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CPHY LOGO. Compr Physiol. 2019 Dec 18;10(1):1-2 Authors: PMID: 31853939 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comprehensive Physiology)
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Gut Microbiome and Modulation of CNS Function.
Authors: Osadchiy V, Martin CR, Mayer EA Abstract Preclinical evidence strongly suggests a role for the gut microbiome in modulating the host central nervous system function and behavior. Several communication channels have been identified that enable microbial signals to reach the brain and that enable the brain to influence gut microbial composition and function. In rodent models, endocrine, neural, and inflammatory signals generated by gut microbes can alter brain structure and function, while autonomic nervous system activity can affect the microbiome by modulating the intestinal environment and by directly reg...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Sex, Gender, and Sex Hormones in Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Ventricular Failure.
Authors: Hester J, Ventetuolo C, Lahm T Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) encompasses a syndrome of diseases that are characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular remodeling and that frequently lead to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. Several types of PH exhibit sexually dimorphic features in disease penetrance, presentation, and progression. Most sexually dimorphic features in PH have been described in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a devastating and progressive pulmonary vasculopathy with a 3-year survival rate
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Intestinal Absorption of Bile Acids in Health and Disease.
Authors: Ticho AL, Malhotra P, Dudeja PK, Gill RK, Alrefai WA Abstract The intestinal reclamation of bile acids is crucial for the maintenance of their enterohepatic circulation. The majority of bile acids are actively absorbed via specific transport proteins that are highly expressed in the distal ileum. The uptake of bile acids by intestinal epithelial cells modulates the activation of cytosolic and membrane receptors such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), which has a profound effect on hepatic synthesis of bile acids as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Ex...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Lung Diffusing Capacities (DL ) for Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO): The Evolving Story.
Authors: D R Borland C, B Hughes JM Abstract Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacities (DLNO and DLCO ) obey Fick's First Law of Diffusion and the basic principles of chemical kinetic theory. NO gas transfer is dominated by membrane diffusion (DM ), whereas CO transfer is limited by diffusion plus chemical reaction within the red cell. Marie Krogh, who pioneered the single-breath measurement of DLCO in 1915, believed that the combination of CO with red cell hemoglobin (Hb) was instantaneous. Roughton and colleagues subsequently showed, in vitro, that the reaction rate was finite, and prolonged in the pr...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Respiratory Health Effects of Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter and Bioaerosols.
Authors: Mack SM, Madl AK, Pinkerton KE Abstract Researchers have been studying the respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution for more than 70 years. While air pollution as a whole can include gaseous, solid, and liquid constituents, this article focuses only on the solid and liquid fractions, termed particulate matter (PM). Although PM may contain anthropogenic, geogenic, and/or biogenic fractions, in this article, particles that originate from microbial, fungal, animal, or plant sources are distinguished from PM as bioaerosols. Many advances have been made toward understanding which particle and exposur...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Gut Peptide Agonism in the Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes.
Authors: Grandl G, Novikoff A, DiMarchi R, Tschöp MH, Müller TD Abstract Obesity is a global healthcare challenge that gives rise to devastating diseases such as the metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes (T2D), and a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The escalating prevalence of obesity has led to an increased interest in pharmacological options to counteract excess weight gain. Gastrointestinal hormones such as glucagon, amylin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are well recognized for influencing food intake and satiety, but the therapeutic potential of these native peptides is overall limited by a sh...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Gastric Peptides-Gastrin and Somatostatin.
Authors: Schubert ML, Rehfeld JF Abstract Gastric acid secretion (i) facilitates digestion of protein as well as absorption of micronutrients and certain medications, (ii) kills ingested microorganisms, including Helicobacter pylori, and (iii) prevents bacterial overgrowth and enteric infection. The principal regulators of acid secretion are the gastric peptides gastrin and somatostatin. Gastrin, the major hormonal stimulant for acid secretion, is synthesized in pyloric mucosal G cells as a 101-amino acid precursor (preprogastrin) that is processed to yield biologically active amidated gastrin-17 and gastrin-34. Th...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Exercise Countermeasures to Neuromuscular Deconditioning in Spaceflight.
Authors: English KL, Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara AP, Ploutz-Snyder LL Abstract The mechanical unloading of spaceflight elicits a host of physiological adaptations including reductions in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function and alterations in central interpretation of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information. Upon return to a terrestrial, gravitational environment, these result in reduced function and performance, the potential consequences of which will be exacerbated during exploration missions to austere and distant destinations such as the moon and Mars. Exercise is a potent countermeasure to ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Pulmonary Circulation in Obesity, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome.
