic Copy Number Alterations in Childhood B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe high prevalence of relapse in pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) despite the improvements achieved using current risk stratification schemes, demands more accurate methods for outcome prediction. Here, we provide a concise overview about the key advances that have expanded our knowledge regarding the somatic defects across B-ALL genomes, particularly focusing on copy number alterations (CNAs) and their prognostic impact.Recent FindingsThe identification of commonly altered genes in B-ALL has inspired the development of risk classifiers based on copy number states such as t...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Alternative Checkpoints as Targets for Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmunotherapy has shown an unprecedented response in treatment of tumors. However, challenges such as lack of cytotoxic lymphocytes to mount an immune response or development of resistance to therapy can limit efficacy. Here, we discuss alternative checkpoints that can be targeted to improve cytotoxic lymphocyte function while harnessing other components of the immune system.Recent FindingsBlockade of alternative checkpoints has improved anti-tumor immunity in mouse models and is being tested clinically with encouraging findings. In addition to modulating T cell function directly, alternative check...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Synovial Sarcoma: A Complex Disease with Multifaceted Signaling and Epigenetic Landscapes
ABSTRACTPurpose of ReviewAside from a characteristicSS18 –SSX translocation identified in almost all cases, no genetic anomalies have been reliably isolated yet to drive the pathogenesis of synovial sarcoma. In the following review, we explore the structural units of wild-type SS18 and SSX, particularly as they relate to the transcriptional alterations and cellular pathway changes imposed by SS18 –SSX.Recent FindingsNative SS18 and SSX contribute recognizable domains to the SS18 –SSX chimeric proteins, which inflict transcriptional and epigenetic changes through selective protein interactions involving th...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Access to Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Developing World: Barriers and Solutions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a costly disease, and its impact is greater in developing countries (DC). We will review the current concept of what are DC, compare the differences in the epidemiology and economic burden of this disease between developed and DC, and finally, analyze the barriers and possible solutions that DC should implement to achieve better results.Recent FindingsDC is a frequently misunderstood name. The way we use to measure human development is changing, and multidimension metrics better define what are DC. With this in mind, we show the differences in the AML epidemiology an...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Extended Endocrine Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: How Do We Decide?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile the majority of hormone receptor –positive breast cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, a significant proportion of patients will develop disease recurrence, especially late disease recurrence, despite current therapeutic approaches. In this review, we examine the data pertaining to the choice of endocrine and extended endocri ne therapy, outline how to identify patients that may benefit from extended therapy, and discuss prognostic tools to assist with patient selection.Recent FindingsThe risk of breast cancer recurrence persists after 5  years, is cumulative, and is indefinite...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - October 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary Outpatient Cancer Rehabilitation Can Improve Cancer Patients ’ Physical and Psychosocial Status—a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic review aimed to determine the effects of interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation programmes by looking at physical, psychosocial and return to work status of adult cancer patients.Recent FindingsThere is growing evidence that emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary rehabilitation especially in outpatient care, which addresses the complex and individual needs of cancer patients. Many studies focus on measuring the effect of individual rehabilitation interventions.SummaryRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) and before-after studies examini...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - September 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Value of Virtual Chromoendoscopy in the Workup of Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSecond primary tumors (SPTs) significantly increase the mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) could complement or replace lugol chromoendoscopy (LCE) for early esophageal second primary tumor (ESPT) detection. An overview of the existing techniques and their diagnostic performance in early detection of esophageal squamous cell neoplasms is provided.Recent FindingsNowadays, LCE is the golden standard to detect ESPTs. Recently, multiple new VCE techniques have been developed. Especially narrow-band imaging (NBI) is promising. It show...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - September 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, Patient-Reported Outcomes, and Cognitive Functioning of Glioma Patients: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIsocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status has important prognostic implications in glioma patients, with IDH wild-type (IDH-WT) gliomas being associated with worse prognosis and shorter survival when compared with IDH mutant (IDH-mut) gliomas. Optimization of quality of life is a priority in the management of glioma patients. The goal of this systematic review was to identify studies that explored the association of IDH mutation status with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and cognitive functioning of glioma patients.Recent FindingsStudies that evaluated the association of IDH mutation status ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - September 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combined Inhibition of EGFR and VEGF Pathways in Patients with EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDual inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways could potentiate improved outcomes in patients with metastatic EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) plus a VEGF inhibitor with EGFR TKI alone for the treatment of EGFR-mutated NSCLC.Recent FindingsWe systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that involved patients with EGFR-mutated metastatic NSCLC treated with combination therap...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

How Should We Approach Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck Cancer Patients Ineligible for Standard Non-surgical Treatment?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCisplatin has been established as one of the most important agents in multidisciplinary treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, since HNC patients are often elderly and typically have several comorbidities, a limited number of patients can tolerate high-dose cisplatin in real-world HNC populations. We will provide a review of therapeutic alternatives to high-dose cisplatin-based treatment in the setting of definitive and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or induction chemotherapy.Recent FindingsClinical criteria for CDDP ineligibility have been discussed in HNC. When considering cisp...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Combined Use of SBRT and Immunotherapy —a Literature Review
