Uterine Fibroids, Race, Ethnicity, and Cardiovascular Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUterine fibroids are the cause of significant morbidity for women particularly women of racial and ethnic minorities. This review seeks to draw connections between fibroids and another cause of morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular disease. Fibroids are the most common neoplasm affecting women as well as the most common reason for undergoing hysterectomy. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in the USA, and heart disease and stroke disproportionately impact women of racial and ethnic minorities.Recent FindingsProspective studies in the last several years have revealed a higher pr...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Peripheral Artery Disease and African Americans: Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeripheral artery disease (PAD) is a chronic, obstructive disease of the peripheral vasculature which is a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. African Americans (AA) are at the highest risk for developing this disease at every age group. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the risk factors for PAD and their implications for disease manifestation in AA, and to highlight ways to combat these known racial disparities in order to achieve cardiovascular health equity in this population.Recent FindingsEven after controlling for differences in the prevalence of known cardiovascular risk fac...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Update on Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments to Reduce Obesity and Lower Cardiometabolic Risks
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is an intractable clinical and public health problem that is associated with morbidity and mortality. This review provides an update on current and emerging behavioral weight loss interventions (BWLIs).Recent FindingsBecause lifestyle behaviors are primary determinants of weight loss success, BWLIs are front-line treatments in the clinical management of obesity. BWLIs provide guidance in dietary restriction, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior to achieve reductions in body weight. Intensive in-person comprehensive BWLIs providing 14 or more sessions over 6  mo...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Bicycling for Transportation and Recreation in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBicycling as a mode of transportation can be an easy and inexpensive way of integrating health enhancing physical activity into everyday life. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from studies on bicycling for transportation and recreation in relation to cardiovascular disease prevention. We also estimate the population impact of increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation.Recent FindingsThe overall evidence from prospective cohort studies supports that bicycling for transportation or recreation is related to lower risk of development of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease and...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lipids in South Asians: Epidemiology and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on lipoprotein abnormalities in South Asians (SA) and addresses risk stratification and management strategies to lower atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in this high-risk population.Recent FindingsSouth Asians (SAs) are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S) and have an increased risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). While the etiology may be multifactorial, lipoprotein abnormalities play a key role. SAs have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with Whites and at any given LDL-C level, SA ethnicity poses a highe...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

LDL-C Targets in Secondary Prevention: How Low Should We Go?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe benefits of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), mainly using high-intensity statin therapy, and its impact on decreasing the recurrence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in secondary prevention has been well established. With the advent of non-statin medications, particularly PCSK-9 inhibitors, which can lower LDL-C to very low levels not seen before, it is important to answer some important questions regarding LDL-C lowering and the uses of these medications in clinical practice: how low should we go with LDL-C reduction? Is there a threshold beyond which lowe...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Biodegradable Polymers and Stents: the Next Generation?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStent design continues to evolve with newer generation of stents aimed at improving clinical outcomes. This review compares different generations of stents with a focus on biodegradable polymers and stents and their potential benefits.Recent FindingsDrug-eluting stents (DES) reduce stent thrombosis when compared with bare-metal stents (BMS). However, they are associated with impaired vascular healing/endothelialization and excess very long-term events (beyond 1  year). Much of these events (beyond 1 year) have been attributed to continued inflammation due to the polymer. Biodegradable-pol...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Consider Preeclampsia as a First Cardiovascular Event
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Preeclampsia (PE) is an important and acknowledged female-specific risk factor. Women with a history of PE have an elevated risk to develop hypertension in the decade following their index pregnancy. In this paper, we aim to provide recent insights in the future risk of preeclampsia and describe how prevention strategies can be optimized.Recent FindingsThe development of premature hypertension is caused by multiple factors such as genetics and a persistent enhanced inflammatory state after PE. Systemic inflammation accel...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Heart Failure —Female Representation in Heart Failure Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prevalence of heart failure (HF) continues to grow in the USA, and approximately 50% of these patients are women. Despite this, there has been an underrepresentation of women in HF clinical trials, which has led to limitations in understanding of sex-related differences in HF pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this review is to highlight the differences between men and women in various heart failure trials conducted in the last century and emphasize new findings from recent trials in the management of, and outcomes in, women with HF.Recent FindingsHF trials have shown tha...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lipids in Women: Management in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Special Subgroups
