A Systematic Review of the Evaluation of Interventions to Tackle Children ’s Food Insecurity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo synthesise the research which has sought to evaluate interventions aiming to tackle children ’s food insecurity and the contribution of this research to evidencing the effectiveness of such interventions.Recent FindingsThe majority of studies in this review were quantitative, non-randomised studies, including cohort studies. Issues with non-complete outcome data, measurement of duration of participation in interventions, and accounting for confounds are common in these evaluation studies. Despite the limitations of the current evidence base, the papers that were reviewed provide evidence f...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - February 14, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of the Microbiome in Cancer Initiation and Progression: How Microbes and Cancer Cells Utilize Excess Energy and Promote One Another ’s Growth
We describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions contribute to cancer progression, including cooperation between microbes and cancer cells. We discuss the role of the immune system in preventing this apparent ‘collusion’ and describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions lead to opportunities and challenges in treating cancer.Recent FindingsMicrobiota influence many aspects of our health including our cancer risk. Since both microbes and cancer cells rely on incoming resources for their survival and replication, excess energy and nutrient input from the host can play a role in cancer initiation and progression.S...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - February 13, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Infant Growth and Long-term Cardiometabolic Health: a Review of Recent Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfant weight gain is recognized to increase obesity risk across the lifespan. This review evaluates recent evidence relating growth in infancy to childhood, adolescent and adult body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors.Recent FindingsGreater weight or BMI gains in infancy increase both fat mass and fat-free mass in later life, but may preferentially contribute to central adiposity. Impacts of infant growth on cardiometabolic health are mixed, and most findings are attenuated after adjusting for current body size.SummaryInfant weight gain, length gain, and BMI changes are important in est...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Multi-etiological Perspective on Child Obesity Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe simple energy balance model of obesity is inconsistent with the available findings on obesity etiology, prevention, and treatment. Yet, the most commonly stated causes of pediatric obesity are predicated on this model. A more comprehensive biological model is needed upon which to base behavioral interventions aimed at obesity prevention. In this light, alternative etiologies are little investigated and thereby poorly understood.Recent FindingsThree candidate alternate etiologies are briefly presented: infectobesity, the gut microbiome, and circadian rhythms.SummaryBehavioral child obesity preve...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - January 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Patterns, Physical Activity, Sleep, and Risk for Dementia and Cognitive Decline
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiet, physical activity, and sleep are three major modifiable lifestyle factors. This selective review examines the evidence for strong and reliable associations between these three lifestyle factors and risk of dementia and cognitive decline, in an effort to assist clinicians with providing more informed answers to the common questions they face from patients.Recent FindingsCertain aspects of nutrition can decrease risk for dementia. Physical activity has also been associated with delayed or slower age-related cognitive decline. In addition, emerging evidence links sleep dysfunction and dementia, ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 9, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dairy Consumption and Cardiometabolic Diseases: Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analyses of Prospective Cohort Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDairy products contain both beneficial and harmful nutrients in relation to cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we provide the latest scientific evidence regarding the relationship between dairy products and cardiometabolic diseases by reviewing the literature and updating meta-analyses of observational studies.Recent FindingsWe updated our previous meta-analyses of cohort studies on type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke with nine studies and confirmed previous results. Total dairy and low-fat dairy (per 200  g/d) were inversely associated with a 3–4% lower risk of diabet...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Gene-Environment Interplay in Child Eating Behaviors: What the Role of “Nature” Means for the Effects of “Nurture”
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review describes the evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on child appetitive traits and suggests ways of thinking about how these interact and correlate to influence how a child eats.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence from social network analysis, and from longitudinal studies questioning the direction of association between parent feeding behaviors and child obesity risk, suggest that children ’s genes may shape the environmental risk for obesity that they are exposed to.SummaryThere is strong evidence that child appetitive traits are both heritable and shaped...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTrimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite produced from choline and phosphatidylcholine. Trimethylamine N-oxide was found associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and thrombosis in vitro and in vivo. We summarized available clinical studies which investigated TMAO ’s role in predicting prognostic outcomes, including mortality, in patients with cardiovascular diseases.Recent FindingsIn chronic kidney disease cohorts, higher TMAO levels were significantly associated with higher mortality from 1.18 to 4.32 folds. Higher TMAO levels were not significantly associated w...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Child, Caregiver, Family, and Social-Contextual Factors to Consider when Implementing Parent-Focused Child Feeding Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInterventions that aim to alter child eating behaviors often focus on parents as a proximal influence. Yet, parents can be difficult to engage. Therefore, intervention recommendations are often not implemented as designed. The goal of this review is to highlight factors at multiple contextual levels that are important to consider when developing interventions to address child eating, due to their implications for overcoming parent engagement challenges.Recent FindingsIntervention studies suggest that parents are often the key to successfully changing child eating behaviors, and many interventions f...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Maternal Predictors of Child Dietary Behaviors and Weight Status
