Surface features can deeply affect artificial grammar learning.
es AP Abstract Three experiments explored the extent to which surface features explain discrimination between grammatical and non-grammatical strings in artificial grammar learning (AGL). Experiment 1 replicated Knowlton and Squire's (1996) paradigm using either letter strings as in the original study, or an analogous set of color strings to further explore if learning was affected by type of stimuli. Learning arose only with letter strings, but the results were mostly due to the discrimination of non-grammatical strings containing highly salient illegal features. Experiments 2 and 3 tested a new grammar devised t...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiménez L, Mendes Oliveira H, Soares AP Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Does upper-body elevation affect sleepiness and memories of hypnagogic images after short daytime naps?
Abstract The present study aimed to examine the effects of a somatosensory stimulus on sleepiness and memories of hypnagogic imagery during short daytime naps. Participants experienced two daytime nap conditions: (1) a somatosensory stimulus was created by raising the upper part of the bed 20 min after turning off the light and (2) a somatosensory stimulus was not created; the angle of the upper part of the bed remained flat. Approximately 20 min and 30 s after turning off the light, participants were awakened and questioned regarding their subjective sleepiness and the presence or absence of hypnag...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nozoe K, Fukuda K, Kogure T, Shiino T, Asaoka S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

ERP and MEG correlates of visual consciousness: The second decade.
This article provides an update to those earlier reviews. ERP and MEG studies that have appeared since 2010 and directly compared ERPs between aware and unaware conditions are reviewed, and important new developments in the field are discussed. The result corroborates VAN as the earliest and most consistent signature of visual phenomenal consciousness, and casts further doubt on LP as an ERP correlate of phenomenal consciousness. PMID: 32193077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - March 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Förster J, Koivisto M, Revonsuo A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Teleology and the intentions of supernatural agents.
Abstract Teleological beliefs about the natural world often exist implicitly, and there is a positive relationship between teleological endorsement and belief in supernatural agents. In the current study, participants judged a series of scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations of biological organisms and natural non-living objects, under speeded or un-speeded instructions. After controlling for belief in the existence of supernatural agents, rates of implicit (speeded) and explicit (un-speeded) teleological endorsement were moderated by the belief that supernatural agents intentionally interact with th...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - March 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Roberts AJ, Wastell CA, Polito V Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Synchronous stimulation in the rubber hand illusion task boosts the subsequent sense of ownership on the vicarious agency task.
Abstract The relationship between sense of agency and sense of ownership remains unclear. Here we investigated this relationship by manipulating ownership using the rubber hand illusion and assessing the resulting impact on self-experiences during the vicarious agency illusion. We tested whether modulating ownership towards another limb using the rubber hand illusion would subsequently influence the illusory experience of ownership and agency towards a similar-looking limb in the vicarious agency task. Crucially, the vicarious agency task measures both sense of agency and sense of ownership at the same time, while...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - March 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cioffi MC, Hackett J, Moore JW Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The evolving sense of agency: Context recency and quality modulate the interaction between prospective and retrospective processes.
h SJH Abstract Humans acquire a sense of agency through their interactions with the world and their sensory consequences. Previous studies have highlighted stable agency-related phenomena like intentional binding, which depend on both prospective, context-dependent and retrospective, outcome-dependent processes. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between prospective and retrospective processes underlying the adaptation of an ongoing sense of agency. The results showed that prospective intentional binding developed during a temporal window of up to 20 prior events was independent of the nature of...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Di Plinio S, Arnò S, Perrucci MG, Ebisch SJH Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Forcing you to experience wonder: Unconsciously biasing people's choice through strategic physical positioning.
Lan Y Abstract Magicians have developed powerful tools to covertly force a spectator to choose a specific card. We investigate the physical location force, in which four cards (from left to right: 1-2-3-4) are placed face-down on the table in a line, after which participants are asked to push out one card. The force is thought to rely on a behavioural bias in that people are more likely to choose the third card from their left. Participants felt that their choice was extremely free, yet 60% selected the 3rd card. There was no significant difference in estimates and feelings of freedom between those who chose the t...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuhn G, Pailhès A, Lan Y Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Seeing an image of the hand affects performance on a crossmodal congruency task for sequences of events.