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs the adverse impact of cardiovascular disease continues to afflict women around the world, the identification and treatment of risk factors to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality continue to rise in priority. Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease and should serve as a strong focus point in both primary and secondary prevention. However, women remain undertreated compared with men and receive less evidence-based therapies including cholesterol management. Some of the unique risk factors in women that contribute to cardiovascular disease have been incorporat...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Use of Risk-Enhancing Factors to Personalize ASCVD Risk Assessment: Evidence and Recommendations from the 2018 AHA/ACC Multi-Society Cholesterol Guidelines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn 2018, the AHA/ACC Multi-Society Cholesterol Guidelines introduced the novel concept of risk-enhancing factors to be used as a supplement to the pooled cohort risk equations to personalize atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment in primary prevention. In this review, we discuss the rationale and evidence behind each of the risk-enhancing factors to help clinicians perform a more personalized cardiovascular risk assessment.Recent FindingsThe risk-enhancing factors are high-risk features that may guide the use of lipid-lowering therapy particularly in intermediate and select borderli...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Management of Channelopathies and Cardiomyopathies, Long QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy, and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith this paper, we aim to summarize the knowledge on gender differences in the most common inheritable channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, focusing on aspects that are of clinical importance for patient management and follow-up.Recent FindingsDespite autosomal dominant inheritance patterns in most of the inheritable cardiac channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, there is increasing awareness that there are important gender differences in disease penetrance and severity, affecting prevalence, clinical presentation, and patient management.SummaryImportant gender differences are present in Long QT s...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Characteristic Symptoms in Women with Ischemic Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvances in coronary imaging techniques have revealed that there are important sex differences in the pattern of ischemic heart disease. In this review, we aim to summarize our current knowledge and focus on the relation between a distinct symptom presentation in women and their underlying type of coronary artery disease.Recent FindingsWomen in the age group 40 –70 years more often have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary vasomotor disorders compared with the traditional obstructive CAD as seen in men. These differences in pathophysiology translate into another sym...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Review on Future Targets and Current Trends in Transcatheter Left Atrial Appendage Closure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtrial fibrillation is cause for a growing burden of thromboembolic stroke. Transcatheter left atrial appendage closure is an alternative to lifelong oral anticoagulation for many patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Reviewed here are three commonly used devices (Watchman, Amplatzer Cardiac Plug/Amulet, and Lariat) and their key clinical trials, special candidate patient populations, and recent investigations of the impact of post-procedure antithrombotic strategies.Recent FindingsTranscatheter left atrial appendage closure devices provide noninferior thromboembolic stroke risk reduction ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management of the Vulnerable Plaque
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronary plaque rupture is the dominant mechanism of acute myocardial infarction and sudden coronary death. If we are to make a major inroads on reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, more accurate prediction of an individual ’s near-term cardiovascular risk (i.e., prediction of future coronary events) than what we can offer today is the ultimate goal to enable a more patient-tailored treatment strategy for coronary artery disease. In this review, we address the value of the vulnerable plaque concept in the context of an integrative cardiovascular risk assessment.Recent...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Pacing in Elderly Patients with Unexplained Syncope
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo discuss the role of pacing in elderly patients with unexplained syncope.Recent FindingsIn patients with recurrent syncope with suspected reflex mechanism, the decision of pacemaker implantation can be guided by a standardized algorithm which includes carotid sinus massage, tilt-table testing, and implantable loop recorder. Cardiac pacing may reduce recurrent syncope in cardioinhibitory carotid sinus syndrome. In select elderly patients with recurrent cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope, cardiac pacing may also reduce syncope recurrence. There is no role of cardiac pacing in patients with without ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Therapy: Repair and Replacement
