Established Human Cell Lines as Models to Study Anti-leukemic Effects of Flavonoids.
Authors: Sak K, Everaus H Abstract Despite the extensive work on pathological mechanisms and some recent advances in the treatment of different hematological malignancies, leukemia continues to present a significant challenge being frequently considered as incurable disease. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic agents with high efficacy and low toxicity is urgently needed to improve the overall survival rate of patients. In this comprehensive review article, the current knowledge about the anticancer activities of flavonoids as plant secondary polyphenolic metabolites in the most commonly used human esta...
Source: Current Genomics - May 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Restoring TRAIL Induced Apoptosis Using Naturopathy. Hercules Joins Hand with Nature to Triumph Over Lernaean Hydra.
Authors: Farooqi AA, Gadaleta CD, Ranieri G, Fayyaz S, Marech I Abstract Cancer is a multifaceted disease. Our deepened knowledge about genetic and biological mechanisms of cancer cells presents an opportunity to explore the inter-individual differences in the body's ability to metabolize and respond to different nutrients. It is becoming progressively more understandable that the deregulation of several signaling pathways and the alterations in apoptotic response are some of the major determinants that underpin carcinogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-mediated signaling has g...
Source: Current Genomics - May 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Anticancer Chemodiversity of Ranunculaceae Medicinal Plants: Molecular Mechanisms and Functions.
Authors: Hao DC, He CN, Shen J, Xiao PG Abstract The buttercup family, Ranunculaceae, comprising more than 2,200 species in at least 62 genera, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine since the beginning of human civilization. Various medicinal phytometabolites have been found in Ranunculaceae plants, many of which, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, and polysaccharides, have shown anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. Most concerns have been raised for two epiphany molecules, the monoterpene thymoquinone and the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. At least 17 genera ...
Source: Current Genomics - May 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Compounds From Celastraceae Targeting Cancer Pathways and Their Potential Application in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review.
Authors: Hernandes C, Pereira AMS, Severino P Abstract Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. It initiates on the epithelial lining of the upper aerodigestive tract, at most instances as a consequence of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options based on conventional therapies or targeted therapies under development have limited efficacy due to multiple genetic alterations typically found in this cancer type. Natural products derived from plants often possess biological activities that may be valuable in the development of new therapeutic agents for c...
Source: Current Genomics - May 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Natural Compounds as Anticancer Agents Targeting DNA Topoisomerases.
Authors: Jain CK, Majumder HK, Roychoudhury S Abstract DNA topoisomerases are important cellular enzymes found in almost all types of living cells (eukaryotic and prokaryotic). These enzymes are essential for various DNA metabolic processes e.g. replication, transcription, recombination, chromosomal decatenation etc. These enzymes are important molecular drug targets and inhibitors of these enzymes are widely used as effective anticancer and antibacterial drugs. However, topoisomerase inhibitors have some therapeutic limitations and they exert serious side effects during cancer chemotherapy. Thus, development of no...
Source: Current Genomics - May 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Management of Gene Variants of Unknown Significance: Analysis Method and Risk Assessment of the VHL Mutation p.P81S (c.241C > T).
CONCLUSION: The VHL p.P81S mutation is most likely a low-penetrant pathogenic variant predisposing to RCC development. We suggest the above-mentioned method for VUS evaluation with use of different methods, especially a variety of in silico methods and tumor tissue analysis. PMID: 28503092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - May 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Novel Statistical Approaches for High-dimensional Gene-gene and Gene-environment Interaction Analyses.
Authors: Lu Q PMID: 28479866 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - May 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Statistical Identification of Gene-gene Interactions Triggered By Nonlinear Environmental Modulation.
Authors: Liu X, Wang H, Cui Y Abstract Complex diseases are often caused by the function of multiple genes, gene-gene (G×G) interactions as well as gene-environment (G×E) interactions. G×G and G×E interactions are ubiquitous in nature. Empirical evidences have shown that the effect of G×G interaction on disease risk could be largely modified by environmental changes. Such a G×G×E triple interaction could be a potential contributing factor to phenotypic plasticity. Although the role of environmental factors moderating genetic influences on disease risk has been broadly recog...