ConclusionThe combined use of SBRT and immunotherapy is a promising new development. The techniques may synergistically work better than either alone. (Source: Current Oncology Reports)
Source: Current Oncology Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immune Response Evaluation and Treatment with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Beyond Clinical Progression: Response Assessments for Cancer Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides a comprehensive assessment of recent literature reports describing atypical response patterns observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), modifications to response evaluation criteria for ICIs, and treatment beyond progression in clinical trials.Recent FindingsCertain response patterns such as durable response, pseudoprogression, hyperprogression, and dissociated responses can be seen with ICI treatment. These patterns carry differing prognoses and are associated with varied factors. There are multiple modifications of standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biological and Functional Biomarkers of Aging: Definition, Characteristics, and How They Can Impact Everyday Cancer Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecognize which are the elements that predict why a person is aging faster or slower and which intervention we can arrange to slow down the process, which permits to prevent or delay the progression of multimorbidity and disability.Recent FindingsAging is a complex process that leads to changes in all the systems of the body and all the functions of the person; however, aging develops at different rates in different people, and chronological age is not always consistent with biological age.SummaryGerontologists are focused not only on finding the best theory able to explain aging but also on identi...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Elderly: Current Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may face challenges in treatment due to comorbidities and tolerance of chemotherapy.Recent FindingsOlder patients are at increased risk for treatment-related toxicity if they are unfit or frail by comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA); however, treatment with non-anthracycline chemotherapy is associated with inferior outcomes in fit and unfit patients.SummaryMany older patients remain curable with standard R-CHOP chemotherapy. Careful assessment of frailty, function, and comorbidities using CGA may aid clinicians in initial therapy choice...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lymphoma Occurring During Pregnancy: Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPregnancy-associated lymphoma (PAL) is an uncommon entity that lacks detailed prospective data. It poses significant management challenges that incorporate maternal and fetal risks associated with treatment or delayed intervention. Herein, we review the current literature for the diagnosis, management, and supportive care strategies for PAL.Recent FindingsEstablishment of a multidisciplinary team, including hematology-oncology, maternal-fetal medicine, and neonatology, is critical in the management of PAL. For staging, ultrasound and MRI are preferred modalities with use of computerized tomography ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of Immunotherapy in Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmunotherapy and tumor microenvironment have been at the forefront of cancer research over the past several decades. Here, we will review the role of immunotherapy in advanced gastroesophageal cancers including targeted antibodies, immunomodulating agents, vaccines, oncolytic virus therapy, and adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss the future direction for immunotherapy in this population.Recent FindingsTargeted antibodies are already standard-of-care. An anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody is currently FDA approved for second-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic ESCC, as well as beyond second...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Effect of Exercise on the Alleviation of Side Effects Induced by Aromatase Inhibitors in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAromatase inhibitors (AIs) are effective in treating postmenopausal women suffering from estrogen receptor –positive breast cancer (BC). However, AIs are also commonly associated with a number of side effects which decrease the quality of life (QoL) of the patients. This review focuses on the effects of exercise interventions on reducing the side effects commonly experienced by BC patients on AI treatm ent.Recent FindingsRecent studies in the literature support that exercise interventions are feasible and improve body composition, aromatase inhibitor –induced Arthralgia (AIIA), and the ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Striving toward Improved Outcomes for Surgically Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: the Promise and Challenges of Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of non-surgical stage III and stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we review emerging data on the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in the setting of earlier stage surgically resectable lung cancer.Recent FindingsSeveral small studies support the safety and feasibility of neoadjuvant immunotherapy, noting similar perioperative rates of morbidity and mortality compared with historical controls. Data from several phase II trials have shown high rates of major pathologic response (MPR), though it is unclear if th...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Changing Landscape of Lymphoma Associated with HIV Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals, with aggressive non-Hodgkin ’s lymphoma as the most frequent one. However, the introduction of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) drastically improved treatment options and prognosis in HIV-associated lymphomas. This review summarized the current treatment landscape and future challenges in HIV-positive patients with non-Ho dgkin’s and Hodgkin’s lymphoma.Recent FindingsSelecting the appropriate therapy for the individual patient, diffuse-large B cell lymphoma, Burkitt ’s lymphoma, and Hodgk...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immune Oncology Biomarkers in Lung Cancer: an Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLung cancer is still the first cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has drastically changed the prognosis of some patients, but the rate of long responders does not exceed 20%. Moreover, ICIs are not adverse events-free and remain expensive. Therefore, predictive biomarkers of long-term benefit to ICI are required.Recent FindingsThe two main fields being evaluated currently are PD-L1 expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB). The first one is the only one used in routine practice, and the second is being evaluated in phase 3 clinical tri...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer Screening Among Older Adults: a Geriatrician ’s Perspective on Breast, Cervical, Colon, Prostate, and Lung Cancer Screening