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this paper, we discuss the salient clinical and anatomic challenges in percutaneous mitral valve repair and replacement.Recent FindingsThe mitral valve is complex structure and understanding its intricacies and anatomic relationships to surrounding structures (i.e., aortic valve and papillary muscles) is central to delivery of therapies. Part of the complexity is treatment of primary and secondary mitral regurgitation, where in primary regurgitation the valve is the primary issue and treatment should be curative or treatment of secondary mitral regurgitation, where the valve is subject to distor...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Emerging Lipid-Lowering Therapies in Secondary Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe primary purpose of this article was to review the next-generation lipid-lowering therapies that are under current development and clinical testing. We reviewed the mechanism of action of these drugs and how they act on different pathways of lipid metabolism. Additionally, we aimed to present data from clinical trials evaluating clinical outcomes, efficacy, and safety of these novel agents. Lastly, we sought to provide recommendations for clinical practice and to comment on the cost-benefit analyses of such drugs.Recent FindingsWe evaluated the following lipid-lowering agents as they pertain to ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - April 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Review of the Use of Cryoballoon Ablation for the Treatment of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCryoballoon ablation is the standard-of-care treatment for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, but its efficacy in addressing persistent atrial fibrillation is unclear. Current research is underway to identify origins of persistent atrial fibrillation in locations outside of the pulmonary veins, which are likely high-yield targets for catheter ablation.Recent FindingsRandomized studies suggest that targeting non-pulmonary vein (PV) locations has not proven to significantly improve outcomes in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. A growing body of evidence suggests that cryoballoo...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - March 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

LGE-MRI Characterization of Left Atrial Fibrosis: a Tool to Establish Prognosis and Guide Atrial Fibrillation Ablation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia and also an important cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is often the preferred therapy, but the incidence of recurrences is still significant. This review summarizes the contribution of atrial substrate identification using late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) to establish prognosis and to guide AF ablation.Recent FindingsLeft atrial (LA) fibrosis is thought to create the necessary substrate to sustain AF. The accuracy of LGE-MRI to identify areas of atrial fibrosis ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - March 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Approaches to the Diagnosis and Management of Atrial-Esophageal Fistula After Catheter Ablation for Atrial Arrhythmias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCatheter ablation has become a cornerstone of therapy in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thermal energy generated in the left atrium (LA) during ablation has the potential to damage adjacent structures. The most feared and rare complication in these ablations is atrial-esophageal fistula (AEF) result from the thermal injury to the esophagus due to the proximity to the LA, with potential catastrophic outcome. This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of AEF after catheter ablation for AF, including preventive measures to avoid esophageal lesions.Recent FindingsSym...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Neighborhood Social Environment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLimited physical activity (PA) and obesity are two primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Within a socio-ecological framework, neighborhood social environment may play a key role in influencing PA and obesity. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain ambiguous. Our goals in this review are as follows: (1) to summarize findings from the recent studies on neighborhood social environment in relation to PA and obesity as CVD risk factors, and (2) to briefly describe several innovative approaches to assessing neighborhood social environment.Recent FindingsAlmost all re...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - March 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Triglycerides: Mendelian Randomization Studies Suggest Causal Role, but How to Treat in 2019?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHypertriglyceridemia (HTG), defined by fasting levels at or exceeding 200  mg/dL, is characterized as a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, metabolic state associated with endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mendelian randomization studies now support a causal role for TG-rich lip oproteins in CVD risk enhancement. Yet, until recently, only post-hoc analyses from clinical trials suggested that treating HTG would translate into reduced CVD risk.Recent FindingsThe results of Reduction of Cardiovascular Ev...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Atrial Arrhythmia Ablation in Adolescent and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtrial arrhythmias cause significant morbidity in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Catheter ablation remains one of the most effective treatment modalities for atrial arrhythmias. However, patients with congenital heart disease present unique challenges for catheter ablation.Recent FindingsRecent expert consensus guidelines inform physicians about treating arrhythmias in patients with CHD. These guidelines outline appropriate selection criteria for ablation and highlight treatment alternatives. The authors also suggest electrophysiology laboratory and physician standards for performing...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - February 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

