Social Influences on Obesity: Current Knowledge, Emerging Methods, and Directions for Future Research and Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals tend to be socially connected with those of similar weight and obesity status. To inform future research and intervention development, we reviewed recent literature examining social influences on weight with a focus on mechanisms of social influence, populations studied, and emerging analytical methods.Recent FindingsSocial networks appear to influence weight gain and weight loss. It remains unclear what underlying mechanisms (e.g., social norms, social comparison, behavioral modeling) drive this relationship. Stochastic actor-oriented modeling is an important method in the field, but o...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of General Parenting Style in Child Diet and Obesity Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe childhood obesity epidemic is widely considered to have reached pandemic proportions. Across the world, children with obesity are facing numerous psychological and physiological issues that follow them into adulthood, frequently leading to chronic illness and early death. In an effort to combat the compounding effects of childhood overweight, researchers are attempting to identify biological and environmental contributors to child weight. Parenting styles are one recognized influence on child diet and body mass index (BMI). This review is a comprehensive examination of the literature on the inf...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Getting the Price Right: How Nutrition and Obesity Prevention Strategies Address Food and Beverage Pricing Within High-Income Countries
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood and beverage prices are major influences on dietary intakes. International health bodies recommend leveraging food prices to create healthier food environments. A policy review was conducted to understand the extent to which national nutrition and obesity prevention policy strategies within high-income countries (i) consider food price as a determinant of health and (ii) propose and implement policies to rebalance food pricing towards healthier options.Recent FindingsPolicy strategies were inconsistent and fragmented in their inclusion of food prices as determinants of diet-related health. The...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Human Breast Milk: Bioactive Components, from Stem Cells to Health Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBreast milk (BM) is a peculiar fluid owing unique properties and resulting the ideal food during early neonatal period. As widely known, it can improve the outcome of both neonate and lactating mother, influencing their whole life. BM is characterized by several beneficial components; among these, a great role is played by BM own and specific microbiome, deeply investigated in many studies. Moreover, the use of metabolomics in BM analysis allowed a better characterization of its metabolic pathways that vary according to lactation stage and neonatal gestational age. The aim of this review is to desc...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Effect of Retail Food Environment Interventions on Diet and Health with a Focus on the Enabling Role of Public Policies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUpdate the state of evidence on the effectiveness of retail food environment interventions in influencing diet and explore the underlying role of public policy, through a systematic review of population-level interventions to promote health in the retail food environment, including community and consumer environments. Diet-related outcomes included purchasing, dietary intakes, diet quality, and health including weight. We coded studies for enabling public policy levers underpinning the intervention, using two widely used conceptual frameworks.Recent FindingsOf 86 articles (1974 –2018), the ma...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - December 3, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Measuring the Power of Food Marketing to Children: a Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis scoping review examines literature from the past 5 years (June 2014 to June 2019) across three databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus) to detail how the persuasivepower of child-targeted food marketing content is addressed and evaluated in current research, to document trends and gaps in research, and to identify opportunities for future focus.Recent FindingsEighty relevant studies were identified, with varied approaches related to examining food marketing techniques to children (i.e., experimental, survey, meta-analyses, mixed methods, content analyses, focus groups). Few studies specifically...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 14, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Ketogenic Diet: from the Historical Records to Use in Elite Athletes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the available literature/evidence on low carbohydrate/high fat (LCHF) and low carbohydrate ketogenic (LCKD) diets ’ effects on human athletic performance and to provide a brief review of the physiology and history of energy systems of exercise.Recent FindingsMultiple studies have been conducted in an attempt to answer this question, many within the last 3 –5 years. Studies are heterogenous in design, intervention, and outcome measures.SummaryCurrent available data show that LCHF and LCKD do not significantly enhance or impair performance in endurance or strength activities. Ho...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Critical Illness: Implications for Nutritional Therapy
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis paper will review the evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in critical illness, describe the mechanisms which lead to multiple organ failure, and detail the implications of this pathophysiologic process on nutritional therapy.Recent FindingsMitochondria are particularly sensitive to increased oxidative stress in critical illness. The functional and structural abnormalities which occur in this organelle contribute further to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and the reduction in generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). To reduce metabolic demand, mitochondrial dysfunc...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Protein Supplementation in Sport: Source, Timing, and Intended Benefits
