Anti-Thrombotic Effects of Statins in Acute Coronary Syndromes: At the Intersection of Thrombosis, Inflammation, and Platelet-Leukocyte Interactions.
Authors: Sexton T, Wallace EL, Smyth SS Abstract HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, are standard of care for preventing cardiovascular disease in at-risk populations. Statins are a well-established therapy proven to reduce long-term cardiovascular mortality and morbidity for prevention of secondary cardiovascular events and have become guideline-recommended therapy following acute myocardial infarction. Emerging data from clinical trials over the last decade indicates that statin therapy may provide broad beneficial effects beyond their primary lipid lowering mechanisms. In coronary heart disease, statins ha...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 5, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Coronary artery ectasia-a review of current literature.
Authors: Devabhaktuni S, Mercedes A, Diep J, Ahsan C Abstract Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is one of the uncommon cardiovascular disorders. Its incidence ranges from 1.2%-4.9%. Coronary artery ectasia likely represents an exaggerated form of expansive vascular remodeling (i.e. excessive expansive remodeling) in response to atherosclerotic plaque growth with atherosclerosis being the most common cause. Although, it has been described more than five decades ago, its management is still debated. We therefore reviewed the literature until date by searching PubMed and Google scholar using key words "coronary arter...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 5, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Adherence to cardiac practice guidelines in the management of Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: a systematic literature review.
CONCLUSION: This review showed wide variation in guideline adherence, with a substantial proportion of NST-ACS patients possibly not receiving guideline-recommended care. Consequently, patients may be at higher risk of poor prognosis. Future research should further investigate the complex nature of guideline adherence in NST-ACS, its impact on clinical care, and factors influencing adherence. This knowledge is essential to optimize clinical management of NST-ACS patients and could guide future quality improvement initiatives. PMID: 27142050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 5, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Editorial: The Acute Management of Pediatric Heart Failure.
Authors: Bronicki RA PMID: 27048143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - April 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Approach to Heart Failure in Children.
Authors: Tume SC, Goldberg J, Molossi S, Bronicki RA Abstract Heart failure may result from a wide variety of causes and present with varying degrees of severity. In large part patients present with varying degrees of congestion and compromised cardiac output. In this review a pathophysiologic construct is provided to guide the pharmacologic management of acute heart failure that leads to decreased congestion and improved cardiac output. Pharmacologic therapies that are used to treat chronic heart failure are also highlighted and provide the framework for transitioning from acute to preventative pharmacologic strat...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - April 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Mechanical Circulatory Support in Children.
Authors: Adachi I, Jaquiss RD Abstract The field of pediatric mechanical circulatory support has undergone a significant evolution with the advent of devices designed for children and the implementation of new strategies for deployment. With the ongoing shortage of organs the demand for new devices specifically designed for children will only increase. This review discusses the evolution of mechanical circulatory support, available devices, and the implementation of new strategies for their deployment. PMID: 27048145 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - April 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Therapeutic Utilities of Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization.
Authors: Moustafa GA, Kolokythas A, Charitakis K, Avgerinos DV Abstract In an era when less invasive techniques are favored, therapeutic cardiac catheterization constantly evolves and widens its spectrum of usage in the pediatric population. The advent of sophisticated devices and well-designed equipment has made the management of many congenital cardiac lesions more efficient and safer, while providing more comfort to the patient. Nowadays, a large variety of heart diseases are managed with transcatheter techniques, such as patent foramen ovale, atrial and ventricular septal defects, valve stenosis, patent ductus ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization in the Pediatric Population.
Authors: Moustafa GA, Kolokythas A, Charitakis K, Avgerinos DV Abstract Although the utility of diagnostic cardiac catheterization in the clinical setting has diminished over the last years, due to the emergence of noninvasive imaging modalities, such as echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, catheterization for diagnostic reasons still constitutes a valuable tool in certain parts in the workup of pediatric heart disease. As a result, awareness of the main aspects of diagnostic catheterization is of great importance for the clinical cardiologist. In this article, the main variables me...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Potential role of MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease : Are they up to their hype?
