Intentional action and limitation of personal autonomy. Do restrictions of action selection decrease the sense of agency?
Abstract The experience of being an intentional agent is a key component of personal autonomy. Here, we tested how undermining intentional action affects the sense of agency as indexed by intentional binding. In three experiments using the Libet clock paradigm, participants judged the onset of their action (key presses) and resulting effect (auditory stimuli) under conditions of no, partial, or full autonomy over selecting and timing their actions. In all cases, we observed a moderate to strong intentional binding effect. However, we found no evidence for an influence of personal autonomy on intentional binding. T...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Antusch S, Custers R, Marien H, Aarts H Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Free to blame? Belief in free will is related to victim blaming.
Abstract The more people believe in free will, the harsher their punishment of criminal offenders. A reason for this finding is that belief in free will leads individuals to perceive others as responsible for their behavior. While research supporting this notion has mainly focused on criminal offenders, the perspective of the victims has been neglected so far. We filled this gap and hypothesized that individuals' belief in free will is positively correlated with victim blaming-the tendency to make victims responsible for their bad luck. In three studies, we found that the more individuals believe in free will, the...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Genschow O, Vehlow B Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A distinction concerning vision-for-action and affordance perception.
Abstract In this paper, I offer a discussion concerning the conceptual connection between the notion of vision-for-action and the one of affordance perception. I first analyze the notion of vision-for-action. I then analyze a notion usually coupled with it: the notion of affordance perception, the main insights behind which are guiding several current neuroscientific enterprises and the related philosophical speculations. Then, I argue that we should not couple these two notions with a light heart: though these two processes can be, from a theoretical point of view, related, we should be careful in inferring the a...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferretti G Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Vocal signals only impact speakers' own emotions when they are self-attributed.
Abstract Emotions are often accompanied by vocalizations whose acoustic features provide information about the physiological state of the speaker. Here, we ask if perceiving these affective signals in one's own voice has an impact on one's own emotional state, and if it is necessary to identify these signals as self-originated for the emotional effect to occur. Participants had to deliberate out loud about how they would feel in various familiar emotional scenarios, while we covertly manipulated their voices in order to make them sound happy or sad. Perceiving the artificial affective signals in their own voice al...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - January 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Goupil L, Johansson P, Hall L, Aucouturier JJ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Prosthesis embodiment and attenuation of prosthetic touch in upper limb amputees - A proof-of-concept study.
Abstract Sensory attenuation of self-touch, that is, the perceptual reduction of self-generated tactile stimuli, is considered a neurocognitive basis for self-other distinction. However, whether this effect can also be found in upper limb amputees using a prosthesis is unknown. Thirteen participants were asked to touch their foot sole with a) their intact hand (self-touch), b) their prosthesis (prosthesis-touch), or c) let it be touched by another person (other-touch). Intensity of touch was assessed with a questionnaire. In addition, prosthesis embodiment was assessed in nine participants. Self-touch as well as p...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fritsch A, Lenggenhager B, Bekrater-Bodmann R Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Dreams reflect nocturnal cognitive processes: Early-night dreams are more continuous with waking life, and late-night dreams are more emotional and hyperassociative.
Abstract Contributions of specific sleep stages to cognitive processes are increasingly understood. Non-REM sleep is particularly implicated in episodic memory consolidation, whilst REM sleep preferentially consolidates and regulates emotional information, and gives rise to creativity and insight. Dream content reflects these processes: non-REM dreams are more likely to picture episodic memories, whereas REM dreams are more emotional and bizarre. However, across-the-night differences in the memory sources of dream content, as opposed to sleep stage differences, are less well understood. In the present study, 68 pa...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Malinowski JE, Horton CL Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The influence of locative expressions on context-dependency of endpoint control in aiming.
We examined swiping actions towards a global array of targets embedded in different local array configurations on a tablet under no-verbalization and verbalization conditions. The global and local array configurations allowed separation of contextual-effects from any possible numerical magnitude biases triggered from calling out specific target numbers.The patterns of constant errors in the target directionwere used to assess differences between conditions. Variation in the target context configuration systematically biased movement endpoints in both the no-verbalization and verbalization conditions. Ultimately, our result...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Olthuis R, van der Kamp J, Lemmink K, Caljouw S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

How retaining objects containing multiple features in visual working memory regulates the priority for access to visual awareness.
