Non-immediate Cutaneous Reactions to Beta-Lactams: Approach to Diagnosis
AbstractNon-immediate cutaneous reactions (i.e., occurring at least 1  h after the initial drug administration), particularly maculopapular exanthemas and urticarial eruptions, are common during beta-lactam treatments. A T cell-mediated pathogenic mechanism has been demonstrated in some cutaneous reactions, such as maculopapular exanthema, fixed drug eruption, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. In the diagnostic work-up, patch testing is useful, together with delayed-reading intradermal testing. Patch tests are a simple and safe diagnostic tool, which in the case of...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human Immune Monitoring Techniques during Food Allergen Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEncouraging results from recent food allergen immunotherapy clinical trials indicate that the immune system plays an essential role in peripheral tolerance to food allergen. Thus, the monitoring of changes in immune responses and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in allergic patients receiving immunotherapies could theoretically serve as surrogate markers and be harnessed as rationale for food allergen immunotherapy development.Recent FindingsA shift towards antigen specificity in recent assays has provided a solid foundation for the elucidation of cellular mechanisms involved in foo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 30, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Severe Asthma in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma.Recent FindingsUnderstanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient ’s response is highly variable.SummaryThe onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanisms Driving Gender Differences in Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany phenotypes of asthma exist, ranging from mild asthma with onset during childhood to severe asthma with later onset, making asthma a broad disease with different pathologies. A gender disparity exists in asthma prevalence. As adults, women have an increased asthma prevalence compared to men. Further, women are more likely to have severe asthma and a later onset of asthma compared to men. Here, we review clinical and animal studies that have defined the role of sex hormones in airway inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, mucus production, and airway mechanics associated with asthma pathogenes...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Economics of Chronic Rhinosinusitis
The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the economic burden of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and discuss how both medical and surgical interventions impact direct and indirect costs related to CRS. By understanding the economics of CRS, clinicians may improve the patient-centeredness of their care and help distinguish between low and high value interventions.Recent FindingsDirect costs related to CRS are primarily driven by outpatient physician visits, prescription medical therapy, and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). CRS produces large indirect costs and these costs often vary based on the severity ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergen Immunotherapy Clinical Trial Outcomes and Design: Working Toward Harmonization of Methods and Principles
AbstractProgress has been made in the harmonization of efficacy and safety outcome measures for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) trials, but unresolved issues still remain. Furthermore, there are discrepancies in recommendations from professional medical societies and regulatory agencies regarding requirements for AIT trials. In this article, we reviewed published recommendations and current data from recent clinical trials, as well as the criteria applied by regulatory authorities for approval of AIT products, to provide updated considerations for conducting phase 3 AIT trials. Topics discussed include analysis of outcomes an...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of Electronic Devices to Assess Inhaler Technique
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultiple electronic devices exist that provide feedback on the accuracy of patient inhaler technique. Our purpose is to describe the inhaler technique feedback provided by these devices, including specific technique steps measured, how feedback is displayed, target of feedback (patient, provider, researcher), and compatibility with inhaler type (metered-dose inhaler [MDI], diskus, etc.).Recent FindingsWe identified eight devices that provide feedback on inhaler technique. Only one device assessed all evidence-based MDI technique steps. Most devices provide limited real-time feedback to patients, if...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infections in the Immunopathology of the Respiratory Tract
AbstractViral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, c...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Management of the Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS): a Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExamine the definition of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) and current treatment strategies.Recent FindingsPatients with the ACOS have a lower quality of life and suffer from more complications than those affected by either disease alone. Diagnosis of ACOS is difficult because of the clinical similarities between the two diseases and the various phenotypes that comprise the syndrome. Defining treatment strategies for ACOS has been challenging because many clinical trials for asthma therapy have purposefully excluded patients with features of COPD, and COPD clinical trials have not included p...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational Latex Allergy: the Current State of Affairs
AbstractPurpose of reviewAllergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) reached epidemic proportions during the nineties and led to intense preventive efforts. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive compilation of the current status of occupational NRL allergy.Recent findingsRecent advances led to the characterization of 15 NRL allergens and the development of assays for measuring the allergen content of NRL materials and specific IgE antibodies against NRL allergen components. Preventive measures aimed at reducing workplace exposure to NRL allergens were associated with decreasing incidence rates of NRL allergy. How...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chikungunya Infection: a Global Public Health Menace
AbstractChikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been involved in epidemics in African and Asian subcontinents and, of late, has transcended to affect the Americas.Aedes aegypti andAedes albopictus are the major vectors for CHIKV infection, which results in dissemination of virus to various vital organs. Entry of virus into these tissues causes infiltration of innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and adaptive immune cells. Macrophages bearing the replicating virus, in turn, secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 β, TNF-α, and IL-17. Together, this pro-inflammatory milieu induces ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 24, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Allergic Sensitization on Antiviral Immunity: Allergen, Virus, and Host Cell Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultiple clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate links between allergic sensitization and virus-induced atopic disease exacerbations. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding allergen, viral, and host cellular mechanisms relevant to these observations.Recent FindingsRecent studies have focused on the molecular pathways and genetic influences involved in allergen-mediated inhibition of innate antiviral immune responses. Multiple tissue and cell types from atopic individuals across the atopy spectrum exhibit deficient interferon responses to a variety of virus infections. Impairm...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alveolar Macrophages in Allergic Asthma: the Forgotten Cell Awakes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe role of alveolar macrophages in innate immune responses has long been appreciated. Here, we review recent studies evaluating the participation of these cells in allergic inflammation.Recent FindingsImmediately after allergen exposure, monocytes are rapidly recruited from the bloodstream and serve to promote acute inflammation. By contrast, resident alveolar macrophages play a predominantly suppressive role in an effort to restore homeostasis. As inflammation becomes established after repeated exposures, alveolar macrophages can polarize across a continuum of activation phenotypes, losing their ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contemporary Use of Corticosteroids in Rhinology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExogenously administered corticosteroids are widely used today in the field of rhinology. Allergic rhinitis (AR), non-allergic rhinitis (NAR), acute rhinosinusitis (ARS), chronic rhinosinusitis with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps, and autoimmune disorders with nasal manifestations are common diseases treated effectively with intranasal and oral glucocorticoids. We focus on physiological pathways, therapeutic benefits, indications, contra-indications, and side effects of glucocorticoid utilization in the treatment of rhinologic disorders such as AR, NAR, ARS, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP.Recent Fi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phenotype-Driven Therapeutics in Severe Asthma
AbstractInhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of asthma treatment using a step-up approach with incremental dosing and additional controller medications in order to achieve symptom control and prevent exacerbations. While most patients respond well to this treatment approach, some patients remain refractory despite high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting β-agonist. The problem lies in the heterogeneity of severe asthma, which is further supported by the emergence of severe asthma phenotypes. This heterogeneity contributes to the variability in treatment response. Randomized controlled trials involvi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Galactose- α-1,3-Galactose: Atypical Food Allergen or Model IgE Hypersensitivity?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGalactose- α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) is a carbohydrate allergen with several unique characteristics. In this article, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of the ‘alpha-gal syndrome,’ highlight data supporting the role of ticks in pathogenesis, and speculate on immune mechanisms that lead t o sensitization.Recent FindingsFirst described as the target of IgE in individuals suffering immediate hypersensitivity reactions to the novel anti-EGF monoclonal antibody cetuximab, it is now clear that α-gal sensitization is associated with mammalian meat allergy as ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Skin as a Route of Allergen Exposure: Part II. Allergens and Role of the Microbiome and Environmental Exposures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen.Recent FindingsSeveral properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbia...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Skin as a Route of Allergen Exposure: Part I. Immune Components and Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen.Recent FindingsDefects in skin barrier function in infancy set the stage for the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergy. Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to damage of the stratum corneum (SC), with activation of specific protease enzymes under high pH conditions playing a key role. Immune cells and mediators in the dermis and epidermis impair SC repair mechanisms and support allergy development. In barrier-disrupted skin, type 2 innate lymph...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Airway Disease in Rescue/Recovery Workers: Recent Findings from the World Trade Center Collapse
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOur goal is to summarize the airway disease literature since September 11, 2001 (9/11), focusing on studies published since 2011 in World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers.Recent FindingsSince 2011, studies have confirmed relationships between initial World Trade Center exposure intensity, severity of symptoms, airway disease diagnoses, and biomarkers of disease progression.SummaryStudies continue to document ongoing morbidity in rescue/recovery workers over 10  years after 9/11. Future research should further identify correlates of symptom persistence and new airway disease diagnos...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on Potential Therapies for IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
This article reviews the published data on these new approaches.Recent FindingsOral immunotherapy, in which allergic subjects are exposed to increasing amounts of antigen, can be accomplished in the majority of allergic individuals. However, this approach is not a cure as most patients will react after cessation of regular intake. In addition, there is a high rate of side effects. Other approaches include epicutaneous immunotherapy, therapy with anti-IgE medications, and use of Chinese herbs.SummarySeveral novel approaches on food allergy are under study. At the current time, these approaches show promise for preventing se...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy for Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders
AbstractPrimary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are a group of inborn errors of immunity with a broad range of clinical severity but often associated with recurrent and serious infections. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be curative for some forms of PID, chronic and/or refractory viral infections remain a cause of morbidity and mortality both before and after HSCT. Although antiviral pharmacologic agents exist for many viral pathogens, these are associated with significant costs and toxicities and may not be effective for increasingly drug-resistant pathogens. Thus, the emergence of adoptive immu...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
AbstractAspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an acquired disease characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation with underlying dysregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology including the role of eosinophils, mast cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), and platelets. Clinical features such as respiratory reactions induced by alcohol, aggressive nasal polyposis, and anosmia will allow for earlier recognition of these patients in clinical practice. The current state of the art management...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Review of Diagnostic Challenges in Occupational Asthma
AbstractPurpose of reviewOccupational asthma (OA) is one of the most frequent occupational diseases and its diagnosis is often difficult. This review summarizes its current diagnostic challenges.Recent findingsOA is associated with significant health and socio-economic burden. It is underdiagnosed and physicians need to adopt a stepwise approach to confirm the diagnosis. Although early removal from exposure to the offending agent is associated with a better prognosis, physicians should try to confirm the diagnosis of work-related asthma before taking a worker off work. A proper occupational and medical history is very impo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Benefit of SLIT and SCIT for Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma
AbstractAllergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use since more than one century, when Leonard Noon experimentally proved its efficacy in hayfever (Noon, in Lancet 1:1572 –3,1911). Since then, AIT was administered only as subcutaneous injections (SCIT) until the sublingual route (SLIT) was proposed in 1986. The use of SLIT was proposed following several surveys from the USA and UK that repeatedly reported fatalities due to SCIT (Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 75(1): 166,1985; Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 660 –77,1985; Committee on the safety of medicines. CSM update. Desensitizing vaccines. ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - December 12, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Epigenetic Changes During Food-Specific Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prevalence and severity of IgE-mediated food allergy has increased dramatically over the last 15  years and is becoming a global health problem. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that epigenetic modifications of the genome resulting from gene-environment interactions have a key role in the increased prevalence of atopic disease. In this review, we describe the recent evidence suggesting how e pigenetic changes mediate susceptibility to food allergies, and discuss how immunotherapy (IT) may reverse these effects. We discuss the areas of the epigenome as yet unexplored in terms of food alle...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - December 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fungal Exposure and Asthma: IgE and Non-IgE-Mediated Mechanisms
AbstractFungi are ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor environments and have been associated with respiratory disease including childhood and adult asthma. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies has revealed a link between fungal exposure, especially indoor fungal exposure, with asthma initiation, persistence, and exacerbation. Despite the overwhelming evidence linking mold exposure and asthma, the mechanistic basis for the association has remained elusive. It is now clear that fungi need not be intact to impart negative health effects. Fungal components and fungal fragments are biologically active and contri...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - December 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interactions of GST Polymorphisms in Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory Diseases and Allergies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from recently published original studies investigating howglutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms modify the impact of air pollution on asthma, allergic diseases, and lung function.Recent FindingsCurrent studies in epidemiological and controlled human experiments found evidence to suggest thatGSTs modify the impact of air pollution exposure on respiratory diseases and allergies. Of the nine articles included in this review, all except one identified at least one significant interaction with at least one ofglutathione S-transferase p...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Childcare and School Management Issues in Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to characterize food allergy management and anaphylaxis in schools and assess current policies and level of preparedness of schools to recognize and treat anaphylaxis.Recent FindingsAn increasing number of school-aged children have food allergies, and studies show that a significant number of school children with no known history of allergies will experience their first anaphylactic reaction at school. Stock-unassigned epinephrine auto-injectors are recommended in schools but not mandatory in most states, and therefore, epinephrine is not always available. Non-nursing sta...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lupin and Other Potentially Cross-Reactive Allergens in Peanut Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe presence of IgE cross-reactivity between peanut allergens and allergens from other legumes and tree nuts has been demonstrated, but the identification of the involved individual allergens is still limited. The aim of this review is to describe new allergenic findings, of potential relevance for cross-reactivity among peanut and lupin.Recent FindingsSeventeen allergens of peanut have been included in the official allergen nomenclature database to date. Lupin sensitization has been observed in 15 –20% of individuals with known peanut allergy, The majority of lupin seed proteins are comprise...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

