Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of the increased range of patient cohorts at risk ofPneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and describe typical clinical presentations together with advances in diagnostic assays and strategies.Recent FindingsThe range of immuno-compromised patients at risk of PCP continues to expand. Apart from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, those with solid tumours or suffering from haematological malignancy, solid organ transplant recipients or with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions receiving immuno-modulating therapies and pati...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Onychomycosis in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs both onychomycosis and HIV/AIDS are frequently encountered, we aimed to make a review of the existent information to this moment, including classification, evaluation and treatment.Recent FindingsThe new description of dermatophytes will surely originate changes in the classification and probably in the therapeutic approach. Also, we must be watchful for the modifications that may develop in this pathology with the newer antirretrovirals which are in constant evolution and could modify the patients ’ response to dermatophytosis.SummaryAt this moment, we know that onychomycosis is very comm...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - August 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Human Lung Mycobiome in Chronic Respiratory Disease: Limitations of Methods and Our Current Understanding
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review summarises the characteristics of the lung mycobiome in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and fungal lung diseases. We have also reviewed the limitations of the current methods in mycobiome studies.Recent FindingsAvailable studies in the impacts of the mycobiome in chronic and fungal lung diseases are scarce and comparison of the available studies is hindered by heterogeneity in the sample sizes, methods and patient selection.SummaryThe impact of the diversity and composition of the lung mycobiome in chronic and fungal lung diseases is poorly understood. Most studies involv...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - August 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical Aspects of Immune Damage in Cryptococcosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo perform an extensive review of recent literature and provide an update on the current epidemiology, clinical features, and management of cryptococcal disease with a focus on the differences between patients depending on their immune status.Recent FindingsEmerging literature has highlighted the inflammatory pathophysiology and varied manifestations of cryptococcal infections in patients who are apparently healthy but paradoxically have a more critical clinical course compared with their immunosuppressed counterparts.SummaryNon-HIV cryptococcal meningitis has greater mortality compared with that s...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: (New) Methods for Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus Resistance in Clinical Samples
Funding information was incomplete. The correct information is given below. (Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports)
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fungal Infections with Ibrutinib and Other Small-Molecule Kinase Inhibitors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSmall-molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) have revolutionized the management of malignant and autoimmune disorders. Emerging clinical reports point towards an increased risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in patients treated with certain SMKIs. In this mini-review, we highlight representative examples of SMKIs that have been associated with or are expected to give rise to IFIs.Recent FindingsThe clinical use of the Bruton ’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib as well as other FDA-approved SMKIs has been associated with IFIs. The fungal infection susceptibility associated with the clini...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - July 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genetic Regulation of the Host-Fungus Interaction in the Pathogenesis of Aspergillosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is significant interindividual variability in the development and progression of fungal diseases, most notably invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The integration of individual traits into clinically valid procedures to predict the risk and progression of infection, and the efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis and therapy, will change the current healthcare landscape regarding the management of patients at risk of IPA and, likely, other fungal infections.Recent FindingsOver the last decade, an expanding number of common polymorphisms associated with IPA have been reported, adding to the inf...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

(New) Methods for Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus Resistance in Clinical Samples
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of invasive aspergillosis has increased substantially over the past few decades, accompanied by a change in susceptibility patterns ofAspergillus fumigatus with increasing resistance observed against triazole antifungals, including voriconazole and isavuconazole, the most commonly used antifungal agents for the disease. Culture-based methods for determining triazole resistance are still the gold standard but are time consuming and lack sensitivity. We sought to provide an update on non-culture-based methods for detecting resistance patterns toAspergillus.Recent FindingsNew molecular-b...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cryptococcal Pathogenicity and Morphogenesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to give an overall idea ofCryptococcus biology paying special attention to its capacity to adapt through its morphogenetic program to the hostile host environment. This morphogenetic program consists of a significant increase in capsule size and the formation of Titan cells.Recent FindingsResearch on Titan cells had been hampered by the need of obtaining these cells from the lungs of infected mice. The production of Titan cells in vitro has supposed a major step in understanding the role of this morphotype in the virulence ofCryptococcus.SummaryIn this regard,Cryptococcus ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Histoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Clinical Manifestations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights the epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis.Recent FindingsThere is an increasing awareness of histoplasmosis in Central and South America in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and deaths from histoplasmosis in this region may outnumber deaths from tuberculosis. Diagnosis in this region is hampered by lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Growth ofH. capsulatum in culture is definitive, but takes weeks. In areas in which antigen testing is available, this has become an important rapid diagnostic t...