Recent Research on Occupational Animal Exposures and Health Risks: A Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the last year, an increasing number of studies have reported on methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission in Africa and Asia and in migrant workers. We reviewed original research on occupational health and safety of animal workers published from January 1, 2018, through June 30, 2019, with a targeted focus on infectious disease studies published in these populations.Recent FindingsStudies focused on occupational exposures to infectious agents, dust and allergens, pesticides, and occupational injury. Research on zoonotic MRSA used whole genome –sequencing technologies t...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - December 10, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Measuring Neighborhood Order and Disorder: a Rapid Literature Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeighborhood disorder has received attention as a determinant of health in urban contexts, through pathways that include psychosocial stress, perceived safety, and physical activity. This review provides a summary of data collection methods, descriptive terms, and specific items employed to assess neighborhood disorder/order.Recent FindingsThe proliferation of methods and terminology employed in measuring neighborhood disorder (or neighborhood order) noted over the past two decades has made related studies increasingly difficult to compare. Following a search of peer-reviewed articles published fro...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Built Environment Interventions to Increase Active Travel: a Critical Review and Discussion
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the literature on built environment interventions to increase active travel, focusing on work since 2000 and on methodological choices and challenges affecting studies.Recent FindingsIncreasingly, there is evidence that built environment interventions can lead to more walking or cycling. Evidence is stronger for cycling than for walking interventions, and there is a relative lack of evidence around differential impacts of interventions. Some of the evidence remains methodologically weak, with much work in the ‘grey’ literature.SummaryWhile evidence in the area continues to gro...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Rice Intake and Emerging Concerns on Arsenic in Rice: a Review of the Human Evidence and Methodologic Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRice is a major staple food worldwide and a dietary source of arsenic. We therefore summarized the state of the epidemiologic evidence on whether rice consumption relates to health outcomes associated with arsenic exposure.Recent FindingsWhile epidemiologic studies have reported that higher rice consumption may increase the risk of certain chronic conditions, i.e., type 2 diabetes, most did not consider specific constituents of rice or other sources of arsenic exposure. Studies that examined rice intake stratified by water concentrations of arsenic found evidence of increasing trends in cardiovascu...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Organophosphate Esters: Are These Flame Retardants and Plasticizers Affecting Children ’s Health?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOrganophosphate esters (OPEs) are applied to a variety of consumer products, primarily as flame retardants and plasticizers. OPEs can leach out of products over time and are consequently prevalent in the environment and frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Exposure during pregnancy is of particular concern as OPEs have recently been detected in placental tissues, suggesting they may be transferred to the developing infant. Also, studies have now shown that children typically experience higher exposure to several OPEs compared with adults, indicating they may be disproportionately imp...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Early-Life Exposure to Antimicrobials on Asthma and Eczema Risk in Children
We examined recent research on associations of prenatal and early-childhood exposure to the antimicrobial compounds, triclosan, and parabens, with the risk of asthma and eczema in children. We will discuss potential biological mechanisms of this association and highlight strengths and limitations of the study design and exposure assessment of current findings.Recent FindingsResults of available toxicological and epidemiologic studies indicate a potential link of triclosan and paraben exposures with asthma and eczema in children, as well as changes in microbiome diversity and immune dysfunction, which could possibly mediate...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Electronic Waste Recycling: Occupational Exposures and Work-Related Health Effects
AbstractPurpose of ReviewElectronic waste (e-waste) is a global public health challenge. E-waste recycling workers may be exposed to chemical, physical, ergonomic, and psychosocial hazards. This review provides an overview of recent research on occupational exposures in e-waste recycling and work-related health effects that can impact e-waste workers.Recent FindingsE-waste workers are exposed to a variety of chemicals including metals, particulates, persistent organic compounds, and flame retardants. Exposure varies according to job task with higher exposures observed for dismantling and burning e-waste. Exposure to job st...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Intergenerational Ethical Issues and Communication Related to High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe nuclear power industry started in the 1950s and has now reached a phase of disposing high-level nuclear waste. Since the 1980s, the United Nations has developed a concept of sustainable development and governments have accordingly made ethical commitments to take responsibility towards future generations. The purpose of this review is to examine ethical dilemmas related to high-level nuclear waste disposal in a long-term perspective including potential access to the waste in the future. The time span considered here is 100,000  years based on current experts’ assessment of the radiol...