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide scientific evidence showing links between parenting/feeding, child eating, and weight status and recommend best practices for creating a feeding environment protective against childhood obesity.Recent FindingsCurrent research shows that authoritative styles in both feeding and general parenting contexts has been consistently associated with better child health outcomes. Authoritativefeeding styles have been associated with better child dietary quality and weight. Indulgentfeeding styles have been associated with problematic child eating behaviors and higher weight. Authoritativegeneral p...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

An Intergenerational Approach to Break the Cycle of Malnutrition
This article examines how nutritional status is treated throughout the lifecycle. In doing so, the review identifies promising life stages during which intervention may improve nutritional status of future generations.Recent FindingsA life course perspective suggests that nutritional changes are most likely to be sustained when they occur during times of developmental transition, such as pregnancy or adolescence. Adolescence is a unique period in which malnutrition in future generations may be addressed because it is the first life stage at which pregnancy becomes feasible and individuals seek independence from parents.Sum...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 15, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Child Health: Implications for Policy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewVarious policies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption in children have been implemented. Here, we review the evidence on whether these policies are effective in reducing SSB intake and whether a reduction in SSB intake results in a concomitant reduction in child obesity. We also highlight ethical concerns with such efforts.Recent FindingsThe evidence supporting relationship between SSB consumption and child body mass index (BMI) is consistently small and lacks causality. The effects of policies are unclear; taxation has no clear relationship to SSB purchasing, innovative marketing...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 3, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Role of Gut Microbiota-Generated Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health
AbstractPurpose of this ReviewThis review assesses the latest evidence linking short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with host metabolic health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and presents the latest evidence on possible biological mechanisms.Recent FindingsSCFA have a range of effects locally in the gut and at both splanchnic and peripheral tissues which together appear to induce improved metabolic regulation and have direct and indirect effects on markers of CVD risk.SummarySCFA produced primarily from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibre appear to be key mediators of the beneficial effects elicited by the gut micr...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

To Pull or Not to Pull: Salvaging Central Line Catheters in Home Parenteral Nutrition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCatheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) pose a significant risk to patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Recurrent loss of catheters can lead to scarring and eventual loss of central access, a potentially fatal situation for patients dependent on HPN.Recent FindingsIn the past, the standard of care to treat these infections required catheter removal. More recently, several studies have indicated that many CRBSI can be treated without removal of the catheter. Successful treatment without removal can be achieved by intentionally following a catheter salvage protocol. We define this as...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Role of Gut Microbiota-Generated Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health
AbstractPurpose of this ReviewThis review assesses the latest evidence linking short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with host metabolic health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and presents the latest evidence on possible biological mechanisms.Recent FindingsSCFA have a range of effects locally in the gut and at both splanchnic and peripheral tissues which together appear to induce improved metabolic regulation and have direct and indirect effects on markers of CVD risk.SummarySCFA produced primarily from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibre appear to be key mediators of the beneficial effects elicited by the gut micr...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

To Pull or Not to Pull: Salvaging Central Line Catheters in Home Parenteral Nutrition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCatheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) pose a significant risk to patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Recurrent loss of catheters can lead to scarring and eventual loss of central access, a potentially fatal situation for patients dependent on HPN.Recent FindingsIn the past, the standard of care to treat these infections required catheter removal. More recently, several studies have indicated that many CRBSI can be treated without removal of the catheter. Successful treatment without removal can be achieved by intentionally following a catheter salvage protocol. We define this as...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Intergenerational Effects of Health Issues Among Women of Childbearing Age: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the latest scientific evidence, primarily from systematic reviews/meta-analyses and large cohort studies, on the impact of health issues among women of childbearing age and their effect on their offspring during pregnancy and from birth to adulthood.Recent FindingsWomen of childbearing age with overweight/obesity, diabetes, and hypertension prior to pregnancy are at increased risk for adverse outcomes during pregnancy, such as excessive gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. These adverse outcomes could complicate deli...