Source: Current Genomics - May 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

GMDR: Versatile Software for Detecting Gene-Gene and Gene-Environ- ment Interactions Underlying Complex Traits.
Authors: Xu HM, Xu LF, Hou TT, Luo LF, Chen GB, Sun XW, Lou XY Abstract Identification of multifactor gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions underlying complex traits poses one of the great challenges to today's genetic study. Development of the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method provides a practicable solution to problems in detection of interactions. To exploit the opportunities brought by the availability of diverse data, it is in high demand to develop the corresponding GMDR software that can handle a breadth of phenotypes, such as continuous, count, dich...
Source: Current Genomics - May 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions Associated with Multiple Complex Traits with U-Statistics.
Authors: Li M, Wei C, Wen Y, Wang T, Lu Q Abstract Many complex diseases, such as psychiatric and behavioral disorders, are commonly characterized through various measurements that reflect physical, behavioral and psychological aspects of diseases. While it remains a great challenge to find a unified measurement to characterize a disease, the available multiple phenotypes can be analyzed jointly in the genetic association study. Simultaneously testing these phenotypes has many advantages, including considering different aspects of the disease in the analysis, and utilizing correlated phenotypes to improve the power...
Source: Current Genomics - May 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

A Genome-wide Association Analysis in Four Populations Reveals Strong Genetic Heterogeneity For Birth Weight.
Authors: Luo T, Liu X, Cui Y Abstract Low or high birth weight is one of the main causes for neonatal morbidity and mortality. They are also associated with adulthood chronic illness. Birth weight is a complex trait which is affected by baby's genes, maternal environments as well as the complex interactions between them. To understand the genetic basis of birth weight, we reanalyzed a genome-wide association study data set which consists of four populations, namely Thai, Afro-Caribbean, European, and Hispanic population with regular linear models. In addition to fit the data with parametric linear models, we fitted...
Source: Current Genomics - May 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Constructing Networks of Organelle Functional Modules in Arabidopsis.
We present a soft thresholding approach to construct networks of functional modules using gene expression datasets, in which nodes are strongly co-expressed genes that encode proteins residing in the same subcellular localization, and links represent strong inter-module connections. Our algorithm has three steps. First, we identify functional modules by analyzing gene expression data. Next, we use a self-adaptive approach to construct a mixed network of functional modules and genes. Finally, we link functional modules that are tightly connected in the mixed network. Analysis of experimental data from Arabidopsis demonstrat...
Source: Current Genomics - May 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Anticancer Natural Compounds: Molecular Mechanisms and Functions 
Part II.
Authors: Ratovitski EA PMID: 28367071 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Natural Compounds as Modulators of Cell Cycle Arrest: Application for Anticancer Chemotherapies.
Authors: Bailon-Moscoso N, Cevallos-Solorzano G, Romero-Benavides JC, Orellana MI Abstract Natural compounds from various plants, microorganisms and marine species play an important role in the discovery novel components that can be successfully used in numerous biomedical applications, including anticancer therapeutics. Since uncontrolled and rapid cell division is a hallmark of cancer, unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying mitosis is key to understanding how various natural compounds might function as inhibitors of cell cycle progression. A number of natural compounds that inhibit the cell cycle arrest h...
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Natural Compounds As Modulators of Non-apoptotic Cell Death in Cancer Cells.
Authors: Guamán-Ortiz LM, Orellana MI, Ratovitski EA Abstract Cell death is an innate capability of cells to be removed from microenvironment, if and when they are damaged by multiple stresses. Cell death is often regulated by multiple molecular pathways and mechanism, including apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. The molecular network underlying these processes is often intertwined and one pathway can dynamically shift to another one acquiring certain protein components, in particular upon treatment with various drugs. The strategy to treat human cancer ultimately relies on the ability of anticancer ther...
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Anti-Cancer Phytometabolites Targeting Cancer Stem Cells.
