Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity of Terpenes for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarized the studies on the usage of terpenes and some essential oils on mold and bacterial concentrations in air samples. There was strong action of the terpenes product to decrease total microbial load. The investigation of antifungal activity in indoor environments validates the translation of laboratory-based outcomes showing a statistically significant reduction of bacterial and fungal concentration in the tested sites.Recent FindingsTerpenes have recently generated interest for their in vitro antimicrobial efficacy, but have not been widely evaluated in situ. There have been limited stud...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mycetomas in the Endemic Area of Argentina
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the different characteristics of mycetoma in the endemic area of Argentina and its etiological agents, using mainly data from Santiago del Estero and Salta provinces. Argentina is not considered an important endemic area, but it possesses a large documented casuistry and many non-published cases of patients.Recent FindingsSantiago del Estero presents the greatest quantity of mycetoma cases of the country, mainly byActinomadura madurae. The First Argentinian Mycetoma Reunion took place in 2016, which was the starting point to train medics and healthcare professionals of the province, whi...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents in Neonates and Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes current knowledge on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of various formulations of amphotericin B, triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole), and echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) in the pediatric population.Recent FindingsThe PD indices associated with in vivo outcome have been defined for all antifungal agents. PK parameters have been studied across all range of ages; however, data often originate from small patient series, particularly regarding neonates and young infants. Dose-exposure simulations in...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Conidiobolomycosis in Pediatric Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights the important features of conidiobolomycosis infection and describes its presentation in pediatric population. The importance of a broaden differential diagnosis to include fungal infections taking into account the geographical location and history of exposure.Recent FindingsThere is evidence of conidiobolomycosis affecting not only immunocompetent hosts but also more susceptible individuals that can present with atypical or systemic/disseminated disease, including children.SummaryConidiobolomycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by species of the generaConidiobolus. It af...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sino-Orbital Invasive Fungal Infections in Immunocompetent Hosts
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes the clinical presentation, predisposing factors, pathophysiology, mycology, diagnosis, and therapy of sino-orbital invasive fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Recent advances published in the literature were reviewed with special consideration of current diagnostic methods and treatment regimens.Recent FindingsOwing to the rarity of this condition literature is scarce. Majority of the studies are from tropical countries such as India where the disease is relatively more common. Treatment strategies are variable and response to medical treatment is favorable in s...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis in Liver Transplant Candidates and Recipients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical outcomes of cryptococcal infections in patients with advanced liver disease or liver transplantation.Recent FindingsCryptococcal infections in patients with advanced liver disease (ALD) are uncommon but associated with high mortality. Less than 10% of patients in a prospective study of non-HIV-infected cryptococcal meningitis patients had ALD. Significantly, fever was uncommon, resulting in delays in diagnosis. Modalities for diagnosing cryptococcal infections include the rapid lateral flow cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) assay from...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Invasive Phaeohyphomycosis in Immunocompetent Hosts
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhaeohyphomycosis, or invasive disease caused by melanized fungi is an uncommon infection in humans, usually in immunocompromised patients. Large case reviews reveal infections in patients without typical risk factors. We examine the data regarding these infections in immunocompetent patients.Recent FindingsCaspase-associated recruitment domain-9 (CARD-9) mutations have been proposed as a risk factor that would predispose previously healthy individuals to develop invasive fungal disease. Several specific CARD-9 mutations have been identified with the highest burden of infection in individuals with ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candida Onychomycosis: an Old Problem in Modern Times
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review summarizes the main findings in theCandida onychomycosis (CO) literature as well as provides data for clinical practice.Recent FindingsDue to the increase in the frequency of immunosuppression-generating diseases, CO has been observed to be an entry route for systemic infections that worsen the prognosis of these patients.SummaryOnychomycosis are common fungal nail infections, and the main cause is related to dermatophytes. The second cause of onychomycosis is related toCandida, frequently associated with both local and systemic immune disturbances.Candida onychomycosis (CO) is obse...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emerging Fungal Cutaneous Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes epidemiological risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common emerging fungal infections that are associated with cutaneous manifestations, in immunocompromised patients including solid organ transplant and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.Recent FindingsImmunocompromised patients including transplant recipients are at an increased risk of invasive fungal disease due to emerging fungi, such as mucormycetes andScedosporium spp. Although cutaneous involvement is common, there is a great degree of variation in clinical manifestations, diagnost...