Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis and Aortic Stenosis: Connection and Therapeutic Implications.
CONCLUSION: The relationship between aortic stenosis and transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis is not well understood. A few studies have proven successful surgical management when both conditions coexist. This systematic review suggests that transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis is common in elderly patients with aortic stenosis and tend to have high mortality rates after AVR. The significant incidence of the two diseases occurring simultaneously warrants further investigation to improve management strategies in the future. PMID: 31544701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - September 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Heart Failure and Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Relevance and Therapeutic Considerations.
Authors: Mene-Afejuku TO, Pernia M, Ibebuogu UN, Chaudhari S, Mushiyev S, Visco F, Pekler G Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a devastating condition characterized by poor quality of life, numerous complications, high rate of readmission and increased mortality. HF is the most common cause of hospitalization in the United States especially among people over the age of 64 years. The number of people grappling with the ill effects of HF is on the rise as the number of people living to an old age is also on the increase. Several factors have been attributed to these high readmission and mortality rates among which are; p...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

The Importance of Measuring Coronary Blood Flow for Clinical Decision Making.
Authors: Yeung C, Baranchuk A, Tse G, Liu T Abstract PMID: 31456513 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Exercise Training as a Mediator for Enhancing Coronary Collateral Circulation: A Review of the Evidence.
This article summarises current evidence pertaining to the role of exercise in the development of coronary collaterals, highlighting areas of future research. PMID: 31424373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Endothelial to mesenchymal transition in the cardiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases.
Authors: Anbara T, Sharifi M, Aboutaleb N Abstract Today cardiovascular diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) does not only play a major role in the course of development but also contributes to several cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. EndMT is characterized by down-regulation of the endothelial proteins and highly up-regulated fibrotic specific genes and extracellular matrix-forming proteins. EndMT is also a transforming growth factor-β-driven (TGF-β) process in which endothelial cells lose their endothelial characteristic...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 10, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Authors: Mavrogeni S, Koutsogeorgopoulou L, Dimitroulas T, Markousis-Mavrogenis G, Boki K, Katsifis G, Vartela V, Kallenberg CG, Kolovou G, Kitas G Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) have an estimated prevalence of 50% and 40% respectively and both constitute major causes death among SLE patients. In this review, we propose a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for SLE risk stratification. The pathophysiologic background of NPSLE includes microangiopathy, macroscopic infarcts and accelerated atherosclerosis. Classic brain MR...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Estrogen Deprivation and Myocardial Infarction: Role of Aerobic Exercise Training, Inflammation and Metabolomics.
Authors: Ruberti OM, Rodrigues B Abstract BACKGROUND: In general, postmenopausal women present higher mortality, and worse prognosis after myocardial infarction compared to men, due to estrogen deficiency. After MI, cardiovascular alterations occur, such as the autonomic imbalance and the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase. In this sense, therapies that aim to minimize deleterious effects caused by ischemia are important. Aerobic training has been proposed as a promising intervention in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, some studies have attempted to identify potential biomarkers for ca...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

SGLT2 inhibitors and cardiovascular outcomes: Do they differ or there is a class effect? New insights from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and the CVD-REAL Study.
Authors: Kyriakos G, Quiles-Sanchez LV, Garmpi A, Farmaki P, Kyre K, Savvanis S, Antoniou VK, Memi E Abstract A new group of hypoglycemic drugs has been used to treat diabetes type 2. This group is active sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) or SGLT2 inhibitors. It has been shown that besides the treatment of diabetes, this drug class is responsible for the mildness of the cardiovascular events shown in patients with diabetes type 2. However, there is an intriguing question regarding the range of SGLT2 inhibitors and if there is a difference between them or if there is a class effect among their results. EMPA-REG ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Biomechanical forces and atherosclerosis: From mechanism to diagnosis and treatment.