Authors: Torquato HF, Goettert MI, Justo GZ, Paredes-Gamero EJ Abstract Medicinal plants are a plentiful source of bioactive molecules with much structural diversity. In cancer treatment, molecules obtained from plants represent an attractive alternative to other treatments because several plant-derived compounds have exhibited lower toxicity and higher selectivity against cancer cells. In this review, we focus on the possible application of bioactive molecules obtained from plants against more primitive cell populations in cancers, cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are present in several kinds of tumors and are...
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Anticancer Natural Compounds as Epigenetic Modulators of Gene Expression.
Authors: Ratovitski EA Abstract Accumulating evidence shows that hallmarks of cancer include: "genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to inactivation of cancer suppressors, overexpression of oncogenes, deregulation of intracellular signaling cascades, alterations of cancer cell metabolism, failure to undergo cancer cell death, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, invasiveness, metastasis, deregulation of immune response and changes in cancer microenvironment, which underpin cancer development". Natural compounds as bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources (plants, fungi, marin...
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Genetic Imbalance in Patients with Cervical Artery Dissection.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that rare genetic imbalance affecting cardiovascular system development may contribute to the risk of CeAD. Validation of these findings in independent study populations is warranted. PMID: 28367076 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Protein and Genetic Composition of Four Chromatin Types in Drosophila melanogaster Cell Lines.
Authors: Boldyreva LV, Goncharov FP, Demakova OV, Zykova TY, Levitsky VG, Kolesnikov NN, Pindyurin AV, Semeshin VF, Zhimulev IF Abstract BACKGROUND: Recently, we analyzed genome-wide protein binding data for the Drosophila cell lines S2, Kc, BG3 and Cl.8 (modENCODE Consortium) and identified a set of 12 proteins enriched in the regions corresponding to interbands of salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Using these data, we developed a bioinformatic pipeline that partitioned the Drosophila genome into four chromatin types that we hereby refer to as aquamarine, lazurite, malachite and ruby. RESULTS: Here, we desc...
Source: Current Genomics - April 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Analytical Models For Genetics of Human Traits Influenced By Sex.
Authors: Lee C Abstract Analytical models usually assume an additive sex effect by treating it as a covariate to identify genetic associations with sex-influenced traits. Their underlying assumptions are violated by ignoring interactions of sex with genetic factors and heterogeneous genetic effects by sex. Methods to deal with the problems are compared and discussed in this article. Especially, heterogeneity of genetic variance by sex can be assessed employing a mixed model with genetic relationship matrix constructed from genome-wide nucleotide variant information. Estimating genetic architecture of each sex would...
Source: Current Genomics - February 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Hox Gene Collinearity: From A-P Patterning to Radially Symmetric Animals.
Authors: Papageorgiou S Abstract Hox gene collinearity relates the gene order of the Hox cluster in the chromosome (telomeric to centromeric end) with the serial activation of these genes in the ontogenetic units along the Anterior-Posterior embryonic axis. Although this collinearity property is well respected in bilaterians (e.g. vertebrates), it is violated in other animals. The A-P axis is established in the early embryo of the sea urchin. Subsequently, rotational symmetry is superimposed when the vestibula larva is formed. In analogy to the linear A-P case, it is here hypothesized that the circular topology of ...
Source: Current Genomics - February 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

P2X71513 A > C Polymorphism Confers Increased Risk of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: A Meta-analysis of Case-Control Studies.
In this study, a meta-analysis was done to assess this precise association. Online web databases, like PubMed (MEDLINE) and EMBASE were searched for pertinent reports showing association of P2X7 A1513C polymorphism with EPTB risk. To assess the strength of this association, we calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). A total of eight reports involving 2237controls and 594 EPTB cases were included in this study. Four genetic models, viz. allele (C vs. A: p=0.011; OR= 1.677, 95% CI = 1.125-2.501), homozygous (CC vs. AA: p = 0.053; OR= 2.362, 95% CI = 0.991-5.632), heterozygous (AC vs. AA: p...
Source: Current Genomics - February 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Reverse Genetics and High Throughput Sequencing Methodologies for Plant Functional Genomics.