CONCLUSION: In this review we summarize the data, including the more recent data, regarding miRNAs in cardiovascular disease and their potential role in future in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 26926293 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Drug-induced inhibition and trafficking disruption of ion channels: pathogenesis of QT abnormalities and drug-induced fatal arrhythmias.
Authors: Cubeddu LX Abstract Risk of severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias, presenting as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), is increased in congenital and acquired forms of long QT syndromes (LQTS). Drug-induced inhibition of K+ currents, IKs, IKr, IK1, and/or Ito, delay repolarization, prolong QT, and increase the risk of TdP. Drug-induced interference with IKr is the most common cause of acquired LQTS/TdP. Multiple drugs bind to KNCH2-hERG-K+ channels affecting IKr, including antiarrythmics, antibiotics, antivirals, azole-antifungals, antimalarials, anticancer, antiemetics, prokinetics, antipsychotics, and antidepress...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

A Practical Comprehensive Approach to Management of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.
Authors: Nwosu C, Mezue K, Bhagatwala K, Ezema N Abstract Heart failure (HF) has a high incidence and prevalence in the USA and worldwide. It is a very common cause of significant morbidity and mortality with serious cost implications on the US health sector. The primary focus of this review is to synthesize an effective comprehensive care plan for patients in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) based on the most current evidence available. It begins with a brief overview of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and evaluation of patients in ADHF. It then reviews management goals and treatment guidelines,...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Cardiomyopathies in Children.
Authors: Price JF Abstract Cardiomyopathies are diseases of the heart muscle, a term introduced in 1957 to identify a group of myocardial diseases not attributable to coronary artery disease. The definition has since been modified to refer to structural and or functional abnormalities of the myocardium where other known causes of myocardial dysfunction, such as systemic hypertension, valvular disease and ischemic heart disease, have been excluded. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical assessment and therapeutic strategies for hypertrophic, dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, with a particul...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease and Periodic Limb Movements: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations.
Authors: Pratt DP Abstract Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom Disease is a common, but frequently under- recognized and misdiagnosed condition seen in many subspecialty practices including neurology, sleep medicine, primary care and rheumatology. Periodic limb movements are a frequent co-morbid diagnosis in RLS. Despite prior beliefs that the condition was "benign", it has been demonstrated to have a considerable impact on sufferers quality of life, physically and psychologically, as well as socially. This chapter is meant as a comprehensive review of RLS encompassing epidemiology, pathophysiolo...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 25, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: What we have learned in the last 25 years? A comparative literature review.
Authors: Said SM, Saygili E, Rana OR, Genz C, Hahn J, Bali R, Varshney S, Albouaini K, Prondzinsky R, Braun-Dullaeus RC Abstract We performed a comparative literature review, to elucidate the major features of the Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TCM) collected in last 25 years. TCM is characterized by left- or biventricular apical ballooning with a clinical presentation, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and biomarker profils similar to those seen in acute myocardial infarction. Epidemiological studies have shown that TCM is more common in postmenopausal women; however exact figures are not available. The unde...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Impact of Opioids on Cardiac Electrophysiology.
Authors: Wedam EF, Haigney MC Abstract Synthetic opioid agents have been used in modern medicine for over a century and for opioid addiction treatment for over a half-century. Liberal use of opioids in the United States has been attended by an extraordinary increase in opioid-related mortality, with over 16,000 deaths in 2012. As there have been advances in opioid agents for pain and addiction, so have there been advances in our understanding of the cardiac effects of these agents. In the last 10 years, significant data regarding electrophysiologic effects of these agents have been collected. We aim in this review ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Arterial Thickness and Immunometabolism: The Mediating role of Chronic Exercise.
