Coenzyme Q10 in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Current State of the Problem.
Authors: Zozina VI, Covantev S, Goroshko OA, Krasnykh LM, Kukes VG Abstract The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - April 18, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cardiac imaging in systemic diseases: what the clinician should know.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical suspicion should always guide the use of imaging since in many instances these techniques only play a supportive role rather than representing a diagnostic gold standard. Early diagnosis is critical due to the fact that cardiac manifestations are commonly a late phenomenon. PMID: 29623849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - April 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Preface.
Authors: Wang J PMID: 29557738 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 28, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Levosimendan for Perioperative Cardioprotection: Myth or Reality?
CONCLUSIONS: Based on most recent randomized controlled trials, levosimendan, although effective for the treatment of acute heart failure, can't be recommended as standard therapy for the management of heart surgery patients. Further studies are needed to clarify whether selected subgroups of heart surgery patients may benefit from perioperative levosimendan infusion. PMID: 29564979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 28, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Transient Secondary Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy in Pediatric Postoperative Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a general lack of uniformity in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of transient secondary hypothyroidism in pediatric postoperative CPB patients. PMID: 29485000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Management of Measurable Variable Cardiovascular Disease' Risk Factors.
CONCLUSION: The best cardiovascular disease' prevention should include a multidisciplinary team of experts and the entire community with the support of governmental and non-governmental organizations that will contribute to improving the lifestyle of individuals and the entire community through their activities and legal provisions. The most important factors in cardiovascular disease management are: recognizing individual risk factors, monitoring them, and assisting in changes in life-style habits that directly affect the defined risk factors of a patient. The simplest and most practicable guidelines for CV prevention in ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 24, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Therapeutic Approach to Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction and End-stage Renal Disease.
Authors: Inampudi C, Alvarez P, Asleh R, Briasoulis A Abstract Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output heart failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Guideline-directed medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD. Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

It's Time to Talk: Challenges in Providing Integrated Palliative Care in Advanced Congestive Heart Failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence that palliative care may improve symptom control and quality of life in patients with advanced congestive heart failure, a multitude of current challenges hinder access to these services. Education, early discussion of prognosis and advance care planning, and multidisciplinary team-based care may be a helpful initial approach as further targeted work addresses these challenges. PMID: 29366424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Hypertriglyceridemia - common causes, prevention and treatment strategies On the crossroads of high TG and CV risk - a safe passage for our patients.
Authors: Rygiel K Abstract Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias represent the key issues of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prophylaxis, and thus, the effective management of different types of lipid disorders should be a priority for healthcare practitioners (primary care physicians, cardiology or endocrinology specialists, dietitians, and pharmacists), who provide medical care, and for patients, who receive this care, and should be engaged in it, to improve outcomes. The aim of this review is to facilitate translation of current trends in hypertriglyceridemia treatment to a daily patient management. The article...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Hypertrophy: A Narrative Review.
CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is considered a major stimulant for the signal transduction in cardiac cells pathological conditions, including inflammatory cytokines, and MAP kinase. The understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms which are involved in cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling process is crucial for the development of new therapeutic plans, especially that the mortality rates related to cardiac remodeling/dysfunction remain high. PMID: 29332590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Percutaneous coronary intervention in the elderly: are drug coated balloons the future?
Authors: Merinopoulos I, Gunawardena T, Wickramarachchi U, Ryding A, Eccleshall S, Vassiliou VS Abstract Balloon angioplasty revolutionised percutaneous treatment for coronary artery disease four decades ago, but vessel-threatening dissections, elastic recoil and restenosis were major drawbacks to an otherwise successful long-lasting intervention. Subsequent advances with bare metal stents and then drug eluting stents followed, aiming to mitigate the risks of acute vessel closure and restenosis. However, stent implantation often necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy for a prolonged period of time, which in itself ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia.