Authors: Ben-Amar A, Daldoul S, Reustle GM, Krczal G, Mliki A Abstract In the post-genomic era, increasingly sophisticated genetic tools are being developed with the long-term goal of understanding how the coordinated activity of genes gives rise to a complex organism. With the advent of the next generation sequencing associated with effective computational approaches, wide variety of plant species have been fully sequenced giving a wealth of data sequence information on structure and organization of plant genomes. Since thousands of gene sequences are already known, recently developed functional genomics approache...
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

RNA Silencing in Plants: Mechanisms, Technologies and Applications in Horticultural Crops.
Authors: Guo Q, Liu Q, Smith NA, Liang G, Wang MB Abstract Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artific...
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Chromatin-Based Epigenetic Regulation of Plant Abiotic Stress Response.
Authors: Pandey G, Sharma N, Sahu PP, Prasad M Abstract Plants are continuously exposed to various abiotic and biotic factors limiting their growth and reproduction. In response, they need various sophisticated ways to adapt to adverse environmental conditions without compromising their proper development, reproductive success and eventually survival. This requires an intricate network to regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, including epigenetic switches. Changes in chromatin modifications such as DNA and histone methylation have been observed in plants upon exposure to sever...
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Mutagenesis and TILLING to Dissect Gene Function in Plants.
Authors: Tadele Z Abstract Mutagenesis can be random or targeted and occur by nature or artificially by humans. However, the bulk of mutagenesis employed in plants are random and caused by physical agents such as x-ray and gamma-ray or chemicals such as ethyl-methane sulfonate (EMS). Researchers are interested in first identifying these mutations and/or polymorphisms in the genome followed by investigating their effects in the plant function as well as their application in crop improvement. The high-throughput technique called TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genomes) has been already established and beco...
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Computational Tools for Genomic Studies in Plants.
Authors: Martinez M Abstract In recent years, the genomic sequence of numerous plant species including the main crop species has been determined. Computational tools have been developed to deal with the issue of which plant has been sequenced and where is the sequence hosted. In this mini-review, the databases for genome projects, the databases created to host species/clade projects and the databases developed to perform plant comparative genomics are revised. Because of their importance in modern research, an in-depth analysis of the plant comparative genomics databases has been performed. This comparative analysi...
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Toxicogenomics to Evaluate Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Environmental Chemicals Using the Zebrafish Model.
Authors: Caballero-Gallardo K, Olivero-Verbel J, Freeman JL Abstract The extent of our knowledge on the number of chemical compounds related to anthropogenic activities that can cause damage to the environment and to organisms is increasing. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are one group of potentially hazardous substances that include natural and synthetic chemicals and have the ability to mimic endogenous hormones, interfering with their biosynthesis, metabolism, and normal functions. Adverse effects associated with EDC exposure have been documented in aquatic biota and there is widespread interest in the ch...
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Meta-analysis Reveals No Association of DNMT3B -149 C > T Gene Polymorphism With Overall Cancer Risk.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis proposes that the DNMT3B -149 C>T polymorphism may not be an independent predisposing factor for the risk of cancer. However, larger sample size and expression studies are required to confirm the observation. PMID: 28217009 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Acknowledgements to reviewers.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO REVIEWERS. Curr Genomics. 2016 Dec;17(6):538 Authors: PMID: 28217010 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.
Authors: Thao NP, Tran VL Abstract Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation. We...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Crosstalk of Signaling Mechanisms Involved in Host Defense and Symbiosis Against Microorganisms in Rice.
Authors: Akamatsu A, Shimamoto K, Kawano Y Abstract Rice is one of the most important food crops, feeding about half population in the world. Rice pathogens cause enormous damage to rice production worldwide. In plant immunity research, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity. Using genome sequencing and molecular techniques, a number of new MAMPs and their receptors have been identified in the past two decades. Notably, the mechanisms for chitin perception via the lysine motif (LysM) doma...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms Regulating the Root System Response to Phosphate Deficiency in Arabidopsis.
Authors: Bouain N, Doumas P, Rouached H Abstract Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is the major form of P taken up from the soil by plant roots. It is well established that under Pi deficiency condition, plant roots undergo striking morphological changes; mainly a reduction in primary root length while increase in lateral root length as well as root hair length and density. This typical phenotypic change reflects complex interactions with other nutrients such as iron, and involves the activity of a large spectrum of plant hormones. Although, seve...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Channels in Stress Management in Plants.