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candida Infections in Immunocompetent Hosts: Pathogenesis and Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewCandida is a common commensal of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract causing infections in immunocompromised hosts. However,Candida has a variety of virulence factors and fitness attribute which make it capable of infecting even persons with otherwise intact immune system, especially those in critical care settings and with underlying co-morbidities. In this review, we describe the mechanisms behind the pathogenesis and diagnosis ofCandida infections in such hosts.Recent FindingsBoth noninvasive and invasive infections can be seen especially in critically ill, hospitalized patients. The g...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cutaneous Fungal Infections in Left Ventricular Assist Device Recipients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes medical literature regarding fungal skin and soft tissue infections in recipients of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs).Recent FindingsSuperficial fungal infections at the exit site are likely under-reported. Driveline-related fungal infections are well-described, with total parenteral nutrition as a known risk factor. They are typically due to yeast and may require systemic antifungal therapy or surgery, often followed by long-term suppression. Invasive cutaneous infections are rare and often lethal, frequently with disseminated infection. These typically require aggres...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Innovative Approaches for Histoplasma Detection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights innovative approaches for histoplasmosis detection using laboratory technologies published in the past 6  years.Recent FindingsMicroscopy and culture are the gold standards for confirming the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, but these can be slow, and their sensitivity and specificity can vary. It is well known that rapid diagnosis is necessary to save lives. Newer technologies based on detection of antibodies, antigens, and DNA can enable rapid and accurate clinical diagnosis.SummaryBased on a systematic review of the literature and evaluation of methodologies in five areas...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antifungal Penetration and Distribution into Organs and Tissue
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProperties of penetration of antifungals into the body compartments have been reviewed extensively by Felton et al. in 2014, so the goal of this review was to identify new data, including information on ibrexafungerp and rezafungin, in order to provide an updated pharmacotherapy approach in difficult-to-treat infections.Recent FindingsAlong with early identification and early initiation of treatment, assuring sufficient distribution into the infected site is essential for successful therapy. Although there are a limited number, the penetration and distribution of antifungals into organs and tissue ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Implications of Evolving and Emerging Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Research for Triazoles and Echinocandins
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClinicians should be encouraged to use pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) studies to optimize antifungal drug dosing in the absence of robust comparative effectiveness data or in cases where evidence of causality has not yet been firmly established. The purpose of this article is to review how new triazole and echinocandin PK-PD studies have contributed to our current understanding of antifungal selection and dose optimization against invasive fungal infections. Emerging infections such asC. auris and novel antifungal drugs such as rezafungin will also be highlighted. Future research endeavors...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis in Intensive Care Unit Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInvasive aspergillosis is a frequent opportunistic infection in the intensive care unit. Diagnostic strategies within this setting are not well-defined.Recent FindingsIn the absence of histopathological proof, estimation of likelihood of disease is required, based on a combination of host factors with clinical, microbiological and radiologic findings. Importantly, the at-risk critically ill population has expanded beyond the classical immunosuppressed patients. Clinical features are non-specific, yet overt organ failure is associated with an increased risk and should raise the suspicion of invasive...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Review of the Current Management of Urinary Tract Infections due to Fluconazole-Resistant and Non-Albicans Candida Species
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe management of fungal infections is challenging, especially given the continued increase in fluconazole resistance and prevalence of non-albicansCandida spp. Urinary tract infections due to non-albicans and fluconazole-resistantCandida are particularly problematic given the uncertainty in determining true infection from colonization and the limited number of antifungal agents with adequate penetration to the site of infection. While our understanding of mechanisms of resistance and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics continues to improve, it is combatted by the emergence of novel, difficult-to...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antifungal and Oral Anticancer Therapy Drug Interactions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the past 5  years, there has been a significant expansion in the oncology arsenal. These new oncolytic therapies are being incorporated with traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy or used as single-agent therapy. Disease states such as acute and chronic leukemias have seen some the largest therapy expansion in de cades. Frequently, these patients often necessitate the use of antifungals in either the prophylaxis or treatment setting. This review provides a brief overview of recently approved oncolytic therapies and the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that clinicians encounter when managing antifu...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