Authors: Antunes BM, Cayres SU, Lira FS, Fernandes RA Abstract Metabolic alterations and cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, are associated with lifestyle modifications, particularly the increase of physical inactivity and poor eating habits, which contribute to one of the main causes of death in modern times. Cardiovascular diseases are positively correlated with several illnesses, such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these disorders are known to contribute to changes in immune cells, cytokines and metabolism. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the forma...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Drug Therapy for Hypertrophic Cardiomypathy: Physiology and Practice.
Authors: Sherrid MV Abstract HCM is the most common inherited heart condition occurring in 1:500 individuals in the general population. Left ventricular outflow obstruction at rest or after provocation occurs in 2/3 of HCM patients and is a frequent cause of limiting symptoms. Pharmacologic therapy is the first-line treatment for obstruction, and should be aggressively pursued before application of invasive therapy. Beta-blockade is given first, and up-titrated to decrease resting heart rate to between 50 and 60 beats per minute. However, beta-blockade is not expected to decrease resting gradients; its effect rests...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Bioresorbable Scaffolds for Atheroregression: Understanding of Transient Scaffolding.
Authors: Kharlamov AN Abstract This review focuses on the clinical and biological features of the bioresorbable scaffolds in interventional cardiology highlighting scientific achievements and challenges of the transient scaffolding with Absorb BVS. Special attention is granted to the vascular biology pathways which, involved in the resorption of scaffold, artery remodeling and mechanisms of Glagovian atheroregression setting the stage for subsequent clinical applications. Twenty five years ago Glagov described the phenomenon of limited external elastic membrane enlargement in response to an increase in plaque burde...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

GDF 15 - A Novel Biomarker in the Offing for Heart Failure.
CONCLUSION: More studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathways involving GDF-15 and to see how knowledge about GDF-15 can be used to make therapeutic decisions in the clinic. PMID: 26750722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Adenosine A3 Receptor: A promising therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Nishat S, Khan LA, Ansari ZM, Basir SF Abstract Cardiovascular complications are one of the major factors for early mortality in the present worldwide scenario and have become a major challenge in both developing and developed nations. It has thus become of immense importance to look for different therapeutic possibilities and treatments for the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases. Recent advancements in research have opened various means for better understanding of the complication and treatment of the disease. Adenosine receptors have become tool of choice in understanding the signaling mechanism w...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Mechanical Circulatory Support in Children.
Authors: Adachi I, Jaquiss RD Abstract The field of pediatric mechanical circulatory support has undergone a significant evolution with the advent of devices designed for children and the implementation of new strategies for deployment. With the ongoing shortage of organs the demand for new devices specifically designed for children will only increase. This review discusses the evolution of mechanical circulatory support, available devices, and the implementation of new strategies for their deployment. PMID: 26585034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Heart Failure.
This article will review pediatric aspects of the cardiorenal syndrome in terms of pathophysiology, clinical impact and treatment options. PMID: 26585035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Approach to Heart Failure.
Authors: Tume SC, Goldberg J, Molossi S, Bronicki RA Abstract Heart failure may result from a wide variety of causes and present with varying degrees of severity. In large part patients present with varying degrees of congestion and compromised cardiac output. In this review a pathophysiologic construct is provided to guide the pharmacologic management of acute heart failure that leads to decreased congestion and improved cardiac output. Pharmacologic therapies that are used to treat chronic heart failure are also highlighted and provide the framework for transitioning from acute to preventative pharmacologic strat...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Hemodynamic monitoring in the acute management of pediatric heart failure.
Authors: Tsang R, Checchia P, Bronicki RA Abstract One of the basic tenets of cardiac critical care is to ensure adequate tissue oxygenation. As with other critical illness such as trauma and acute myocardial infarction studies have demonstrated that making the right diagnosis at the right time improves outcomes. The same is true for the management of patients at risk for or in a state of shock. In order to optimize outcomes an accurate and timely assessment of cardiac function, cardiac output and tissue oxygenation must be made. This review discusses the limitations of the standard assessment of cardiovascular fun...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary Interactions in Heart Failure.