How to Choose Between His Bundle Pacing and Biventricular Pacing for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this critical appraisal is to evaluate the role for His bundle pacing (HBP) in cardiac resynchronization, examine early clinical and physiologic data, as well as offer recommendations for selecting patients for HBP versus biventricular pacing for CRT.Recent FindingsBiventricular pacing with a left ventricular (LV) coronary sinus lead has been the primary mode of delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for over two decades. By fusing multiple wavefronts of activation, biventricular pacing shortens and homogenizes ventricular activation, increases left ventricular ejection frac...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - February 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Optimizing Anticoagulation in Older Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe sought to review the current issues on optimization of anticoagulation in elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).Recent FindingsAdvanced age is a risk factor for stroke and as one advances in age, the risk of stroke also increases. One of the many challenges of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in the elderly patients with NVAF is the underutilization of anticoagulants. Commonly cited reasons for hesitation by physician in prescribing oral anticoagulants are advanced age, increase risk of bleeding, and the difficulty in maintaining an adequate time in therapeutic r...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Worldwide Dyslipidemia Guidelines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to identify common features of guidelines by comparing and summarizing similarities between five guidelines distributed by high-profile cardiovascular societies across the globe. We include guidelines from North America: ACC/AHA (2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults) and CCS (2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult) and from Europe: PoLA (2016 Polish Lipi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Noninvasive Cardiac Radioablation for Ventricular Arrhythmias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we describe the general principles and clinical use of stereotactic radioablation (SR) and its specific application to the treatment of malignant cardiac ventricular arrhythmias, or stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR). The principles of STAR, and the unmet needs in cardiac arrhythmia ablation are described. The basic pathophysiology of radioablative effect on cardiac tissues, the clinical experience to date, and future directions are discussed.Recent FindingsBasic preclinical research has demonstrated in large animal models (porcine, canine) that delivery of SR energy to ca...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - January 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Brugada Syndrome in the Developing Countries
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this article is to review the current paradigm for the diagnosis and management of Brugada Syndrome.Recent FindingsOne area of particular interest is the recent reports on the use of ablation for treatment and the relevance to our understanding of this genetic disorder.SummaryThis review discusses issues with management and treatment of Brugada Syndrome that have applications that should apply to patients in the developed and developing world. (Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports)
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - November 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Social Networks and Health Outcomes: Importance for Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Cardiovascular Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA large body of research has indicated social network characteristics are associated with health and mortality. Additional literature suggests the structure and function of social networks differ by race and socioeconomic status. The current paper seeks to synthesize and further contextualize these two separate bodies of work, as well as illustrate potential mechanisms by which social networks may contribute to current disparities in cardiovascular disease outcomes.Recent FindingsAn increasing number of studies have examined the link between social networks and cardiovascular outcomes. Social isola...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Personalized Approach to Statin Selection in Primary Prevention: Genetic Risk Scores Vs Imaging Risk Scores
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review addresses how assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and information on genetic profile can guide statin therapy in primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).Recent FindingsCAC provides information beyond that given by standard risk factors, improving discrimination and risk reclassification, especially in the intermediate-risk stratum. A substantial proportion of individuals in primary prevention have CAC  = 0 and very good prognosis over 10 years (ASCVD risk100 is usually associated with 10-year ASCVD risk>7.5%, even in individuals...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes: the Potential for Cardiovascular Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlobal sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high, with important implications for cardiovascular health. International momentum with the adoption and implementation of SSB taxes has been mounting in recent years, as has the evidence supporting such a policy for population health. In this review, we summarise the influence of regular SSB consumption on cardiovascular health and provide a global perspective on SSB consumption and SSB tax action and evidence. We further discuss the might and organised opposition of the beverage industry and the policy enablers for affirmative action.Recent Fi...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - October 10, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lipoprotein(a) —It Is Risky, but What Do We Do About It?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-atherogenic lipoprotein particle. Lp(a) binds and transports oxidized phospholipids in the bloodstream. It is one of the strongest genetic risk factors for coronary artery disease, stroke, and calcific aortic valve stenosis.Recent FindingsElevated Lp(a) levels, or hyperlipoproteinemia(a), is associated with cardiovascular outcomes even in high-risk individuals who achieve their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target with statins. Lifestyle modification therapy and dietary supplements have little impact on plasma Lp(a) levels....