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide background on the present literature regarding the utility and effectiveness of protein supplements, including protein source and nutrient timing.Recent FindingsIn the setting of adequate dietary protein consumption, research suggests some benefit particularly in sport or exercise activities.SummaryProtein supplements command a multi-billion-dollar market with prevalent use in sports. Many individuals, including athletes, do not consume optimal dietary protein on a daily basis. High-protein diets are remarkably safe in healthy subjects, especially in the sho...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Multiple Health Benefits and Minimal Risks Associated with Vegetarian Diets
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnderstand the current prevalence, health benefits, and health risks of vegetarian diets.Recent FindingsSince the publishing of the Adventist Health Study 2 in 2013, there have been several prospective diet studies demonstrating and challenging the health benefits and risks of the vegetarian diet.SummaryThe definition of the vegetarian diet has become more specific over time and requires standardization for research purposes. Despite an uptrend in sales rates of plant-based foods per year, a 2018 Gallup poll showed overall stagnation of the percentage of self-reported vegetarians and vegans compare...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Ketogenic Diet: an Endocrinologist Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity and its related comorbidities make up a large part of healthcare expenditures. Despite a wide array of options for treatment of obesity, rates of sustained weight loss continue to be low, leading patients to seek alternative treatment options. Although the first medically utilized ketogenic diet was described nearly 100 years ago, it has made a resurgence as a treatment option for obesity. Despite increased popularity in the lay public and increased use of ketogenic dietary strategies for metabolic therapy, we are still beginning to unravel the metabolic impact of long-term dietary ketosis....
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Impact of Soluble Fiber in the Microbiome and Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo discuss the controversy over the effect of dietary fiber (DF) on (1) outcomes in critical illness, (2) microbiome and metabolic homeostasis, and (3) current evidence and guidelines regarding supplementation in critically ill patients.Recent FindingsIn healthy individuals, consumption of DF is widely known as a long-term protecting factor against colon cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other metabolic disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease; in hospitalized patients, DF may have a beneficial effect in the incidence of diarrhea, infections, and length of stay. But, what ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Premixed vs Compounded Parenteral Nutrition: Effects of Total Parenteral Nutrition Shortage on Clinical Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDrug shortages continue to impact our patients with intestinal failure and their ability to receive nutrition. ASPEN guidelines address the management of certain shortages in compounded total parenteral nutrition (TPN); however, some institutions have utilized premixed total parenteral nutrition (pTPN) in place of TPN.Recent FindingsPremixed TPN appears to be as safe, if not safer, as compounded TPN when comparing the risk of bloodstream infection. However, there is an increased use of supplemental electrolytes to meet patient needs. Cost-effectiveness depends on multiple factors and should be eval...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Practices Involved in the Enteral Delivery of Drugs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile the delivery of medications through enteral tubes is common in critically ill patients, there are complications and a lack of unified practices between institutions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate current practices and literature evidence regarding this administration route. The effect of this administration on the medication ’s efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics was examined, as well as other considerations to ensure that this route of delivery is both safe and effective for patients.Recent FindingsStudies have found crushed oral tablets are the most freque...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Under-Recognizing Malnutrition in Hospitalized Obese Populations: The Real Paradox
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity and malnutrition are frequently encountered in the hospitalized population. Although malnutrition associated with low or normal body mass index (BMI) is easily identified, malnutrition in obese patients goes frequently unrecognized as their fat mass masks underlying muscle mass deterioration. The purpose of this review is to explore if malnutrition has been studied in the obese hospitalized population and if that may be one of the reasons for the variable results in the obesity outcome data.Recent FindingsVarious studies have shown a conflicting association between obesity and outcomes in h...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - August 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Effect of Formulation, Labelling, and Taxation Policies on the Nutritional Quality of the Food Supply
ConclusionsThe effect of nutrition policies on food (re)formulation is insufficiently studied. The impact of such policies on (re)formulation is likely greater when they are mandatory, aligned with other regulations, and thoroughly monitored and evaluated. Policies targeting (re)formulation have important limitations and broader food system policies will additionally be needed to significantly improve diets. (Source: Current Nutrition Reports)