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize the evidence of benefits, harms, and tools to assist in individualized decisions among older adults in screening for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and cervical cancer.Recent FindingsThe benefits of cancer screening in older adults remain unclear due to minimal inclusion of adults>  75 years old in most randomized controlled trials. Indirect evidence suggests that the benefits of screening seen in younger adults (
Source: Current Oncology Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Novel Biomarkers in Sinonasal Cancers: from Bench to Bedside
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSinonasal cancers are a heterogenous group of rare cancers for which histopathological diagnosis can be very challenging and treatment options are limited for advanced disease in particular. Here, we review the candidacy of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets for sinonasal cancers.Recent FindingsMolecular multidimensional analyses of sinonasal cancers have been lagging behind other major cancers, but there are numerous publications describing the discovery of novel candidate biomarkers, e.g. the methylation classifier, originally developed for brain cancers, and gene...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) in Older Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment landscape has rapidly evolved over the past few years. These changes have several implications for the care of older adults ( ≥ 60 years), who have inferior clinical outcomes. We review decision-making in older adults, focusing on patient- and disease-related factors. We then summarize current treatment options, including multiple recently approved therapies, based on hypothetical clinical scenarios.Recent FindingsIn lieu of using chronological age to determine fitness, we highlight the importance of standardized fitness assessments using ge...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Review of the Current State of Hospice Care in China
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review was undertaken to analyze the main reasons behind the limited development of hospice care in China, and to put forward some suggestions.Recent FindingsAlthough the Chinese government has increased its support for hospice care in recent years, however, owing to the lack of education around hospice care and the heavy influence of the traditional Chinese Confucian concept of “filial piety,” many individuals resist hospice care. Moreover, due to impaired patient rights, inadequate composition of hospice care teams, unbalanced geographical distribution, and limited service range,...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Facilitating Transitions to Adulthood in Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients: the Role of Neuropsychology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTransition-age patients with history of a pediatric brain tumor are at significant risk for difficulties transitioning to adulthood. We review current transition models and the potential role of neuropsychology in the transition process for adolescent and young adult brain tumor survivors.Recent FindingsSeveral recently developed healthcare transition models include consideration of patients ’ cognitive and functional capacities, yet currently available transition readiness tools are limited in scope and do not possess adequate normative data across pediatric medical populations. We explore t...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of Yoga-Based Interventions on Cancer-Associated Cognitive Decline: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize and evaluate evidence available on the effects of yoga on cancer-associated cognitive decline (CACD).Recent FindingsA systematic review was conducted using four databases of articles published before January 1, 2020. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria (six randomized controlled trials, two single-arm studies, one non-randomized controlled trial, and one case series study). Studies were predominantly conducted with breast cancer patients using low-intensity hatha yoga programs. Of the 10 articles, five reported some positive effects on CACD, but significant biases were possible due...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Systemic Therapy of Common Tumours in Older Patients: Challenges and Opportunities. A Young International Society of Geriatric Oncology Review Paper
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDecision-making for systemic treatments in older patients with cancer is difficult because of concerns for decreased organ function, risk of toxicity, limited life expectancy due to comorbidities and the lack of evidence available to guide its management in this population. Here, we review the data on the role of systemic agents for the treatment of common malignancies in this age group.Recent FindingsEvidence on the use of systemic treatments for older patients with cancer is increasing, especially for newer options including immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted agents that provide comparable...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Novel Approaches to the Systemic Management of Uveal Melanoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUveal melanoma is a distinct subtype of melanoma characterized by a unique biology and divergent response to immune therapies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the pathophysiology of uveal melanoma, systemic treatment options for advanced disease, and potential future therapeutic directions.Recent FindingsAlthough treatment with single-agent checkpoint blockade has been generally disappointing, the results of combined checkpoint blockade are modestly more promising. Several alternative systemic therapeutic approaches have been or are currently being investigated, includi...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

What ’s New in Percutaneous Ablative Strategies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Colorectal Hepatic Metastases? 2020 Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAblation techniques are now well-established treatment options available for the management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Currently available ablative techniques include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation (IRE). Along with advances in navigational devices and targeting technologies, ablation combined with other therapies may be the next therapeutic option in thermal ablation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of ablative technologies in interventional and medical oncology for management ...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interventions that Facilitate Shared Decision-Making in Cancers with Active Surveillance as Treatment Option: a Systematic Review of Literature
AbstractPurpose of reviewMedical decisions concerning active surveillance are complex, especially when evidence on superiority of one of the treatments is lacking. Decision aids have been developed to facilitate shared decision-making on whether to pursue an active surveillance strategy. However, it is unclear how these decision aids are designed and which outcomes are considered relevant. The purpose of this study is to systematically review all decision aids in the field of oncological active surveillance strategies and outcomes used by authors to assess their efficacy.Recent findingsA search was performed in Embase, Med...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research