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nature-Based Social Prescribing in Urban Settings to Improve Social Connectedness and Mental Well-being: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent reports of a “loneliness epidemic” in the USA are growing along with a robust evidence base that suggests that loneliness and social isolation can compromise physical and psychological health. Screening for social isolation among at-risk populations and referring them to nature-based community services, reso urces, and activities through a social prescribing (SP) program may provide a way to connect vulnerable populations with the broader community and increase their sense of connectedness and belonging. In this review, we explore opportunities for social prescribing to be used a...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Joint Impact of Synthetic Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Children ’s Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPregnant women are exposed to numerous synthetic chemicals (e.g., pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls) in their daily lives as well as a range of non-chemical stressors, including poverty, depression, discrimination, and stressful life events. Although many studies have examined individual exposures to chemical and non-chemical stressors in relation to child health outcomes, very few studies have considered these exposures together. Here, we review the recent epidemiologic literature on the joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on child outcomes.Recent FindingsConsiderab...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Trust, Conflict, and Engagement in Occupational Health: North American Epidemiologists Conduct Occupational Study in Communities Affected by Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Origin (CKDu)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewScience has been used as a tool of colonialism, and aspects of science privilege researchers in the global North (USA and Europe). The environmental justice and worker health movements in the USA and globally have influenced aspects of how occupational and environmental health research is conceived and conducted so that it is more equitable. This review provides a case example of research in the area of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu).Recent FindingsIn the present work, the author describes aspects of community-based participatory research and anti-colonial research that influence a...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Occupational Exposures Among Hair and Nail Salon Workers: a Scoping Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the literature published from 2014 to 2019 on hair and nail salon workers concerning exposure assessment, reproductive and respiratory endpoints, and endocrine disruption, in relation to workplace exposures.Recent FindingsWe identified 29 relevant peer-reviewed publications. Overall, there were insufficient studies to determine whether working in these settings is associated with reproductive health endpoints, although prior studies suggest that reproductive effects are of concern. There is consistent evidence that working in hair and nail salons may increase the risk of respiratory effec...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Heat Exposure and Occupational Injuries: Review of the Literature and Implications
This article reviews the emerging literature on the relationship between heat exposure and occupational traumatic injuries and discusses implications of this work.Recent FindingsA recent meta-analysis of three case-crossover and five time series studies in industrialized settings reported an association of increasing occupational injuries with increasing heat exposure, with increased effect estimates for male gender and age less than 25  years, although heterogeneity in exposure metrics and sources of bias were demonstrated to varying degrees across studies. A subsequent case-crossover study in outdoor construction wo...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Challenges in Environmental Health Research and Sustainability in a Less Developed Country: a Case Study From Jordan
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEnvironmental health research covers many aspects of the complex natural world and how environmental hazards, mainly caused by human activities, can affect population health. Researchers in this field have investigated environmental risks dose or exposure-response relationship, challenged hypotheses and interpreted data and results to solve problems. Researchers investigating environmental issues support the concept of environmental justice (EJ) and understand that they bear more responsibilities because they work to influence the policymakers ’ decisions in order to minimise hazardous exposu...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 10, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Global Change: a Public Health Researcher ’s Ethical Responsibility
AbstractPurposeLoss of biodiversity and globalized environmental degradation result in planetary-scale changes which impact human societies.Recent FindingsThis paper highlights the urgency for public health researchers to integrate a global change perspective into their daily work. The public health community needs to answer several questions, e.g., how to weight the health of present and future generations; how to balance between the possible immediate adverse impacts of mitigating climate change vs. long-term adverse impacts of global change, how to limit the environmental impacts of public health intervention; and how t...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Current Review of Pneumoconiosis Among US Coal Miners