Authors: Khaing P, Pandit P, Awsare B, Summer R Abstract Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease, with significant impact on human morbidity and mortality. Several decades of research have accumulated considerable knowledge about the mechanisms by which metabolic conditions precipitate systemic cardiovascular diseases. In short, these mechanisms are thought to involve changes in the external environment of vascular cells, which are mediated by the pro-inflammatory effects of adipokines, free fatty acids, and hyperglycemia. Thus,...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Redox Regulation of the Microcirculation.
Authors: Kadlec AO, Gutterman DD Abstract The microcirculation maintains tissue homeostasis through local regulation of blood flow and oxygen delivery. Perturbations in microvascular function are characteristic of several diseases and may be early indicators of pathological changes in the cardiovascular system and in parenchymal tissue function. These changes are often mediated by various reactive oxygen species and linked to disruptions in pathways such as vasodilation or angiogenesis. This overview compiles recent advances relating to redox regulation of the microcirculation by adopting both cellular and function...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Aging and Physiological Lessons from Master Athletes.
Authors: Tanaka H, Tarumi T, Rittweger J Abstract Sedentary aging is often characterized by physical dysfunction and chronic degenerative diseases. In contrast, masters athletes demonstrate markedly greater physiological function and more favorable levels of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, frailty, and cognitive dysfunction than their sedentary counterparts. In many cases, age-related deteriorations of physiological functions as well as elevations in risk factors that are typically observed in sedentary adults are substantially attenuated or even absent in masters athletes. Older masters athl...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Regulation of Cell Cycle Entry and Exit: A Single Cell Perspective.
Authors: Coller HA Abstract The transition between proliferating and quiescent states must be carefully regulated to ensure that cells divide to create the cells an organism needs only at the appropriate time and place. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are critical for both transitioning cells from one cell cycle state to the next, and for regulating whether cells are proliferating or quiescent. CDKs are regulated by association with cognate cyclins, activating and inhibitory phosphorylation events, and proteins that bind to them and inhibit their activity. The substrates of these kinases, including the retinoblasto...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Dissecting Epistatic QTL for Blood Pressure in Rats: Congenic Strains versus Heterogeneous Stocks, a Reality Check.
Authors: Rapp JP, Joe B Abstract Advances in molecular genetics have provided well-defined physical genetic maps and large numbers of genetic markers for both model organisms and humans. It is now possible to gain a fundamental understanding of the genetic architecture underlying quantitative traits, of which blood pressure (BP) is an important example. This review emphasizes analytical techniques and results obtained using the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat as a model of hypertension by presenting results in detail for three specific chromosomal regions harboring genetic elements of increasing complexity controlling ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Chromaffin Cells of the Adrenal Medulla: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Disease.
This article attempts to provide an updated account of well-established features of the molecular processes regulating CC function, and a survey of the as-yet-unsolved but important questions relating to CC function and dysfunction that have been the subject of intense research over the past 15 years. Examples of CCs as a model system to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative diseases are also provided. Published 2019. Compr Physiol 9:1443-1502, 2019. PMID: 31688964 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comprehensive Physiology)
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Physical Exercise in the Oldest Old.
Authors: Valenzuela PL, Castillo-García A, Morales JS, Izquierdo M, Serra-Rexach JA, Santos-Lozano A, Lucia A Abstract Societies are progressively aging, with the oldest old (i.e., those aged>80-85 years) being the most rapidly expanding population segment. However, advanced aging comes at a price, as it is associated with an increased incidence of the so-called age-related conditions, including a greater risk for loss of functional independence. How to combat sarcopenia, frailty, and overall intrinsic capacity decline in the elderly is a major challenge for modern medicine, and exercise appears to be a p...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Neural Mechanisms of Binaural Processing in the Auditory Brainstem.
Authors: Yin TCT, Smith PH, Joris PX Abstract Spatial hearing, and more specifically the ability to localize sounds in space, is one of the most studied and best understood aspects of hearing. Because there is no coding of acoustic space at the receptor organ, physiological sensitivity to spatial aspects of sounds first emerges in the central nervous system. Much progress has been made in the identification and characterization of the circuits in the auditory brainstem that create sensitivity to binaural and monaural cues toward acoustic space. We review the progress over the past third of a century, with a focus o...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Role of Complement and Complement-Related Adipokines in Regulation of Energy Metabolism and Fat Storage.