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Nutrition and Metabolic Profiles in the Natural History of Dementia: Recent Insights from Systems Biology and Life Course Epidemiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWorldwide, approximately 50 million people have dementia (mostly Alzheimer ’s disease). Dementia results from a multicomponent pathophysiology that follows complex dynamics over many years before symptoms become apparent. Nutrition may represent a target of choice for the primary prevention of dementia; however, there is still no firm answer on how to prevent dementia ef ficiently.We provide a broad overview of recent studies leveraging system biology and life-long epidemiology to address the multidimensionality and dynamical patterns underlying dementia and improve knowledge on the link betw...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Food and Beverage Price Promotions: an Untapped Policy Target for Improving Population Diets and Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe price of foods and beverages is a critical driver of food choice, particularly among families and households with limited food budgets. Policies targeting unhealthy food and beverage price promotions represent an untapped policy target for improving population diets and health. Here we review policy options for reducing the frequency and influence of price promotions on unhealthy foods and beverages (high in one or more of salt, sugar and saturated fat), and demonstrate their potential to complement other food policies and improve population diets.Recent FindingsPrice promotions on unhealthy fo...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Endocrine Role of Bone in Cardiometabolic Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the current knowledge about major bone regulating hormones vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), estrogen and bone metabolism markers osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP), and c-terminal type 1 collagen (CTX) and their mechanistic effects on cardiometabolic health.Recent FindingsBone regulating hormones, nutrients, and turnover markers influence different aspects of cardiometabolic health including body composition, cardiovascular function, and glycemic control. While most observational r...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Metabolomic Insights into the Effects of Breast Milk Versus Formula Milk Feeding in Infants
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the latest scientific evidence for the presence of metabolomic differences between infants fed breast milk (I-BM) and infants fed formula milk (I-FM).Recent FindingsAcross the studies included in this review, a total of 261 metabolites were analyzed, of which 151 metabolites were reported as significantly associated with infant feeding modality (BM versus FM). However, taken as a whole, the relevant literature was notable both for methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, and heterogeneity between the studies. This may be why many associations between infant met...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - June 15, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Correction to: Nutritional Metabolomics in Cancer Epidemiology: Current Trends, Challenges, and Future Directions
The original version of this article was revised: “The article was published with errors on text as the author's corrections were misinterpreted.” (Source: Current Nutrition Reports)
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Insights on the Influence of Sugar Taxes on Obesity Prevention Efforts
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will present the latest evidence on the impacts of sugar taxes on obesity with a focus on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB).Recent FindingsEvidence of direct impacts of SSB taxation policies on obesity prevalence continues to be limited. Natural experiments involving SSB taxation policies implemented in Mexico and Berkley, CA, indicate that this type of intervention alters beverage consumption patterns. Naturalistic evidence in combination with modeling studies suggests that SSB taxation is a viable anti-obesity policy. However, researchers and public health practitioners need to be vigil...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Impact of Diet on Breast Cancer Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBreast cancer is the most common cancer in women, yet conclusive evidence of the effects of dietary modification in breast cancer survivors is lacking. Here, we summarize the literature and highlight important data regarding the association between dietary interventions and breast cancer outcomes.Recent FindingsLong-term follow-up and secondary analysis of the Women ’s Health Initiative study demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival for women who were randomized to the low-fat diet pattern compared with those in the usual-diet group. Dietary quality as measured by Healthy Ea...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Targeting Carbohydrates and Polyphenols for a Healthy Microbiome and Healthy Weight
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we focus on microbiota modulation using non-digestible carbohydrate and polyphenols (i.e., prebiotics) that have the potential to modulate body weight.Recent FindingsPrebiotics derived from plants have gained the interest of public and scientific communities as they may prevent diseases and help maintain health.SummaryMaintaining a healthy body weight is key to reducing the risk of developing chronic metabolic complications. However, the prevalence of obesity has increased to pandemic proportions and is now ranked globally in the top five risk factors for death. While diet and behav...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - June 3, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Quantity, Quality, and Timing of Carbohydrate Intake and Blood Pressure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses recent evidence on the association of dietary carbohydrates (quantity, quality, and timing of intake) with hypertension (HTN) risk and out-of-clinic blood pressure (BP) measures.Recent FindingsStudies on carbohydrate quantity are inconclusive, but low carbohydrate diets may be associated with lower BP. Plant-based carbohydrate-containing foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may lower HTN risk and 24-h BP. Excessive sugar intakes from sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with higher BP levels and HTN risk, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. Prelimi...