Understanding contextual heterogeneity in the outcomes of large-scale security policies: evidence from Italy (2007 –12)
AbstractWe develop a theoretically informed quantitative evaluation of the large-scale policy of security pacts (SPs) in Italy (2007 –2012). In particular, we show how Matland’s theoretical model of policy implementation (1995) may help clarify the contextual heterogeneity present in the outcomes of security policies. We build and use a macro-panel dataset in which we exploit variations in the temporal and geographic adoption of SPs to develop a dynamic analysis of the contextual factors that influence the probability of adopting a large-scale security policy at the sub-national government level. We apply a rig...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - November 24, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A farewell to the lone hero researcher: team research and writing
In this study, we summarize and discuss the pros and cons of working in teams when doing qualitative research. Drawing upon our own experiences from Mexico and Norway, we argue for a radical approach to team research and co-authorship, which we describe as team writing. Most importantly, we suggest opening up to include stakeholders and community partners, thus challenging the borders between researchers and those researched. This is arguably particularly important for research done in the academic, geographical and topical periphery of criminology. Team research and writing answers some of the critique of power inequality...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - November 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Border crossings from Mexico to the U.S. and the role of border homicides
AbstractThis paper examines northbound crossings of personal vehicles and pedestrians from Mexico to the U.S. Sample size from January 1997 to December 2019 includes the period after December 2006 when then inaugurated Mexican government announced the “war on drugs”. We construct a series of border homicide share, which stands for the allocation of homicides in border states relative to the total of Mexican homicides. The series runs from between 15 to 20% to its peak of 48% in 2010 and its recent stabilization with less than 25%. We argue th at this represents the intensity of violent crime spread throughout t...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - November 19, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A continuum of hate: delimiting the field of hate studies
AbstractA relatively nascent discipline, the field of hate studies has been explored and theorised from a multiplicity of disciplinary contexts. However, the field is ill-defined, and the relationship between hate crime and other related concepts unexplored. Here, we consider the range of phenomena which might fall within or without the field of hate studies, initiating a discussion of the boundaries of the field. We signal both the continuities and discontinuities among and between an array of strategies intended to sort and maintain hierarchical relationships, with the purpose of provoking scholars in the field of hate s...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - November 11, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Foreign-born arrestees and recidivism: a multilevel analysis of arrest data from a Florida county Sheriff ’s office
AbstractUsing approximately 30,000 arrest records from the Pinellas County Sheriff ’s Office in Florida and neighborhood characteristics from the U.S. Census American Community Survey, this study examines the relationship between foreign-born status and recidivism. In addition, we investigate whether any plausible relationship between foreign-born status and recidivism is condit ioned by neighborhood characteristics. The results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses reveal that foreign-born offenders are less likely to recidivate than native offenders. Furthermore, the negative effect on recidivism for forei...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - November 8, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The degrowth movement and crime prevention
AbstractCritics of market economies are found among academics, social movements and alliances involving both. One such alliance is constituted by what is known as the degrowth movement, whose analyses of the dysfunctional effects of prevalent economic arrangements and principles relate (implicitly or explicitly) to crime prevention strategies. After briefly examining the concerns of classical theorists such as Karl Marx and Max Weber about infinite growth and its environmental impact, this paper tries to uncover the criminological implications of degrowth and to hypothesize how its strategies can contribute to the reductio...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 21, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Clarifying Maritime Criminal Cases Jurisdiction and its International Implications —Current Legal Developments in China
AbstractOn 20 February 2020, the Supreme People ’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and the China Coast Guard jointly issued theNotice on Issues concerning Jurisdiction of Maritime Criminal Cases (hereinafter the “Notice”). TheNotice aims to ensure the effective performance of maritime right-safeguarding and law enforcement functions by the coast guard agencies, punishing maritime crimes by the law and protecting the State ’s sovereignty, security, maritime rights and interests, as well as maritime order. Maritime criminal cases have strong international implications and their jurisdi...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 19, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

“You’re a product of your environment for sure”: Correctional educators on their perceptions of and contributions to prison social climate
AbstractMost criminal justice research pertaining to social climate in U.S. prisons has focused on the experiences of incarcerated people and correctional officers, with no studies to our knowledge that explore correctional educators ’ significant contributions to prison social climate. Utilizing results from semi-structured interviews and participant observation with correctional educators in institutions managed by eight different state prison administrations, the present study fills this knowledge gap by examining two quest ions. First, how do correctional educators characterize the life experiences and motivation...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 18, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Behind the criminal economy: using UK tax fraud investigations to understand money laundering myths and models