We describe the impact of this research and how this has led to increased public attention, benefitting affected miners.Recent FindingsThe latest research shows that the prevalence of pneumoconiosis, including progressive massive fibrosis, continues to increase, especially in central Appalachia. Contributing factors may include mining of thin coal seams or cutting rock to access coal, which may expose miners to coal mine dust with a higher content of silica and silicates than in the past.SummaryThe impact of recently implemented changes, such as the reduced occupational exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust and the ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in the Aftermath of Environmental Disasters: A Review of Quantitative Studies Published in 2018
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs interest in the mental health consequences of environmental disasters increases, this review aimed to summarize peer-reviewed studies published in 2018 on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms after such events.Recent FindingsNotable trends in the past year of research included studies focusing on vulnerable populations (e.g., persons with preexisting physical health conditions), assessing the cumulative impact of exposure to multiple disasters, exploring pathway leading to PTSD and depression symptoms, and evaluating the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions.Summar...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Developing Large-Scale Research in Response to an Oil Spill Disaster: a Case Study
We describe considerations in identifying at-risk populations and appropriate comparison groups, garnering support for the study from different stakeholders, obtaining timely scientific and ethics review, measuring and characterizing complex exposures, and addressing evolving community health concerns and unmet medical needs. We also describe the NIH Disaster Research Response (DR2) Program, which provides a suite of resources, including data collection tools, research protocols, institutional review board guidance, and training materials to enable the development and implementation of time-critical studies following disas...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Urinary Concentration Correction Methods for Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury: a Systematic Review of Practice-Based Evidence
ConclusionFindings from limited evidence support that urine creatinine and urine-specific gravity corrections remain practical approaches to correct metal concentrations for urine dilution as compared to 24-h or 12-h urine samples. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify this fundamental issue of environmental biomonitoring using spot urine samples in both general and priority populations. (Source: Current Environmental Health Reports)
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - August 1, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Global Change: a Public Health Researcher ’s Ethical Responsibility
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLoss of biodiversity and globalized environmental degradation result in planetary-scale changes which impact human societies.Recent FindingsThis paper highlights the urgency for public health researchers to integrate a global change perspective into their daily work. The public health community needs to answer several questions, e.g., how to weight the health of present and future generations; how to balance between the possible immediate adverse impacts of mitigating climate change vs long-term adverse impacts of global change; how to limit the environmental impacts of public health intervention; ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - July 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Current Review of Pneumoconiosis Among US Coal Miners
We describe the impact of this research and how this has led to increased public attention, benefitting affected miners.Recent FindingsThe latest research shows that the prevalence of pneumoconiosis, including progressive massive fibrosis, continues to increase, especially in central Appalachia. Contributing factors may include mining of thin coal seams or cutting rock to access coal, which may expose miners to coal mine dust with a higher content of silica and silicates than in the past.SummaryThe impact of recently implemented changes, such as the reduced occupational exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust and the ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Using Decision Rules to Assess Occupational Exposure in Population-Based Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPopulation-based studies increasingly link task-based occupational questionnaire responses collected from subjects to exposure estimates via transparent, programmable decision rules. We reviewed recent applications and methodological developments of rule-based approaches.Recent FindingsAgent-specific decision rules require interviews incorporating work-task-based questions. Some studies have developed rules before the interviews took place, while others developed rules after the interviews were completed. Agreement between rule-based estimates and exposures assigned using job-by-job expert review w...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A Review of the Literature on Community Resilience and Disaster Recovery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe concept of resilience continues to grow in influence and prominence in national and international programs seeking to improve individual and collective capacity to prepare for and respond to disasters. This review of the literature published in 2018 examines how disaster scholars and professionals are conceptualizing and applying the concept of community disaster resilience.Recent FindingsThree trends in the literature on community disaster resilience are observed: (1) advancements in the measurement of resilience continue to refine the concept and its related mechanisms using both primary and ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - July 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evidence-Informed Planning for Healthy Liveable Cities: How Can Policy Frameworks Be Used to Strengthen Research Translation?
