Correction to: Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
An Erratum to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12170-020-00665-1 (Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on the therapeutic management and individualized approach to Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), utilizing Food and Drug Administration-approved PAH-specific therapies and various interventional and surgical options for PAH.Recent FindingsThe paradigm for the optimal management of PAH has shifted in recent years. Upfront combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor is now widely accepted as standard of care. In addition, there is increasing emphasis on starting prostanoids early in order to delay time to clinical worse...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

CAR T Cell and BiTE Therapy —New Therapies, New Risks?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewT cell engaging immunotherapies, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) antibodies have had recent and unprecedented success in the management of relapsing and refractory haematological malignancies. However, the potency of these novel immunotherapies is associated with significant toxicities. This review seeks to highlight the current understanding of cardiovascular toxicity-associated T cell engaging immunotherapies.Recent FindingsThe most common and best described toxicity due to T cell engaging immunotherapies is cytokine release syndrome (CRS). H...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, and Body Weight: a Complex Relationship
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Obese patients are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and weight loss can attenuate the risk. Cancer is the second leading cause of death and commonly associated with weight loss. This review focuses on the complex interaction between body weight, cardiovascular disease, and a cancer diagnosis.Recent FindingsThe cancer-associated mortality rate has steadily decreased over the last decade. Patients are living longer. Therefore, nonmalignant conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, have assumed an increased impo...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Overview of Binge Eating Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBinge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes (i.e., eating an objectively large amount of food accompanied by a sense of loss of control while eating) in the absence of regular compensatory behavior. BED follows a chronic course marked by significant dysfunction and impairment. This review focuses on advances in the understanding of BED, including its diagnosis, correlates, risk factors, and treatment, with particular attention to the past 5 to 8  years.Recent FindingsBED remains the most common eating disorder in the USA and globally. BED occurs across the l...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

CTO Revascularization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCTO revascularization has been a topic of ongoing debate because of its high technical complexity and expected benefits. This review focuses on describing the various strategies for CTO revascularization, associated complications, and their outcomes.Recent FindingsThe hybrid algorithm is the most widely used method for CTO revascularization. The various strategies for CTO crossing are as follows: antegrade wire escalation (AWE), antegrade dissection/re-entry (ADR), and retrograde approach. DECISION-CTO, EURO-CTO, and EXPLORE are the three large randomized trials that studied the impact of complete ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewOver 100,000 cardiovascular-related deaths annually are caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE). While anticoagulation has historically been the foundation for treatment of PE, this review highlights the recent rapid expansion in the interventional strategies for this condition.Recent FindingsAt the time of diagnosis, appropriate risk stratification helps to accurately identify patients who may be candidates for advanced therapeutic interventions. While systemic thrombolytics (ST) is the mostly commonly utilized intervention for high-risk PE, the risk profile of ST for intermediate-risk PE limi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Biomarkers and Risk Prediction Tools for Stroke and Dementia in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the aging population, atrial fibrillation (AF) associations with both stroke and dementia have become a priority for the healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to review the emerging role of clinical scores and biomarkers in the risk stratification of AF patients for risk of stroke and risk of dementia.Recent FindingsAF is the most common arrhythmia in the aging population and a common comorbidity in atherosclerotic disease and heart failure. In this review, we identified 34 most relevant papers that specifically address the role of biomarkers in risk-stratifying patients with AF with...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Management of the Patient with Heart Failure and an Implantable Pulmonary Artery Hemodynamic Sensor