White Piedra, a Rare Superficial Mycosis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhite piedra (WP) is a rare superficial mycosis that has been poorly described in the literature. This review aims to summarize our current understanding ofTrichosporon spp. infection and WP.Recent FindingsTrichosporon spp. are part of the human skin microbiome. The mechanism of hair shaft infection and nodule ultrastructure has been identified. Trichoscopy is an important diagnostic tool. Besides the classical WP signs, atypical presentations and concomitant diseases have also been described. Combination of systemic and topical antifungals is more effective than topical therapy alone.SummaryMost c...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Updates in the Treatment of Breakthrough Mold Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients on antifungal therapy who develop breakthrough mold infections pose significant treatment challenges for clinicians. Treatment of these infections demands a multimodal approach, including a thorough patient assessment, immune restoration, and evaluation for nonadherence and drug –drug interactions. However, limited clinical trial data are available to guide therapeutic decision-making.Recent FindingsOrganisms associated with breakthrough mold infection have historically includedAspergillus species and the Mucorales; however, rare and resistant molds are increasing in prevalence. Trea...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - April 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Combat Trauma –Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights research from the past 5  years on combat trauma-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) with a focus on risk stratification to aid patient management, microbiology, and diagnostics.Recent FindingsA revised classification scheme stratifies wounds into three risk groups: IFI, high suspicion of IFI, and low suspicion of IFI. This stratification is based on persistence of wound necrosis and laboratory fungal evidence, presence of signs/symptoms of deep soft-tissue infections, and the need for antifungals. Use of this classification could allow for prioritization of ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Invasive Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System in Immune-Competent Hosts
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur more commonly in immunosuppressed individuals. However, they are being recognized in apparently immune-competent hosts in recent times. Understanding the risk factors, characters of the fungus, and pathogenesis is important.Recent FindingsFungal infections of CNS in apparently immune-competent hosts are described following neurosurgical procedures, head trauma, patients exposed to contaminated devices/drugs, or natural disasters. Disruption of the meninges and blood-brain barrier and direct inoculation of the fungal spores into the subarac...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - April 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Skin Infections Caused by Emerging Candida Species
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkin infections caused by yeasts are becoming more frequent, mainly the ones associated withCandida albicans. However, the non-albicansCandida species are emerging with new species that have lower susceptibility and greater resistance to antifungal agents. Therefore, the objective of this review is to learn about the newCandida emerging species that are causing skin infections, their diagnosis, and treatment.Recent FindingsNew emerging species that cause skin disease have been found such asC. duobushaemulonii,C. africana, andC. auris, the latter being a health problem due to its difficult identific...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - March 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Azole-Resistant Aspergillus and Echinocandin-Resistant Candida : What Are the Treatment Options?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes current treatment options for echinocandin-resistantCandida spp. (ERC) and azole-resistantAspergillus fumigatus (ARAF), emphasizing recent in vitro/in vivo data, clinical reports, and consensus statements.Recent FindingsAdvances in ERC and ARAF treatment are limited to specific antifungal combinations and dose optimization but remain reliant on amphotericin products. Although novel antifungals may provide breakthroughs in the treatment of resistant fungi, these agents are not yet available. Early identification and appropriate treatment remain a paramount, albeit elusive, tas...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - March 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Coccidioidomycosis in Children and Adolescents: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection endemic in Southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, Central and South America. Coccidioidal infection is not well characterized in pediatric population; but due to an increasing incidence in this age group, a special interest had surged to further describe clinical findings, treatment and clinical course of pediatric patients with coccidioidomycosis.Recent FindingsIn the last few years new data about coccidioidomycosis in children and adolescents has been published, including the report of increasing incidence in general population, making a hig...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - March 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Should Etest MICs for Yeasts Be Categorized by Reference (BPs/ECVs) or by Etest (ECVs) Cutoffs as Determinants of Emerging Resistance?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the potential clinical usefulness of available Etest echinocandin and amphotericin B ECVs in identifying non-WT-type yeasts.Recent FindingsIn lieu of breakpoints (predictors of clinical response), Etest echinocandin, triazoles, and amphotericin B ECVs have been recently established for certainCandida spp. Reference BPs are only available for echinocandins and triazoles and someCandida spp. The categorical agreement between Etest and reference MICs was mostly evaluated before adjustment of CLSI triazole/echinocandin BPs to current values or using various amphotericin B cutoffs.SummaryEt...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - February 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Coccidioides spp. Strains Isolated from Patients in the Argentine Republic
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequencing ofCoccidioides spp. strains isolated in the endemic region of coccidioidomycosis in Argentina, to be able to associate the presence of a specific fungal genotype with a specific geographical region.Recent FindingsRecent studies have focused on the identification and genetic variability between and intraspecies as a tool to contribute to the coccidioidomycosis epidemiology; these findings may contribute to the specific identification of circulating strains ofCoccidioides spp. in Argentina.SummaryCoccidioides imm...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - February 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnosis, Burden and Mortality of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Venezuela