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - May 29, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Nutritional Metabolomics in Cancer Epidemiology: Current Trends, Challenges, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetabolomics offers several opportunities for advancement in nutritional cancer epidemiology; however, numerous research gaps and challenges remain. This narrative review summarizes current research, challenges, and future directions for epidemiologic studies of nutritional metabolomics and cancer.Recent FindingsAlthough many studies have used metabolomics to investigate either dietary exposures or cancer, few studies have explicitly investigated diet-cancer relationships using metabolomics. Most studies have been relatively small ( ≤ ~ 250 cases) or have assessed a limited number ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - May 25, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: Epidemiologic Insights and Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewControversy exists whether excess body fatness (measured by body mass index (BMI)) is associated with better cancer survival ( “obesity paradox”). Here, we review the obesity paradox in cancer research and discuss potential explanations and future research directions.Recent FindingsOverweight and obese cancer patients have better survival for diverse cancers. This apparent obesity paradox may be largely explained by methodological limitations including reverse causation, selection bias, confounding, and reliance of BMI as a measure of adiposity in cancer patients. A growing number of st...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - May 25, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Vitamin D 3 from Ultraviolet-B Exposure or Oral Intake in Relation to Cancer Incidence and Mortality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the understanding of vitamin D3’s role in reducing risk of cancer incidence and mortality.Recent FindingsRecent randomized clinical trials and observational studies of participants who took part in vitamin D3 supplementation studies provide increasing evidence that concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] up to ~  60 ng/ml are inversely correlated with all cancer and some specific cancers’ incidence and death, with a stronger effect on survival and death than on incidence. Mechanisms linking vitamin D3 to effects on cellular proliferatio...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - May 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Determinants and Interventions to Promote Water Consumption Among Adolescents: a Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the latest scientific evidence on determinants and interventions to promote water consumption among adolescents.Recent FindingsWe identified 15 studies on determinants of water consumption and 11 interventions to promote water consumption among adolescents. Determinants of adolescent ’s water consumption included individual (e.g., physiological, demographic, psychological, and behavioral variables), social (e.g., peer influence), and environmental (e.g., availability of water at school/home, warm weather) ones and school policies. Interventions with both educational/beh...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 23, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Impact of Brain Insulin Signaling on Dopamine Function, Food Intake, Reward, and Emotional Behavior
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDietary obesity is primarily attributed to an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. Adherence to lifestyle interventions reducing weight is typically low. As a result, obesity becomes a chronic state with increased co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and diabetes. We review the effects of brain insulin action and dopaminergic signal transmission on food intake, reward, and mood as well as potential modulations of these systems to counteract the obesity epidemic.Recent FindingsCentral insulin and dopamine action are interlinked and impact on food intake, reward, and mood. Brain...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 18, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Drug-Nutrition Interactions and the Brain: It ’s Not All in Your Head
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe interactions between nutrition and medication can be numerous with potential impact on health outcomes. Several subtypes of drug-nutrition interactions exist. Each of these interaction subtypes may influence patients receiving medication for neurologic disorders. After defining drug-nutrition interactions, this review will describe the various types using a handful of widely used central nervous system agents as examples.Recent FindingsMedication may be the object of interactions perpetrated by a specific meal, a food component, a nutrient, or nutrition status thereby altering drug disposition ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 11, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Coffee Drinking and Reduced Risk of Liver Cancer: Update on Epidemiological Findings and Potential Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed the available literature on observational studies, meta-analyses, expert reports, and umbrella reviews. Here, we summarize the latest findings on the association between coffee intake and liver cancer risk.Recent FindingsMost observational studies and meta-analyses show a protective effect of coffee intake on liver cancer risk, with dose-responsiveness and across different populations, and regardless of hepatitis virus infection status. Risk reduction by coffee consumption has also been observed for chronic liver diseases. Potential mechanisms include the effect of a number of bioactive...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 11, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Micronutrients and Brain Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the most recent evidence regarding the effects of micronutrients on brain development.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence indicates that nutrition in the early life can profoundly influence neurodevelopment, affecting later life health outcomes, neurocognitive performances, and disease risks. Inadequate early life nutrition has been associated with some neuropsychiatric disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms could play a crucial role, imprinting the genomes in early life making the individual more susceptible to develop diseases later in life.SummaryChildren adequately nourished are m...