We request that the following corrections be made in our article. (Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - September 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heart Failure in Vulnerable Populations: The Emerging Evidence of Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHeart failure is a significant and growing cause of disease in the developed world with substantial cost and morbidity associated with it. This review focuses on methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MACM) as an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure.Recent FindingsMACM is increasingly recognized worldwide. Prevalence of MACM in heart failure hospital admissions has been increasing in the western USA. Risk factors for development of MACM include male sex, hypertension, and alcohol use disorder. MACM is associated with severe left ventricular dysfunction, greater heart failure symptom b...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of Mechanical Circulatory Support in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe risk of coronary interventions has fallen despite a temporal increase in complexity. However, patients with multiple comorbidities, complex coronary anatomy, and hemodynamic instability who are a high-risk subgroup that need revascularization are not well studied. Our review focuses on the role of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HR-PCI).Recent FindingsAmong the MCS devices, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and Impella have been most studied, albeit with limited randomized controlled trial data. There is no unequivocal evidence of hard clinic...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Peer Support Groups for Weight Loss
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial support, especially from peers, has been found to contribute to successful weight loss and long-term weight loss maintenance. Peer support groups may represent a particularly effective intervention technique for weight loss. This review focuses upon peer support weight loss interventions with the objective of identifying common elements of successful programs.Recent FindingsPeer support interventions often consist of expert-led educational content, supplemented by peer-led activities or discussion. Peer groups may provide support to individuals who have little social support in their normal ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardio-Oncology Preventive Care: Racial and Ethnic Disparities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs cancer screening and treatment continue to improve, the number of cancer survivors is growing rapidly. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in cancer survivors. In this review, we explore racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular toxicity from cancer therapies, with a particular focus on prevention. In addition, we propose potential solutions to address these disparities.Recent FindingsMultiple studies have found that African Americans experience higher rates of cardiotoxicity from chemotherapy than Caucasians. Few studies have explored reasons for these disparities. Social...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Intersection of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Race/Ethnicity on Cardiovascular Health: a Review of the Literature and Needed Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the current literature about the cardiovascular health of sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals with a particular focus on the intersection between SGM identity and race/ethnicity, describes potential contributions to observed differences, and suggests interventions to begin to improve cardiovascular health equity in this community.Recent FindingsResearch on cardiovascular health in SGM individuals predominantly focuses on individual cardiovascular health risk factors and has conflicting results. The studies assessing cardiovascular health outcomes in SGM people show mi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Underreporting of Dietary Intake: Key Issues for Weight Management Clinicians
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnderreporting of dietary intake is common in obesity treatment programs. Accurate reporting through daily food diaries is essential for organizing and personalizing treatment. This review explores key concerns for clinicians, summarizes the state of research on causes of underreporting and ways to promote consistency and accuracy, and identifies areas of need for future research.Recent FindingsDietary underreporting is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and obesity is the most consistent correlate. The association with BMI may be mediated by factors like socioeconomic status, gender, and body image. Peo...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Genetics of Anthracycline-Mediated Cardiotoxicity: Current Status and Challenges
We describe candidate gene association studies and genome-wide association studies of anthracycline cardiotoxicity and summarize key findings. The importance of data robustness is discussed, as well as the largely untapped potential of stem cell –based strategies for both validation and discovery purposes.SummaryMulti-disciplinary and coordinated efforts will be vital to fully understand the link between genetic background and anthracycline cardiotoxicity risk. Doing so will enhance understanding of pathological mechanisms and enable more personalized and nuanced treatment strategies for patients undergoing anthracyc...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diabetes and CVD Risk: Special Considerations in African Americans Related to Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAmong patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death regardless of ethnicity. However, recent studies suggest that special considerations should be taken into account when caring for African Americans with T2D, as risk factors, incidence, prevalence, and mortality differ from other populations. This review highlights literature supporting the unique characteristics of managing cardiovascular risk and mortality in African Americans (AAs) with T2D.Recent FindingsAfrican Americans have an increased risk of developing T2D and have a higher prevalence of ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence Applications to Improve Risk Prediction Tools in Electrophysiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewArtificial intelligence (AI) is an aspect of computer technology that imitates the ability of the human mind to analyze data. Over the last few years, there has been a paradigm shift in the utilization of AI in clinical practice. It is imperative for the clinical electrophysiologist to understand the basics of AI, and its potential applications in the field as new applications are developed and implemented.Recent FindingsMultiple investigators have demonstrated various AI algorithms that can be utilized in clinical care. These include applications such as electronic stethoscopes and electrocardiogr...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of the Patient with Heart Failure and an Implantable Pulmonary Artery Hemodynamic Sensor