This article reviews the literature on the science and practice of translating health research into urban policy and planning. Two Australian case studies demonstrate how policy frameworks can help guide evidence-based planning for healthy urban environments.Recent FindingsTo influence city planning, health researchers need to undertake policy-relevant research and understand policymaking processes. Policy frameworks can assist researchers to tailor research evidence and research translation strategies to the political and policymaking context. Strong links between urban policymakers and health researchers can help bridge ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 27, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Environmental Contributions to Fatty Liver Disease
AbstractPurposeFatty liver disease (FLD) affects over 25% of the global population and may lead to liver-related mortality due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. FLD caused by occupational and environmental chemical exposures is termed “toxicant-associated steatohepatitis” (TASH). The current review addresses the scientific progress made in the mechanistic understanding of TASH since its initial description in 2010.Recent FindingsRecently discovered modes of actions for volatile organic compounds and persistent organic pollutants include the following: (i) the endocrine-, metabolism-, and signaling-disrupting chemi...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 27, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exosomes as Mediators of Chemical-Induced Toxicity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides information regarding how exosomes may contribute to environmental chemical-induced pathogenesis of chronic diseases. In connecting exosome biology to environmental toxicology and disease pathogenesis, we address vital questions regarding what constitutes exosomal cargo, how toxicants influence exosomal cargo, and how environmental stimuli influence exosomal physiological and pathological functions.Recent FindingsRecent studies in the field demonstrate that exosomal cargo changes depending on external stimuli, which has consequences for the microenvironment of recipient cells.S...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 17, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Effects of Indoor Air Pollution from Solid Fuel: Relevance to Sub-Saharan Africa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis research aims to summarize evidence on the cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuel and identify areas for research and policy for low- and middle-income countries.Recent FindingsIAP affects people from low socioeconomic status in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, who depend upon biomass as a fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. In these settings, IAP disproportionately affects women, children, the elderly, and people with cardiopulmonary disease. The health effects of IAP include acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 17, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Understanding Environmental Contaminants ’ Direct Effects on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEnvironmental contaminants are considered one of the major factors in the development and progression of NAFLD, the most common liver disease in the USA.Recent FindingsThe evolving knowledge of mechanisms of hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis has recently been reviewed and characterized as ALD, NAFLD, and TAFLD. The most recent mechanistic studies on PFAS and PCBs have revealed a greater role for toxicants in the initiation of not only TAFLD but also NAFLD and the more progressive inflammatory stage of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In addition to insecticides, recent studies support a si...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Low Levels of Air Pollution and Health: Effect Estimates, Methodological Challenges, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFine particle (PM2.5) levels have been decreasing in the USA over the past decades. Our goal was to assess the current literature to characterize the association between PM2.5 and adverse health at low exposure levels.Recent FindingsWe reviewed 26 papers that examined the association between short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cardio-respiratory morbidity and mortality. There is evidence suggesting that these associations are stronger at lower levels. However, there are certain methodological and interpretational limitations specific to studies of low PM2.5 levels, and further methodological...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Multiple Imputation for Incomplete Data in Environmental Epidemiology Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIncomplete data are a common problem in statistical analysis of environmental epidemiological research. However, many researchers still ignore this complication. We evaluate the performance of two commonly used multiple imputation (MI) methods (fully conditional specification and multivariate normal) for handling missing data and compare them to complete case analysis (CCA) method. We further discuss issues that arise when these methods are being used.Recent FindingsMI is a simulation-based approach to deal with incomplete data. In general, MI will perform better then ad hoc techniques such as CCA....