Abstract The crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) is augmented when viewing an image of a hand compared to an object. It is unclear if this contextual effect extends to a non-spatial CCE. Here, participants discriminated the number of tactile vibrations delivered to the hand whilst ignoring visual distractors on images of their own or another's hand or an object. The CCE was not modulated by stimulus context. Viewing one's hand from a third person perspective increased errors relative to viewing an object (Experiment 1). Errors were reduced when viewing hands, from first or third person perspectives, with additional...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: O' Dowd A, Sorgini F, Newell FN Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

'I've learned I need to treat my characters like people': Varieties of agency and interaction in Writers' experiences of their Characters' Voices.
Abstract Writers often report vivid experiences of hearing characters talking to them, talking back to them, and exhibiting independence and autonomy. However, systematic empirical studies of this phenomenon are almost non-existent, and as a result little is known about its cause, extent, or phenomenology. Here we present the results of a survey of professional writers (n = 181) run in collaboration with the Edinburgh International Book Festival. Participants provided detailed descriptions of their experiences of their characters in response to a phenomenological questionnaire, and also reported on imagi...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Foxwell J, Alderson-Day B, Fernyhough C, Woods A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Deficits of subliminal self-face processing in schizophrenia.
Abstract Most studies show that self-processing in schizophrenia is impaired at the supraliminal level. Schizophrenic patients generally lack the ability to prioritize the processing of self-related information, such as their own face. However, some evidence suggests that schizophrenic patients may retain intact subliminal processing abilities even though their conscious experiences are compromised. We conducted the first study exploring schizophrenic patients' subliminal self-face processing. Using a breaking continuous flash suppression (bCFS) paradigm, we interocularly suppressed face images (self, famous, and ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou S, Xu Y, Wang N, Zhang S, Geng H, Jia H Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Percolating ideas: The effects of caffeine on creative thinking and problem solving.
Abstract Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychotropic drug in the world, with numerous studies documenting the effects of caffeine on people's alertness, vigilance, mood, concentration, and attentional focus. The effects of caffeine on creative thinking, however, remain unknown. In a randomized placebo-controlled between-subject double-blind design the present study investigated the effect of moderate caffeine consumption on creative problem solving (i.e., convergent thinking) and creative idea generation (i.e., divergent thinking). We found that participants who consumed 200 mg of caffeine (approximatel...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zabelina DL, Silvia PJ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Distal engagement: Intentions in perception.
Abstract Non-representational approaches to cognition have struggled to provide accounts of long-term planning that forgo the use of representations. An explanation comes easier for cognitivist accounts, which hold that we concoct and use contentful mental representations as guides to coordinate a series of actions towards an end state. One non-representational approach, ecological-enactivism, has recently seen several proposals that account for "high-level" or "representation-hungry" capacities, including long-term planning and action coordination. In this paper, we demonstrate the explanatory...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Brancazio N, Segundo-Ortin M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Pre-experimental sleep effects on directed forgetting.
This study implemented a point system in place of remember and forget instructions in a DF task with the goal of computing DF costs and benefits. Relations among memory, sleep, and working memory capacity (WMC) were also examined. DF benefits were observed in both groups, with negative costs found for participants without the presence of insomnia symptoms. WMC was found to be related to memory for positive point items only, and did not differ based on sleep quality. These results suggest that the presence of self-reported insomnia symptoms does not affect performance on a DF task. PMID: 32058921 [PubMed - as supplied ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kavanagh VAJ, Hourihan KL Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Manipulating the temporal locus and content of mind-wandering.
Abstract The human brain has a tendency to drift into the realm of internally-generated thoughts that are unbound by space and time. The term mind-wandering (MW) is often used describe such thoughts when they are perceptually decoupled. Evidence suggests that exposure to forward and backward illusory motion skews the temporal orientation of MW thoughts to either the future or past respectively. However, little is known about the impact of this manipulation on other features of MW. Here, using a novel experimental paradigm, we first confirmed that our illusory motion method facilitated the generation of MW thoughts...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liefgreen A, Dalton MA, Maguire EA Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Alterations of social attention in mental disorders: Phenomenology, scope, and future directions for research.