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 27, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Fat and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: a Review of Recent Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIt is estimated that over 400 million people worldwide are living with diabetes. Excess adiposity is the strongest risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type 2. Lifestyle interventions have demonstrated that diet plays a critical role in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat is not only a source of energy and nutrients, but also bioactive fatty acids.The purpose of this review was to examine data from recent prospective cohort studies and dietary interventions to determine if there are benefits to fat consumption on diabetes risk.Recent FindingsThe consumption of fish and m...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Sleep, Diet, and Cardiometabolic Health Investigations: a Systematic Review of Analytic Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPoor sleep is a risk factor for cardiometabolic morbidity. The relationship of sleep and cardiometabolic health could be confounded, mediated, or modified by diet, yet the incorporation of diet in sleep-cardiometabolic health studies is inconsistent. This rapid systematic literature review evaluates the conceptualization of diet as a confounder, mediator, or effect modifier within sleep-cardiometabolic health investigations, and the statistical approaches utilized.Recent FindingsOf 4692 studies identified, 60 were retained (28 adult, 32 pediatric). Most studies included diet patterns, quality, or e...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Related to Dietary Salt Intake in High-Income Countries: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KAB) related to dietary salt intake among adults in high-income countries.Recent FindingsOverall (n = 24 studies across 12 countries), KAB related to dietary salt intake are low. While consumers are aware of the health implications of a high salt intake, fundamental knowledge regarding recommended dietary intake, primary food sources, and the relationship between salt and sodium is lacking. S alt added during cooking was more common than adding salt to food at the table. Many participants were confused ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of Diet in Multiple Sclerosis: Mechanistic Connections and Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review seeks to examine current research related to the role of diet in multiple sclerosis (MS).Recent FindingsRecent research in preclinical models, epidemiologic studies, and limited prospectively followed cohorts provide preliminary evidence that dietary factors influence MS incidence, disease course, and symptomatology. Current evidence for the effects of fatty acids, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, dairy, and salt are reviewed. Dietary patterns including overall diet quality, caloric restriction, McDougall diet, Paleolithic diet, and Mediterranean diet are discussed. Hypotheses regar...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Impact of Energy Drinks on Health and Well-being
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEnergy drinks and energy shots are functional supplements with higher caffeine content marketed toward adolescents and young adults with the intention of boosting energy. Parallel to its rising popularity, there are safety concerns with the consumption of these beverages. Herein, we reviewed the impact these supplements produce on health and well-being.Recent FindingsMost of the promoted benefits of the beverages can be attributed to caffeine. The physiologic effects, if any, of other ingredients such as vitamins and herbal extracts are unclear. The presence of a higher caffeine content as compared...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of Nutrition in Cognitive Function and Brain Ageing in the Elderly
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purposes of this review were to examine literature published over the last 5  years and to evaluate the role of nutrition in cognitive function and brain ageing, focussing on the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets.Recent FindingsResults suggest that higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with preservation of brain structure and function as well as slower cognitive decline, with the MIND diet substantially slowing cognitive decline, over and above the MeD...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Saturated Fat: Part of a Healthy Diet
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite the American public following recommendations to decrease absolute dietary fat intake and specifically decrease saturated fat intake, we have seen a dramatic rise over the past 40  years in the rates of non-communicable diseases associated with obesity and overweight, namely cardiovascular disease. The development of the diet-heart hypothesis in the mid twentieth century led to faulty but long-held beliefs that dietary intake of saturated fat led to heart disease. Saturated fat can lead to increased LDL cholesterol levels, and elevated plasma cholesterol levels have been shown to be a ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

From Religion to Secularism: the Benefits of Fasting
AbstractPurpose of reviewSince the early development of human societies, religious beliefs, and practices has been integral to their identity, culture, and social structure, traditions are influenced by the area, era, and culture wherein they developed. Some religions offer advice on behavioral and diet modifications as strategies to fortify the body, purify the spirit, and elevate consciousness. This review is an attempt to compare different practices, describe the health benefits and risks of fasting, and reconcile these age-old recommendations with practical modern life.Recent findingsResearch to clarify and quantify th...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Are We Going Nuts on Coconut Oil?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSales and consumption of coconut oil have been on the raise due to effective marketing strategies. Coconut oil is stated to offer various benefits including weight loss, improvement in immunity, heart health support, and memory enhancement. Also, it is often portrayed as an excellent source of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). Here, we review the evidence behind the clinical utility of coconut oil consumption.Recent FindingsSeveral studies consistently showed consumption of coconut oil increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and thereby could increase adverse cardiovascular health. E...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Its Effects in Human Disease: Emphasizing Its Role in Inflammation, Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial shrub with zero calorie content that has been increasing in popularity for its potential use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity. The level of evidence supporting general benefits to human health is insufficient. We conducted a review of the literature summarizing the current knowledge and role in human disease.Recent FindingsDespite stevia ’s minimal systemic absorption, studies have been promising regarding its potential benefits against inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis glucose control, and hypertension. On the other hand, the gro...