Authors: Genkel VV, Kuznetcova AS, Shaposhnik II Abstract The article provides an overview of current views on the role of biomechanical forces in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The importance of biomechanical forces in maintaining vascular homeostasis is considered. We provide descriptions of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. The roles of wall shear stress and circumferential wall stress in the initiation, progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque are described. The data on the possibilities of assessing biomechanical factors in clinical practice and the clinical significance of this ap...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Imaging in Suspected Cardiac Sarcoidosis: A Diagnostic Challenge.
Authors: Ha FJ, Agarwal S, Tweed K, Palmer SC, Adams HS, Thillai M, Williams L Abstract Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) represents a unique diagnostic dilemma. Guidelines have been recently revised to reflect the increasingly established role of sophisticated imaging techniques. Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is widely adopted for initial screening of CS. Contemporary TTE techniques could enhance detection of subclinical LV dysfunction, particularly left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain assessment which predicts event-free survival (meta-analysis of 5 studies, hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Contemporary Pharmacologic Management of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction - A Review.
Authors: Egbuche O, Hanna B, Onuorah I, Uko E, Taha Y, Ghali JK, Onwuanyi A Abstract Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is defined as the presence of typical symptoms of heart failure (HF) and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%. HFrEF patients constitute approximately 50% of all patients with clinical HF. Despite breakthrough discoveries and advances in pharmacologic management of HF, HFrEF patients continue to pose a significant economic burden due to progressive disease characterized by recurrent hospitalizations and need for advanced therapy. Although there are effective, guideline-d...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Predictors of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Improvement after Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation in Patients With PVC-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSIONS: The mentioned factors may all be useful to identify PVC-iCMP patients who would benefit from RFCA, although the evidence is not yet strong enough. PMID: 31288727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Platelets in In-stent Restenosis: From Fundamental Role to Possible Prognostic Application.
Conclusions After damage to the artery wall, platelets play an essential role in the incidence of NIH by contributing to inflammation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix remodeling, especially via secretion of different chemokines; therefore, developing therapeutic strategies for platelet inhibition in a controlled manner could be the basis of preventive treatments in the near future. In this study, for the first time we hypothesize that evaluation of platelet activity profile in patients before and after stent implantation may determine the prognosis and likelihood of ISR. PMID: 3125...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - July 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Digoxin in Atrial Fibrillation: An Old Topic Revisited.
Authors: Ferrari F, Rafael Miranda Ferreira Santander I, Stein R Abstract Digoxin has been used for more than 50 years in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), with the goal of controlling heart rate (HR) and restoring sinus rhythm. In the last two decades, several studies have correlated therapeutic use of digoxin with increased mortality. However, such studies have potential biases that cannot be disregarded, mainly because they are cross-sectional experiments or post-hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Despite uncertainties regarding the safety of digoxin in this setting, it remains one of the...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - June 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Neprilysin: A Potential Therapeutic Target of Arterial Hypertension?
Authors: Salazar J, Quintero JR, Cano C, Perez JL, Ramirez P, Carrasquero R, Torres W, Espinoza C, González MC, Bermudez V Abstract Arterial hypertension is the most prevalent chronic disease in the adult population of developed countries and it constitutes a significant risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, contributing to the emergence of many comorbidities, among which heart failure excels, a clinical syndrome that nowadays represents a major health problem with uncountable hospitalizations and whose indolent course progressively worsens until quality of life decreases and lastly death...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - June 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a peripheral pulmonary artery aneurysm in a patient with patent ductus arteriosus.
This report presents a young woman with history of patent ductus arteriosus and massive hemoptysis secondary to pulmonary artery aneurysm, successfully managed by embolotherapy using N-Butyl cyanoacrylate. This is the first report of n-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization treatment of a bleeding pulmonary artery aneurysm in the setting of patent ductus arteriosus. The pertinent literature has been reviewed and the clinical background as well as the procedure have been explained. PMID: 31244441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - June 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Syndrome of Supine Hypertension with Orthostatic Hypotension: Pathophysiology and Clinical Approach.