How In Vitro Assays Contribute to Allergy Diagnosis
AbstractDiagnosis of allergic disorders is based upon the clinical history of the disease, the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody response, and the allergen exposure. During the last decade, many changes have occurred in the in vitro diagnostic tests used in daily practice. The most important one is the use of allergenic molecules, which helps to define severe profile of allergy and/or to better understand cross-reactivity. The correlation between IgE sensitization and bronchial or nasal response in provocation tests is not so clear, which implies that such tests are still helpful in allergy diagnosis. In order to strengthen ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 18, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin Glycosylation Effects in Allergy and Immunity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review will be to familiarize the reader with the general area of antibody (Ab) glycosylation and to summarize the known functional roles of glycosylation and how glycan structure can contribute to various disease states with emphasis on allergic disease.Recent FindingsBoth immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype and conserved Fc glycosylation sites often dictate the downstream activity of an Ab where complexity and degree of glycosylation contribute to its ability to bind Fc receptors (FcRs) and activate complement. Most information on the effects of glycosylation center on IgG in cancer thera...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Reemergence of the Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: Characterizing a Syndrome in the Precision Medicine Era
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has reemerged in the medical literature. This review addresses our current understanding of ACOS as a clinical and biological entity and how new and existing therapies may be targeted to this group.Recent FindingsMany studies suggest that ACOS is common and associated with more morbidity than asthma and COPD in general. However, there is no consensus on an ACOS definition, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Variable definitions have led to variable results in ACOS studies. Given this clinical variability, biomarkers (e.g., eosinophils and type 2 ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-5 Antagonists Usher in a New Generation of Asthma Therapy
AbstractAsthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in the USA. A subset of patients with asthma have refractory symptoms, persistent eosinophilic inflammation, and recurrent exacerbations despite maximal medical therapy. The monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL-5 pathway are a new class of medications designed to target severe eosinophilic asthma. There are two medications clinically available: mepolizumab and reslizumab, both of which target IL-5. A third medication, benralizumab, is currently under development and targets the IL-5 receptor. Clinical data suggest these medications can reduce asthma exacerbati...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers
AbstractHealthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing devel...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immune Responses in Rhinovirus-Induced Asthma Exacerbations
AbstractAcute asthma exacerbations are responsible for urgent care visits and hospitalizations; they interfere with school and work productivity, thereby driving much of the morbidity and mortality associated with asthma. Approximately 80 to 85  % of asthma exacerbations in children, adolescents, and less frequently adults are associated with viral upper respiratory tract viral infections, and rhinovirus (RV) accounts for ∼60–70 % of these virus-associated exacerbations. Evidence suggests that it is not the virus itself but the natur e of the immune response to RV that drives this untoward response. In ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

What Role Does Allergy Play in Chronic Ear Disease and Laryngitis?
AbstractIgE-mediated allergy plays a well-established role in both nasal and pulmonary diseases due to the common epithelium and shared mediator responses of the upper and lower airways. This “unified airway” concept has also been described in other sites within the head and neck that contain similar respiratory mucosa: the middle ear and the larynx. This review will highlight the data suggesting a role for IgE-mediated allergic disease in chronic laryngopharyngeal and middle ear dis ease and the role for allergy testing to aid in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Temporal Regulation by Innate Type 2 Cytokines in Food Allergies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood allergies (FAs) are a growing epidemic in western countries with poorly defined etiology. Defined as an adverse immune response to common food allergens, FAs present heterogeneously as a single- or multi-organ response that ranges in severity from localized hives and angioedema to systemic anaphylaxis.Recent FindingsCurrent research focusing on epithelial-derived cytokines contends that temporal regulation by these factors impact initial sensitization and persistence of FA responses upon repeated food allergen exposure. Mechanistic understanding of FA draws insight from a myriad of atopic cond...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Leveraging Partnerships: Families, Schools, and Providers Working Together to Improve Asthma Management
AbstractAsthma is one of the most common illnesses of school-aged children and can lead to both health and educational disparities. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and racial/ethnic minorities suffer the greatest impact. They often lack the asthma self-management skills to successfully monitor, navigate, and negotiate appropriate asthma care. School settings are a strategic point of contact for this additional support. School nurses can monitor for signs of asthma worsening, manage symptoms, provide care coordination, and reinforce self-management skills. Likewise, school-based asthma programs have the potentia...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we review recent literature indicating a role of innate lymphoid cells in human inflammatory bowel disease with a focus on the plastic population of ILC3.Recent FindingsMany studies suggest an involvement of ILC3 in human intestinal inflammation. ILC3 present the most abundant ILC subtype in the human intestine at steady state. In IBD, this composition is skewed towards ILCs showing an ILC1 phenotype and cytokine profile. This change is likely due to the microenvironment causing skewing of the functionally plastic ILC subsets. Interactions between ILCs and other cells are important to keep ho...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children