This article addresses these issues from the perspective of phenomenological psychopathology. The primary goal of the article is to suggest a new way of assessing and distinguishing the alterations of social attention in subjects with mental disorders. The first part of the article characterizes the essential properties of a capacity for social attention based on multidisciplinary evidence. This model is then used to examine anomalies in social attention in autism, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and social anxiety disorder. The analysis of alterations in the way subjects with different types of pathologies...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - February 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bader O Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Applying an individual-differences lens to understanding human cognition.
PMID: 32007857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Goodhew SC Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A reply to "the unfolding argument": Beyond functionalism/behaviorism and towards a science of causal structure theories of consciousness.
A reply to "the unfolding argument": Beyond functionalism/behaviorism and towards a science of causal structure theories of consciousness. Conscious Cogn. 2020 Jan 28;79:102877 Authors: Tsuchiya N, Andrillon T, Haun A PMID: 32004720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsuchiya N, Andrillon T, Haun A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Eastern observers cannot inhibit their gaze to eye and nose regions in face perception.
Abstract It has been found that Western observers cannot inhibit their gaze to the eye region, even if they are told to avoid doing so when they observe face stimuli because of the importance of the eye region. However, studies indicate that the nose region is more important for face processing among Eastern observers. We used the "don't look" paradigm with Eastern observers, in which participants were told to avoid fixating on a specific region (eye, nose, and mouth). The results extend previous findings as both the eye and nose regions attracted their gaze. Interestingly, the fixation behaviors differe...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kawagoe T, Kihara K, Teramoto W Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Distance is relative: Inattentional blindness critically depends on the breadth of the attentional focus.
t D Abstract Inattentional blindness - the phenomenon that we sometimes miss salient stimuli in our direct view when they appear unexpectedly and attention is focused on something else - is modulated by various parameters, including distance of the unexpected stimulus from the attentional focus. In two experiments, we expanded the existing literature on spatial factors influencing inattentional blindness as well as theories on the spatial distribution of attention. Noticing rates of unexpected objects were significantly higher when they appeared outside instead of inside the bounds of primary task stimuli. Thus, o...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kreitz C, Hüttermann S, Memmert D Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

My body until proven otherwise: Exploring the time course of the full body illusion.
Abstract Evidence from the Full Body Illusion (FBI) has shown that adults can embody full bodies which are not their own when they move synchronously with their own body or are viewed from a first-person perspective. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the time course of the illusion. Here, for the first time, we examined the effect of visuomotor synchrony (synchronous/asynchronous/no movement) on the FBI over time. Surprisingly, we found evidence of embodiment over a virtual body after five seconds in all conditions. Embodiment decreased with increased exposure to asynchronous movement, but remaine...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Keenaghan S, Bowles L, Crawfurd G, Thurlbeck S, Kentridge RW, Cowie D Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A gist orientation before retrieval impacts the objective content but not the subjective experience of episodic memory.
Abstract A gist retrieval-orientation decreases one's ability to remember objective details from past experiences. Here, we examined whether a gist retrieval-orientation manipulation can impact both the objective and subjective aspects of remembering. Young participants took part in two cued-recollection tasks in which they studied pictures associated with labels; at retrieval, from the labels, they evaluated the vividness of their memories of the corresponding pictures, and recalled picture details. Before retrieval, participants were submitted either to a gist or a control retrieval-orientation (one per task). R...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Folville A, D'Argembeau A, Bastin C Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Emotional face prediction in rejection sensitive individuals: Evidence from event-related potentials.
Abstract Human beings live in an uncertain world, but they continuously generate top-down predictions about emotional face information of other people around them. Although the prediction processing has repeatedly been investigated in the literature of prediction, little is known about the impact of rejection sensitive (RS) on individuals' emotional face prediction. To this end, high and low RS participants were asked to perform an identification task of emotional faces in which target faces were shown in either an angry or happy expression while their brain responses were recorded using an event-related potential...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ran G, Li R, Zhang Q Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Truthiness, the illusory truth effect, and the role of need for cognition.