Authors: Jha SK, Sharma M, Pandey GK Abstract Tolerance of plants to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses such as pathogen and herbivore attack, drought, salinity, cold and nutritional limitations is ensued by complex multimodule signaling pathways. The outcome of this complex signaling pathways results in adaptive responses by restoring the cellular homeostasis and thus promoting survival. Functions of many plant cation transporter and channel protein families such as glutamate receptor homologs (GLRs), cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) have been implicated in providing biotic and abiotic stress tolera...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Genome-assisted Breeding For Drought Resistance.
Authors: Khan A, Sovero V, Gemenet D Abstract Drought stress caused by unpredictable precipitation poses a major threat to food production worldwide, and its impact is only expected to increase with the further onset of climate change. Understanding the effect of drought stress on crops and plants' response is critical for developing improved varieties with stable high yield to fill a growing food gap from an increasing population depending on decreasing land and water resources. When a plant encounters drought stress, it may use multiple response types, depending on environmental conditions, drought stress intensi...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Genomics Approaches For Improving Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants.
Authors: Nongpiur RC, Singla-Pareek SL, Pareek A Abstract Salinity is one of the major factors which reduces crop production worldwide. Plant responses to salinity are highly complex and involve a plethora of genes. Due to its multigenicity, it has been difficult to attain a complete understanding of how plants respond to salinity. Genomics has progressed tremendously over the past decade and has played a crucial role towards providing necessary knowledge for crop improvement. Through genomics, we have been able to identify and characterize the genes involved in salinity stress response, map out signaling pathways ...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Exploring Genetic Diversity in Plants Using High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques.
Authors: Onda Y, Mochida K Abstract Food security has emerged as an urgent concern because of the rising world population. To meet the food demands of the near future, it is required to improve the productivity of various crops, not just of staple food crops. The genetic diversity among plant populations in a given species allows the plants to adapt to various environmental conditions. Such diversity could therefore yield valuable traits that could overcome the food-security challenges. To explore genetic diversity comprehensively and to rapidly identify useful genes and/or allele, advanced high-throughput sequenci...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Bioinformatics Approach in Plant Genomic Research.
Authors: Ong Q, Nguyen P, Thao NP, Le L Abstract The advance in genomics technology leads to the dramatic change in plant biology research. Plant biologists now easily access to enormous genomic data to deeply study plant high-density genetic variation at molecular level. Therefore, fully understanding and well manipulating bioinformatics tools to manage and analyze these data are essential in current plant genome research. Many plant genome databases have been established and continued expanding recently. Meanwhile, analytical methods based on bioinformatics are also well developed in many aspects of plant genomic...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Applications of DNA Technologies in Agriculture.
Authors: Fang J, Zhu X, Wang C, Shangguan L Abstract With the development of molecular biology, some DNA-based technologies have showed great potentiality in promoting the efficiency of crop breeding program, protecting germplasm resources, improving the quality and outputs of agricultural products, and protecting the eco-environment etc., making their roles in modern agriculture more and more important. To better understand the application of DNA technologies in agriculture, and achieve the goals to promote their utilities in modern agriculture, this paper describes, in some different way, the applications of mole...
Source: Current Genomics - August 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Plant Quality Improvement and Nutrigenomics.
Authors: Tran LS, Kumar R PMID: 27252583 [PubMed] (Source: Current Genomics)
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Ascribing Functions to Genes: Journey Towards Genetic Improvement of Rice Via Functional Genomics.
Authors: Mustafiz A, Kumari S, Karan R Abstract Rice, one of the most important cereal crops for mankind, feeds more than half the world population. Rice has been heralded as a model cereal owing to its small genome size, amenability to easy transformation, high synteny to other cereal crops and availability of complete genome sequence. Moreover, sequence wealth in rice is getting more refined and precise due to resequencing efforts. This humungous resource of sequence data has confronted research fraternity with a herculean challenge as well as an excellent opportunity to functionally validate expressed as well as...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Molecular Approaches to Understand Nutritional Potential of Coarse Cereals.