Abstract The content of visual working memory influences the access to visual awareness. Thus far, research has focused on retention of a single feature, whereas memoranda in real life typically contain multiple features. Here, we intermixed a delayed match-to-sample task to manipulate VWM content, and a breaking Continuous Flash Suppression (b-CFS) task to measure prioritization for visual awareness. Observers memorized either the color (Exp. 1), the shape (Exp. 2) or both the features (Exp. 3) of an item and indicated the location of a suppressed target. We observed that color-matching targets broke suppression ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ding Y, Naber M, Paffen C, Gayet S, Van der Stigchel S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The entropic tongue: Disorganization of natural language under LSD.
Abstract Serotonergic psychedelics have been suggested to mirror certain aspects of psychosis, and, more generally, elicit a state of consciousness underpinned by increased entropy of on-going neural activity. We investigated the hypothesis that language produced under the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) should exhibit increased entropy and reduced semantic coherence. Computational analysis of interviews conducted at two different time points after 75 μg of intravenous LSD verified this prediction. Non-semantic analysis of speech organization revealed increased verbosity and a reduced lexicon, ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanz C, Pallavicini C, Carrillo F, Zamberlan F, Sigman M, Mota N, Copelli M, Ribeiro S, Nutt D, Carhart-Harris R, Tagliazucchi E Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The role of affective touch in whole-body embodiment remains equivocal.
Abstract Previous studies have highlighted that affective touch delivered at slow velocities (1-10 cm/s) enhances body-part embodiment during multisensory illusions, yet its role towards whole-body embodiment is less established. Across two experiments, we investigated the role of affective touch towards subjective embodiment of a whole mannequin body within the full body illusion, amongst healthy females. Participants perceived affective touch to be more pleasant than non-affective touch, but this did not enhance subjective embodiment within the illusion and no interaction between synchrony (Experiment 1), o...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Carey M, Crucianelli L, Preston C, Fotopoulou A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Pre-stimulus alpha predicts inattentional blindness.
PMID: 33296852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hutchinson BT, Pammer K, Jack B Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Sensory attenuation of action outcomes of varying amplitude and valence.
Abstract Stimuli caused by self-initiated actions are perceived as less intense than those caused externally; this effect is called sensory attenuation (SA). In two experiments, we aimed to assess the impact of the amplitude of outcomes and its affective valence on SA and explicit ratings of sense of agency. This allowed us to test the predictions of the available SA frameworks and better understand the link between SA, affect, and agency. The results indicated that SA can be reversed, and such sensory amplification is driven by low-amplitude and positive-valence outcomes. We also show that intentional action infl...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Majchrowicz B, Wierzchoń M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

How unexpected observations lead to new beliefs: A Peircean pathway.
Abstract People acquire new beliefs in various ways. One of the most important of these is that new beliefs are acquired as a response to experiencing events that one did not expect. This involves a form of inference distinct from both deductive and inductive inference: abductive inference. The concept of abduction is due to the American pragmatist philosopher C. S. Peirce. Davies and Coltheart (in press) elucidated what Peirce meant by abduction, and identified two problems in his otherwise promising account requiring solution if that account were to become fully workable. Here we propose solutions to these probl...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Coltheart M, Davies M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A reduction in the implicit sense of agency during adolescence compared to childhood and adulthood.
This study provides evidence for the developmental effects on the implicit agency experience and suggests adolescence as a critical period. We discuss the possible implications of these findings. PMID: 33276265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Aytemur A, Levita L Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Subjective visibility report is facilitated by conscious predictions only.
Abstract Predictions in the visual domain have been shown to modulate conscious access. Yet, little is known about how predictions may do so and to what extent they need to be consciously implemented to be effective. To address this, we administered an attentional blink (AB) task in which target 1 (T1) identity predicted target 2 (T2) identity, while participants rated their perceptual awareness of validly versus invalidly predicted T2s (Experiment 1 & 2) or reported T2 identity (Experiment 3). Critically, we tested the effects of conscious and non-conscious predictions, after seen and unseen T1s, on T2 visibi...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alilović J, Slagter HA, van Gaal S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The weirdness of belief in free will.