This study has relevance for academics, law enforcement, policy-ma kers and industry professionals alike. (Source: Crime, Law and Social Change)
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 18, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Corruption tolerance as a process of moral, social, and political cognition: evidence from Latin America
AbstractWhile corruption is commonly understood in behavioral terms, the dominance of political and economic approaches has hindered the integration of relevant psychological insights into the (anti-)corruption mainstream, causing a rift between the examination of social determinants and their assessment within a process of individual decision-making. The present study offers a model that combines moral, social, and political factors to explore the cognitive processes behind corruption tolerance, operationalized here as attitudinal, intended, and behavioral responses to a bribery event. Using data from 1651 survey responde...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 14, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Dietary supplements, harm associated with synthetic adulterants and potential governance solutions
AbstractIntentional adulteration of dietary supplements with undeclared synthetic drugs illegally enhances the supplement ’s purported efficacy and is a growing global crime issue that can cause actual harm to unsuspecting victims. The aim of this research is to identify the potential adulterants of interest in dietary supplement adulteration and then to consider what governance systems can be implemented to reduce t he likelihood of such practices occurring. Firstly, existing academic and grey literature is iteratively reviewed to define and outline the challenge of dietary supplement adulteration. Three types of su...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 14, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Beyond assumptive deterrence: understanding the socio-environmental dynamics in crimes by Christian clerics and its implications for crime control
AbstractEmerging reports are increasingly implicating Christian clerics in array of unlawful and criminal behaviours, thus questioning the deterrence efficacy of Christianity as a religious body in contemporary times. Nevertheless, criminological debates on religion-crime nexus, aside terrorism, continue to be founded on deterrence assumption – the premises that religion promotes morally responsive citizens. We argued that this assumption neglects the role of socio-environmental dynamics in molding religion-crime outcomes from a strain perspective. Anchored on General Strain theory, this study acknowledged the parado...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 13, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Enacting social engineering: the emotional experience of information security deception
This study situates social engineering in past criminological work on fraud and analyzes qualitative interviews with social engineers to elucidate the emotional experiences of perpetrating such frauds. The results of this analysis indicate that social engineering interactions are characterized by an emotional experience of situational tension and the subsequent resolution of that tension. The analysis then turns to factors that modulate the quality and intensity of the emotional experience of social engineering perpetration. These factors include the social distance between the social engineer and the mark, the social engi...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 7, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Performing unbelonging in court. Observations from a transnational corporate bribery trial —a dramaturgical approach
This article presents a study of the theatrical performance in court in a high-profile transnational corporate bribery case. Data gathered from observations in court were supplemented with interviews with the defense teams and the presiding judge. The paper ’s objective is to demonstrate how the defendants performed unbelonging in court via the interactions between the different ‘teams’ in the courtroom; the defense, the prosecutors, the judges, and the company Telia. The analysis draws on Goffman’s theater analogy and his understandings of per formance and self-presentation. The authors introduce t...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 4, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Should gains from criminal knowledge be forfeited?
This article argues that revenue accruing from knowledge gained from association with crime should be treated as indirect proceeds of crime and, as such, should be forfeited. (Source: Crime, Law and Social Change)
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 2, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Does internet access increase the perception of corruption?
This article used the 2018 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS2018) data to systematically examine the impact of Internet access on corruption perceptions and its mechanisms. After controlling for a series of variables such as demographic characteristics and cultural and psychological factors, this study found that there is a significant correlation between Internet access and individuals ’ perception of corruption, which could be attributed to the characteristics of the Internet and the individuals’ “negativity bias effect”. In addition, a mechanism analysis found that both political trust and relativ...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - October 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Exploring Perceptions of Portuguese Police about Human Trafficking Victims and Perpetrators
This study has important implications for practitioners and highlights the need to invest in empirical research to produce efficient policies and interventions. (Source: Crime, Law and Social Change)
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 28, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Are ivory antiques actually antique?