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Updates in Ocular Antifungal Pharmacotherapy: Formulation and Clinical Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, a compilation on the current antifungal pharmacotherapy is discussed, with emphases on the updates in the formulation and clinical approaches of the routinely used antifungal drugs in ocular therapy.Recent FindingsNatamycin (Natacyn ® eye drops) remains the only approved medication in the management of ocular fungal infections. This monotherapy shows therapeutic outcomes in superficial ocular fungal infections, but in case of deep-seated mycoses or endophthalmitis, successful therapeutic outcomes are infrequent, as a result of which alternative therapies are sought. In such case...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Non- Aspergillus Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewManagement ofAspergillus infection in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients remains a challenge even in new azoles era. However, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of non-Aspergillus fungal infection (NAFI) in CGD setting are poorly described.Recent FindingsNAFI appears to be rare in CGD patients and receiving antifungal prophylaxis. Clinical presentation is not specific of fungal species and patients often suffer from mild disease with prolonged course. While candidiasis and mucormycosis are also common in other immunocompromised population, infections caused byPhellinus tropicalis,Tri...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Usefulness of Antifungal Reference In Vitro Susceptibility Tests as a Guide in Therapeutic Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides information on the utility of reference antifungal susceptibility testing methods in the clinical setting.Recent FindingsClinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)/European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints (BPs) as predictors of therapy response (reported as either “cured” or “failure”) and epidemiological cutoff endpoints (ECVs/ECOFFS) of mutants (harboring specific resistance mechanisms) have been established.SummaryAlthough ECVs are available for other species and agents and for commercial methods, only reference ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dosing Antifungals in Obesity: a Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the available evidence regarding antifungal dosing in obese adults as well as to provide meaningful guidance on the dosing of each antifungal agent in obese patients.Recent FindingsThe pharmacokinetic evidence regarding dosing antifungal agents in obesity is limited. Fluconazole ’s volume of distribution (VD) is influenced by BMI. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies provide some insights into dosing voriconazole in obesity, but not with posaconazole. Isavuconazole seems to be unaffected by weight. The available data for echinocandins suggests that increased doses ar e likel...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - February 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mucormycosis: Pathogenesis and Pathology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection associated with high mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis and the resultant pathology in various organs enables to improve early diagnosis and treatment options.Recent FindingsAn immunocompetent host with intact skin/mucosal barrier and innate immunity is usually resistant to the infection; however, natural disasters and trauma account for the disease in healthy hosts. Neutropenia, immunosuppression, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and other factors impair host defenses and make increased serum iron available to the pathogen for its growth. The fu...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Emerging Fungal Infections in ICU
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlobally, a change has been noticed in the epidemiology of fungal infections in the intensive care units (ICUs). The current review provides an insight into the current epidemiology of emerging fungal infections with special reference to their prevalence, spectrum of pathogen, outbreaks, and emergence of antifungal resistance reported from different ICUs of the world.Recent FindingsThe ICUs across the world are witnessing multiple changes in the epidemiology of fungal infections including change in prevalence and spectrum of etiological agents, new susceptible risk groups, geographical variations, ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - January 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Pressing Priorities for Mycetoma Control and Prevention
In the previously published “A Call to Action for Mycetoma,” the title did not accurately reflect the content scope. Therefore, the title should read as “Pressing Priorities for Mycetoma Control and Prevention” (as shown above). (Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports)
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - November 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pityriasis Versicolor: Treatment Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo address the latest treatments used for pityriasis versicolor and identify those that have proven to be effective in recent publications.Recent FindingsEven thoughMalassezia spp. have shown resistance to antifungals, classical treatments continue to be effective, and other novelty therapies including light therapies have shown promising results in the treatment of this condition.SummaryPityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection of the skin. There are numerous and diverse topical and systemic therapeutic options that are successful for the treatment and prophylaxis of this myco...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Onychomycosis in Children with Down Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFungal infection of the nail, known as onychomycosis, occurs more frequently in older age, showing a higher prevalence in pediatric age in recent years. A high rate of dermatological infections befalls in patients with Down syndrome, including onychomycosis, due to a decrease in T and B lymphocytes in number and function, resulting in a disarrangement of cellular and humoral immunity. This has led to several investigations on onychomycosis in children with Down syndrome, so the purpose of this review is to show the available evidence.Recent FindingsThe etiological agents of onychomycosis can be der...