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHeart failure (HF) management guided by hemodynamics obtained from an implantable pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) sensor (CardioMEMS) improves symptoms and reduces HF hospitalizations (HFH). This paper reviews the theoretical basis of pulmonary vascular physiology, summarizes recently published data about CardioMEMS, and provides practical guidelines for patient selection and management.Recent FindingsCompared to patients managed by standard care, HF patients randomized to PAP-guided treatment have a higher frequency of medication adjustments, resulting in lower PAP and fewer HFH. Real-world analys...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Predictors of Outcomes in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: What Can Be Used Now and What Hope Is in the Future
We describe the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for AF management with a peek at some futuristic approaches. While each one of these variables could lend themselves for a separate review, we attempted to provide an overview of the most critical predictors of AF outcomes to equip the readers with the latest know-how of the management of AF. (Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Digital Cardiology: Opportunities for Disease Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the world ’s leading cause of mortality, responsible for 18 million deaths each year. Disease prevention is a critical component to curb the morbidity and mortality due to CVD worldwide, and advances in digital health technologies may facilitate adherence to and effectiveness of preventive measures. In this review, we seek to identify and describe recent developments in the use of digital health for CVD prevention between 2015 and 2019.Recent FindingsPromising digital health technologies have emerged in the field of cardiology. In the diagnostics arena, Alive...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Digital Technologies in Heart Failure Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHeart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospital readmission for patients over 65  years old in the United States. HF is a unique clinical condition requiring frequent monitoring of objective patient variables that cannot be accomplished by office visits alone. With the advent of smartphones, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi technologies, an opportunity arose for the digital management of H F patients. This paper reviews the current digital technologies available in HF management and future directions that have the potential to change clinical practice.Recent FindingsImplantable, wireless pulmonary art...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Understanding Health Disparities in Cardiovascular Diseases in Pregnancy Among Black Women: Prevalence, Preventive Care, and Peripartum Support Networks
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBlack women have higher morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and postpartum, as compared with women of other races/ethnicities, including white and Hispanic women. Pregnancy-associated deaths are rising in the USA and are higher than in other developed nations. Pregnancy-associated mortality rates are disproportionately higher among non-Hispanic black women. The purpose of this paper is to (1) review the current literature regarding pregnancy-associated cardiovascular disease prevalence in black women compared with women of other races/ethnicities, (2) review proposed factors contributing to these ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk in the Arab Gulf States
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRapid economic growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states over the last half-century has been associated with a rise in obesity and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this review, we shed some light on the factors driving the obesity epidemic, promising interventions to overcome this public health crisis, and challenges precluding a successful public health impact.Recent FindingsOverweight and obesity rates have nearly tripled in the GCC countries over the past four decades. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been rising in parallel. Several sociodemographic, environmental...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Characteristics that Predict Response After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established modality for treating heart failure. However, one-third of patients do not respond and it is increasingly recognized that response is not binary and we should be aiming for “best response”. This review looks at factors predicting response and remodelling and highlights areas where we may improve both the proportion of responders but also maximize response in an individual.Recent FindingsWe review the clinical characteristics predicting response including structural and electrical remodelling and discuss areas of debate. We examin...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Multimodality Imaging for Risk Assessment of Inherited Cardiomyopathies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the evidence concerning the imaging techniques and features to (a) diagnose and (b) risk stratify patients with, or at risk of, inherited cardiomyopathies. The inherited cardiomyopathies we have focused on are dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies (arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (AVRC), arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy (ALVC) and noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM)).Recent FindingsEchocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) still form the foundations of the diagnosis a...