AbstractTwenty-five samples of ivory artefacts were analysed using a radiocarbon dating method. These artefacts were part of a collection of 77 items seized during a wildlife law enforcement operation targeting online illegal ivory trade. Based on the opinion of a qualified expert, 14 of the 25 samples were declared antique, meaning their presumed origin is older than 1947. According to the European Union ’s law, antique ivory is exempt from an otherwise total ban on commercial ivory activities since such trade does not contribute to the current decline in elephant population. The radiocarbon measurement has revealed...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A content analysis on state human trafficking statutes: how does the legal system acknowledge survivors in the United States (US)?
AbstractHuman trafficking is an egregious violation of basic human rights that has reached global proportions. Despite the gradual proliferation of social science research and policy endeavors, a contemporary understanding of state human trafficking statutes has received limited discussion. Existing commentary tends to underserve survivor experiences in the law. Using a database of 982 human trafficking state statutes, this study seeks to describe the landscape of how the law acknowledges survivors. In doing so, we found that states acknowledge survivors through 1. formal agency guidelines, 2. survivor rights and services,...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

“State ineffectiveness in deterring organized crime style homicide in Mexico: a vicious cycle”
AbstractInstitutional weaknesses in the criminal justice system (limited court capacity and the increasingly sophisticated armament of splintering drug trafficking organizations) limit the effectivity of Mexican states to deter organized crime style homicide. Court capacity, expressed by increasing sentencing rates in states where the oral court system was institutionalized, remains insufficient against the post-2006 organized crime related homicide epidemic. The illegal arms market, combined with long-standing deficits in firepower between organized crime and municipal police forces, limit the state ’s capacity to a...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Drugs behind the veil of Islam: a view of Saudi youth
AbstractInsufficient research exists on drug trafficking and abuse in Saudi Arabia. This paper aims to uncover how drugs are trafficked to Saudi Arabia, what factors contribute to an ever-growing drug use in the Kingdom, and what the life of illegal drug use looks like in such an Islamic environment. Documentary methods and in-depth interviews were adopted to associate drug problems with social environments. It is discovered that drug trafficking is correlated to economic disparity among regions and social strata in the Kingdom, methods of drug purchase differ regionally, and drug use is an unintended consequence of social...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Making a dent in human trafficking: investigating the effects of social institutions and policies across 60 countries
This study attempted to examine the influence of three social factors (i.e., economics, social capital, and criminal justice) on human trafficking in 60 countries. Although regression and Bayesian analyses showed that macro level economic, social, and criminal justice factors were not predictive of human trafficking, our findings highlighted the variability and potential inaccuracy in reporting of information in many countries. Many factors contribute to unreliable human trafficking data including: (1) inconsistencies in the application of trafficking legislation, (2) problems with victim identification and reporting, (3) ...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Corruption framing and formation of action strategies: case of regional civil society organizations in Ukraine
This study analyzes how different approaches to corruption framing affect anti-corruption  activities of civil society organizations (CSOs) and activists on the local level in Ukraine. The theoretical framework of this article is based on the paradigm of social constructivism, according to which the meaning of corruption can vary. On the basis of anonymous interviews with anti-corrup tion CSOs, we found a widespread contradiction between anti-corruption activities of CSOs and their conceptual understanding of corruption. At the same time, organizations that consider corruption as a systemic is...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 23, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Legal challenges to combating cybercrime: An approach from Vietnam
AbstractThis paper explores the legal challenges of combating cybercrime in Vietnam. We used a legal doctrine method to review the updated Vietnamese legal frameworks, consisting of substantive, procedural, and preventive cybercrime law. We then combined the analysis of four cybercrime cases and in-depth interviews of seven senior police officials to analyse the application of cybercrime law. The main findings reveal that by updating its legal system, Vietnam has shown a determination to prevent and disrupt cybercrime. Despite positive results, Vietnam ’s fight against cybercrime still faces legal challenges, includi...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 10, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Intergenerational continuity of crime among children of organized crime offenders in the Netherlands
(Source: Crime, Law and Social Change)
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 9, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

International regime complexes and corporate crime: a research agenda based on the Volkswagen diesel fraud case
AbstractCriminological literature has often pointed to the absence or weakness of existing international regulation as important explanatory factors of corporate crime in global markets. This paper addresses the presence of multiple parallel, nested and overlapping regulatory regimes, and explores how such international regime complexity creates pathways to corporate crime. We use the Volkswagen diesel fraud case as a plausibility probe to illustrate such pathways to corporate crime. Our tentative analysis suggests that Volkswagen ’s fraud in the US cannot be seen as independent of the EU regulatory regime, which was...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 8, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Mobilizing justice in sociolegal research: a mixed methods meta-analysis