Authors: Bronicki RA Abstract Cardiopulmonary interactions are present but inconsequential in humans with normal cardiac and respiratory function; however, in the presence of significant impairment in either system, the importance of the interplay between cardiovascular and pulmonary systems cannot be overstated. This review will discuss the physiologic underpinnings and consequences of these interactions in patients with heart failure. PMID: 26585038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Management of the low cardiac output syndrome following surgery for congenital heart disease.
Authors: Chandler HK, Kirsch R Abstract The purpose of this review is to discuss the management of the low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) following surgery for congenital heart disease. The LCOS is a well-recognized, frequent post-operative complication with an accepted collection of hemodynamic and physiologic aberrations. Approximately 25% of children experience a decrease in cardiac index of less than 2 L/min/m2 within 6-18 hours after cardiac surgery. Post-operative strategies that may be used to manage patients as risk for or in a state of low cardiac output include the use of hemodynamic monitoring, enabling ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Pathophysiology of Heart Failure.
Authors: Knudson JD, Cabrera AG Abstract Few data exist on the pathophysiologic changes in pediatric heart failure. Most of the knowledge has evolved from animal models of ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This review addresses the pathophysiologic changes that occur in the failing heart from animal models and the adult experience to unique aspects of heart failure in children. PMID: 26585040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Hybrid Approach for Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusions.
Authors: Rangan BV, Kotsia A, Christopoulos G, Spratt J, Rinfret S, Banerjee S, Brilakis ES Abstract The "hybrid" approach to chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was developed to provide guidance on optimal crossing strategy selection. Dual angiography remains the cornerstone of clinical decision making in CTO PCI. Four angiographic parameters are assessed: (a) morphology of the proximal cap (clear-cut or ambiguous); (b) occlusion length; (c) distal vessel size and presence of bifurcations beyond the distal cap; and (d) location and suitability of location and suitabilit...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - an interventional perspective.
Authors: Choo GH Abstract Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Radiation Safety During Interventions of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion.
Authors: Tran P, Phan H, Shah SR, Latif F, Nguyen T Abstract During percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO), prolonged procedures increase the risk of excessive radiation exposure. These situations harbor a major concern to protect patients and personnel in the cardiac interventional laboratory (CCL). Important questions regarding radiation safety for interventional cardiologists performing PCI for CTO lesions are discussed and concrete applications are suggested. PMID: 26354509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Applied Pathology for Interventions of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion.
Authors: Tran P, Phan H, Shah SR, Latif F, Nguyen T Abstract Percutaneous coronary intervention of chronically occluded vessels can result in significant improvement in symptoms, relieve myocardial ischemia, and affect a reduction in major adverse cardiac events. Likelihood of achieving successful revascularization can be significantly enhanced with a thorough understanding of the pathology of these occluded coronary arteries. In this chapter, various steps and techniques to cross the CTO lesion and recanalize it are discussed in details. PMID: 26354510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Training Standards and Recommendations for Intervention on Chronic Total Occlusions.
Authors: Singbal Y, Lim R Abstract Despite major advances in coronary intervention, the recanalization of a chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains a challenge for many interventional cardiologists. Complex anatomy and lesion characteristics demand a special set of skills for procedural success. Provided patient selection is appropriate, CTO intervention can confer a variety of benefits including relief of angina, improvement in left ventricular function and reduction in ischemic burden. The chances of procedural success are enhanced by having a dedicated CTO program. This involves adequate training of staff, quality...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Antegrade Techniques for Chronic Total Occlusions.
Authors: Lim MC Abstract By convention, a total obstruction of the coronary artery with no flow at the occluded segment that has been present for at least 3 months is termed as chronic total occlusion or CTO. This is to be distinguished from a sudden occlusion of the coronary artery lumen by a thrombus during an acute myocardial infarction. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO is increasingly being performed by interventional cardiologists with improved success rates. In this article, the focus will be on antegrade techniques that will assist the operator to maximise the success rates and to minimise the...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Retrograde Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention.