This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biomarkers of Airway Type-2 Inflammation and Integrating Complex Phenotypes to Endotypes in Asthma
This article reviews primary data assessing biomarkers of airway type-2 inflammation in asthma and describes how the use of biomarkers can advance a precision medicine approach to asthma treatment. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Novel Biologicals for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases and Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe development of biological therapies has rapidly progressed during the last few years, and major advances were reported for the treatment of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, food allergy, and asthma. Here, we review biologicals targeting the type 2 immune response involving Th2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, natural killer T cells, mast cells, basophils, and epithelial cells, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP).Recent FindingsThe biologicals that have been currently ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

House Dust Mite Allergens: New Discoveries and Relevance to the Allergic Patient
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent findings on house dust allergens and their contribution to knowledge that will significantly impact on current and future allergy treatments are appraised.Recent FindingsQuantitation of IgE binding to a spectrum of allergen components in several independent studies in varying locations has largely affirmed the main components as the groups 1 and 2 and possibly 23 allergens with mid-tier contributions from the groups 4, 5, 7, and 21. Prevalent binding to Der p 23 has been recapitulated sometimes with low titers. The IgE of non-asthmatic atopic subjects binds at lower titer and to fewer compon...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Breastfeeding in Childhood Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature, both systematic reviews and recently published original studies not included within those reviews, on the relationship between breastfeeding and childhood otitis media (OM).Recent FindingsThere is clear evidence that breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of OM in childhood with sound biological plausibility to support that the association is likely causal. Any breastfeeding reduces OM risk in early childhood by 40 –50 %. Systematic reviews also support a further reduced risk for continued breastfeeding. Recent st...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in Allergic Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that are increasingly being recognized as important epigenetic regulators. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, connective tissue diseases, and neuromuscular disorders.Recent FindingsA few miRNAs have already been recognized as a core set of miRNAs important in allergic inflammation. These include let-7, miR-21, miR-142, and miR-146.SummaryThis review aims to bring together some of the recent findings on how miRNAs regulate allergic inflammation with special focus on a...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interaction Between Allergy and Middle Ear Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent studies have attempted to identify interactions among the causes of otitis media with effusion (OME). This review discusses the interaction between allergy and infection with regard to host and environmental factors in terms of the development of OME.Recent FindingsProtection of the upper airway against microbial invasion requires active interaction between the defense mechanisms of the respiratory epithelium, including innate and adaptive immunity, and mechanical factors. The impairment of these defenses due to allergy and/or increased bacterial resistance may lead to increased susceptibili...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Epithelial Cell Regulation of Allergic Diseases
AbstractAllergic diseases, which have escalated in prevalence in recent years, arise as a result of maladaptive immune responses to ubiquitous environmental stimuli. Why only certain individuals mount inappropriate type 2 immune responses to these otherwise harmless allergens has remained an unanswered question. Mounting evidence suggests that the epithelium, by sensing its environment, is the central regulator of allergic diseases. Once considered to be a passive barrier to allergens, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces are now considered to be the cornerstone of the allergic diathesis. Beyond their function as maintaini...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Proteomics for Allergy: from Proteins to the Patients
AbstractProteomics encompasses a variety of approaches unraveling both the structural features, post-translational modifications, and abundance of proteins. As of today, proteomic studies have shed light on the primary structure of about 850 allergens, enabling the design of microarrays for improved molecular diagnosis. Proteomic methods including mass spectrometry allow as well to investigate protein-protein interactions, thus yielding precise information on critical epitopes on the surface of allergens. Mass spectrometry is now being applied to the unambiguous identification, characterization, and comprehensive quantific...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biomarkers in Occupational Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWork-related asthma is a common disorder among adult asthma patients, and in the case of occupational asthma, it is induced by workplace exposures.Recent FindingsOccupational asthma provides an excellent model and benchmark for identifying and testing different allergy or inflammatory biomarkers associated with its inception or progression. Moreover, specific inhalation challenge with the incriminated agent represents an experimental setting to identify and validate potential systemic or local biomarkers. Some biomarkers are mainly blood-borne, while local airway biomarkers are derived from inflamm...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Alpha-Gal Allergy: Tip of the Iceberg to a Pivotal Immune Response
AbstractThe syndrome of delayed allergic reactions to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose ( “alpha-gal”) has become increasingly recognized in allergy and immunology clinics regionally throughout the southeastern USA. Due to the increasing awareness of this unique food allergy, cases have been identified in the northeastern and central USA as well as in Central and South America, Europ e, Asia, Scandinavia, and Australia. Clinically, alpha-gal allergy is characterized by reactions to non-primate mammalian meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb) that occur 3–6 h following exposure. The IgE response to alp...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research