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Complex Mixtures, Complex Analyses: an Emphasis on Interpretable Results
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to outline the main questions in environmental mixtures research and provide a non-technical explanation of novel or advanced methods to answer these questions.Recent FindingsMachine learning techniques are now being incorporated into environmental mixture research to overcome issues with traditional methods. Though some methods perform well on specific tasks, no method consistently outperforms all others in complex mixture analyses, largely because different methods were developed to answer different research questions. We discuss four main questions in environmental ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - May 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mendelian Randomization and the Environmental Epigenetics of Health: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEpigenetic modifications are environmentally responsive and may play a mechanistic role in the development of disease. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variation to assess the causal effect of modifiable exposures on health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of Mendelian randomization studies evaluating the causal role of DNA methylation (DNAm) changes on the development of health states, emphasizing on studies that formally evaluate exposure-DNAm, in addition to DNAm-outcome, causal associations.Recent FindingsWe identified 15 articles, 4 of them including an environmental determinant ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - February 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Transforming Our Cities: Best Practices Towards Clean Air and Active Transportation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBy 2050, 70% of the global population will live in urban areas, exposing a greater number of people to specific city-related health risks that will only be exacerbated by climate change. Two prominent health risks are poor air quality and physical inactivity. We aim to review the literature and state the best practices for clean air and active transportation in urban areas.Recent FindingsCities have been targeting reductions in air pollution and physical inactivity to improve population health. Oslo, Paris, and Madrid plan on banning cars from their city centers to mitigate climate change, reduce v...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - January 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Biomonitoring and Nonpersistent Chemicals —Understanding and Addressing Variability and Exposure Misclassification
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe offer here a review of intraindividual variability in urinary biomarkers for assessing exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. We provide thoughts on how to better evaluate exposure to nonpersistent chemicals.Recent FindingsWe summarized reported values of intraclass correlation coefficients and found that most values fall into categories that indicate only poor to good reproducibility. Even within the “good” classification, a large percentage of study participants is likely to be misclassified as to their exposure.SummaryThere is sufficient information to support the statement that stu...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - January 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Statistical Approaches for Investigating Periods of Susceptibility in Children ’s Environmental Health Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildren ’s environmental health researchers are increasingly interested in identifying time intervals during which individuals are most susceptible to adverse impacts of environmental exposures. We review recent advances in methods for assessing susceptible periods.Recent FindingsWe identified three general classes of modeling approaches aimed at identifying susceptible periods in children ’s environmental health research: multiple informant models, distributed lag models, and Bayesian approaches. Benefits over traditional regression modeling include the ability to formally test period...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - January 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Understanding and Mitigating the Replication Crisis, for Environmental Epidemiologists
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent years, investigators in a variety of fields have reported that most published findings can not be replicated. This review evaluates the factors contributing to lack of reproducibility, implications for environmental epidemiology, and strategies for mitigation.Recent FindingsAlthough publication bias and other types of selective reporting may contribute substantially to irreproducible results, underpowered analyses and low prevalence of true associations likely explain most failures to replicate novel scientific results. Epidemiologists can counter these risks by ensuring that analyses are...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - January 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pharmacologic and Environmental Endocrine Disruptors in the Pathogenesis of Hypospadias: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEndocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) potentially have a role in causing hypospadias malformation through modifiable in-utero exposure. Considering the emerging literature on the role of potential endocrine disrupting substances on the occurrence of hypospadias and the potential to inform public health efforts to prevent the occurrence of these malformations, we have summarized the current literature, identified areas of consensus, and highlighted areas that warrant further investigation.Recent FindingsPharmaceuticals, such as diethylstilbestrol, progestin fertility treatments, corticosteroids, and...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - December 21, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Population Health Adaptation Approaches to the Increasing Severity and Frequency of Weather-Related Disasters Resulting From our Changing Climate: A Literature Review and Application to Charleston, South Carolina
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent changes in our planetary climate have and will continue to challenge historical knowledge and risk assumptions for weather-related disasters. While the public health community is rapidly working to develop epidemiological approaches and tools to mitigate and adapt to these weather-related disasters, recent high-profile events have exposed gaps in knowledge and response efforts. Limited work has been done to assess the climate readiness of the local public health and healthcare community as it pertains to local response planning and adaptation measures in the event of a weather-related disast...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Planetary Health and Population Health: the Anthropocene Requires Different Thinking and Approaches in Serving Public Health
(Source: Current Environmental Health Reports)
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Air Pollution on Our Epigenome: How Far Is the Evidence? (A Systematic Review)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic review evaluated existing evidence linking air pollution exposure in humans to major epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin regulation.Recent FindingsEighty-two manuscripts were eligible, most of which were observational (85%), conducted in adults (66%) and based on DNA methylation (79%).SummaryMost observational studies, except panel, demonstrated modest effects of air pollution on the methylome. Panel and experimental studies revealed a relatively large number of significant methylome alterations, though based on smaller sample sizes....