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - September 29, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Time to Make a Change: Assessing LDL-C Accurately in the Era of Modern Pharmacotherapeutics and Precision Medicine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Friedewald equation for estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was published in 1972 as an alternative to direct assessment by preparative ultracentrifugation. In this equation, very low-density lipoprotein is estimated by dividing triglycerides by a fixed factor (5 in mg/dL or 2.2 in mmol/L) and subtracting this term from non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). This method was derived in fasting samples from a small cohort of patients with primarily genetic dyslipidemias followed at the NIH. The method served well as the global standard for LDL-C estimation for...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Delivery of Automated External Defibrillators (AED) by Drones: Implications for Emergency Cardiac Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOut-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a significant health problem in the USA and only 8.6% of victims survive with good neurological function, despite advances in emergency cardiac care. The likelihood of OHCA survival decreases by 10% for every minute without resuscitation.Recent FindingsAutomatic external defibrillators (AEDs) have the potential to save lives yet public access defibrillators are underutilized (
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Use of Wearable Technologies for Early Diagnosis and Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes and Arrhythmias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe sought to describe current issues in patient healthcare access to diagnostics and potential solutions via wearable and/or mobile/digital technologies.Recent FindingsThere are ongoing as well as completed studies showing feasibility of direct-to-consumer FDA-approved technologies to identify acute coronary syndromes and/or arrhythmias.SummaryImprovement in direct-to-consumer technology, cloud-based services, and access to the internet have the potential to greatly benefit and impact patient engagement and access to healthcare as well as early diagnosis of cardiovascular-related diseases. (Source:...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Timing and Role of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Heart Failure Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are cardiovascular disease epidemics with increasing prevalence worldwide. AF can either be a cause or consequence of cardiomyopathy and HF. Catheter ablation (CA) has been a proven therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory AF patients. The purpose of this review is to highlight the role as well as timing of CA in treating AF patients with HF.Recent FindingsMultiple randomized clinical trials in recent years have elegantly demonstrated the superiority of CA in improving survival, quality of life, ventricular function, and reduce hospitalizations, ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - July 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Coronary Calcium Score vs. Computed Tomography Angiography as Tools to Stratify Cardiovascular Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review evaluates the evidence for and against the use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) on the cardiovascular risk stratification for primary prevention in asymptomatic individuals.Recent FindingsRecent evidence suggests that the presence and extent of CAC are robust predictors of events across various populations and variable baseline risk. On the other hand, the absence of CAC is associated with a good prognosis event in older individuals or in those with multiple risk factor or high clinical risk. While coronary CTA is also useful for ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Debunking the Myth of Diabetes Mellitus as Cardiovascular Disease Equivalent: What Took So Long?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) have historically been reported to have the same risk of having a future myocardial infarction (MI) as an individual with known coronary heart disease (CHD). In other words, DM has been widely accepted as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. We review the literature that established DM as a CHD risk equivalent and how over time it has become clear that DM carries a spectrum of risk.Recent FindingsNewer studies suggest that DM is heterogeneous, with certain subgroups such as women, those with longer duration of DM, and increased severity of disease may b...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Relationship of Objective Physical Activity with Traditional and Nontraditional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among women in the USA, accounting for one of every three deaths. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects for CVD risk reduction in women. Nonetheless, much of the previous research on the impact of PA on CVD risk factors has been measured using self-report questionnaires. The purpose of this review was to summarize the main findings for the association between objectively measured PA and PA interventions on traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors from randomized controlled trials (RCT), cohort, and...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Debunking the Myth of Diabetes Mellitus as Cardiovascular Disease Equivalent: What Took So Long?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) have historically been reported to have the same risk of having a future myocardial infarction (MI) as an individual with known coronary heart disease (CHD). In other words, DM has been widely accepted as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. We review the literature that established DM as a CHD risk equivalent and how over time it has become clear that DM carries a spectrum of risk.Recent FindingsNewer studies suggest that DM is heterogeneous, with certain subgroups such as women, those with longer duration of DM, and increased severity of disease may b...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Relationship of Objective Physical Activity with Traditional and Nontraditional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among women in the USA, accounting for one of every three deaths. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects for CVD risk reduction in women. Nonetheless, much of the previous research on the impact of PA on CVD risk factors has been measured using self-report questionnaires. The purpose of this review was to summarize the main findings for the association between objectively measured PA and PA interventions on traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors from randomized controlled trials (RCT), cohort, and...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exercise Prescription for a Healthy Heart
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhysical inactivity is associated with increased mortality. However, it is rarely emphasized by physicians as an essential component of health. Physicians place greater emphasis on medications that they are uniquely qualified to prescribe. This review outlines the historical and recent data supporting the importance of physical activity with the aim of inspiring physicians to prescribe physical activity to their patients.Recent FindingsRecent meta-analyses pooling international population based data on physical activity show a dose-dependent reduction in mortality. A pooled cohort study found that ...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports - June 7, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research