This article is intended to provide guidance and clinical considerations for physicians managing patients suffering from supine hypertension with orthostatic hypotension, referred to as "SH-OH". We review the normal physiologic response to orthostasis, focusing on the appropriate changes to autonomic output in this state. Autonomic failure is discussed with a generalized overview of the disease and examination of specific syndromes that help shed light on the pathophysiology of SH-OH. The goal of this review is to provide a better framework for clinical evaluation of these patients, review treatment options, and ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - June 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cardiovascular and renal outcomes of incretin-based therapies: A review of recent clinical trials.
Authors: Kyriakos G, Quiles-Sanchez LV, Garmpi A, Farmaki P, Kyre K, Savvanis S, Memi E Abstract BACKGROUND: To report the cardiovascular and renal effects of incretin-based therapies. METHOD: The studies of clinical trials on incretin-based therapy published in medical journals from years 2010 to 2017 were comprehensively searched using MEDLINE and EMBASE with no language restriction. The studies were reviewed and the cardiovascular and renal risks reported were recorded. RESULTS: Incretin-based therapeutics represent novel and promising anti-diabetes drugs, the direct cardiovascular actions of which may t...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - June 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Phospholipase A 2 is an inflammatory predictor in Cardiovascular Diseases: Is there any spacious room to prove the causation?
Authors: Santoso A, Heriansyah T, Rochman S Abstract Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) is an enzyme family of phospholipase A 2 produced by the inflammatory cell in atherosclerotic plaque. It is transported in the circulation, attached mainly to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). It hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids particularly fatty acids at the sn-2 position and produces numerous bioactive lipids; and leads to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, and development of the necrotic core in plaques. There are two kinds of phospholipase A 2 , namely: secretory phosph...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - June 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Pragmatic Analysis of Dyslipidemia Involvement in Coronary Artery Disease: A Narrative Review.
CONCLUSION: The prophylaxis and treatment of coronary artery disease in a dyslipidemic patient should be based on a careful assessment of cardio-vascular risk factors and individual metabolic particularities, so it may be personalized. PMID: 31113345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Recurrent Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Presenting with STEMI, Once is Never Enough!
We present a 40 year old female who presented with recurrent STEMI due to recurrent SCAD 10 days after the index presentation in a different coronary territory. She was successfully treated both times with drug eluting stents. MRI showed an evidence of transmural infarction but her ejection fraction was only mildly reduced. She had good short term outcome. High index of suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis and prompt medical and interventional management in patients with SCAD. PMID: 31092182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Large unrepaired aortopulmonary window presenting in adulthood.
We report a case of large unrepaired aortopulmonary window in a 23 years old patient, diagnosed on transthoracic echocardiography. PMID: 31092183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Perspectives On Optimizing Chronic Heart Failure Care Beyond Randomised Controlled Trials - What do we Consolidate and how do we Plan for the Future?
Authors: Iyngkaran P, Thomas M, Majoni SW Abstract PMID: 31084591 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Adherence to Secondary Prophylaxis Among Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease.
Authors: Woods JA, Katzenellenbogen JM Abstract PMID: 31084592 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Regulation of myocardial extracellular matrix dynamic changes in myocardial infarction and postinfarct remodeling.
In conclusion considering the fact that dynamic transformation of extracellular matrix after myocardial ischemic damage plays a pivotal role inmyocardial infarctionoutcomes and prognosis, we suggest a high importance of further investigation of mechanisms underlying extracellular matrix remodeling and cell-matrix interactions in cardiovascular diseases. PMID: 31072294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Valve in Valve in Valve Trans-Catheter Aortic Valve Replacement Followed by LVAD Deactivation in the Setting of Recovered Systolic Function.
We present a 46 year old patient who had LV systolic function recovery while on LVAD. However, he had a severely stenotic aortic valve bioprosthesis with leaflet fusion that had to be corrected before deactivating his LVAD. Due to high surgical risk, we performed valve-in-valve TAVR with an Evolut CoreValve , however, the patient had significant aortic regurgitation secondary to deployment above the bioprosthetic valve ring. We successfully deployed a second Evolut CoreValve inside the ring with excellent results. This was followed by a successful LVAD deactivation next day. His LV systolic function continued to recover an...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: The interplay between liver and cardiac muscle. How does the cardiovascular system react when the liver is diseased?