Authors: Ruzieh M, Moustafa A, Sabbagh E, Sabbagh E, Karim S Abstract Definition and diagnosis: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
CONCLUSION: Determining the cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patients, as well as targeting and treating conditions that predispose to CVD, are now emerging concerns among physicians. PMID: 29189172 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Para-prosthetic leaks following mitral valve replacement : Case analysis on a 20-year period.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of mitral para-prosthetic leaks is accompanied by a high mortality rate. The operative strategy plays a major role and can influence the morbity-mortality encountered in those patients. PMID: 29141552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Novel insights in the metabolic syndrome-induced oxidative stress and inflammation-mediated atherosclerosis.
CONCLUSION: Studies associated with metabolic syndrome induced oxidative stress- and inflammation- mediated signalling pathways along with critical miRs helps towards better understanding of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Several key target molecules discussed in this review could be potent target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID: 28990536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 12, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Triple therapy versus dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndromes: A systematic literature review.
CONCLUSION: In patients with ACS and AF, TT is likely to be associated with increased risk of bleeding, without a clear reduction in ischaemic endpoints. The quality of the evidence to support current guidelines for this patient group was generally poor. PMID: 28969538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 5, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Transseptal Access to the Left Atrium: Tips and Tricks to Keep it Safe Derived from Single Operator Experience and Review of the Literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Employing a standardized protocol with use of fluoroscopy alone minimized serious complications to 0.8% (2 patients) among 249 consecutive patients undergoing TSP for ablation of a variety of cardiac arrhythmias. Based on this single-operator experience and review of the literature, a list of practical tips and tricks are provided for a successful and safe procedure, reserving the more expensive and patient inconveniencing echo-imaging techniques for difficult or failed cases. PMID: 28969539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 5, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Effects of evolocumab on cardiovascular events.
CONCLUSION: these results support the use of evolocumab as add-on therapy to statins for high cardiac-risk patients not achieving optimal goals of LDL-C. Longer-term studies are needed to further clarify the efficacy and safety of evolocumab. PMID: 28925859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 21, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The impact of cardiovascular diseases on the cardiovascular regulation during exercise in humans: studies on the metaboreflex elicited by the post-exercise muscle ischemia method.
Authors: Crisafulli A Abstract Hemodynamics during dynamic exercise is finely regulated by some neural mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is the metabolic part of the exercise pressor reflex, i.e. the muscle metaboreflex. Hemodynamic response during the metaboreflex is characterised by the recruitment of the reserves in cardiac inotropism, pre-load, after-load and chronotropism. If one of these reserves is exhausted, then the cardiovascular response is achieved by recruiting one of the other reserves, thereby indicating a remarkable plasticity of the control of circulation. In this review, the effects of a number ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Impact of Pre-existing Kidney Dysfuntion on Outcomes following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing CKD defined as GFR <60 is a strong predictor of worse short and long-term outcomes following TAVR. Active measures should be taken to mitigate the postprocedure risk in these group of patients. PMID: 28782492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Big Data and Genome Editing Technology: A New Paradigm of Cardiovascular Genomics.
Authors: Krittanawong C, Sun T, Herzog E Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) encompasse a range of conditions extending from congenital heart disease to acute coronary syndrome most of which are heterogenous in nature and some of them are multiple genetic loci. However, the pathogenesis of most CVDs remains incompletely understood. The advance in genome-editing technologies, an engineering process of DNA sequences at precise genomic locations, has enabled a new paradigm that human genome can be precisely modified to achieve a therapeutic effect. Genome-editing includes the correction of genetic variants that ca...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Role of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) in Cardiovascular Homeostasis: A Non-Systematic Literature Review.
Authors: Hachem A, Hariri E, Saoud P, Lteif C, Lteif L, Welty F Abstract Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been gaining major attention recently after the emergence of data showing the promising role of these proteins in lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis process, glucose and blood pressure regulation. PubMed, EMBASE, Scholar and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, in-vitro trials and reviews about the role of PCSK9 in cardiovascular homeostasis. PCSK9 was found to have major impact on lipid homeostasis and inflammatory process t...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Bayes Syndrome and Imaging Techniques.