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis in Patients with Hematologic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this paper, we reviewed the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cryptococcosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. We reviewed all case series of cryptococcosis in different hematologic conditions, and looked at epidemiologic trends considering the new antineoplastic drugs introduced in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.Recent FindingsCase series of cryptococcosis in patients with hematologic malignancies are scarce. We identified an increase in the proportion of cases of cryptococcosis occurring in patients with hematologic malignancies, and many case reports of cryptococco...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zygomycete Fungi Infection in Colombia: Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the reports of Zygomycete fungi infection in Colombia, as well as include the geographical distribution, species identification, and treatment of those clinical cases.Recent FindingsZygomycosis is not a new disease. However, the use of molecular tools has allowed the identification of some recently described species as their causal agents.SummaryIn Colombia, the prevalence of zygomycosis is unclear because reporting is not mandatory and because in many cases the etiological agent was not identified. It is important to establish the mandatory reporting of cases, to know the ci...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Association of Malassezia to Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic, inherited, relapsing, inflammatory skin condition. A multifactorial etiology has been postulated, including genetic and immunological factors, impaired skin barrier function and environmental triggers, all of them are relevant in the pathogenesis.Malassezia spp. is the most common fungi of the skin microbiome. Most of the studies comparing the skin colonization withMalassezia spp. in healthy people and AD patients did not show difference between both groups. This review aims to show the studies carried out in this regard and the reported evidence about th...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence of Resistance to Fluconazole in Candida albicans Isolated From Vaginal Discharge
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide information about the emergence of fluconazole resistance inCandida albicans isolated from vaginal discharge, in a global context, and to update the in vitro susceptibility profile of this species from Argentina.Recent FindingsVulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection after vaginal bacteriosis.C. albicans remains the prevalent etiological yeast species, and despite antifungal treatment, the rate of recurrence remains high, which may be associated to antifungal resistance.SummaryData here presented were obtained from the study ofC. albicans strains isolated from...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 18, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Invasive Mold Infections in Patients with Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disorders
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review summarizes data about epidemiology, treatment, and risk factors for invasive fungal infections (IFI) in patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), multiple myeloma (MM), and indolent non Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL).Recent FindingsDespite advances in the prognosis and treatment of hematological malignancies in recent years, susceptibility to infection remains a significant challenge to patient care. A large amount of data regarding patients with acute leukemias have been published while little information is available on incidence of IFI in chronic lymphoproliferative disor...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Southern Endemic Zone of Paracoccidioidomycosis: Epidemiological Approach in Northeast Argentina
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParacoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most prevalent systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America caused by species of an environmental fungus of the genusParacoccidioides. In Argentina, the endemic area with the highest incidence is located in the Northeast. This review presents the current aspects of PCM epidemiology influenced by global and particular climatic anomalies.Recent FindingsAn increase of cases with particularly features, in the diagnosis and clinical manifestations, delaying the diagnosis was observed. Two genotypes ofParacoccidioides are circulating and, probably, are related to a...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fungal Keratitis: Epidemiological Profile in Argentina
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology and species distribution of fungi-causing keratitis in Argentina during the past 10  years.Recent FindingsIn Argentina, reports of distribution and frequency of fungal keratitis are scarce and little is known about its current epidemiology.In the present study, a review of the published data on fungal keratitis was done according to the global context focusing on the current situation in our country.SummaryData presented here were obtained in a reference ophthalmological hospital in the Autonomous city of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2017...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies: How Are They at Risk for Fungal Disease?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we focus on the inborn errors of immunity known to render the host susceptible to fungal infections, including candidias, aspergillosis, dermatophytosis, phaeohyphomycosis, pneumocystosis, fusariosis, cryptococcosis, and endemic mycoses.Recent FindingsClassically, the burden of fungal disease in humans is believed to be carried by patients with a secondary immunodeficiency, either due to malignancy, to chemotherapy, to an immunocompromised state post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or to treatment with anti-cytokine therapies. However, in the last decade, the study of patie...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnosing Invasive Mold Infections: What Is Next
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrently, microbiological diagnosis of invasive mold infections is based largely on culture, direct microscopy, PCR, or antigen (such as β-D-glucan or galactomannan)-based tests. In this review, we look at novel and experimental diagnostic tests for invasive mold infections.Recent FindingsSeveral new techniques have been proposed, and are in different stages of development. The JF5-antibody-based lateral flow device has recently been commercialized, and is closest to uptake in routine care. Other tests, such as the MAb476-antibody-based urine lateral flow device, gliotoxin or bis(methylthio)g...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Role of Serological Tests in the Diagnosis of Mold Infections