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Diet and Inflammation in Cognitive Ageing and Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNutrition is known to modulate the immune system and may alter neuroinflammatory processes implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and progression of neurodegeneration. Here, we review the evidence for healthy dietary patterns and age-related cognition and discuss potential neuroinflammatory actions of diet on cognitive function.Recent FindingsAnti-inflammatory dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet (MD) and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) may be neuroprotective. Several dietary components consumed in the MD and DASH (omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidan...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Brain Imaging of Taste Perception in Obesity: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize neuroimaging findings related to processing of taste (fat, salt, umami, bitter, and sour) in the brain and how they influence hedonic responses and eating behaviors and their role in obesity.Recent FindingsNeuroimaging studies in obese individuals have revealed alterations in reward/motivation, executive control/self-regulation, and limbic/affective circuits that are implicated in food and drug addiction. Psychophysical studies show that sensory properties of food ingredients may be associated with anthropometric and neurocognitive outcomes in obesity. However, few studies have examine...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Excessive Consumption of Sugar: an Insatiable Drive for Reward
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEating behavior provides energy to ensure proper functioning of the organism. Reward aids in seeking foods that bring energy and pleasant taste, whose consumption is safe. As evidenced by the obesity “epidemic” which largely stems from overeating, reward becomes a detriment when palatable tastants are available in unlimited quantities. This review presents recent evidence on mechanisms underlying palatability-driven excessive consumption of sugar.Recent FindingsAppetite for sugar is propelled by changes in the morphology and activity of the reward system reminiscent of addiction. Sugar ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - April 3, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Brazilian Children ’s Dietary Intake in Relation to Brazil’s New Nutrition Guidelines: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic review reports the latest scientific evidence, from cross-sectional and cohort studies, describing the dietary intake of children and adolescents from Brazil. The goal of the review was to describe intakes according to Brazil ’s new food classification system (NOVA) which classifies foods according to the degree of processing, i.e., unprocessed/minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed food, and ultra-processed food. Due to a paucity of data using the NOVA classification system, studies with other intake descriptors were included.Recent FindingsResults usi...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Carbohydrate Nutrition and the Risk of Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes a selection of epidemiologic research assessing the associations between carbohydrate intake and cancer incidence and survival. Evidence for plausible biological mechanisms is also considered.Recent FindingsThe mechanistic paradigm explaining the relationship between carbohydrates and cancer risk has been contested by numerous observational studies.SummaryCarbohydrates have conventionally been ascribed a deleterious role in the field of cancer research due to previous preclinical findings. A breadth of studies suggests that complex carbohydrate intake is inversely associated ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Does Alcohol Use Affect Cancer Risk?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of the risk relationships between alcohol use and cancer and of the alcohol-attributable cancer burden; to highlight areas of controversy in the alcohol –cancer relationship; to examine the reasons why these risk relationships have not received greater public attention.Recent FindingsIn 2016, alcohol caused an estimated 376,200 cancer deaths, 10.0 million cancer years of life lost (YLLs), 236,600 cancer years lived with disability (YLDs), and 10.3 million cancer disability-adjusted years of life (DALYs), representing 4.2%, 4.2%, 4.6%, and 4.2% of all deaths, YLLs, YLDs,...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Prebiotic Intake in Older Adults: Effects on Brain Function and Behavior
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the impact of prebiotics on brain function and behavior in older adults.Recent FindingsCurrent evidence generally supports the intake of prebiotics to increase beneficial gut bacteria concentrations. These bacteria appear to impact endocrine, immunologic, and neuronal communication along the gut-brain axis to alter brain function and behavior.SummaryPreliminary evidence in human studies consistently support prebiotics doses of ~  5–10 g/d as safe to improve brain function (i.e., learning and working memory) and behavio...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 19, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

CpG and Non-CpG Methylation in the Diet –Epigenetics–Neurodegeneration Connection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnraveling the diet –epigenetics–neurodegeneration connection may disclose associated mechanisms and novel approaches to the neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes the basic concepts and the innovative results in this field focusing on the relevance of non-CpG methylation.Recent FindingsMany multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases are associated with epigenetic changes, and the brain seems more prone to epigenetic changes than other tissues. Several environmental factors induce epigenetic modulation in the organisms: diet and nutrition retain a high capacity to modulate th...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 18, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Influence of Sedentary Behavior on Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Potential Molecular Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSedentary behavior is an emerging risk factor for several cancers. Here, we review the current epidemiologic evidence on sedentary behavior and cancer risk and summarize potential underlying molecular mechanisms.Recent FindingsHigh compared to low sedentary behavior is associated with a 28 –44% increased risk of colon cancer, a 8–17% increased risk of breast cancer, and a 28–36% increased risk of endometrial cancer. For other cancer sites, the current evidence is insufficient, mainly due to sparse numbers of available studies. Potential underlying biologic mechanisms linking pro l...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 18, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Correction to: A Systematic Review of the Evaluation of Interventions to Tackle Children ’s Food Insecurity