Abstract It has been argued that belief in free will is socially consequential and psychologically universal. In this paper we look at the folk concept of free will and its critical assessment in the context of recent psychological research. Is there a widespread consensus about the conceptual content of free will? We compared English "free will" with its lexical equivalents in Lithuanian, Hindi, Chinese and Mongolian languages and found that unlike Lithuanian, Chinese, Hindi and Mongolian lexical expressions of "free will" do not refer to the same concept free will. What kind people have been ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Berniūnas R, Beinorius A, Dranseika V, Silius V, Rimkevičius P Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Consciousness can overflow report: Novel evidence from attribute amnesia of a single stimulus.
This study sought to address the debate from a new perspective, through testing whether fully attended supraliminal information is necessarily reportable with a variation of attribute amnesia. Participants were asked to judge the parity of a single number or whether a Chinese character referred to furniture. After several trials, they were unexpectedly asked to report the stimulus identity. The results consistently showed that participants could not correctly report the identity, indicating that fully attended information that was consciously perceived could sometimes overflow report. In addition to providing novel overflo...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang R, Fu Y, Chen L, Chen Y, Zhou J, Chen H Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A mixed-methods examination of autonomous sensory meridian response: Comparison to frisson.
This article explores the induction of ASMR experiences in a laboratory setting amongst non-specialised participants, as well as the relationship between ASMR and frisson, or 'musical chills'. In previous work, the ASMR-15 was found to be a reliable measure of ASMR propensity, however, the predictive validity of the measure has yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to assess whether ASMR-15 scores predict greater ASMR induction in an experimental setting. To address this, N = 100 undergraduate psychology students completed the ASMR-15 and a measure of frisson, before viewing ASMR stimuli under controlle...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Roberts N, Beath A, Boag S Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

An electroencephalographic examination of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR).
In this study, 14 participants who experience ASMR, along with 14 control participants, were presented with four video stimuli and four auditory stimuli. Half of these stimuli were designed to elicit ASMR and half were non-ASMR control stimuli. Brain activity was measured using a 32-channel EEG system. The results indicated that ASMR stimuli-particularly auditory stimuli-elicited increased alpha wave activity in participants with self-reported ASMR, but not in matched control participants. Similar increases were also observed in frequency bands associated with movement (gamma waves and sensorimotor rhythm). These results a...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fredborg BK, Champagne-Jorgensen K, Desroches AS, Smith SD Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The Near-Death Experience Content (NDE-C) scale: Development and psychometric validation.
Abstract As interest grows in near-death experiences (NDEs), it is increasingly important to accurately identify them to facilitate empirical research and reproducibility among assessors. We aimed (1) to reassess the psychometric properties of the NDE scale developed by Greyson (1983) and (2) to validate the Near-Death Experience Content (NDE-C) scale that quantifies NDEs in a more complete way. Internal consistency, construct and concurrent validity analyses were performed on the NDE scale. Based on those results and the most recent empirical evidence, we then developed a new 20-item scale. Internal consistency, ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Martial C, Simon J, Puttaert N, Gosseries O, Charland-Verville V, Nyssen AS, Greyson B, Laureys S, Cassol H Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Clarifying the effect of facial emotional expression on inattentional blindness.
Abstract Conscious perception often fails when an object appears unexpectedly and our attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness). While various factors have been identified as determinants of inattentional blindness, the influence of an unexpected object́s semantic value remains ambiguous. This is also true for the supposedly evolutionary meaning of faces; some studies found higher detection rates for faces while others did not or used control conditions that differed in physical aspects of the stimulus as well. In the proposed studies we aim to replicate and clarify the effect of the semantic value...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Redlich D, Memmert D, Kreitz C Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Altering access to autobiographical episodes with prior semantic knowledge.