AbstractJustice as a concept has permeated sociolegal scholarship in the U.S. since the founding of Law and Society as a field in the mid 1960s. Much of this scholarship has focused on theoretically driven areas of justice, and here we consider empirically how such concepts have been mobilized in prominent law and society journals from their inception through 2014. Based on a meta-analysis of 438 articles fromLaw& Society Review, Law& Social Inquiry, andLaw& Policy, we present a typology of the forms of justice represented in sociolegal scholarship and describe how justice concepts are used and to what ends. We...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 3, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Marx, Foucault, and state –corporate harm: a case study of regulatory failure in Australian non-prescription medicine regulation
AbstractRisk-based regulation has underpinned Australian prescription and non-prescription medicine regulation for over three decades. However, data consistently demonstrate high rates of non-compliance among non-prescription medicine sponsors, with most breaches a result of inappropriate labelling and advertising, a lack of evidence to substantiate therapeutic claims, and product formulation and manufacturing. This paper seeks to understand why the regime fails to achieve compliance from non-prescription medicine sponsors. Using a state –corporate harm lens, and Marxist and Foucauldian perspectives, it is argued tha...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Can a prison be self-managed? A study of the informal organisation of a bolivian prison
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to investigate the unique prisons of Bolivia. Their main features include the presence of wives and children, self-management of activities within the prison and the opportunity for inmates to take part in various activities. In particular, the general organisation of the prisons and the inmates ’ experience, especially on an interpersonal level, is described in this study. The obtained data shows that functional and effective experiences of social rehabilitation can be promoted even under extreme conditions and, in some cases, this provides important insights into the prison syst...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Routine activity theory and malware, fraud, and spam at the national level
AbstractEmail spam is one of the primary means to facilitate the perpetration of internet fraud and the distribution of malware. The present research sought to examine the impact of routine activity theory at the national level on three forms of cybercrime perpetrated through email spam. A sample of 871,146 spam email messages sent in 2012 were divided into three categories: fraudulent emails, emails spreading malware, and non-serious spam emails. The measures were then aggregated by country and five measures of routine activity theory at the national level were tested for their impact on cybercrime among 120 nations. Conc...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Exploring cynicism toward prison administrations as a mediator of the association between quality of treatment and inmate misconduct
This study explores the ability of inmate cynicism to mediate the relationship between perceptions regarding quality of treatment and inmate misconduct in a prison setting. Using a sample of inmates from prisons in South Korea, the generalizability of the process-based model is tested. Also, the indirect effect of quality of treatment on inmate misconduct through cynicism is estimated using a bias-corrected bootstrapped mediation analysis. The findings show that quality of treatment was negatively and significantly associated with inmate misconduct in South Korean prisons. Additionally, results indicate that the quality of...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

How to create better Hawala regulations: a case study of Hawala regulations in Afghanistan
This article studies the recent failed attempt by Afghanistan ’s Central Bank to regulateHawala markets to illustrate the shortcomings of the dominant approach. It illustrates how, in Afghanistan,Hawaladars help finance supply chains. It then proposes a new approach toHawala regulations: formalizing informal credit practices ofHawaladars. Instead of outlawingHawaladars ’ credit practices, Afghanistan should use the offer of inclusion in the formal financial system to incentivizeHawaladars to comply with anti-money laundering regulations. This approach will also improve access to credit for Afghan merchants by e...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Prison in Iran, a known unknown; by Nahid Rahimipour Anaraki
(Source: Crime, Law and Social Change)
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - September 1, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Reviewing international anti-corruption cooperation arrangements in China – based on the implementation review mechanism of UNCAC
AbstractThe United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is the first legally binding global anti-corruption instrument, and its own review mechanism provides a channel for states and civil society to participate in the commitment to combat corruption. Theoretically, this article engages with the theory of international regime to offer a broad framework explaining why and how China has adapted to the international anti-corruption regime. As a response, legally, this article analyses both good practices and shortcomings in China ’s legislation and law enforcement mechanisms in terms of international anti-corru...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 31, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Investigating the awareness of virtual and augmented realities as a criminal justice response to the plight of awaiting-trial inmates in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
AbstractDespite the reforms in the Nigerian Criminal Justice System (NCJS), the treatment of inmates still falls below standard, with the vast majority of them on awaiting trial. Thus, this study critically examined the feasibility of adopting Virtual and Augmented Realities (VAR) as a framework that could effectively redirect policy and action. Following a cross-sectional survey  research design, a sample of 1,498 comprising 623 awaiting-trial inmates, 617 police officers, 145 prison officers, and 113 court officials was drawn from NCJS, Ebonyi State Chapter. Multistage, purposive, snowball and census sampling techni...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 27, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

State repression and escalation in Biafra social movements in Nigeria: Any way out?