Authors: Betancor IH, Izquierdo-Gomez MM, Niebla JG, Laynez-Cerdeña I, Garcia-Gonzalez MJ, Barragan-Acea A, Iribarren-Sarriá JL, Jimenez-Rivera JJ, Lacalzada-Almeida J Abstract Interatrial block (IAB) is due to disruption in the Bachmann region (BR). According to whether interatrial electrical conduction is delayed or completely blocked through the BR, it can be classified as IAB of first, second or third degree. On the surface electrocardiogram, a P wave ≥ 120 ms (partial IAB) is observed or associated to the prolongation of the P wave with a biphasic (positive / negative) morphology in the inferi...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

A review of interventions to improve enrolment and attendance to cardiac rehabilitation among patients aged 65 years or above.
Conclusion This review found only weak evidence to suggest that interventions can increase enrolment or adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes for patients aged ≥65 years, therefore no practice recommendations could be made and further high-quality research is needed in this population group. PMID: 28699488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Assessing coronary blood flow physiology in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory.
Authors: Vijayan S, Barmby DS, Pearson IR, Davies AG, Wheatcroft SB, Sivananthan M Abstract Contemporary management of coronary disease focuses on the treatment of stenoses in the major epicardial vessels. However, myocardial blood flow is known to be contingent on a range of factors in addition to the patency of the epicardial vessels. These include anatomical and physiological factors such as the extent of myocardium supplied by the vessel, systemic blood pressure, the natural variation in vascular tone in response to physiological needs which allows for coronary autoregulation and pathological factors such as th...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Is the Hepatic Factor a miRNA that maintains the integrity of pulmonary microvasculature by inhibiting the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor?
Authors: Vettukattil JJ Abstract The "hepatic factor," a molecule or group of molecules present in the hepatic venous blood, essential for the prevention of the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and right-to-left shunting has been a conceptual enigma in the understanding of many related conditions. Patients with various forms of liver diseases including acute hepatic failure, and others with normal hepatic function like hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inflammatory and parasitic disorders, cardiogenic hepatopulmonary syndrome (cHPS) and skin disorders like Dyskeratos...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Statins on Coronary Artery Disease: An Updated Review of the Literature.
Authors: Diamantis E, Kyriakos G, Quiles-Sanchez LV, Farmaki P, Troupis T Abstract Statins have long been used for the protection against coronary artery disease (CAD). Their beneficial effect apart from cholesterol reduction lies in their pleiotropic properties. Emerging evidence from laboratory studies and clinical trials as well have pointed out the pivotal role of inflammation on the intiation and exacerbation of atherosclerosis; a major cause of CAD. Inflammation markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein and adhesion molecules are showed to be increased in CAD patients and are used as prognostic tool...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 5, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Adult stem cell therapy for cardiac repair in patients after acute myocardial infarction leading to ischemic heart failure: an overview of evidence from the recent clinical trials.
Authors: Katarzyna R Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) still represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide, despite the remarkable advances in interventional cardiology, cardiac surgery, and modern pharmacotherapy, particularly in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic ischemic heart failure (HF), cardiomyopathy (CM), and the associated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. A significant loss of cardiomyocytes that underlies all of these conditions was previously considered irreversible. However, current evidence indicates that the human heart has some potential for repair, and over the pa...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 5, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Speculative Considerations about Some Cardiology Enigmas.
Authors: Evora PR, Schmidt A, Arcêncio L, Marin-Neto JA Abstract Write a review text or point-of-view that takes into account the interests, if not of all, but of most readers of a scientific journal is an arduous task. The editorial can be grounded in published articles, even in a single article of undeniable importance and, it can also represent a trend of specialty. Therefore, especially for the sake of the reader's motivation, the present text was freely designed to discuss some cardiology enigmas in the context of the heart valve and coronary artery disease (CAD). Concerning the CAD five well-known enigm...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 23, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular aging : Interaction between NRF-2 and ADMA.
CONCLUSIONS As NO production has many positive pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system, such an interaction could be utilized for designing molecular therapeutics. The targets for therapy need not be limited to activation of nrf-2. Modulation of molecules downstream such as DDAH I can be used to regulate ADMA levels. Most current literature is supported by animal studies. The concept of antioxidant therapies needs to be tested in well-defined randomized control trials. The biochemical basis of nrf-2 activation needs to be substantiated in human studies. PMID: 28215178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sourc...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 23, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein therapeutic approaches in acute coronary syndromes.