This article highlights advances in knowledge regarding the role of these adipokines in energy regulation of adipose tissue through modulating lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Several adipokines will be discussed including adipsin, Factor H, properdin, C3a, Acylation-Stimulating Protein, C1q/TNF-related proteins, and response gene to complement-32 (RGC-32). Interactions between these factors will be described considering their immune-metabolic roles in the adipose tissue microenvironment and their potential contribution to progression of adiposity and metabolic dysfunction. The differential expression and the role of comp...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Regulation of Male Sexual Behavior.
Authors: Hull EM, Dominguez JM Abstract The major brain areas that control males' sexual motivation and performance include the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, as well as the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. The MPOA, PVN, and brain stem and spinal nuclei control the genital reflexes. Sensory and motor aspects are integrated and elicited by the amygdala, BNST, MPOA, PVN, and the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal DA tracts, which are integral for other social behaviors, as well. Developmental hormonal effects...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Physiology of the Incretin Hormones, GIP and GLP-1-Regulation of Release and Posttranslational Modifications.
Authors: Holst JJ, Albrechtsen NJW, Rosenkilde MM, Deacon CF Abstract The focus of this article is on the analysis of the release and postrelease fate of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Their actions are dealt with to the extent that they are linked to their secretion. For both hormones, their posttranslational processing is analyzed in detail, because of its importance for the understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of the hormones. Methods of analysis, in particular regarding measurements in plasma from in vivo experiments, are discussed in det...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Regulation of the Microvascular Niche in Chronic Lung Diseases.
Authors: Majka SM, Rojas M, Petrache I, Foronjy RF Abstract The adult lung is comprised of diverse vascular, epithelial, and mesenchymal progenitor cell populations that reside in distinct niches. Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are intimately associated with both the epithelium and the vasculature, and new evidence is emerging to describe their functional roles in these niches. Also emerging, following lineage analysis and single cell sequencing, is a new understanding of the diversity of mesenchymal cell subpopulations in the lung. However, several gaps in knowledge remain, including how newly defined MPC lin...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Children.
Authors: Mancilla TR, Iskra B, Aune GJ Abstract Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors is a growing problem. The population of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease is steadily increasing, as five-year survival rates for all types of childhood cancers continue to improve. Doxorubicin affects the developing heart differently from the adult heart and in a subset of exposed patients, childhood exposure leads to late, irreversible cardiomyopathy. Notably, the prevalence of late-onset toxicity is increasing in parallel with improved survival. By the year 2020, it is estimated that there w...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Endothelial Cell Calcium Signaling.
Authors: Thakore P, Earley S Abstract The vascular endothelium is a broadly distributed and highly specialized organ. The endothelium has a number of functions including the control of blood vessels diameter through the production and release of potent vasoactive substances or direct electrical communication with underlying smooth muscle cells, regulates the permeability of the vascular barrier, stimulates the formation of new blood vessels, and influences inflammatory and thrombotic processes. Endothelial cells that make up the endothelium express a variety of cell-surface receptors and ion channels on the plasma ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 31187892 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comprehensive Physiology)
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Muscles of Breathing: Development, Function, and Patterns of Activation.
Authors: Pilarski JQ, Leiter JC, Fregosi RF Abstract This review is a comprehensive description of all muscles that assist lung inflation or deflation in any way. The developmental origin, anatomical orientation, mechanical action, innervation, and pattern of activation are described for each respiratory muscle fulfilling this broad definition. In addition, the circumstances in which each muscle is called upon to assist ventilation are discussed. The number of "respiratory" muscles is large, and the coordination of respiratory muscles with "nonrespiratory" muscles and in nonrespiratory activitie...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Pulmonary Vascular Dynamics.
Authors: Clark A, Tawhai M Abstract The pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated blood from the systemic veins through the pulmonary arteries to be oxygenated in the capillaries that line the walls of the pulmonary alveoli. The pulmonary circulation carries the cardiac output with a relatively low driving pressure, and so differs considerably in structure and function from the systemic circulation to maintain a low-resistance vascular system. The pulmonary circulation is often considered to be a quasi-static system in both experimental and computational studies of pulmonary perfusion and its matching to ventilati...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Physiology of Electrolyte Transport in the Gut: Implications for Disease.
This article provides an overview of our current understanding of electrolyte transport processes in the small and large intestine, their regulation in health and how dysregulation at multiple levels can result in disease. Intestinal electrolyte transport is a balance of ion secretory and ion absorptive processes, all exquisitely dependent on the basolateral Na+ /K+ ATPase; when this balance goes awry, it can result in diarrhea or in constipation. The key transporters involved in secretion are the apical membrane Cl- channels and the basolateral Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransporter, NKCC1 and K+ channels. Absorption chiefly involve...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Tissue Engineering of the Microvasculature.