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex Difference in Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias and Ventricular Arrhythmias Associated with Structural Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSex differences in clinical manifestations, electrophysiological properties and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) have been an area of research in the last years. In this review, we focus on sex differences in the catheter ablation of VA in patients with and without structural heart disease.Recent FindingsWomen have more frequently RVOT than LVOT PVC/VTs but intrafascicular re-entry occurs more frequently in men than in women. Sex-dependent differences in the autonomic nervous system, hormonal status and/or arrhythmogenic characteristics of the substrate may explain these differences. Women...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Predictors of Success in Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to summarize the current literature on predictors of success in bariatric surgery. These predictors include clinical, psychological, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors. Successful bariatric surgery is defined by excess weight loss, as well as improvement in medical comorbidities and the patient ’s quality of life.Recent FindingsSuccessful bariatric surgery is dependent on clinical, psychological, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors. The choice of operation, as well as the starting body mass index (BMI), has the largest clinical effect on weight loss. The presen...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - February 20, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Medical Management Before Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe evaluation of patients before bariatric surgery requires identification and optimization of the known comorbidities associated with obesity. Evaluation begins with cardiac and pulmonary assessment for elective noncardiac surgery for patients with severe obesity published inCirculation in 2009 by the AHA.1 The algorithm uses a 5-step approach and evaluation after a comprehensive history and physical exam and lab testing completed.Recent FindingsA standardized preoperative checklist and Clinical Practice Guidelines were updated in 2013 by the American Associations of Clinical Endocrinologists (AC...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - January 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ablation Approaches and Imaging Modalities to Lower Risk of Atrioesophageal Injury During Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtrioesophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare yet catastrophic complication of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Limited data exists on measures to prevent AEF. This review focuses on AF ablation approaches, esophageal protective strategies, and imaging modalities that can be utilized to reduce the risk of AEF.Recent FindingsAEF has been reported to occur in less than 0.1% of AF ablation cases. Left untreated, it is associated with 100% mortality. Diagnosing AEF requires a high index of suspicion as symptoms are usually nonspecific. Several AF ablation techniques might reduce the risk of esophageal ther...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - January 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Obesity: Endocrinologic and Genetic Etiologies and Management
We describe these rare conditions and the dysregulation of neuropathways in obesity and review successes and failures in treatments in both syndromic and nonsyndromic obesity.Recent FindingsThe best-described form of syndromic obesity is Prader –Willi Syndrome (PWS). While recent pharmacotherapies (specifically beloranib) demonstrated improvements in weight in PWS, the unfortunate adverse effect of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism necessitated the halting of its further development. Additional treatments are in development whi ch target the signaling of ghrelin and other hypothalamic targets known to be dy...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Aortic Stenosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAortic stenosis is the most prevalent valvular heart disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of aortic valve stenosis.Recent FindingsThe diagnosis of aortic stenosis has evolved over time. Originally diagnosed with cardiac catheterization and echocardiography, more advance imaging techniques including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and 3D printing have improved our understanding of the physiology and hemodynamic effects of aortic stenosis.SummaryValvular heart disease affects a broad patient population, and the most common f...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Review of the Emergence and Expansion of Cardiovascular Genetic Counseling
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe genetic counseling profession is growing rapidly, as is its presence in cardiology. In this review, we will survey recent innovations and research in cardiovascular genetic counseling, as well as findings from the broader genetic counseling field that are relevant to cardiovascular genetic counseling.Recent FindingsResearch into the structure of services finds that genetic counselors are increasingly being embedded within cardiology departments and that cardiologists value their expertise and contributions. Findings from other genetic counseling subspecialties and from clinical psychology sugge...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Vaping and Cardiovascular Health: the Case for Health Policy Action