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to review current literature on nutritional ketosis within the context of weight management and metabolic syndrome, namely, insulin resistance, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease risk, and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We provide background on the mechanism of ketogenesis and describe nutritional ketosis.Recent FindingsNutritional ketosis has been found to improve metabolic and inflammatory markers, including lipids, HbA1c, high-sensitivity CRP, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and aid in weight management. We discuss these findings and elaborate ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Folate and Its Impact on Cancer Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch has evaluated the potential impact of folate on cancer risk with conflicting findings. Studies have demonstrated increased risk, no effect, and decreased risk. This review summarizes findings of mixed results between folate intake, serum levels, gene polymorphisms, and cancer risk based on meta-analyses from the past five  years.Recent FindingLow or deficient folate status is associated with increased risk of many cancers. Folic acid supplementation and higher serum levels are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Gene polymorphisms may impact risk in certain ethnic group...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of Physical Activity in Managing Fatigue in Cancer Survivors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an up-to-date overview of the evidence relating to how physical inactivity ameliorates cancer-related fatigue. A summary of the postulated biological mechanisms underpinning the relationship is presented.Recent FindingsSystematic reviews and meta-analyses synthesising the results of randomised controlled trials of physical activity interventions to reduce fatigue broadly conclude that aerobic and combination exercise may be the most helpful, while resistance training alone is less efficacious. Further, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity interventions appeared to re...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Use of Enteral Nutrition for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Prophylaxis in the Critically Ill: Review of Current Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides a comprehensive overview of the etiology of stress-related mucosal disease, current acid suppression therapy recommendations, and the role enteral nutrition may play in disease prevention.Recent FindingsRecent literature indicates enteral nutrition may prevent complications of stress-related mucosal disease by increasing splanchnic blood flow, enhancing gastrointestinal motility, and promoting cellular immunity and integrity through local nutrient delivery.SummaryStress-related mucosal disease is a common complication of hospitalization in the critically ill which may lead to o...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Fad Diets: Hype or Hope?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity continues to be a growing concern globally due to association with a number of comorbidities and contributing significantly to increase in health care expenditures. Despite availability of a number of treatment modalities, lifestyle modification with dietary modification and exercise continues to be the foundation. However, the standard model of lifestyle modification is not efficacious or sustainable for many patients leading them to seek alternative approaches. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to present the data regarding efficacy and sustainability of many common dietary a...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Weight Regain After Bariatric Surgery: Prevalence, Etiology, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a life-limiting disease that is associated with a number of co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery remains the most efficacious and durable weight loss method available to patients. However, a significant percentage of patients can regain weight resulting in frustration, depression, and return of obesity-related co-morbidities. The present review provides an overview of the most common therapeutic modalities available to combat weigh regain after weight loss surgery.Recent FindingsGiven the high percentage of patients with weight regain after surgery, significant effort has been placed on dev...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Fad Diets: Hype or Hope?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity continues to be a growing concern globally due to association with a number of comorbidities and contributing significantly to increase in health care expenditures. Despite availability of a number of treatment modalities, lifestyle modification with dietary modification and exercise continues to be the foundation. However, the standard model of lifestyle modification is not efficacious or sustainable for many patients leading them to seek alternative approaches. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to present the data regarding efficacy and sustainability of many common dietary a...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Weight Regain After Bariatric Surgery: Prevalence, Etiology, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a life-limiting disease that is associated with a number of co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery remains the most efficacious and durable weight loss method available to patients. However, a significant percentage of patients can regain weight resulting in frustration, depression, and return of obesity-related co-morbidities. The present review provides an overview of the most common therapeutic modalities available to combat weigh regain after weight loss surgery.Recent FindingsGiven the high percentage of patients with weight regain after surgery, significant effort has been placed on dev...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Interventions and Type 2 Diabetes in Youth: a Fresh Look at the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents has sharply increased, highly influenced by prevalence of obesity in youth. Here, we provide an overview of the pathogenesis of diabetes, and summarize recent dietary interventions investigating effects of diet on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth.Recent FindingsSeven dietary interventions were identified randomly assigning participants to weekly or bi-weekly dietary counseling sessions over 12 –24-week period, with mixed results. Four interventions showed significant reductions in fasting insulin and insulin r...