Abstract Ease of processing-cognitive fluency-is a central input in assessments of truth, but little is known about individual differences in susceptibility to fluency-based biases in truth assessment. Focusing on two paradigms-truthiness and the illusory truth effect-we consider the role of Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual difference variable capturing one's preference for elaborative thought. Across five experiments, we replicated basic truthiness and illusory truth effects. We found very little evidence that NFC moderates truthiness. However, we found some evidence that (without an experimental warning),...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Newman EJ, Jalbert MC, Schwarz N, Ly DP Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The reminiscence bump is blind to blindness: Evidence from sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memory.
We examined the reminiscence bumps of sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memories of early blind and sighted individuals, since early blindness implies considerable effects on sensory experience. Despite differences in sensory experience between blind and sighted individuals, the groups displayed similar age distributions of both sound- and odor-evoked memories. The auditory bump spanned the first two decades of life, whereas the olfactory bump was once again found in early childhood. These results demonstrate that the reminiscence bumps are robust to fundamental differences in sensory experience. PMID: 31923883 ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cornell Kärnekull S, Arshamian A, Willander J, Jönsson FU, Nilsson ME, Larsson M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The relationship between endowment and ownership effects in memory across cultures.
Abstract An object one owns is typically more highly valued than an equivalent object owned by another person. This endowment effect has been attributed to the aversion of loss of one's possessions (through selling), or the added value of an item due to self-association (through owning). To date, investigation of these mechanisms has been hampered by the between-subjects methodology traditionally employed to measure endowment. Over two experiments, we report a novel within-subjects method for measuring an endowment bias. In these studies, Western participants showed enhanced valuation of owned items, whereas East-...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Collard P, Walford A, Vernon L, Itagaki F, Turk D Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Working memory can compare two visual items without accessing visual consciousness.
Abstract Recent studies argued that unconscious visual information could access the working memory, however, it is still unclear whether the central executive could be activated unconsciously. We investigated, using a delayed match-to-sample task, whether the central executive is an unconscious process. In the experiment of the present study, participants were asked to compare the locations of two given visual targets. Both targets (or one of the two targets, depending on the experimental condition) were masked by a visual masking paradigm. The results showed an above-chance-level performance even in the condition...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nakano S, Ishihara M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Unconscious semantic priming from pictures under backward masking and continuous flash suppression.
Abstract It is debated whether the meaning of invisible pictures can be processed unconsciously. We tested whether pictures of animals or objects presented under backward masking or continuous flash suppression could prime the subsequent categorization of target words into animal or non-animal. In Experiment 1, the backward masking part failed to replicate the priming effect reported in two previous studies, despite sufficient statistical power (N = 59). Similarly, the continuous flash suppression part provided no evidence for a priming effect. In Experiment 2 (N = 65) we shortened the prime-target SOA f...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stein T, Utz V, van Opstal F Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Who wrote that? Automaticity and reduced sense of agency in individuals prone to dissociative absorption.
This study examined whether high absorbers indeed act more automatically, i.e., with decreased meta-consciousness for, and therefore poor memory of, their own actions, along with reduced sense of agency (SoA). High and low absorbers (N = 63) performed three DA-promoting tasks: choice-reaction time (CRT), Tetris, and free writing. Participants were tested on memory of task details and self-reported their state SoA. As hypothesized, trait DA was correlated with impaired autobiographical memory for self-generated writing. However, DA was not related to episodic memory disruptions in externally-generated content task...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bregman-Hai N, Kessler Y, Soffer-Dudek N Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Neuronal correlates of full and partial visual conscious perception.
Abstract Stimuli may induce only partial consciousness-an intermediate between null and full consciousness-where the presence but not identity of an object can be reported. The differences in the neuronal basis of full and partial consciousness are poorly understood. We investigated if evoked and oscillatory activity could dissociate full from partial conscious perception. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visual perception task in which stimulus could be either partially or fully perceived. Partial consciousness was associated with an early increase in evoked activity ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Haque H, Lobier M, Palva JM, Palva S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Pupillometric decoding of high-level musical imagery.