This study tested how different types of semantics - general semantics and two forms of personal semantics - impact access to personal episodic memories. In two experiments, participants made a series of true/false judgments about a prime statement, which reflected a general semantic fact, a context-dependent (e.g., repeated event) or context-independent (e.g., trait), personal semantic fact and then retrieved a specific past episodic memory. There was a significantly stronger priming effect for accessing specific episodic memories after judging personal semantic facts versus general facts. We also found that context-depen...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sheldon S, Peters S, Renoult L Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The role of attentional slippage in Stroop dilution.
Abstract The present study examined the cognitive locus of Stroop dilution using a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. Participants were asked to perform a tone discrimination task via a bimanual keypress response and a modified Stroop task via a vocal response serially as Task 1 and Task 2, respectively. In Task 2, a neutral word was added on half of the trials and no neutral word on the other half of the trials to observe the Stroop dilution effect. The amount of Stroop dilution, as well as the Stroop effect, was relatively constant across different stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs), which implies t...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Park BY, Cho YS Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Visual awareness judgments are sensitive to accuracy feedback in stimulus discrimination tasks.
In this study we tested the hypothesis that perceptual awareness judgments are sensitive to accuracy feedback about the previous action. We used a perceptual discrimination task in which participants reported their stimulus awareness. We created two conditions: No-feedback and Feedback (discrimination accuracy feedback was provided at the end of each trial). The results showed that visual awareness judgments are related to the accuracy of current and previous responses. Participants reported lower stimulus awareness for incorrectly versus correctly discriminated stimuli in both conditions; they also reported lower stimulus...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Siedlecka M, Wereszczyński M, Paulewicz B, Wierzchoń M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A psychologically based taxonomy of Magicians' forcing Techniques: How magicians influence our choices, and how to use this to study psychological mechanisms.
uhn G Abstract Magicians have developed a wide range of techniques to influence and control spectators' choices of such things as card, word, or number. These techniques are what is called forcing. The present paper develops a psychologically-based taxonomy of forcing techniques with two goals in mind. Firstly, it should help uncover the different psychological mechanisms that underlie forcing techniques. Secondly, it should facilitate knowledge transfer between magicians and psychologists. The main division present two basic categories that can be used as a way of focussing separately on (1) decision-making proce...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pailhès A, Rensink RA, Kuhn G Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Does a smartphone on the desk drain our brain? No evidence of cognitive costs due to smartphone presence in a short-term and prospective memory task.
Abstract It has recently been shown that the mere presence of one's own smartphone on the desk impairs working memory performance. The aim of this study was to follow up on this important finding by assessing the effect of smartphone presence (present on the desk vs. absent from the desk) on different memory functions (short-term memory and prospective memory), and by further examining the moderating role of individual differences in smartphone dependency and impulsiveness. We found no overall effect of smartphone presence on short-term and prospective memory performance. There was a moderating effect for prospect...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hartmann M, Martarelli CS, Reber TP, Rothen N Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Schizotypal traits are not related to multisensory integration or audiovisual speech perception.
Abstract Multisensory integration, the binding of sensory information from different sensory modalities, may contribute to perceptual symptomatology in schizophrenia, including hallucinations and aberrant speech perception. Differences in multisensory integration and temporal processing, an important component of multisensory integration, are consistently found in schizophrenia. Evidence is emerging that these differences extend across the schizophrenia spectrum, including individuals in the general population with higher schizotypal traits. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between schizotypa...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Muller AM, Dalal TC, Stevenson RA Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Selfhood triumvirate: From phenomenology to brain activity and back again.
Abstract Recently, a three-dimensional construct model for complex experiential Selfhood has been proposed (Fingelkurts, Fingelkurts, & Kallio-Tamminen, 2016b,c). According to this model, three specific subnets (or modules) of the brain self-referential network (SRN) are responsible for the manifestation of three aspects/features of the subjective sense of Selfhood. Follow up multiple studies established a tight relation between alterations in the functional integrity of the triad of SRN modules and related to them three aspects/features of the sense of self; however, the causality of this relation is yet to b...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fingelkurts AA, Fingelkurts AA, Kallio-Tamminen T Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Meditation, well-being and cognition in heartfulness meditators - A pilot study.