Authors: Androulakis E, Zacharia E, Papageorgiou N, Lioudaki E, Bertsias D, Charakida M, Siasos G, Tousoulis D Abstract Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and especially its oxidized form, renders the atherosclerotic plaque vulnerable to rupture in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered an anti-atherogenic molecule. The more recent HDL-targeted drugs may prove to be superior to those used before. Indeed, delipidated HDL and HDL mimetics are efficient in increasing HDL levels, while the apoA-I upregulation with RVX-208 appears to offer a clinical benef...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Short and Long-Term Efficacy of Pulmonary Vein Isolation as a Sole Treatment Strategy for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a progressive and significant decline in freedom from AF between 1, 3 and 5-year after successful PVI in patients with PAF. Our analysis suggests that a high short-time success rate after PVI does not necessarily result in high chronic success rate. PMID: 28124593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The prognostic value of heart type fatty acid binding protein in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: A systematic review.
CONCLUSION: There was marked heterogeneity in prognostic impact of HFABP in ACS between studies reflecting differences in sampling times and population risk. Prospective studies of suspected ACS with early sampling of HFABP in the era of high sensitivity troponin are necessary to determine the clinical value of HFABP. HFABP should not currently be used clinically as a prognostic marker in patients with suspected ACS. PMID: 28093987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Adherence to secondary prophylaxis for acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Insights into factors associated with lower and higher adherence to secondary prophylaxis may be utilized to facilitate improved delivery of secondary prophylaxis for ARF and RHD. Strategies may include ensuring an effective active recall system, providing holistic care, involving community health workers and delivering ARF/RHD health education. PMID: 28093988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Preface.
Authors: Wang JA PMID: 28093989 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Current State of Bioabsorbable Polymer-Coated Drug-Eluting Stents.
Authors: Absdhilash A, Chen JP, Roy K, Donnelly J, Dawkins K, Huibregtse B, Hou D Abstract Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been shown to significantly reduce clinical and angiographic restenosis compared to bare metal stents (BMS). The polymer coatings on DES elute antiproliferative drugs to inhibit intimal proliferation and prevent restenosis after stent implantation. Permanent polymers which do not degrade in vivo may increase the likelihood of stent-related delayed arterial healing or polymer hypersensitivity. In turn, these limitations may contribute to an increased risk of late clinical events. Intuitively, a p...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Right Heart Catheterization through Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava, an Extremely Rare procedure and review of current literature.
We present a patient with absent right superior vena cava and PLSVC draining to a dilated coronary sinus diagnosed during right heart catheterization in the setting of pulmonary hypertension. We were able to safely complete the procedure through the right internal jugular vein. Transthoracic echocardiography and chest CT scan were consistent with this finding. Although clinically silent most of the time, undiagnosed PLSVC can lead to catastrophic consequences when the patient undergoes invasive procedures. If PLSVC is suspected, the anatomy of the thoracic venous system must be identified before invasive cardiac procedures...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 2, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Strain Imaging Echocardiography: What Imaging Cardiologists Should Know.
Authors: Hernandez-Suarez DF, López-Candales A Abstract Despite recent advances in clinical imaging, echocardiography remains as the most accessible and reliable noninvasive imaging modality to assess the left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Since knowledge of LV function remains so critically important in determining prognosis; every effort should be made to prevent subjective estimations. The advent of strain imaging echocardiography now offers a readily available and portable imaging tool that not only offers an objective characterization of myocardial dynamics; but also allows for early detection of ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 2, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Therapeutic Utilities of Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization.
Authors: Moustafa GA, Kolokythas A, Charitakis K, Avgerinos DV Abstract In an era when less invasive techniques are favored, therapeutic cardiac catheterization constantly evolves and widens its spectrum of usage in the pediatric population. The advent of sophisticated devices and well-designed equipment has made the management of many congenital cardiac lesions more efficient and safer, while providing more comfort to the patient. Nowadays, a large variety of heart diseases are managed with transcatheter techniques, such as patent foramen ovale, atrial and ventricular septal defects, valve stenosis, patent ductus ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 27, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum stress in arterial smooth muscle cells: A novel regulator of vascular disease.