Abstract Humans report imagining sound where no physical sound is present: we replay conversations, practice speeches, and "hear" music all within the confines of our minds. Research has identified neural substrates underlying auditory imagery; yet deciphering its explicit contents has been elusive. Here we present a novel pupillometric method for decoding what individuals hear "inside their heads". Independent of light, pupils dilate and constrict in response to noradrenergic activity. Hence, stimuli evoking unique and reliable patterns of attention and arousal even when imagined should concur...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kang O, Banaji MR Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Overstepping the boundaries of free choice: Folk beliefs on free will and determinism in real world contexts.
This study is the first to show, using ecologically valid examples, the folk beliefs people share on psychological constructs concerning free will and determinism. PMID: 31862499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Osman M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Eye-closure & the retrieval of item-specific information in recognition memory.
Eye-closure & the retrieval of item-specific information in recognition memory. Conscious Cogn. 2019 Dec 11;77:102858 Authors: Parker A, Dagnall N Abstract Two experiments investigated the effect of eye-closure on visual and auditory memory under conditions based on the retrieval of item-specific information. Experiment 1 investigated visual recognition memory for studied, perceptually similar and unrelated items. It was found that intermittent eye-closure increased memory for studied items and decreased memory for related items. This finding was reflected by enhanced item-specific and reduced gis...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Parker A, Dagnall N Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Are errors detected before they occur? Early error sensations revealed by metacognitive judgments on the timing of error awareness.
Abstract Errors in choice tasks are not only detected fast and reliably, participants often report that they knew that an error occurred already before a response was produced. These early error sensations stand in contrast with evidence suggesting that the earliest neural correlates of error awareness emerge around 300 ms after erroneous responses. The present study aimed to investigate whether anecdotal evidence for early error sensations can be corroborated in a controlled study in which participants provide metacognitive judgments on the subjective timing of error awareness. In Experiment 1, participants ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Di Gregorio F, Maier ME, Steinhauser M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Getting closer: Synchronous interpersonal multisensory stimulation increases closeness and attraction toward an opposite-sex other in female participants.
Abstract Experiencing tactile facial stimulation while seeing synchronous stimulations delivered to another's face induces enfacement, i.e. the subjective experience of ownership over the other's face. The synchronous Interpersonal Multisensory Stimulation (IMS) procedure leading to enfacement induces changes beyond the bodily sense of self, such as increased feeling of closeness between self and other. However, evidence for such an influence of IMS on higher-level self-other representations remains limited. Moreover, research has been restricted to settings involving a same-sex other. The current study tested, in...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Quintard V, Jouffre S, Paladino MP, Bouquet CA Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Parts of me: Identity-relevance moderates self-prioritization.
rae C Abstract Recent research has revealed a pervasive bias for self-relevant information during decision-making, a phenomenon termed the self-prioritization effect. Focusing almost exclusively on between-target (e.g., self vs. friend) differences in task performance, however, this work has overlooked the influence stimulus factors potentially exert during decisional processing. Accordingly, based on pertinent social-psychological theorizing (i.e., Identity-Based Motivation Theory), here we explored the possibility that self-prioritization is sensitive to the identity-based relevance of stimuli. The results of th...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Golubickis M, Falbén JK, Ho NSP, Sui J, Cunningham WA, Neil Macrae C Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The interplay of predictive and postdictive components of experienced selfhood.
Abstract Objects that we affect by our body movements can be experienced as being controlled by (agency) and belonging to the own body (ownership). Such impressions of minimal selfhood arise when objects move as predicted prior to the action (predictive component). But they can also arise when otherwise unpredictable object movements turn out to be consistent with (e.g. spatially compatible to) preceding actions (postdictive component). Here we studied how the impact of postdictive components of inferred minimal selfhood in terms of action-object compatibility is shaped by different levels of predictability of the...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liesner M, Kirsch W, Kunde W Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Intentionality and temporal binding: Do causality beliefs increase the perceived temporal attraction between events?