AbstractPurpose of ReviewE-cigarette smoking is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents and adults, although data on their safety or harm is still scarce. There have been few systematic studies of the health effects of e-cigarette use and most studies report on the use of e-cigarettes in past or current cigarette smokers. In this paper, we want to summarize cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes.Recent FindingsE-cigarettes could cause cardiovascular harm especially by the toxic effects and of the e-liquid and induction of oxidative stress. Nicotine has known effects on cardiovascular function that are not different i...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Advances in Technologies to Improve Ventricular Ablation Safety and Efficacy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on advances within the field of cardiac electrophysiology that have helped to improve the safety and efficacy of ventricular arrhythmia ablation.Recent FindingsImprovements in three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping systems and catheters allow providers to generate high-resolution maps in less time while identifying critical areas of arrhythmogenic substrate with greater efficiency and possibly better accuracy. Advanced imaging integration into the mapping systems have improved pre- and periprocedural planning and safety. Novel ablation catheters and techniques have improved t...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Peripheral Artery Disease and African Americans: Review of the Literature
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistake in the presentation of the author ’s name. (Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Race/Ethnic Disparities in Cardiac Transplantation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHeart transplant (HT) is the therapy of choice for patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), leading to substantial improvements in quality of life, functional status, and longevity compared to optimal medical therapy for end-stage HF. However, race/ethnic disparities in post-HT survival persist and remain a major concern. The purpose of this review is to describe differences in post-transplant outcomes based on race/ethnicity and to highlight evolving knowledge of the reasons for these persistent disparate outcomes.Recent FindingsBlack HT recipients have the highest risk for allograft failure an...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Look Beyond Statins and Ezetimibe: a Review of Other Lipid-Lowering Treatments for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere has been significant progress made during the last few decades in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite this, residual risk remains an unmet need for secondary prevention and high-risk primary prevention patients. First onset and recurrent cardiovascular events remain a major issue despite recommendations for a healthy lifestyle and current optimal medical therapy, which includes the use of maximally tolerated statin therapy plus or minus add-on ezetimibe therapy.Recent FindingsThese findings have led to the development of new treatments that modulate lipid...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Functional Mitral Valve Regurgitation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFunctional mitral regurgitation (FMR) occurs when mitral leaflets are prevented from adequate coaptation by underlying left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, mitral annular dilation, or both. This review aims to clarify the complex clinical issues in FMR, including diagnosis and therapy.Recent FindingsEven mild FMR has been shown to affect survival negatively. FMR is a dynamic condition and can vary within systole and with altered loading conditions. An integrative approach, including qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic data, is mandatory to determine severity of FMR. Treatment of FMR starts...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - September 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risk Associated with Medical Use of Opioids and Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe long-term use of opioid and cannabinoid medications to control chronic pain and treat opioid use disorders now involves a large proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, the cardiovascular risks of opioids are not well understood. This systematic review summarizes the current literature to assess the potential cardiovascular disease risks associated with opioid and cannabinoid medications.Recent FindingsThe role of long-term methadone use in increasing QT interval among people receiving methadone treatment for substance use disorders is well established. Routine electrocardiogram ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Genetic and Genomic Approaches to Predict Cardiac Allograft Rejection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to review the current state of and ongoing developments in the detection and diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection using genetic and genomic approaches.Recent FindingsThe current strength of genetic and genomic methods is primarily in reducing the overall number of surveillance endomyocardial biopsies in otherwise low-risk patients. Tissue-based analyses of endomyocardial samples are beginning to identify a more objective phenotypic description of cardiac allograft rejection than traditional histologic evaluation; however, a true “gold” standard remains elus...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Uterine Fibroids, Race, Ethnicity, and Cardiovascular Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUterine fibroids are the cause of significant morbidity for women particularly women of racial and ethnic minorities. This review seeks to draw connections between fibroids and another cause of morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular disease. Fibroids are the most common neoplasm affecting women as well as the most common reason for undergoing hysterectomy. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in the USA, and heart disease and stroke disproportionately impact women of racial and ethnic minorities.Recent FindingsProspective studies in the last several years have revealed a higher pr...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Peripheral Artery Disease and African Americans: Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeripheral artery disease (PAD) is a chronic, obstructive disease of the peripheral vasculature which is a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. African Americans (AA) are at the highest risk for developing this disease at every age group. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the risk factors for PAD and their implications for disease manifestation in AA, and to highlight ways to combat these known racial disparities in order to achieve cardiovascular health equity in this population.Recent FindingsEven after controlling for differences in the prevalence of known cardiovascular risk fac...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Update on Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments to Reduce Obesity and Lower Cardiometabolic Risks