This article goes into depth into various strategies of retrograde approach in CTO. PMID: 26354513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Intravascular Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion.
Authors: Dash D, Li L Abstract Chronic total occlusion (CTO), a fascinating and dynamic niche in the realm of coronary artery disease, represents a major technical challenge for interventional cardiologists despite evolution of better guidewires, devices, experience and techniques. Effective wiring technique is the corner stone to success of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in CTO. As a guide for guidewire crossing in CTO, coronary angiography is limited. On the other hand, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) enhances the ability to identify coronary anatomy, the exact location of the guidewires within an arter...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Complications of recanalization of chronic total occlusion.
COMPLICATIONS OF RECANALIZATION OF CHRONIC TOTAL OCCLUSION. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2015 Sep 8; Authors: Kalyanasundaram A, Lombardi WL Abstract Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Chronic Total Occlusions (CTO) is an accepted revascularization procedure. These complex procedures carry with them certain risks and potential complications. Complications of PCI such as contrast induced renal dysfunction, radiation, etc, assume more relevance given the length and complexity of these procedures. Further, certain complications such as donor vessel injury, foreign body entrapment are unique to CTO PCI. A th...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Role of CT Coronary Angiography in Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusion.
Authors: Roy S, Sharma J Abstract Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is considered as the most challenging frontier in interventional cardiology and the last one to be conquered. With availability of state of art hardware, wires and catheters in particular and increased skills of the operators, the success rate for recanalization of CTO by percutaneous catheter intervention (PCI) has improved. Yet the complications rate and long-term adverse events are high, mostly due to failure in tracking or navigation of hardware through the occluded CTO segment, prolonged exposure to radiation and high doses of contrast used. There...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Editorial: Chronic Coronary Total Occlusion.
Authors: Dash D PMID: 26350175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Therapy of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
Authors: Sherrid MV Abstract HCM is the most common inherited heart condition occurring in 1:500 individuals in the general population. Left ventricular outflow obstruction at rest or after provocation occurs in 2/3 of HCM patients and is a frequent cause of limiting symptoms. Pharmacologic therapy is the first-line treatment for obstruction, and should be aggressively pursued before application of invasive therapy. Beta-blockade is given first, and up-titrated to decrease resting heart rate to between 50 and 60 beats per minute. However, beta-blockade is not expected to decrease resting gradients; its effect rests...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Vascular Calcification Revisited: A New Perspective for Phosphate Transport.
Authors: Villa-Bellosta R Abstract Elevated serum phosphorus has emerged as a key risk factorfor pathologic calcification of cardiovascular structures, or vascular calcification (VC). To prevent the formation of calciumphosphate deposits (CPD), the body uses adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) to synthesize inhibitors of calcification, including proteins and inhibitors of low molecular weight. Extracellular pyrophosphate (PPi) is a potent inhibitor of VC,which is produced during extracellular hydrolysis of ATP. Loss of function in the enzymes and transporters that are involved in the cycle of extracellular ATP, includi...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Left Atrial Appendage Closure -The WATCHMAN Device.
Authors: Akinapelli A, Bansal O, Chen JP, Pflugfelder A, Gordon N, Stein K, Huibregtse B, Hou D Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common arrhythmias seen in clinical cardiology practice. Patients with non-valvular AF have an approximately 5-fold increase in the risk of stroke, with an exponential increase with advancing age. Cardioembolic strokes carry a high mortality risk. Although the potential of warfarin to reduce systemic embolization in AF patients is well established, its use is difficult due to narrow therapeutic windows and additional complications (e.g. increased risk of bleeding), esp...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Successful radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter causing hemodynamic instability in a patient with recent myocardial infarction.