Abstract Intentional motor actions and their effects are bound together in temporal perception, resulting in the so-called intentional binding effect. In the current study, we address an alternative explanatory mechanism for the emergence of temporal binding by excluding the role of motor action. Employing a sensory-based Libet clock paradigm, we examined temporal perception of two different auditory stimuli, and tested the influence of beliefs about the causal relationship between the two auditory stimuli, thus simulating a crucial feature of intentional action. In two experiments, we found a robust temporal repu...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Antusch S, Aarts H, Marien H, Custers R Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Monitoring line length reproduction errors.
Abstract Previous work revealed that humans can keep track of the direction and degree of errors in their temporal and numerical reproductions/estimations. Given the behavioral and psychophysical commonalities to various magnitudes and the implication of an overlapping neuroanatomical locus for their representation, we hypothesized that participants would capture the direction of errors and confidence ratings would track the magnitude of errors in line-length reproductions. In two experiments, participants reproduced various target lengths as accurately as possible, and reported the direction of their errors and p...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Duyan YA, Balcı F Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Perceptual biases and metacognition and their association with anomalous self experiences in first episode psychosis.
Abstract Anomalous self-experiences have been described as a prerequisite for anomalous perceptual experiences. Later, these anomalous perceptual experiences may then be metacognitively appraised as distressing, maintaining these experiences and later leading to anomalous (delusional) beliefs. This model of anomalous events may potentially be driven by perceptual biases and metacognitive deficits. This cross-sectional study explored the association between perceptual biases, metacognition and anomalous self- and perceptual experiences and delusional beliefs in First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and a matched healthy co...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wright A, Nelson B, Fowler D, Greenwood K Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Libet's intention reports are invalid: A replication of Dominik et al. (2017).
Abstract In the "Libet experiment" the onset of movement-related brain activity preceded the reported time of the conscious intention to move, suggesting that conscious intention may not play a role in initiating voluntary movements (Libet, Gleason, Wright, & Pearl, 1983). Dominik et al. (2017) provided evidence that the intention reports employed in the Libet experiment, which Libet et al. (1983) found to precede movement reports, are invalid. In the study by Dominik et al., intention reports preceded movement reports only when participants had prior experience making movement reports. Individuals w...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanford P, Lawson AL, King AN, Major M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The cognitive penetrability of perception: A blocked debate and a tentative solution.
acute;nsa S Abstract Despite the extensive body of psychological findings suggesting that cognition influences perception, the debate between defenders and detractors of the cognitive penetrability of perception persists. While detractors demand more strictness in psychological experiments, proponents consider that empirical studies show that cognitive penetrability occurs. These considerations have led some theorists to propose that the debate has reached a dead end. The issue about where perception ends and cognition begins is, I argue, one of the reasons why the debate is cornered. Another reason is the inabili...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cermeño-Aínsa S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The neurophenomenology of early psychosis: An integrative empirical study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The integration of various domains or levels of analysis (clinical, neurobiological, genetic, etc.) has been a challenge in schizophrenia research. A promising approach is to use the core phenomenological features of the disorder as an organising principle for other levels of analysis. Minimal self-disturbance (fragility in implicit first-person perspective, presence and agency) is emerging as a strong candidate to play this role. This approach was adopted in a previously described theoretical neurophenomenological model that proposed that source monitoring deficits and aberrant salience may b...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nelson B, Lavoie S, Gawęda Ł, Li E, Sass LA, Koren D, McGorry PD, Jack BN, Parnas J, Polari A, Allott K, Hartmann JA, Whitford TJ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Outcome processing and the sense of agency.
Abstract People can distinguish outcomes they cause from those they do not; that is, they are quite able to sense self-agency in outcomes. A well-received idea is that the sense of agency is produced by a comparison between a predicted outcome and the actual outcome that occurs. While research has generally focused on understanding predictive representations and the comparison process, less work has been done on the actual outcomes and, in particular, how these are perceived or apprehended. Here, we studied this issue. In two experiments, we found outcomes are continuously, as opposed to partially, sampled through...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hon N, Sim JL Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Consistent inter-individual differences in susceptibility to bodily illusions.