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in Tables captions. (Source: Current Nutrition Reports)
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Evaluation of Interventions to Tackle Children ’s Food Insecurity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo synthesise the research which has sought to evaluate interventions aiming to tackle children ’s food insecurity and the contribution of this research to evidencing the effectiveness of such interventions.Recent FindingsThe majority of studies in this review were quantitative, non-randomised studies, including cohort studies. Issues with non-complete outcome data, measurement of duration of participation in interventions, and accounting for confounds are common in these evaluation studies. Despite the limitations of the current evidence base, the papers that were reviewed provide evidence f...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - February 14, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Role of the Microbiome in Cancer Initiation and Progression: How Microbes and Cancer Cells Utilize Excess Energy and Promote One Another ’s Growth
We describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions contribute to cancer progression, including cooperation between microbes and cancer cells. We discuss the role of the immune system in preventing this apparent ‘collusion’ and describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions lead to opportunities and challenges in treating cancer.Recent FindingsMicrobiota influence many aspects of our health including our cancer risk. Since both microbes and cancer cells rely on incoming resources for their survival and replication, excess energy and nutrient input from the host can play a role in cancer initiation and progression.S...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - February 13, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Infant Growth and Long-term Cardiometabolic Health: a Review of Recent Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfant weight gain is recognized to increase obesity risk across the lifespan. This review evaluates recent evidence relating growth in infancy to childhood, adolescent and adult body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors.Recent FindingsGreater weight or BMI gains in infancy increase both fat mass and fat-free mass in later life, but may preferentially contribute to central adiposity. Impacts of infant growth on cardiometabolic health are mixed, and most findings are attenuated after adjusting for current body size.SummaryInfant weight gain, length gain, and BMI changes are important in est...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Multi-etiological Perspective on Child Obesity Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe simple energy balance model of obesity is inconsistent with the available findings on obesity etiology, prevention, and treatment. Yet, the most commonly stated causes of pediatric obesity are predicated on this model. A more comprehensive biological model is needed upon which to base behavioral interventions aimed at obesity prevention. In this light, alternative etiologies are little investigated and thereby poorly understood.Recent FindingsThree candidate alternate etiologies are briefly presented: infectobesity, the gut microbiome, and circadian rhythms.SummaryBehavioral child obesity preve...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - January 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Patterns, Physical Activity, Sleep, and Risk for Dementia and Cognitive Decline
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiet, physical activity, and sleep are three major modifiable lifestyle factors. This selective review examines the evidence for strong and reliable associations between these three lifestyle factors and risk of dementia and cognitive decline, in an effort to assist clinicians with providing more informed answers to the common questions they face from patients.Recent FindingsCertain aspects of nutrition can decrease risk for dementia. Physical activity has also been associated with delayed or slower age-related cognitive decline. In addition, emerging evidence links sleep dysfunction and dementia, ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 9, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dairy Consumption and Cardiometabolic Diseases: Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analyses of Prospective Cohort Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDairy products contain both beneficial and harmful nutrients in relation to cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we provide the latest scientific evidence regarding the relationship between dairy products and cardiometabolic diseases by reviewing the literature and updating meta-analyses of observational studies.Recent FindingsWe updated our previous meta-analyses of cohort studies on type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke with nine studies and confirmed previous results. Total dairy and low-fat dairy (per 200  g/d) were inversely associated with a 3–4% lower risk of diabet...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Gene-Environment Interplay in Child Eating Behaviors: What the Role of “Nature” Means for the Effects of “Nurture”
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review describes the evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on child appetitive traits and suggests ways of thinking about how these interact and correlate to influence how a child eats.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence from social network analysis, and from longitudinal studies questioning the direction of association between parent feeding behaviors and child obesity risk, suggest that children ’s genes may shape the environmental risk for obesity that they are exposed to.SummaryThere is strong evidence that child appetitive traits are both heritable and shaped...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research