This study examined the effects of State repression on the escalation in Biafra social movements in Nigeria. Integrated Separatist Agitation Theory (ISAT) was applied in the analysis. A cross-sectional design, purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were employed in recruiting 30 members of the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) and Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), who participated in the open-ended in-depth oral interviews. The results showed that the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has been consistently repressive in its attempts to control this social phenomenon. The in...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 20, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The welfare of wildlife: an interdisciplinary analysis of harm in the legal and illegal wildlife trades and possible ways forward
AbstractWildlife trade —both legal and illegal—is an activity that is currently the focus of global attention. Concerns over the loss of biodiversity, partly stemming from overexploitation, and the corona virus pandemic, likely originating from wildlife trade, are urgent matters. These concerns though centre on people . Only sometimes does the discussion focus on the wildlife traded and their welfare. In this article, we make the case as to why welfare is an important component of any discussion or policy about wildlife trade, not only for the interests of the wildlife, but also for the sake of humans. We detai...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 18, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Carceral-capital-charitable politics in Kingston, Ontario: analyzing relationships of embeddedness and indebtedness
AbstractThis paper investigates the partnership between Correctional Service Canada, the City of Kingston, and United Way, which has transformed the decommissioned Kingston Penitentiary into a site central to the growth of local tourism, film and charitable industries in Kingston, Ontario. In particular, we examine the political and social implications of this prison-municipal-charitable partnership for the institutions involved, marginalized and criminalized people in the region, prison tourists, and penal policy in Canada. Investigating neo-institutional and network relationships, we argue that features of “embedde...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 11, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Rural criminal collaborations and the food crimes of the countryside: realist social relations theory of illicit venison production
This article provides the first comprehensive criminological account of routinised illicit venison production in rural England. In doing so an epistemological reformulation and conceptual clarification of the overlooked problem is advanced, using extended fieldwork and a novel theoretical framework. The account of offending is refined to a type of illicit rural food enterprise supply chain misconduct, actualised by un-regulated industry processes. This kind of food crime is shown to be reliant upon suspects ’ connectivity with small to medium food business operations and the routines of rural occupations. Such relati...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 8, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Fault lines of food fraud: key issues in research and policy
This article analyses three key areas in the literature on food fraud where we see fault lines emerging: 1. food fraud research orientations; 2. food fraud detection and prevention (and the dehumanisation and decontextualisation associated with analytical testing); and, 3. food fraud regulation and criminalisation. We argue that these fault lines raise questions over the plausibility of knowledge on food frauds and in some cases produce specious arguments. This is significant for food fraud policy, strategy and operation, in particular in terms of how we generate expectations about the actual realities of food fraud and co...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 6, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Why lawyers internationalize and police transnationalize: disjointed criminal justice at the border of the state
This article investigates the socio-genesis of two different types of criminal justice developed at the border of the state. At this border,  the field of international criminal justice was differentiated from the field of transnational criminal justice. The article analyzes how elites of these two fields are characterized by distinct relations to the state that structure their ability to affect criminal justice outside of the nationa l context. These professionals worked in parallel in national systems of justice where they accumulated distinct patterns of expertise and access to the state. On the basis of ...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 5, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Professionalism versus democracy? Historical and institutional analysis of police oversight mechanisms  in three Asian jurisdictions
This article aims to respond to this frequently asked question by comparing two sets of institutional arrangements in police oversight mechanisms under three Asian regimes with different levels of democratization: Hong Kong, Japan, and Taiwan. “Professionalism” and “transcendency” are often prioritized by the Hong Kong authorities as the merits of the internal affairs model, over independent investigation capacity or elected appointees. Paradoxically, its police oversight counterparts under two neighbouring constitutionally democr atic Asian jurisdictions still face critiques, given their institutio...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 4, 2021 Category: Criminology Source Type: research