We examined well-being, and carried out high-density EEG recordings to examine indices of meditation and cognition in these groups. Well-being scores were significantly higher for the proficient meditators as compared to novice and intermediate for the controls. We did not find any group differences in cognitive processing. During meditation, enhanced occipital gamma was found in proficient meditators as compared to controls. We discuss the findings from this pilot study and suggest avenues for future research. PMID: 33096504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sankar Sylapan B, Nair AK, Jayanna K, Mallipeddi S, Sathyanarayana S, Kutty BM Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The minimal self hypothesis.
Abstract For millennia self has been conjectured to be necessary for consciousness. But scant empirical evidence has been adduced to support this hypothesis. Inconsistent explications of "self" and failure to design apt experiments have impeded progress. Advocates of phenomenological psychiatry, however, have helped explicate "self," and employed it to explain some psychopathological symptoms. In those studies, "self" is understood in a minimalist sense, sheer "for-me-ness." Unfortunately, explication of the "minimal self" (MS) has relied on conceptual analysis, an...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lane TJ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Stream segregation revisited: Dynamic listening and influences of emotional context on stream perception and attention.
Abstract A classical experiment of auditory stream segregation is revisited, reconceptualising perceptual ambiguity in terms of affordances and musical engagement. Specifically, three experiments are reported that investigate how listeners' perception of auditory sequences change dynamically depending on emotional context. The experiments show that listeners adapt their attention to higher or lower pitched streams (Experiments 1 and 2) and the degree of auditory stream integration or segregation (Experiment 3) in accordance with the presented emotional context. Participants with and without formal musical training...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Timmers R, Arthurs Y, Crook H Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Directing internal attention towards ongoing thought.
Abstract The view that a mental state is "transparent" is the view that the mental state is such that we cannot direct our attention directly towards the mental state, and that instead, when we try to do so, we attend to something in the external world rather than the mental state itself. Results from the study of internal attention put transparency views under a pressure that has so far been entirely unacknowledged in the literature. I focus on Garavan (1998) study of switching the focus of internal attention from one mental count to another mental count. I argue that Garavan's results are evidence that...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fortney M Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Excessive use of reminders: Metacognition and effort-minimisation in cognitive offloading.
Abstract People often use external reminders to help remember delayed intentions. This is a form of "cognitive offloading". Individuals sometimes offload more often than would be optimal (Gilbert et al., 2020). This bias has been linked to participants' erroneous metacognitive underconfidence in their memory abilities. However, underconfidence is unlikely to fully explain the bias. An additional, previously-untested factor that may contribute to the offloading bias is a preference to avoid cognitive effort associated with remembering internally. The present Registered Report examined evidence for this hy...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sachdeva C, Gilbert SJ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Functional connectivity associated with five different categories of Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) triggers.
Abstract Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is a sensory-emotional phenomenon in which specific sensory stimuli ("ASMR triggers") reliably elicit feelings of relaxation and tingling sensations on the head, neck, and shoulders. However, there are individual differences in which stimuli elicit ASMR and in the intensity of these responses. In the current research, we used resting-state fMRI to examine the functional connectivity associated with these differences. Fifteen individuals with self-reported ASMR completed the ASMR Checklist, which measures sensitivity to different ASMR triggers, and a re...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith SD, Fredborg BK, Kornelsen J Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Brain states matter. A reply to the unfolding argument.
Abstract Recently, it has been claimed that Integrated Information Theory and other theories of its type cannot explain consciousness ("unfolding argument"). We unravel this argument mathematically and prove that the premises of the argument imply a much stronger result according to which the observed problem holds for almost all theories of consciousness. We find, however, that one of the premises is unwarranted and show that if this premise is dropped, the argument ceases to work. Thus our results show that the claim of the unfolding argument cannot be considered valid. The premise in question is that ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kleiner J Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Do you feel like me or not? This is the question: manipulation of emotional imagery modulates affective priming.