This article reviews the current antibody detection systems (serological tests) for the diagnosis of mold infections associated with pulmonary disease and introduces new developments. Classic and more recently developed serological techniques and their performance characteristics, including immunodiffusion, complement fixation, and ELISA.SummaryThe diseases covered are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, invasive aspergillosis, mucormycosis, diseases caused by filamentous basidiomycetes, infection caused byTalaromyces marneffei and pythiosis. Serology remains a cornerstone for fungal d...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tinea Capitis: Current Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the fungal literature currently available for tinea capitis (TC), as well as providing data for clinical utility.Recent FindingsAvailable studies in TC are scarce; however, they provide important information about efficacy and outcome in clinical practice.SummaryTreatment of TC is effective; however, it requires a minimum of 1  month. Systemic treatment is often required to favor enhance drug penetration into the deep part of the hair follicle. The newest oral antifungal has higher efficacy rates than conventional therapy, as well as much shorter duration of treatment bu...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus spp.: a Current Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of onychomycosis byAspergillus has shown an increase in recent years, representing 34 –60% of onychomycosis due to non-dermatophyte molds. At least 26 species ofAspergillus causing onychomycosis have been reported, some of which may be morphologically indistinguishable but genetically distinct, even in their susceptibility profile to antifungals. So in the diagnosis of this pathology, it is necessary to use both conventional and molecular methods to get to the identification of the fungus at the species level and thus establish the appropriate treatment.Recent FindingsThe curren...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Call to Action for Mycetoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we discuss the current needs and priorities for mycetoma control and prevention, highlight lessons learned from leprosy and podoconiosis, and motivate an urgent need to accelerate progress toward reducing the burden of mycetoma in endemic areas.Recent FindingsIn 2015, the World Health Assembly (WHA) added mycetoma, a progressively debilitating disease caused by fungi and bacteria, to the World Health Organization (WHO) list of priority neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Designation of other diseases as NTDs has raised awareness, enabled global partnerships, and advanced the capacity to comba...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emerging Antifungal Drug Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and Among Other Species of Aspergillus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent findings on antifungal resistance inAspergillus fumigatus (the major causative agent of aspergillosis) and siblingAspergillus species, which can be hidden agents of aspergillosis.Recent FindingsAzole resistance by Cyp51A mutation inA.fumigatus is a growing problem worldwide. The resistance can occur in patients or in the environment. The former occurs by drug selection in the host, inducing mutations in Cyp51A. The latter is characterized by a tandem repeat in the promoter region ofcyp51A gene and mutation(s) in Cyp51A. Environmental resis...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus spp.: a Current Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of onychomycosis byAspergillus has shown an increase in recent years, representing 34 –60% of onychomycosis due to non-dermatophyte molds. At least 26 species ofAspergillus causing onychomycosis have been reported, some of which may be morphologically indistinguishable but genetically distinct, even in their susceptibility profile to antifungals. So in the diagnosis of this pathology, it is necessary to use both conventional and molecular methods to get to the identification of the fungus at the species level and thus establish the appropriate treatment.Recent FindingsThe curren...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - August 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emerging Antifungal Drug Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and Among Other Species of Aspergillus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent findings on antifungal resistance inAspergillus fumigatus (the major causative agent of aspergillosis) and siblingAspergillus species, which can be hidden agents of aspergillosis.Recent FindingsAzole resistance by Cyp51A mutation inA.fumigatus is a growing problem worldwide. The resistance can occur in patients or in the environment. The former occurs by drug selection in the host, inducing mutations in Cyp51A. The latter is characterized by a tandem repeat in the promoter region ofcyp51A gene and mutation(s) in Cyp51A. Environmental resis...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - July 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tinea Capitis: Current Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the fungal literature currently available for tinea capitis (TC), as well as providing data for clinical utility.Recent FindingsAvailable studies in TC are scarce; however, they provide important information about efficacy and outcome in clinical practice.SummaryTreatment of TC is effective; however, it requires a minimum of 1  month. Systemic treatment is often required to favor enhance drug penetration into the deep part of the hair follicle. The newest oral antifungal has higher efficacy rates than conventional therapy, as well as much shorter duration of treatment bu...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - July 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Call to Action for Mycetoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we discuss the current needs and priorities for mycetoma control and prevention, highlight lessons learned from leprosy and podoconiosis, and motivate an urgent need to accelerate progress toward reducing the burden of mycetoma in endemic areas.Recent FindingsIn 2015, the World Health Assembly (WHA) added mycetoma, a progressively debilitating disease caused by fungi and bacteria, to the World Health Organization (WHO) list of priority neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Designation of other diseases as NTDs has raised awareness, enabled global partnerships, and advanced the capacity to comba...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - July 18, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antifungal Prophylaxis in Children Receiving Antineoplastic Chemotherapy