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of diagnosis, burden, and mortality of pneumocystosis orPneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in Venezuela.Recent FindingsHistorically, PCP diagnosis has been clinical and histopathological, but diagnosis based on PCP clinical suspicion, without confirmation of laboratory detection ofP. jirovecii, causes a significant negative impact on both morbidity and mortality of this disease. Risk estimation for PCP and mortality rates according to official records contrasts with the scarce epidemiological data and makes more difficult to have a real...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 31, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Could Fungicides Lead to Azole Drug Resistance in a Cross-Resistance Manner among Environmental Cryptococcus Strains?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcquired resistance among fungal strains is a growing concern. The reasons for the emergence of this phenomenon, with great clinical implications, are only partially explained and related to the frequent use of fluconazole prophylaxis or therapeutic regimens in medical practice, and evidence of environmental origin of resistance is warranted.Recent FindingsSoil exposed to azole fungicides may select acquired resistant fungal strains and improve the proliferation and maintenance of phenotypes in this environment. So far, the greatest focus on cross-resistance in relation to azoles is with genusAsper...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Tools for Invasive Fungal Disease Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review has incorporated the knowledge and experience of the leads of each of the laboratory working parties of the fungal PCR initiative in order to provide up-to-date information on the performance and developments of PCR methods for the detection of fungi that commonly cause invasive fungal disease (IFD).Recent FindingsMolecular diagnosis of IFD enhances the current repertoire of mycological investigations. Providing superior sensitivity and turn-around-time over classical approaches, yet maintaining the benefits of classical tests (e.g. species level identification and identifying resistanc...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An Approach to Suspected Invasive Fungal Infection in Patients with Hematologic Malignancy and HCT Recipients with Persistent Neutropenic Fever Despite Mold-Active Prophylaxis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review offers an approach to managing suspected invasive fungal infection (IFI) in a febrile neutropenic patient with hematologic malignancy or hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) while on mold-active prophylaxis. We take into consideration host characteristics, new diagnostic tools, and available therapeutics.Recent FindingsDespite use of anti-Aspergillus prophylactic agents, invasive aspergillosis is the most commonly reported IFI breaking through common prophylactic agents including the newest azole, isavuconazole. While more fungal diagnostic modalities are available, how to best inco...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Usefulness of Yeast Cell Counting and Lack of Clinical Correlation of the Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Results in Management of Aids-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCryptococcal meningitis is one of the most seriously opportunistic infections in people living with HIV. We evaluated clinical and laboratorial features (minimum inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole, initial fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid) and risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality.Recent FindingsThere is no good evidence for the use of minimum inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole in routine practice for the management of cryptococcosis patients. Counting yeast cells at cerebrospinal fluid can predict positive culture by not death.SummaryData from 46 cryptococcal meningi...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Venezuela
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of pneumocystosis orPneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in Venezuela, by an updated review of the information currently available.Recent FindingsThe PCP epidemiology in Venezuela is not formally known. There is no national surveillance program for mycosis, and systemic mycoses are not mandatory notification diseases. Efforts made to record the disease in our country have not been sufficient; therefore, there is a sub-registry. All the information carried out prevents comparisons with other reports due to the variation...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Applying Pharmacogenomics to Antifungal Selection and Dosing: Are We There Yet?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent literature for applying pharmacogenomics to antifungal selection and dosing, providing an approach to implementing antifungal pharmacogenomics in clinical practice.Recent FindingsThe Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium published guidelines onCYP2C19 and voriconazole, with recommendations to use alternative antifungals or adjust voriconazole dose with close therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Recent studies demonstrate an association betweenCYP2C19 phenotype and voriconazole levels, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. Additionally,CYP2C19-guided preemp...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Combination Therapy for Invasive Fungal Infections
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate relevant literature on combination antifungal therapy for invasive fungal infections (IFIs).Recent FindingsCryptococcal meningitis has the largest body and highest quality in support of combination therapy with amphotericin B and flucytosine. More recent data in treatment of invasive aspergillosis suggest combination therapy with voriconazole and echinocandins may be effective in select patients. Quality studies are needed to define combination therapy in rare mold infections.SummaryMultiple strategies have been employed to optimize treatm...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Extrapolating Antifungal Animal Data to Humans —Is It Reliable?