Abstract Mood congruity and affective priming have been used to study the effects of affective phenomena on perception. Manipulation of mood is appropriate for investigations of long-term effects while affective priming is limited to short intervals (approximately 300 ms) between a prime and target. However, studying the influence of real-world rapidly changing emotional episodes on perception may fall between the cracks of these methods. This may be caused, inter alia, because emotional episodes are distinguished from mood experiences on one hand, but often last for longer than roughly 300 ms on the oth...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Milshtein D, Hochman S, Henik A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Consciously monitored grasping is vulnerable to perceptual intrusions.
Abstract The idea of functional differentiation between vision-for-action and vision-for-perception has been supported by evidence from different domains. According to this account, perception is based on consciously accessible, relative representations, whereas vision-for-action is performed in an analytic, automatic manner. Support for this idea comes from studies that showed that unlike perception, grasping movements are refractory to illusions and to Weber's law. Yet, interactions between the systems may occur when an action is performed in a less automated fashion. To test this idea, we asked participants to ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Navon G, Ganel T Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Emotion matters: The influence of valence on episodic future thinking in young and older adults.
Abstract In young adults, valence not only alters the degree to which future events are imagined in rich episodic detail, but also how memorable these events are later on. For older adults, how valence influences episodic detail generation while imagining future events, or recalling these details at another time, remains unclear. We investigated the effect of valence on the specificity and memorability of episodic future thinking (EFT) in young and older adults. Among young and older adults, negative EFT was accompanied by less episodic detail generation relative to positive and neutral EFT. A similar reduction in...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Acevedo-Molina MC, Novak AW, Gregoire LM, Mann LG, Andrews-Hanna JR, Grilli MD Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Structure in the stream of consciousness: Evidence from a verbalized thought protocol and automated text analytic methods.
In this study, we used a verbalized thought protocol to investigate "clump-and-jump" structure in SST-clusters of related thoughts about a topic followed by a jump to a new topic, in a repeating pattern. Several lines of evidence convergently supported the presence of clump-and-jump structure: high interrater agreement in identifying jumps, corroboration of rater-assigned jumps by automated text analytic methods, identification of clumps and jumps by a data-driven algorithm, and the inferred presence of clumps and jumps in unverbalized SST. We also found evidence that jumps involve a discontinuous shift in which ...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sripada C, Taxali A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Getting to the heart of it: Multi-method exploration of nonconscious prioritization processes.
Abstract Understanding the determinants of consciousness is crucial for theories that see it as functionally adaptive, and for explaining how consciousness affects higher-level cognition. The invention of continuous flash suppression (CFS), a long-duration suppression technique, resulted in a proliferation of research into the process of prioritization for consciousness. We developed a new technique, repeated masked suppression (RMS), that facilitates the measurement of long suppression times, but relies on different visual principles. RMS enables a theoretical leap: It allows scientists to examine the central pro...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Abir Y, Hassin RR Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Visual awareness and the levels of processing hypothesis: A critical review.
Abstract Does a visual percept emerge to consciousness in a graded manner (i.e. evolving through increasing degrees of clarity), or according to a dichotomous, "all-or-none" pattern (i.e. abruptly transitioning from unawareness to awareness)? The level of processing hypothesis (LoP; B. Windey and A. Cleeremans, 2015) recently proposed a theoretical framework where the transition from unaware to aware visual experience is graded for low-level stimulus representations (i.e. stimulus "energy" or "feature" levels) whereas it is dichotomous for high-level (i.e. the perception of "lett...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jimenez M, Hinojosa JA, Montoro PR Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Individual differences in the tendency to see the expected.
Abstract Prior knowledge has been shown to facilitate the incorporation of visual stimuli into awareness. We adopted an individual differences approach to explore whether a tendency to 'see the expected' is general or method-specific. We administered a binocular rivalry task and manipulated selective attention, as well as induced expectations via predictive context, self-generated imagery, expectancy cues, and perceptual priming. Most prior manipulations led to a facilitated awareness of the biased percept in binocular rivalry, whereas strong signal primes led to a suppressed awareness, i.e., adaptation. Correlati...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Andermane N, Bosten JM, Seth AK, Ward J Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A purely power-space association without spatial and strategic biases.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that powerful and powerless concepts are metaphorically associated with top and bottom spaces respectively. However, this association might be contaminated by spatial and strategic biases due to the involvement of spatialized stimuli or responses. It is unknown whether power by itself can automatically activate spatial representations. To eliminate spatial and strategic biases, Experiment 1 separately presented power and spatial stimuli at the center of the screen, and participants had to classify power words and HIGH/LOW labels (Experiment 1a) or indicate up/down arrows (Exper...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li X, Pan Y Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

A novel variation of the Stroop task reveals reflexive supremacy of peripheral over gaze stimuli in pro and anti saccades.