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Unexplored Opportunities: Use of Climate- and Weather-Driven Early Warning Systems to Reduce the Burden of Infectious Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeather and climate influence multiple aspects of infectious disease ecology. Creating and applying early warning systems based on temperature, precipitation, and other environmental data can identify where and when outbreaks of climate-sensitive infectious diseases could occur and can be used by decision makers to allocate resources. Whether an outbreak actually occurs depends heavily on other social, political, and institutional factors.Recent FindingsImproving the timing and confidence of seasonal climate forecasting, coupled with knowledge of exposure-response relationships, can identify prior ...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Holistic Effects of Climate Change on the Culture, Well-Being, and Health of the Saami, the Only Indigenous People in the European Union
AbstractPurpose of Review(1) To develop a framework for understanding the holistic effects of climate change on the Saami people; (2) to summarize the scientific evidence about the primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of climate change on Saami culture and S ápmi region; and (3) to identify gaps in the knowledge of the effects of climate change on health and well-being of the Saami.Recent FindingsThe Saami health is on average similar, or slightly better compared to the health of other populations in the same area. Warming climate has already influenced Saami reindeer culture. Mental health and suicide risk part...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxic Metals and Chronic Kidney Disease: a Systematic Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewArsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are ubiquitous toxicants with evidence of adverse kidney impacts at high exposure levels. There is less evidence whether environmental exposure to As, Cd, or Pb plays a role in development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a systematic review to summarize the recent epidemiologic literature examining the relationship between As, Cd, or Pb with CKD.Recent FindingsWe included peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2013 and April 2018 for As and Cd, and all dates prior to April 2018 for Pb. We imposed temporality requirements fo...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 18, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Planetary Epidemiology: Towards First Principles
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo combine evolutionary principles of competition and co-operation with limits to growth models, generating six principles for a new sub-discipline, called “planetary epidemiology.” Suggestions are made for how to quantify four principles.Recent FindingsClimate change is one of a suite of threats increasingly being re-discovered by health workers as a major threat to civilization. Although “planetary health” is now in vogue, neither it nor its allied sub-disciplines have, as yet, had significant impact on epidemiology. Few if any theorists have sought to develop principles f...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Metal-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of pulmonary fibrosis is increasing worldwide and may, in part, be due to occupational and environmental exposures. Secondary fibrotic interstitial lung diseases may be mistaken for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with important implications for both disease management and prognosis. The purposes of this review are to shed light on possible underlying causes of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and to encourage dialogue on the importance of acquiring a thorough patient history of occupational and environmental exposures.Recent FindingsA recent appreciation for various occupational and env...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 8, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Environmental Selenium and Human Health: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSelenium, a trace element, is ubiquitous in the environment. The main source of human exposure is diet. Despite its nutritional benefits, it is one of the most toxic naturally occurring elements. Selenium deficiency and overexposure have been associated with adverse health effects. Its level of toxicity may depend on its chemical form, as inorganic and organic species have distinct biological properties.Recent FindingsNonexperimental and experimental studies have generated insufficient evidence for a role of selenium deficiency in human disease, with the exception of Keshan disease, a cardiomyopath...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Air Pollution, Early Life Microbiome, and Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review how an altered microbiome in early life impacts on immune, metabolic, and neurological development, focusing on some of the most widespread diseases related to each of these processes, namely atopic disease, obesity, and autism.Recent FindingsThe early development of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body is currently challenged by factors that range from reduced exposure to microbes, antibiotic use, and poor dietary choices to widespread environmental pollution. Recent work has highlighted some of the long-term consequences that early alterations in the establishment of th...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pesticides and Child ’s Health in France
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of pesticides is predominant in agriculture, inducing environmental contamination, and has been extended to the domestic sphere. In France,>  500 pesticides were authorized for use in 2009; given their various toxicological properties, there are legitimate concerns about the possible consequences for child health. This review summarizes the recent French studies of good quality dealing with pesticides and child health.Recent FindingsThree cohorts (mother –child, retrospective) and two case–control studies have been conducted in the last decade. Using various instrument...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research