This article aimed to review animal models of antifungals and identifies human literature to assess if the extrapolation of results is reliable.Recent FindingsAnimal studies have helped identify area under the concentration curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio targets for new drugs and formulations such as isavuconazole and delayed-release posaconazole that have translated to successful outcomes in humans. Models have also been influential in the identification of possible combination therapies for the treatment of aspergillosis, such as voriconazole and echinocandins. However, challenges are endured with animal...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Small-Molecule Protein Kinases Inhibitors and the Risk of Fungal Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses fungal infections associated with licenced small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors. For each major drug class, the mechanism of action and targeted pathways and the impact on host defence against fungi are described.Recent FindingsProtein kinase inhibitors are successfully used in the treatment of malignancies and immune-mediated diseases, targeting signalling pathways for a broad spectrum of cytokines and growth-stimuli. These agents predispose to fungal infections by the suppression of integral components of the adaptive and innate immune response.SummaryThe greatest risk o...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - December 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Use of Whole Genome and Next-Generation Sequencing in the Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines how next-generation nucleic acid sequencing (NGS) is being used in the diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD) and how well its implementation compares to PCR-based diagnosis. The comparison allows for the assessment of the advantages and potential limitations of NGS in the diagnosis of IFD.Recent FindingsNGS is established as a method for sequencing of microbial genomes. It is increasingly being tested as a direct diagnostic method from various sample types including samples such as plasma, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens, and bronchoalveolar lavage. In these...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

From Culture to Fungal Biomarkers: the Diagnostic Route of Fungal Infections in Children with Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of the diagnostic tests available to identify invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children with a primary immunodeficiency and to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of those tests.Recent FindingsNovel tools to aid the diagnosis of IFD, such as fungal PCRs and lateral flow devices (forAspergillus spp.), are emerging. However, the paucity of high-quality, multicentre clinical trials evaluating the performance of these diagnostic tools, particularly in the paediatric cohort of interest, remains a challenge. Children with primary immunodeficiencies are seldom referenced ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Manaus Declaration: Current Situation of Histoplasmosis in the Americas, Report of the II Regional Meeting of the International Histoplasmosis Advocacy Group
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this report is to summarize the conclusions of the II Regional Meeting on Histoplasmosis in the Americas held in Manaus, Brazil, on March 22 –24, 2019.Recent FindingsPersons living with advanced HIV are at high risk for developing histoplasmosis. Clinical signs and symptoms of this disease are often non-specific, making it difficult to establish a diagnosis. Although with the recent technological advances, in vitro diagnostics and medicines for histoplasmosis are often not available in many regions around the world. In addition, histoplasmosis is often not included in HIV care and ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genetic Variation and Fungal Infection Risk: State of the Art
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFungal infections cause significant mortality in patients with acquired immunodeficiencies including AIDS, hematological malignancies, transplantation, and receipt of corticosteroids, biologics or small-molecule kinase inhibitors that impair key immune pathways. The contribution of several such pathways in antifungal immunity has been uncovered by inherited immunodeficiencies featuring profound fungal susceptibility. Furthermore, the risk of fungal infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiencies may be modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune-related genes. This review o...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Updates on the Treatment of Non- Aspergillus Hyaline Mold Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes both the recent and relevant studies about the treatment of non-Aspergillus hyaline molds.Recent FindingsGiven the rarity of these infections, there have been no large randomized clinical trials regarding the most effective antifungal therapy.SummaryAlthough there are more data for the treatment ofFusarium andScedosporium, there are limited data with case reports that address the other rare hyalohyphomycetes. As we develop improved diagnostic techniques and larger fungal registries, we may be able to determine efficacious treatment modalities. We hope that future research wil...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnostic Aspects of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Present and New Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is important since many diseases have a similar appearance, but require different treatment. This review presents the well-established diagnostic criteria and new laboratory diagnostic approaches that have been evaluated for the diagnosis of this condition.Recent FindingsRespiratory fungal culture is insensitive for CPA diagnosis. There are many new tests available, especially new platforms to detectAspergillus IgG. The most recent innovation is a lateral flow device, a point-of-care test that can be used in resource-constrained settings. Chest rad...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Adult Tinea Capitis: a Clinical Entity in Increasing Frequency