The objective of this review is to describe in a comprehensive way the pathological alterations that occur in the cardiovascular system of cirrhotic patients. It will also point the limitations that remain in the diagnosis and treatment strategies and more importantly this review will alert the clinicians in the modern era to further observe and record additional pathological changes in this subset of patients. PMID: 31072296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - May 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides- benefits and limits of their use in cardiovascular diseases.
Authors: Roxana ME, Georgică T, Ionuț D, Gianina M, Cristina F Abstract Natriuretic peptides, produced by cardiac myocytes, are regulators of the intravascular volume and blood pressure, also having neuroendocrine, metabolic and growth controlling effects. In heart failure, their synthesis increases exponentially as part of the neuroendocrine activation, but their beneficial effects are diminished. The paper reviews relevant data about their role as diagnosis and prognosis markers in heart failure, the hemodynamic and clinical benefits of their use as therapy in heart failure, together with the main adverse effec...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Gender differences in hemodynamic regulation and cardiovascular adaptations to dynamic exercise.
Authors: Bassareo PP, Crisafulli A Abstract Exercise is a major challenge for cardiovascular apparatus since it recruits chronotropic, inotropic, pre-load, and afterload reserves. Regular physical training induces several physiological adaptations leading to an increase in both cardiac volume and mass. It appears that several gender-related physiological and morphological differences exist in the cardiovascular adjustments and adaptations to dynamic exercise in humans. In this respect, gender may be important in determining these adjustments and adaptations to dynamic exercise due to genetic, endocrine, and body co...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Hyponatremia in Heart Failure: Pathogenesis and Management.
Authors: Rodriguez M, Hernandez M, Cheungpasitporn W, Kashani KB, Riaz I, Rangaswami J, Herzog E, Guglin M, Krittanawong C Abstract Hyponatremia is a very common electrolyte abnormality, associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Two opposite processes can result in hyponatremia in this setting: volume overload with dilutional hypervolemic hyponatremia from congestion, and hypovolemic hyponatremia from excessive use of natriuretics. These two conditions require different therapeutic approaches. While sodium in the form of normal saline can be lifesaving in the second cas...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Physiological and Pathological Role of TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4 Channels in Heart.
Authors: Gorbunov AS, Maslov LN, Jaggi AS, Singh N, De Petrocellis L, Boshchenko AA, Roohbakhsh A, Bezuglov VV, Oeltgen PR Abstract Transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 2 (TRPV2) is required for normal cardiac contractility. The stimulation of TRPV1 in isolated cardiomyocytes can aggravate the effect of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) on H9C2 cells. The knockout of the TRPV1 gene promotes increased tolerance of the isolated perfused heart to the impact of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, activation of TRPV1 increases the resistance of the heart to I/R due to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

[Risk-stratification strategy for sudden cardiac death in the very young children with asymptomatic ventricular preexcitation].
Authors: Rodriguez-Gonzalez M, Castellano-Martinez A, Perez-Reviriego AA Abstract Asymptomatic VPE refers to the presence of this abnormal ECG pattern in the absence of any symptoms. The natural history in these patients is usually benign, and most children (60%) with VPE are usually asymptomatic. However, sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been reported to be the initial symptom in many patients too. The increased risk of SCD is thought to be due to the rapid conduction of atrial arrhythmias to the ventricle, via the AP, which degenerates into ventricular fibrillation (VF). The best method to identify high-risk patien...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Trigger, Signaling Mechanism and End Effector of Cardioprotective Effect of Remote Postconditioning of Heart.