Authors: Yıldız M, Gokdeniz T, Aykan AC, Tanboga IH Abstract Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common arrhythmia which may decrease cardiac output and may cause embolic events. Direct current (DC) cardioversion, medical cardioversion and radiofrequency (RF) ablation are therapeutic options, but over all RF ablation therapy has the longest event free period. Although development of AFL after myocardial infarction is quite common it may spontaneously recover or results in atrial fibrillation. Herein we report a patient with medical and electrical cardioversion resistant AFL which developed in the early post-myocardial infa...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Minimally-invasive LVAD Implantation: State of the Art.
Authors: Hanke JS, Rojas SV, Avsar M, Haverich A, Schmitto JD Abstract Nowadays, the worldwide number of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) being implanted per year is higher than the number of cardiac transplantations. The rapid developments in the field of mechanical support are characterized by continuous miniaturization and enhanced performance of the pumps, providing increased device durability and a prolonged survival of the patients. The miniaturization process enabled minimally-invasive implantation methods, which are associated with generally benefitting the overall outcome of patients. Therefore, the...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacological and non pharmacological strategies in the management of coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease.
Authors: Agrawal H, Aggarwal K, Littrell R, Velagapudi P, Turagam MK, Mittal M, Alpert MA Abstract Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those treated with dialysis, are at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD accounts for 45-50% of deaths among dialysis patients. Therapy of acute and chronic coronary heart disease (CHD) that is effective in the general population is frequently less effective in patients with advanced CKD. Drug therapy in such patients may require dose modification in some cases. Oral anti-platelet drugs are less effective in those with advance...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Reducing radiation in chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary interventions.
Authors: Pavlidis AN, Jones DA, Sirker A, Mathur A, Smith EJ Abstract The field of percutaneous intervention for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has enjoyed significant innovations in the recent years. Novel techniques and technologies have revolutionized the field and have resulted in considerably higher success rates even in patients with high anatomical complexity. Successful CTO recanalization is associated with significant clinical benefits, such as the improvement of angina and quality of life, reduced rates of surgical revascularization, improvement of left ventricular function and decreased mortality rates. H...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - April 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Multimodality Imaging in Cardiac Sarcoidosis: Is There a Winner?
Authors: Perez IE, Garcia MJ, Taub CC Abstract Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause that can affect the heart. Cardiac sarcoidosis may be present in as many as 25% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis, and it is frequently under diagnosed. The early and accurate diagnosis of myocardial involvement is challenging. Advanced imaging techniques play important roles in the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. PMID: 25784137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Focal atrial tachycardias and atrial flutter: are they hot enough to make a thematic issue?
Authors: Traykov V PMID: 25695115 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Twenty Years of Alcohol Septal Ablation in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.
Authors: Rigopoulos AG, Seggewiss H Abstract Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic cardiac disease and is generally characterised by asymmetric septal hypertrophy and intraventricular obstruction. Patients with severe obstruction and significant symptoms that persist despite optimal medical treatment are candidates for an invasive septal reduction therapy. Twenty years after its introduction, percutaneous transluminal alcohol septal ablation has been increasingly preferred for septal reduction in patients with drug refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Myocardial contrast ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

A Review of the Relationships between Endogenous Sex Steroids and Incident Ischemic Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease Events.
Authors: Kim C, Cushman M, Kleindorfer D, Safford MM, Redberg RF, Lisabeth L Abstract For decades, it has been recognized that men have a higher age-adjusted risk of ischemic cardiovascular (CVD) events compared to women, thus generating hypotheses that sex steroids contribute to CVD risk. Potential mechanisms include genomic and non-genomic effects of sex steroids as well as mediation through classic CVD risk factors and obesity. However, results from randomized studies suggest that sex steroid supplementation in men and women do not result in improved CVD outcomes and may increase CVD risk. In contrast, prospecti...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm Secondary To Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Case Report.
We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with dyspnea and hemoptysis in whom subsequent imaging studies revealed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with an uncorrected patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger's syndrome. We chose to treat the patient conservatively with medical management due to the development of Eisenmenger's physiology while waiting for heart-lung transplantation. PMID: 25545802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research