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to review current literature on nutritional ketosis within the context of weight management and metabolic syndrome, namely, insulin resistance, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease risk, and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We provide background on the mechanism of ketogenesis and describe nutritional ketosis.Recent FindingsNutritional ketosis has been found to improve metabolic and inflammatory markers, including lipids, HbA1c, high-sensitivity CRP, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and aid in weight management. We discuss these findings and elaborate ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of Diet in Multiple Sclerosis: Mechanistic Connections and Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review seeks to examine current research related to the role of diet in multiple sclerosis (MS).Recent FindingsRecent research in preclinical models, epidemiologic studies, and limited prospectively followed cohorts provide preliminary evidence that dietary factors influence MS incidence, disease course, and symptomatology. Current evidence for the effects of fatty acids, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, dairy, and salt are reviewed. Dietary patterns including overall diet quality, caloric restriction, McDougall diet, Paleolithic diet, and Mediterranean diet are discussed. Hypotheses regar...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 16, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Folate and Its Impact on Cancer Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch has evaluated the potential impact of folate on cancer risk with conflicting findings. Studies have demonstrated increased risk, no effect, and decreased risk. This review summarizes findings of mixed results between folate intake, serum levels, gene polymorphisms, and cancer risk based on meta-analyses from the past five  years.Recent FindingLow or deficient folate status is associated with increased risk of many cancers. Folic acid supplementation and higher serum levels are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Gene polymorphisms may impact risk in certain ethnic group...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of Physical Activity in Managing Fatigue in Cancer Survivors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an up-to-date overview of the evidence relating to how physical inactivity ameliorates cancer-related fatigue. A summary of the postulated biological mechanisms underpinning the relationship is presented.Recent FindingsSystematic reviews and meta-analyses synthesising the results of randomised controlled trials of physical activity interventions to reduce fatigue broadly conclude that aerobic and combination exercise may be the most helpful, while resistance training alone is less efficacious. Further, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity interventions appeared to re...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Saturated Fat: Part of a Healthy Diet
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite the American public following recommendations to decrease absolute dietary fat intake and specifically decrease saturated fat intake, we have seen a dramatic rise over the past 40  years in the rates of non-communicable diseases associated with obesity and overweight, namely cardiovascular disease. The development of the diet-heart hypothesis in the mid twentieth century led to faulty but long-held beliefs that dietary intake of saturated fat led to heart disease. Saturated fat can lead to increased LDL cholesterol levels, and elevated plasma cholesterol levels have been shown to be a ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 7, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Its Effects in Human Disease: Emphasizing Its Role in Inflammation, Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial shrub with zero calorie content that has been increasing in popularity for its potential use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity. The level of evidence supporting general benefits to human health is insufficient. We conducted a review of the literature summarizing the current knowledge and role in human disease.Recent FindingsDespite stevia ’s minimal systemic absorption, studies have been promising regarding its potential benefits against inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis glucose control, and hypertension. On the other hand, the gro...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

From Religion to Secularism: the Benefits of Fasting
AbstractPurpose of reviewSince the early development of human societies, religious beliefs, and practices has been integral to their identity, culture, and social structure, traditions are influenced by the area, era, and culture wherein they developed. Some religions offer advice on behavioral and diet modifications as strategies to fortify the body, purify the spirit, and elevate consciousness. This review is an attempt to compare different practices, describe the health benefits and risks of fasting, and reconcile these age-old recommendations with practical modern life.Recent findingsResearch to clarify and quantify th...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 9, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Impact of Energy Drinks on Health and Well-being
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEnergy drinks and energy shots are functional supplements with higher caffeine content marketed toward adolescents and young adults with the intention of boosting energy. Parallel to its rising popularity, there are safety concerns with the consumption of these beverages. Herein, we reviewed the impact these supplements produce on health and well-being.Recent FindingsMost of the promoted benefits of the beverages can be attributed to caffeine. The physiologic effects, if any, of other ingredients such as vitamins and herbal extracts are unclear. The presence of a higher caffeine content as compared...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 7, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of Nutrition in Cognitive Function and Brain Ageing in the Elderly
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purposes of this review were to examine literature published over the last 5  years and to evaluate the role of nutrition in cognitive function and brain ageing, focussing on the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets.Recent FindingsResults suggest that higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with preservation of brain structure and function as well as slower cognitive decline, with the MIND diet substantially slowing cognitive decline, over and above the MeD...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 5, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research