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is an intractable clinical and public health problem that is associated with morbidity and mortality. This review provides an update on current and emerging behavioral weight loss interventions (BWLIs).Recent FindingsBecause lifestyle behaviors are primary determinants of weight loss success, BWLIs are front-line treatments in the clinical management of obesity. BWLIs provide guidance in dietary restriction, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior to achieve reductions in body weight. Intensive in-person comprehensive BWLIs providing 14 or more sessions over 6  mo...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Bicycling for Transportation and Recreation in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBicycling as a mode of transportation can be an easy and inexpensive way of integrating health enhancing physical activity into everyday life. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from studies on bicycling for transportation and recreation in relation to cardiovascular disease prevention. We also estimate the population impact of increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation.Recent FindingsThe overall evidence from prospective cohort studies supports that bicycling for transportation or recreation is related to lower risk of development of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease and...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lipids in South Asians: Epidemiology and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on lipoprotein abnormalities in South Asians (SA) and addresses risk stratification and management strategies to lower atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in this high-risk population.Recent FindingsSouth Asians (SAs) are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S) and have an increased risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). While the etiology may be multifactorial, lipoprotein abnormalities play a key role. SAs have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with Whites and at any given LDL-C level, SA ethnicity poses a highe...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

LDL-C Targets in Secondary Prevention: How Low Should We Go?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe benefits of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), mainly using high-intensity statin therapy, and its impact on decreasing the recurrence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in secondary prevention has been well established. With the advent of non-statin medications, particularly PCSK-9 inhibitors, which can lower LDL-C to very low levels not seen before, it is important to answer some important questions regarding LDL-C lowering and the uses of these medications in clinical practice: how low should we go with LDL-C reduction? Is there a threshold beyond which lowe...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Biodegradable Polymers and Stents: the Next Generation?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStent design continues to evolve with newer generation of stents aimed at improving clinical outcomes. This review compares different generations of stents with a focus on biodegradable polymers and stents and their potential benefits.Recent FindingsDrug-eluting stents (DES) reduce stent thrombosis when compared with bare-metal stents (BMS). However, they are associated with impaired vascular healing/endothelialization and excess very long-term events (beyond 1  year). Much of these events (beyond 1 year) have been attributed to continued inflammation due to the polymer. Biodegradable-pol...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 10, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Consider Preeclampsia as a First Cardiovascular Event
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Preeclampsia (PE) is an important and acknowledged female-specific risk factor. Women with a history of PE have an elevated risk to develop hypertension in the decade following their index pregnancy. In this paper, we aim to provide recent insights in the future risk of preeclampsia and describe how prevention strategies can be optimized.Recent FindingsThe development of premature hypertension is caused by multiple factors such as genetics and a persistent enhanced inflammatory state after PE. Systemic inflammation accel...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Heart Failure —Female Representation in Heart Failure Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prevalence of heart failure (HF) continues to grow in the USA, and approximately 50% of these patients are women. Despite this, there has been an underrepresentation of women in HF clinical trials, which has led to limitations in understanding of sex-related differences in HF pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this review is to highlight the differences between men and women in various heart failure trials conducted in the last century and emphasize new findings from recent trials in the management of, and outcomes in, women with HF.Recent FindingsHF trials have shown tha...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research