AbstractPurpose of the reviewThe purpose of this study was to summarize data on available antifungal prophylaxis of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children and when it should be administered during antineoplastic chemotherapy.Recent findingsAntifungal prophylaxis should be considered when incidence of IFD is ≥ 10%, as acute myeloblastic leukemia, high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and second-line therapy for any relapsing leukemia. In absence of specific pediatric studies, data from adults indicate that triazoles, especially posaconazole tablets, could represent the most attractive option, even if some tro...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Black Yeasts: an Update on Species Identification and Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of reviewBlack yeast-like fungi are capable of causing a wide range of infections, including invasive disease. The diagnosis of infections caused by these species can be problematic. We review the changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of these fungi, and methods used for detection and species identification that aid in diagnosis.Recent findingsMolecular assays, including DNA barcode analysis and rolling circle amplification, have improved our ability to correctly identify these species. A proteomic approach using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candidiasis of the Central Nervous System in Neonates and Children With Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbstractPurpose of reviewCandida infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a life-threatening complication of invasive infections that most often affect vulnerable groups of patients, including neonates and children with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). Here, we review the currently known risk factors for CNS candidiasis, focusing predominantly on the PID caused by biallelic mutations inCARD9.Recent findingsHow the CNS is protected itself against fungal invasion is poorly understood. CARD9 promotes neutrophil recruitment and function, and is the only molecule shown to be critical for protection against CN...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

PCR-Based Methods for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis: Are They Ready for Use in the Clinic?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the performance of Candida PCR and the T2Candida panel (T2Biosystems, Lexington, MA) in diagnosing invasive candidiasis, consider how these tests may be incorporated into patient care, and determine if they are ready to be used in the clinic.Recent FindingsPCR and T2Candida sensitivity/specificity for diagnosing candidemia are ~  90%/90% and ~ 90%/98%, respectively. Limited data for intra-abdominal candidiasis suggest PCR sensitivity of ~ 85–90%, but specificity has varied from 33 to 97%. T2Candida data are lacking for infections other than candidemia.SummaryPCR...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fungal Eye Infections: New Hosts, Novel Emerging Pathogens but No New Treatments?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe sought to explore the current incidence and associated risk factors associated with fungal eye infections. We also reviewed new diagnostic strategies and recent clinical studies exploring the use of topical and oral antifungal agents.Recent FindingsIncidence and associated risks continue to vary with geographic region, and access to timely healthcare. Nosocomial fungal endophthalmitis can result from minor surgical procedures to the eye. Molecular methods offer increasing diagnostic utility. Clinical treatment studies have mainly focussed on the treatment of fungal keratitis and have been conduc...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevention of Invasive Candidiasis in Premature Neonates: Administering Fluconazole or Not?
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewFluconazole prophylaxis (FP) for invasive candidiasis (IC) in preterm newborns is still a debated topic. In this review, we describe the most important papers on the topic, and we discuss pros and cons of the use FP in newborns according to these paper ’s findings.Recent FindingsSince 2001, several studies have been published on the use of FP to prevent IC. While most of them agree on the effectiveness of FP in reducing IC, especially in NICUs with high IC rates, the lack of evidence of decrease in overall mortality, and the risks associated with fluconazole administration both concerning...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candidiasis of the Central Nervous System in Neonates and Children With Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbstractPurpose of reviewCandida infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a life-threatening complication of invasive infections that most often affect vulnerable groups of patients, including neonates and children with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). Here, we review the currently known risk factors for CNS candidiasis, focusing predominantly on the PID caused by biallelic mutations inCARD9.Recent findingsHow the CNS is protected itself against fungal invasion is poorly understood. CARD9 promotes neutrophil recruitment and function, and is the only molecule shown to be critical for protection against CN...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - May 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Black Yeasts: an Update on Species Identification and Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of reviewBlack yeast-like fungi are capable of causing a wide range of infections, including invasive disease. The diagnosis of infections caused by these species can be problematic. We review the changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of these fungi, and methods used for detection and species identification that aid in diagnosis.Recent findingsMolecular assays, including DNA barcode analysis and rolling circle amplification, have improved our ability to correctly identify these species. A proteomic approach using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - April 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

PCR-Based Methods for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis: Are They Ready for Use in the Clinic?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the performance of Candida PCR and the T2Candida panel (T2Biosystems, Lexington, MA) in diagnosing invasive candidiasis, consider how these tests may be incorporated into patient care, and determine if they are ready to be used in the clinic.Recent FindingsPCR and T2Candida sensitivity/specificity for diagnosing candidemia are ~  90%/90% and ~ 90%/98%, respectively. Limited data for intra-abdominal candidiasis suggest PCR sensitivity of ~ 85–90%, but specificity has varied from 33 to 97%. T2Candida data are lacking for infections other than candidemia.SummaryPCR...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - April 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research