Abstract A long-standing controversy in social attention debates whether gaze-of-another induces reflexive shifts of one's own attention. In attempting to resolve this controversy, we utilized a novel Stroop task, the PAT Stroop, in which pro- and anti-saccade (PAT) responses are made to competing gaze and peripheral stimuli. The first experiment demonstrated a "Stroop effect" for peripheral stimuli, i.e. peripheral distractors interfered with gaze triggers, but gaze distractors did not interfere with peripheral triggers. These results were replicated in the second experiment, which also negated the poss...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeligman L, Zivotofsky AZ Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Metacognition and mindreading in young children: A cross-cultural study.
Abstract Prior studies document cross cultural variation in the developmental onset of mindreading. In particular, Japanese children are reported to pass a standard false belief task later than children from Western countries. By contrast, we know little about cross-cultural variation in young children's metacognitive abilities. Moreover, one prominent theoretical discussion in developmental psychology focuses on the relation between metacognition and mindreading. Here we investigated the relation between mindreading and metacognition (both implicit and explicit) by testing 4-year-old Japanese and German children....
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim S, Sodian B, Paulus M, Senju A, Okuno A, Ueno M, Itakura S, Proust J Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Priming autobiographical memories: How recalling the past may affect everyday forms of autobiographical remembering.
This study investigated the idea that when one recalls past episodes, that the content of those memories will activate additional episodic memories with like content, and such memories will then have the potential of surfacing in subsequent acts of involuntary and voluntary recall. We tested the episodic content priming hypothesis in two experiments. In Experiment 1, priming group participants first recalled memories about specific activities or events and then they were subsequently engaged in a word-cue voluntary autobiographical memory task. The results showed that priming group participants produced more episodic memor...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mace JH, Petersen EP Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

The attentional blink unveils the interplay between conscious perception, spatial attention and working memory encoding.
Abstract Our ability to perceive two events in close temporal succession is severely limited, a phenomenon known as the attentional blink. While the blink has served as a popular tool to prevent conscious perception, there is less research on its causes, and in particular on the role of conscious perception of the first event in triggering it. In three experiments, we disentangled the roles of spatial attention, conscious perception and working memory (WM) in causing the blink. We show that while allocating spatial attention to T1 is neither necessary nor sufficient for eliciting a blink, consciously perceiving it...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ophir EA, Hesselmann G, Lamy D Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Towards engineering dreams.
PMID: 32854064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - August 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Carr M, Haar Horowitz A, Amores J, Maes P Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Individual differences impact memory for a crime: A study on executive functions resources.
Abstract Previous studies demonstrated that memory accuracy is affected by the availability of the individual's cognitive resources. A predominant role in complex cognition has been postulated for executive functions (EF). The aim of the present study was to verify if there are differences in remembering a crime with respect to the individual's EF availability (i.e., Shifting, Inhibition, and Updating). We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine to be an eyewitness of the crime and report a testimony as detailed as possible. A subsequent memory test was run after ten da...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - August 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Battista F, Otgaar H, Lanciano T, Curci A Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research

Varieties of the extended self.
This article provides an overview and analysis of recent work on the extended self, demonstrating that the boundaries of selves are fluid, shifting across biological, artifactual, and sociocultural structures. First, it distinguishes the notions of minimal self, person, and narrative self. Second, it surveys how philosophers, psychologists, and cognitive scientists argue that embodiment, cognition, emotion, consciousness, and moral character traits can be extended and what that implies for the boundaries of selves. It also reviews and responds to various criticisms and counterarguments against the extended self. The main f...
Source: Consciousness and Cognition - August 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Heersmink R Tags: Conscious Cogn Source Type: research