Authors: Maslov LN, Tsibulnikov SY, Prokudina ES, Popov SV, Boshchenko AA, Singh N, Zhang Y, Oeltgen PR Abstract The hypothetical trigger of remote postconditioning (RPost) of the heart is the high-molecular weight hydrophobic peptide(s). Nitric oxide and adenosine serve as intermediaries between the peptide and intracellular structures. The role of the autonomic nervous system in RPost requires further study. In signaling mechanism RPost, kinases are involved: protein kinase C, PI3, Akt, JAK. The hypothetical end effector of RPost is aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, the transcription factors STAT, Nrf2, and also the BKCa...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - March 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Hematological parameters as prognostic biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Authors: Monteiro Júnior JGM, de Oliveira Cipriano Torres D, Filho DCS Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of preventable health loss from disease in the world and leads to functional disturbances including hematological parameters. The inflammatory and hypoxemic nature in cardiovascular diseases causes a stimulus in the bone marrow and, depending on the intensity of this stimulus, there are a release of immature cells or increase of other cells in the bloodstream. Therefore, their presence in the circulation are important variables used to diagnose, stratify and predict diseases. In the la...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Low-Dose Radiation Advances in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease.
CONCLUSION: Advances in radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality justify the use of CCTA as a non-invasive alternative to coronary catheterization in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. PMID: 30806322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - February 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Patients with ESRD: Complications, Management, and Literature Review.
CONCLUSIONS: ICD implementation in dialysis patients has several complications, which has limited its usage. Based on our literature review, the complications of ICD implementation can be categorized as follows: (1) related to implantation procedures, hematoma, and pneumothorax; (2) related to the device/lead such as lead fracture and lead dislodgment; (3) infection; and (4) central vein thrombosis. Hence, the management of the complications of ICDs in this specific group of patients is of vital importance. PMID: 30657044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Emergence of three dimensional printed cardiac tissue: Opportunities and challenges in cardiovascular diseases.
Authors: Charbe NB, Zacconi FC, Amnerkar N, Pardhi D, Shukla P, Mukattash TL, McCarron PA, Tambuwala MM Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also known as additive manufacturing, was developed originally for engineering applications. Since its early advancements, there has been a relentless development in enthusiasm for this innovation in biomedical research. It allows for the fabrication of structures with both complex geometries and heterogeneous material properties. Tissue engineering using 3D bio-printers can overcome the limitations of traditional tissue engineering methods. It can match the complexity an...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Multimodalities Imaging of Immunoglobulin 4-related Cardiovascular Disorders.
Authors: Fathala A Abstract Immunoglobulin 4 (IgG4)-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by elevation of serum IgG4. IgG4-RSD can affect any organ in the body, and the list of organs associated with this condition is growing steadily. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease affects the coronary arteries, heart valves, myocardium, pericardium, aorta, pulmonary and peripheral vessels. Echocardiography is the most commonly used non-invasive imaging method. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) can assess aortitis, periarteritis and coronary aneurysms. Coronary CTA is a fast,...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Clinical significance of ductus venosus waveform as generated by pressure-volume changes in the fetal heart.
Authors: Braga M, Moleiro ML, Guedes-Martins L Abstract The ductus venosus is a vascular shunt situated within the fetal liver parenchyma connecting the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava. This vessel acts as a bypass of the liver microcirculation and plays a critical role in the fetal circulation. The ductus venosus allows oxygenated and nutrient-rich venous blood to flow from the placenta to the myocardium and brain. Increased impedance to flow in the fetal ductus venosus is associated with fetal aneuploidies, cardiac defects and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review serves to improve our understand...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Triple therapy vs Double Therapy: One Scenario, 8 Questions, lots of conclusions.
Authors: Aloia E, Orselli P, Sciaccaluga C Abstract In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of stents, a triple antithrombotic therapy is empirically established, which consists of the combination of dual antithrombotic therapy (aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) and an oral anticoagulant agent. This choice is guided by the desirable result of reducing cerebrovascular and coronary ischemic events. However, there is an unwelcome outcome: an increased incidence of bleedings. On this matter, in 2018, a North American Perspective Update was published, about a year ...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - January 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation; current status and future perspectives.