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the fungal literature currently available for adult tinea capitis (ATC), as well as providing data for clinical practice.Recent FindingsAvailable studies in ATC are scarce; however, they provide essential information for treating ATC.SummaryTreatment of TC is effective; however, it needs a minimum of 1  month to watch clinical efficacy. Systemic treatment is often needed to favor drug penetration to the deepest part of the hair follicle. The newest oral antifungal has higher efficacy rates than conventional therapy, as well as much shorter duration of treatment but at hi...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Update on the Diagnosis of Candidemia and Invasive Candidiasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the fungal diagnostic tests and clinical prediction rules available for use in patients at risk for developing invasive candidiasis (IC). The advantages and limitations of each method is described based on available literature.Recent FindingsAvailable studies show elevated sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostic tests such as T2Candida and fungal sequencing. They still remain to be incorporated into routine clinical practice.SummaryThe use B-D glucan, a major fungal wall component, is a sensitive tool to diagnose IC when consecutive positive results are found. Consecu...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Congenital Cutaneous Candidiasis: Uncommon Entity or Underdiagnosed?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe have created a general review of the disease in this article, especially of the clinical features, diagnosis, new treatments and preventive measures.SummaryCongenital cutaneous candidiasis is a vertically transmitted fungal infection which affects term and premature newborn. It is considered as an underdiagnosed pathology, and infection caused byCandida albicans is considered the most common aetiology.Recent FindingsClinically characterized by erythematous papular lesions and pustules with collarette scale. It can also affect other organs and systems by causing an invasive fungal infection. Diag...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

AIDS-Related Mycoses in the Paediatric Population
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFungal infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children particularly in developing countries where there is lack of skilled personnel and infrastructure to make the appropriate diagnosis. This is further compounded by poor availability and accessibility of the antifungals needed to treat these infections. The purpose of this review is to highlight the paucity of data on AIDS-related mycoses in the paediatric age group and make appropriate recommendations to address challenges associated with mycoses in this population.Recent FindingsThese infections are categorise...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Update of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Patients
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewCandida albicans vulvovaginitis is one of the most frequent symptomatic infections in women and its incidence increases in reproductive age and pregnancy. Currently there are more specific and sensitive tests to identifyCandida species that are resistant to antifungal agents, such as PCR and MALDI TOF MS, in order to improve prognosis.Recent FindingsThe genusCandida is part of the microbiota in humans; however, many species can become pathogenic. Vulvovaginitis caused by non-albicansCandida are becoming very important due to their high levels of antifungal resistance, which makes treatment diff...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tinea Gladiatorum: an Update
This article summarizes the main epidemiological characteristics of tinea gladiatorum, new outbreaks that have been presented over the years, and theories about their transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic measures.Recent FindingsDespite the controversy, recent studies defined that the transmission of tinea gladiatorum is by skin-to-skin contact and through fomites. Once the infection is acquired, it is difficult to control due to its rapid dissemination to other wrestlers, so great importance has been taken to prevention.SummaryDespite dermatophytosis still being considered as one of the major public health ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fungal Necrotizing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the medical literature regarding fungal necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (NSTI). The available epidemiologic, microbiologic, treatment, and outcome data are presented by the most common causal organisms of this disease process.Recent FindingsWith the exception of cutaneous mucormycosis, which often progresses to necrotizing infection, clinical data for other fungal NSTI are largely limited to case reports and small case series. Fungal NSTI are rare but some data suggests that incidence may be increasing. These infections occur in both immunocompromised and immunoco...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Chromoblastomycosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
AbstractPurpose of reviewThere is growing recognition of melanized fungi as uncommon but important causes of infection among solid organ transplant recipients. Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis exist at opposing ends of the spectrum of disease caused by these fungi. We aim to systematically review the reports of chromoblastomycosis among transplant recipients to assess for trends in epidemiology and clinical outcomes.Recent FindingsWe identified 19 reported cases of histologically confirmed chromoblastomycosis among solid organ transplant recipients published between 1985 and 2018. Despite these patients ’ im...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research