Authors: Tien J Abstract The ability to generate new microvessels in desired numbers and at desired locations has been a long-sought goal in vascular medicine, engineering, and biology. Historically, the need to revascularize ischemic tissues nonsurgically (so-called therapeutic vascularization) served as the main driving force for the development of new methods of vascular growth. More recently, vascularization of engineered tissues and the generation of vascularized microphysiological systems have provided additional targets for these methods, and have required adaptation of therapeutic vascularization to biomate...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA: Genomics and Relevance to Physiology.
Authors: Kong Y, Lu Z, Liu P, Liu Y, Wang F, Liang EY, Hou FF, Liang M Abstract The mammalian cell expresses thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are longer than 200 nucleotides but do not encode any protein. lncRNAs can change the expression of protein-coding genes through both cis and trans mechanisms, including imprinting and other types of transcriptional regulation, and posttranscriptional regulation including serving as molecular sponges. Deep sequencing, coupled with analysis of sequence characteristics, is the primary method used to identify lncRNAs. Physiological roles of specific lncRNAs can be...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Regulation of Ischemic Vascular Growth and Remodeling.
Authors: Rajendran S, Shen X, Glawe J, Kolluru GK, G Kevil C Abstract Ischemic vascular remodeling occurs in response to stenosis or arterial occlusion leading to a change in blood flow and tissue perfusion. Altered blood flow elicits a cascade of molecular and cellular physiological responses leading to vascular remodeling of the macro- and micro-circulation. Although cellular mechanisms of vascular remodeling such as arteriogenesis and angiogenesis have been studied, therapeutic approaches in these areas have had limited success due to the complexity and heterogeneous constellation of molecular signaling events r...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Regulation of the Cerebral Circulation by Arterial Carbon Dioxide.
Authors: Hoiland RL, Fisher JA, Ainslie PN Abstract Intact, coordinated, and precisely regulated cerebrovascular responses are required for the maintenance of cerebral metabolic homeostasis, adequate perfusion, oxygen delivery, and acid-base balance during deviations from homeostasis. Increases and decreases in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) lead to robust and rapid increases and decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In awake and healthy humans, PaCO2 is the most potent regulator of CBF, and even small fluctuations can result in large changes in CBF. Alterations in the responsiveness of ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Pancreatic Blood Flow with Special Emphasis on Blood Perfusion of the Islets of Langerhans.
Authors: Jansson L, Carlsson PO Abstract The pancreatic islets are more richly vascularized than the exocrine pancreas, and possess a 5- to 10-fold higher basal and stimulated blood flow, which is separately regulated. This is reflected in the vascular anatomy of the pancreas where islets have separate arterioles. There is also an insulo-acinar portal system, where numerous venules connect each islet to the acinar capillaries. Both islets and acini possess strong metabolic regulation of their blood perfusion. Of particular importance, especially in the islets, is adenosine and ATP/ADP. Basal and stimulated blood fl...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 22, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Exercise and Cardiovascular Progenitor Cells.
Authors: Landers-Ramos RQ, Sapp RM, Shill DD, Hagberg JM, Prior SJ Abstract Autologous stem/progenitor cell-based methods to restore blood flow and function to ischemic tissues are clinically appealing for the substantial proportion of the population with cardiovascular diseases. Early preclinical and case studies established the therapeutic potential of autologous cell therapies for neovascularization in ischemic tissues. However, trials over the past ∼15 years reveal the benefits of such therapies to be much smaller than originally estimated and a definitive clinical benefit is yet to be established. Rec...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 22, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Mechanosensing and Mechanoregulation of Endothelial Cell Functions.
Authors: Fang Y, Wu D, Birukov KG Abstract Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) form a semiselective barrier for macromolecules and cell elements regulated by dynamic interactions between cytoskeletal elements and cell adhesion complexes. ECs also participate in many other vital processes including innate immune reactions, vascular repair, secretion, and metabolism of bioactive molecules. Moreover, vascular ECs represent a unique cell type exposed to continuous, time-dependent mechanical forces: different patterns of shear stress imposed by blood flow in macrovasculature and by rolling blood cells in the microvasculatu...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Slc26 Family of Anion Transporters in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Expression, Function, Regulation, and Role in Disease.