Authors: Furmanik M, Shanahan CM Abstract Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various va...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 21, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

What's Old is New Again - A review of the current evidence of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine.
Authors: Tan GM, Yan BP Abstract Colchicine is a well-established drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention and treatment of gout. It processes unique anti-inflammatory properties. Interests in the usage of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine have been rekindled recently with several large trials been carried out to investigate its efficacy in treatment of various cardiac conditions including pericarditis, postpericardiotomy syndrome, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease. In this review, the basic pharmacological properties of colchicine will be discussed, and the evide...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 21, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Immune-inflammatory Activation in Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Look into the Heart of Unstable Coronary Plaque.
This article will review currently available data on the pathophysiology of ACS, emphasizing the immunological and inflammatory aspects of vulnerable plaque. We may postulate that intraplaque antigens and local microenvironment will define the immune-inflammatory response and cells phenotype, thus determining the severity of clinical manifestations. PMID: 27758696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - October 21, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Considerations in understanding the coronary blood flow- left ventricular mass relationship in patients with hypertension.
Conclusion Hypertension is associated with a reduction in CBF adjusted for LV mass with a highly significant inverse association between CBF and LV mass. Clinicians should be aware that patients with hypertension are at greater risk for myocardial ischemia should other factors develop that limit CBF or myocardial oxygen delivery. PMID: 27633073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 19, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Endotoxin, Toll-like Receptor-4, and Atherosclerotic Heart Disease.
CONCLUSION: Atherosclerosis is initiated by inflammation in arterial endothelial and subendothelial cells, and inflammatory processes are implicated in its progression to clinical heart disease. Endotoxin and TLR4 play a central role in the inflammatory process, and represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Therapy with HMG-CoA inhibitors may reduce the expression of TLR4 on monocytes. Other therapeutic interventions targeting TLR4 expression or function may prove beneficial in atherosclerotic disease prevention and treatment. PMID: 27586023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 4, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Editorial: Optimizing Chronic Heart Failure Care Beyond Randomised Controlled Trials - What are the problem areas and potential solutions?
Authors: Iyngkaran P PMID: 27498676 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 9, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cardiac Imaging in Heart Failure with Comorbidities.
Authors: Iyngkaran P, Wong C, Chen S Abstract Imaging modalities stand at the frontiers for progress in congestive heart failure (CHF) screening, risk stratification and monitoring. Advancements in echocardiography (ECHO) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have allowed for improved tissue characterizations, cardiac motion analysis, and cardiac performance under stress. Common cardiac comorbidities such as hypertension, metabolic syndromes and chronic renal failure contribute to cardiac remodeling, sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms starting with interstitial changes, structural changes and finally clin...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Helminth infections and cardiovascular diseases: Toxocara species is contributing to the disease.
Authors: Zibaei M Abstract Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the "larva migrans&...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Imaging subclinical atherosclerosis: where do we stand?
Authors: Papageorgiou N, Briasoulis A, Androulakis E, Tousoulis D Abstract The age of initiation and the rate of progression of atherosclerosis vary markedly among individuals and have been difficult to predict with traditional cardiovascular risk assessment models. Although these risk models provide good discrimination and calibration in certain populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk may not be accurately estimated in low- and intermediate risk individuals. Therefore, imaging techniques such Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), Coronary Artery Calcium score (CAC), carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT), flow mediate...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Novel Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation: Update on Apixaban.
Authors: Mezue K, Obiagwu C, John J, Sharma A, Yang F, Shani J Abstract Almost 800,000 new or recurrent strokes happen every year. Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a major risk factor for stroke, accounting for 15-20% of ischemic strokes. Apixaban is a direct inhibitor of Factor Xa that was approved in December 2012 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It is part of a family of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) which have the advantage over warfarin of less dosing variability, rapid onset of action and...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 29, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Incremental Value of Two Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in the Functional Assessment and Characterization of Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction.
This article highlights the incremental utility of 2D-STE in the detection of subclinical LV dysfunction. PMID: 27411342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 16, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research