Authors: Driesen BW, Warmerdam EG, Sieswerda GT, Meijboom FJ, Molenschot MC, Krings GJ, van Dijk APJ, Voskuil M Abstract Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction need sequential pulmonary valve replacements throughout their life in the majority of cases. Since their introduction in 2000, the number of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantations (PPVI) has grown and reached over 10,000 procedures worldwide. Overall, PPVI has been proven safe and effective, but some anatomical variations can limit procedural success. This review discusses the current status and...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Preface.
Authors: Wang J Abstract PMID: 30563438 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Shock - Classification and Pathophysiological Principles of Therapeutics.
Authors: Kislitsina ON, Rich JD, Wilcox JE, Pham DT, Churyla A, Vorovich EB, Ghafourian K, Yancy CW Abstract The management of patients with shock is extremely challenging because of the myriad of possible clinical presentations in cardiogenic shock, septic shock and hypovolemic shock and the limitations of contemporary therapeutic options. The treatment of shock includes the administration of endogenous catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) as well as various vasopressor agents that have shown efficacy in the treatment of the various types of shock. In addition to the endogenous catecholamines...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Cryoballoon Ablation for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms that the effectiveness of CBA is similar to RFA in the treatment of AF with the added advantages of shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times. PMID: 30539701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 14, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Extensively thrombosed ectatic circumflex coronary artery fistula presenting as acute coronary syndrome.
DISCUSSION: In this case report, we are sharing our experience in management of this challenging case in view of the rarity of such peculiar clinical condition and the unfavourable presentation along with the lack of clear-cut Guideline and Consensus whether to/not to open such huge and immensely thrombosed symptomatic coronary artery fistula as well as the dilemma of choosing the best long-term medical treatment between antiplatelets vs anticoagulants in such young patient. PMID: 30520380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 10, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Effect of S-equol and soy isoflavones on heart and brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from observational studies and short-term RCTs suggests that S-equol is anti-atherogenic and improves arterial stiffness and may prevent CHD and cognitive impairment/dementia. Well-designed long-term (≥ 2years) RCTs should be pursued. PMID: 30516108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 7, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Rate and Predictors of Permanent Pacemaker Implantation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Current Status.
Authors: Russo E, Potenza DR, Casella M, Massaro R, Russo G, Braccio M, Russo AD, Cassese M Abstract Transcather aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a safe and indispensable treatment option for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. Recently, outcomes after TAVI have improved significantly and TAVI has emerged as a qualified alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in the treatment of intermediate risk patients and greater adoption of this procedure is to be expected in a wider patients population, including younger patients and low surgical risk patients. H...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 7, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Atrial Fibrillation: A Review of Epidemiology, Management, and Outcomes.
Authors: Westerman S, Wenger N Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The scope and impact of atrial fibrillation is wide; it can affect cardiac function, functional status, and quality of life, and it confers a stroke risk. There are sex differences in atrial fibrillation across the scope of the disease process, from epidemiology and causative mechanisms to management and outcomes. The approach to management of atrial fibrillation differs between women and men, and there are sex differences in response to medical therapy and catheter ablation. There are many gaps in our knowl...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 7, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Adverse Consequences of Right Ventricular Apical Pacing and Novel Strategies to Optimize Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function.
Authors: Khurwolah MR, Yao J, Kong XQ Abstract Several studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing on left ventricular (LV) function, mediated by pacing-induced ventricular dyssynchrony. Therapeutic strategies to reduce the detrimental consequences of RVA pacing have been proposed, that includes upgrading of RVA pacing to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), alternative right ventricular (RV) pacing sites, minimal ventricular pacing strategies, as well as atrial-based pacing. In developing countries, single chamber RV pacing still constitutes a majority of cases...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - December 2, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury post cardiac catheterization: Does vascular access route matter?
CONCLUSION: Transradial access offers several advantages to a patient at high risk of acute kidney injury undergoing cardiac catheterization. Further large studies are needed to establish this trend in the years ahead. PMID: 30421683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cardiology Reviews)
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - November 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research