Authors: Seidler U, Nikolovska K Abstract SLC26 family members are multifunctional transporters of small anions, including Cl- , HCO3 - , sulfate, oxalate, and formate. Most SLC26 isoforms act as secondary (coupled) anion transporters, while others mediate uncoupled electrogenic transport resembling Cl- channels. Of the 11 described SLC26 isoforms, the SLC26A1,2,3,6,7,9,11 are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, where they participate in salt and water transport, surface pH-microclimate regulation, affect the microbiome composition, the absorption, and secretion of oxalate and sulfate, and other functions that...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Studying Human Neurological Disorders Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: From 2D Monolayer to 3D Organoid and Blood Brain Barrier Models.
Authors: Logan S, Arzua T, Canfield SG, Seminary ER, Sison SL, Ebert AD, Bai X Abstract Neurological disorders have emerged as a predominant healthcare concern in recent years due to their severe consequences on quality of life and prevalence throughout the world. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and the interactions between different brain cell types is essential for the development of new therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are invaluable tools for neurological disease modeling, as they have unlimited self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Mounting evidence shows: (i)...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Motor Learning.
Authors: Krakauer JW, Hadjiosif AM, Xu J, Wong AL, Haith AM Abstract Motor learning encompasses a wide range of phenomena, ranging from relatively low-level mechanisms for maintaining calibration of our movements, to making high-level cognitive decisions about how to act in a novel situation. We survey the major existing approaches to characterizing motor learning at both the behavioral and neural level. In particular, we critically review two long-standing paradigms used in motor learning research-adaptation and sequence learning. We discuss the extent to which these paradigms can be considered models of motor ski...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Evolution and Functional Differentiation of the Diaphragm Muscle of Mammals.
Authors: Fogarty MJ, Sieck GC Abstract Symmorphosis is a concept of economy of biological design, whereby structural properties are matched to functional demands. According to symmorphosis, biological structures are never over designed to exceed functional demands. Based on this concept, the evolution of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm) in mammals is a tale of two structures, a membrane that separates and partitions the primitive coelomic cavity into separate abdominal and thoracic cavities and a muscle that serves as a pump to generate intra-abdominal (Pab ) and intrathoracic (Pth ) pressures. The DIAm partition evolve...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

A Practical Guide to Genome Editing Using Targeted Nuclease Technologies.
Authors: Porter SN, Levine RM, Pruett-Miller SM Abstract Genome engineering using programmable nucleases is a rapidly evolving technique that enables precise genetic manipulations within complex genomes. Although this technology first surfaced with the creation of meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, CRISPR-Cas9 has been the most widely adopted platform because of its ease of use. This comprehensive review presents a basic overview of genome engineering and discusses the major technological advances in the field. In addition to nucleases, we discuss CRISPR-deriv...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Impact of Estrogens on the Regulation of White, Beige, and Brown Adipose Tissue Depots.
Authors: Bernasochi GB, Bell JR, Simpson ER, Delbridge LMD, Boon WC Abstract As adipose tissue depots are active endocrine organs, they secrete a variety of hormones (including estrogens from white adipose) and inflammatory mediators, which have important implications in numerous obesity-associated diseases. Adipose tissues are broadly characterized as consisting of white, beige, and brown depot types. The endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles of adipose are depot dependent and influenced by the estrogenic and androgenic status of the adipose tissue. Estrogen receptors mediate both the genomic and nongeno...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of the Heart.
Authors: Boutagy NE, Feher A, Alkhalil I, Umoh N, Sinusas AJ Abstract Multimodality cardiovascular imaging is routinely used to assess cardiac function, structure, and physiological parameters to facilitate the diagnosis, characterization, and phenotyping of numerous cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as well as allows for risk stratification and guidance in medical therapy decision-making. Although useful, these imaging strategies are unable to assess the underlying cellular and molecular processes that modulate pathophysiological changes. Over the last decade, there have been great advancements in imaging instrumenta...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Cholecystokinin (CCK) Regulation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Physiological Actions and Signal Transduction Mechanisms.