Abstract Illusory senses of ownership and agency (that the hand or effector that we see belongs to us and moves at our will, respectively) support the embodiment of prosthetic limbs, tele-operated surgical devices, and human-machine interfaces. We exposed forty-eight individuals to four different procedures known to elicit illusory ownership or agency over a fake visible rubber hand or finger. The illusory ownership or agency arising from the hand correlated with that of the finger. For both body parts, sensory stimulation across different modalities (visual with tactile or visual with kinesthetic) produced illusi...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cutts SA, Fragaszy DM, Mangalam M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Relationships between metacognitive beliefs, social evaluative threat and worry.
Abstract A worry state is assumed to emerge from the interaction between metacognitive beliefs, and the appraisal of environmental demands (Wells & Matthews, 1994). The aim of this study was to show that metacognitive beliefs moderate the effect of sources of social evaluative threat on worry. Our sample (N = 174) completed a working memory task in two contexts (threatful vs. neutral), while both pre- and post-task measures subjective stress states were recorded. Our results confirmed significant effects of sources of social evaluative threat and metacognitive beliefs on worry. The interaction metacognitio...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Trouillet R, Guerdoux-Ninot E, Jebbar N Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Modularist explanations of experience and other illusions.
Abstract Debates about modularity invariably involve a crucial premise about how visual illusions are experienced. This paper argues that these debates are wrongheaded, and that experience of illusions is orthogonal to the core issue of the modularity hypothesis: informational encapsulation. PMID: 31654983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mandelbaum E Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Misplacing memories? An enactive approach to the virtual memory palace.
Abstract In this paper, we evaluate the pragmatic turn towards embodied, enactive thinking in cognitive science, in the context of recent empirical research on the memory palace technique. The memory palace is a powerful method for remembering yet it faces two problems. First, cognitive scientists are currently unable to clarify its efficacy. Second, the technique faces significant practical challenges to its users. Virtual reality devices are sometimes presented as a way to solve these practical challenges, but currently fall short of delivering on that promise. We address both issues in this paper. First, we arg...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Peeters A, Segundo-Ortin M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Connecting action control and agency: Does action-effect binding affect temporal binding?
Abstract The sense of agency, i.e., the notion that we, as agents, are in control of our own actions and can affect our environment by acting, is an integral part of human volition. Recent work has attempted to ground agency in basic mechanisms of human action control. Along these lines, action-effect binding has been shown to affect explicit judgments of agency. Here, we investigate if such action-effect bindings are also related to temporal binding which is often used as an implicit measure of agency. In two experiments, we found evidence for the establishment of short-term action-effect bindings as well as temp...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Schwarz KA, Weller L, Pfister R, Kunde W Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Does the influence of near-threshold primes depend on the type of task?
Abstract Most studies investigating the influence of primes on the processing of subsequent targets involve a main task in which responses are made to the targets, and a task that tests prime awareness. If the participant is not aware of the prime location/identity but an influence of the prime is observed in the main task, researchers conclude that this influence can be ascribed to unconscious processing of the prime. This implies the assumption that the prime's influence is independent of task instructions: a prime consciously perceived in the prime task is consciously perceived in the main task. In the metacont...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Szumska I, Baran W, Pinkas E, Van der Lubbe RHJ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The propensity to perceive meaningful coincidences is associated with increased posterior alpha power during retention of information in a modified Sternberg paradigm.
Abstract There are ample inter-individual differences in the frequency with which people perceive meaningful coincidences. Previous research has identified increased proactive interference, that is a reduced working memory capacity, as one possible mechanism associated with this phenomenon. The present study aimed at extending this finding into the domain of neuroscience, (1) by assessing EEG alpha oscillations during the retention of information, (2) by replicating the behavioral link between meaningful coincidences and proactive interference. In a sample of 52 participants, the behavioral replication was success...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rominger C, Fink A, Weiss EM, Schulter G, Perchtold CM, Papousek I Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research