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R, Subramani R, Kumar R, W.hede DP Abstract Coarse grains are important group of crops that constitutes staple food for large population residing primarily in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Coarse grains are designated as nutri-cereals as they are rich in essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. In spite of having several nutritional virtues in coarse grain as mentioned above, there is still scope for improvement in quality parameters such as cooking qualities, modulation of nutritional constituents and reduction or elimination of anti-nutritional factors. Besides its use...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity.
Authors: Sytar O, Brestic M, Zivcak M, Tran LS Abstract Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added v...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Salinity Tolerance Mechanism of Economic Halophytes From Physiological to Molecular Hierarchy for Improving Food Quality.
Authors: Xu C, Tang X, Shao H, Wang H Abstract Soil salinity is becoming the key constraints factor to agricultural production. Therefore, the plant especially the crops possessing capacities of salt tolerance will be of great economic significance. The adaptation or tolerance of plant to salinity stress involves a series of physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms. Halophytes are the kind of organisms which acquire special salt tolerance mechanisms to respond to the salt tress and ensure normal growth and development under saline conditions in their lengthy evolutionary adaptation, so understanding how ha...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Transport of Calcium Ions into Mitochondria.
Authors: Xu Z, Zhang D, He X, Huang Y, Shao H Abstract To uptake calcium ions of mitochondria is of significant functional connotation for cells, because calcium ions in mitochondria are involved in energy production, regulatory signals transfer, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and even programmed cell death of apoptosis, further playing more roles in plant productivity and quality. Cytoplasmic calcium ions access into outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) from voltage dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) and were absorbed into inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) by mitochondrial calcium unip...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Improving Nutritional Quality of Plant Proteins Through Genetic Engineering.
Authors: Le DT, Chu HD, Le NQ Abstract Humans and animals are unable to synthesize essential amino acids such as branch chain amino acids methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and tryptophan (Trp). Therefore, these amino acids need to be supplied through the diets. Several essential amino acids are deficient or completely lacking among crops used for human food and animal feed. For example, soybean is deficient in Met; Lys and Trp are lacking in maize. In this mini review, we will first summarize the roles of essential amino acids in animal nutrition. Next, we will address the question: "What are the amino acids defi...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.
Authors: Kumar A, Sharma A, Upadhyaya KC Abstract Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewab...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Soybean Seed Development: Fatty Acid and Phytohormone Metabolism and Their Interactions.
Authors: Nguyen QT, Kisiala A, Andreas P, Neil Emery RJ, Narine S Abstract Vegetable oil utilization is determined by its fatty acid composition. In soybean and other grain crops, during the seed development oil accumulation is important trait for value in food or industrial applications. Seed development is relatively short and sensitive to unfavorable abiotic conditions. These stresses can lead to a numerous undesirable qualitative as well as quantitative changes in fatty acid production. Fatty acid manipulation which targets a higher content of a specific single fatty acid for food or industrial application has ...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

Nutrigenomics and its Impact on Life Style Associated Metabolic Diseases.
Authors: Rana S, Kumar S, Rathore N, Padwad Y, Bhushana S Abstract Post-human genome revelation observes the emergence of 'Nutigenomics' as one of the exciting scientific advancement influencing mankind around the world. Food or more precisely 'nutrition' has the major impact in defining the cause-response interaction between nutrient (diet) and human health. In addition to substantial understanding of nutrition-human-health interaction, bases of 'nutrigenomic' development foster on advent in transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics as well as insight into food as health supplement. Interaction of sel...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review on the Genetic Regulation of Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity.
Authors: Herrera-Pérez Z, Gretz N, Dweep H Abstract Cisplatin (CDDP) is a well-known antineoplastic drug which has been extensively utilized over the last decades in the treatment of numerous kinds of tumors. However, CDDP induces a wide range of toxicities in a dose-dependent manner, among which nephrotoxicity is of particular importance. Still, the mechanism of CDDP-induced renal damage is not completely understood; moreover, the knowledge about the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the nephrotoxic response is still unknown. miRNAs are known to interact with the representative members of a diverse range of reg...
Source: Current Genomics - June 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research