Authors: Williams JA Abstract Pancreatic acinar cells synthesize and secrete about 20 digestive enzymes and ancillary proteins with the processes that match the supply of these enzymes to their need in digestion being regulated by a number of hormones (CCK, secretin and insulin), neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and VIP) and growth factors (EGF and IGF). Of these regulators, one of the most important and best studied is the gastrointestinal hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK). Furthermore, the acinar cell has become a model for seven transmembrane, heterotrimeric G protein coupled receptors to regulate multiple processe...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - March 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Contribution of Adipose Tissue Inflammation to the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
The objective of this comprehensive review is to summarize and discuss the available evidence of how adipose tissue inflammation affects insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Low-grade, chronic adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by infiltration of macrophages and other immune cell populations into adipose tissue, and a shift toward more proinflammatory subtypes of leukocytes. The infiltration of proinflammatory cells in adipose tissue is associated with an increased production of key chemokines such as C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α and interle...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Myocardial Cell Signaling During the Transition to Heart Failure: Cellular Signaling and Therapeutic Approaches.
Authors: Zeglinski MR, Moghadam AR, Ande SR, Sheikholeslami K, Mokarram P, Sepehri Z, Rokni H, Mohtaram NK, Poorebrahim M, Masoom A, Toback M, Sareen N, Saravanan S, Jassal DS, Hashemi M, Marzban H, Schaafsma D, Singal P, Wigle JT, Czubryt MP, Akbari M, Dixon IMC, Ghavami S, Gordon JW, Dhingra S Abstract Cardiovascular disease leading to heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improved pharmacological and interventional coronary procedures have led to improved outcomes following acute myocardial infarction. This success has translated into an unforeseen increased incidence i...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Regulation of Red Blood Cell Volume with Exercise Training.
Authors: Montero D, Lundby C Abstract Hypervolemia is a hallmark of endurance training (ET) and manifests by similar elevations in plasma (PV) and red blood cell volume (RBCV) so that hematocrit largely remains unaltered following weeks/months of training. While the mechanisms facilitating PV expansion with ET have been previously reviewed extensively this is not the case for RBCV. Endurance champions may have 40% more RBCV than controls and RBCV may increase up to 10% following months of regular exercise training in healthy individuals. Such adaptations are the main factor leading to concomitant changes in maximal...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Sex Disparities in Cardiovascular Function and Remodeling.
Authors: Chaudhari S, Cushen SC, Osikoya O, Jaini PA, Posey R, Mathis KW, Goulopoulou S Abstract Epidemiological studies demonstrate disparities between men and women in cardiovascular disease prevalence, clinical symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Enrollment of women in clinical trials is lower than men, and experimental studies investigating molecular mechanisms and efficacy of certain therapeutics in cardiovascular disease have been primarily conducted in male animals. These practices bias data interpretation and limit the implication of research findings in female clinical populations. This review will focus o...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Exercise Training in Cancer Control and Treatment.
Authors: Christensen JF, Simonsen C, Hojman P Abstract Exercise training is playing an increasing role in cancer care, as accumulating evidence demonstrates that exercise may prevent cancer, control disease progression, interact with anti-cancer therapies, and improve physical functioning and psychosocial outcomes. In this overview article, we present the current state of the field of exercise oncology, which currently comprises of nearly 700 unique exercise intervention trials with more than 50,000 cancer patients. First, we summarize the range of these interventions with regard to diagnoses, clinical setting, tim...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Renal Chloride Channels in Relation to Sodium Chloride Transport.
Authors: Teulon J, Planelles G, Sepúlveda FV, Andrini O, Lourdel S, Paulais M Abstract The many mechanisms governing NaCl absorption in the diverse parts of the renal tubule have been largely elucidated, although some of them, as neutral NaCl absorption across the cortical collecting duct or regulation through with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases have emerged only recently. Chloride channels, which are important players in these processes, at least in the distal nephron, are the focus of this review. Over the last 20-year period, experimental studies using molecular, electrophysiological, and physiological/functiona...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Lymphatic Vessel Network Structure and Physiology.
This article provides a comprehensive review of important findings over the past century along with recent advances in the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of lymphatic vessels, including tissue/organ specificity, development, mechanisms of lymph formation and transport, lymphangiogenesis, and the roles of lymphatics in disease. © 2019 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 9:207-299, 2019. PMID: 30549020 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comprehensive Physiology)
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Maps of Transcription Regulatory Elements and Transcription Enhancers in Development and Disease.
Authors: Agrawal P, Heimbruch KE, Rao S Abstract Gene expression is regulated by numerous elements including enhancers, insulators, transcription factors, and architectural proteins. Regions of DNA distal to the transcriptional start site, called enhancers, play a central role in the temporal and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression through RNA polymerase II. The identification of enhancers and other cis regulatory elements has largely been possible due to advances in next generation sequencing technologies. Enhancers regulate gene expression through chromatin loops mediated by architectural proteins such ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research