Diagnosis, Surveillance and Management of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).
Abstract During a 6-mo period, two 5-6 mo old female chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) were examined at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus after the discovery of firm, nonmobile masses in the left ventral cervical and left axillary region. Other than these findings and mild weight loss, both chinchillas' physical exams were normal. Bloodwork revealed an inflammatory leukogram characterized by leukocytosis, toxic neutrophils, lymphopenia, and monocytosis with mild, nonregenerative anemia. At necropsy, both masses were identified as abscesses. Streptococcus equi, subspecies zooepidemicus (S.zooepidem...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Mitchell CM, Johnson LK, Crim MJ, Wiedmeyer CE, Pugazhenthi U, Tousey S, Tollin DJ, Habenicht LM, Fink MK, Fong DL, Leszczynski JK, Manuel CA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Maternal-fetal Blood Major Crossmatching in Merino Sheep.
Abstract To determine the incidence of ex vivo incompatibility between ovine maternal RBCs and fetal plasma, we performed cross-matching of blood samples from ewes and from lambs delivered by cesarean section. Twenty-one date-mated singleton pregnant Merino ewes were anesthetized for cesarean delivery of the fetus. At the time of delivery, paired maternal and fetal blood samples were collected and subsequently separated for storage as packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma. Gel column major cross matching was performed within 2 wk. All fetus-dam crossmatches were major crossmatches, combining fetal (recipi...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Musk GC, Usuda H, Kershaw H, Kemp MW, Sharp CR Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

PKM2 in Canine Mammary Tumors: Parallels to Human Breast Cancer.
Abstract PKM2 is a pyruvate kinase isoform that is the final and rate-limiting step in aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells. Increased expression of PKM2 has been detected in human cancers. The present study examined the expression of PKM2 in canine mammary tumors and assessed its prognostic significance. Paraffin sections of 5 adenomas, 67 carcinomas, and 5 samples of nonneoplastic hyperplasia from 77 dogs, aged 8 to 18 y, were evaluated. Significantly higher levels of PKM2 were detected among the carcinomas compared with all other tissues examined. The level of PKM2 expression in carcinoma tissue correlatedpositive...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Lee HJ, Han HJ, Lee JY, Son WC Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Unexpected Cardiomyopathy and Cardiac Dysfunction after Administration of Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim Medicated Diet to ICR mice (Mus musculus).
Abstract For many years, the University of Chicago administered sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim sulfate (SMZ-TMP) oral suspensionto select immunocompromised mouse colonies via the drinking water. In 2014, SMZ-TMP oral suspension was placed on back-order and medicated diet with a different sulfonamide, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TMP) was used as a replacement. Months after this transition, sentinel mice from the same room as one of the remaining immunocompromised colonies on this diet were found dead or appeared sick. Necropsies revealed cardiomegaly, and histology confirmed myocardial fibrosis in the first 4 sen...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Pach NM, Luchins KR, Kim GH, Langan GP, Theriault BR Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Serendipitous Discovery of a Novel Murine Astrovirus Contaminating a Murine Helper T-cell Line and Incapable of Infecting Highly Immunodeficient Mice.
Abstract The unexpected seroconversion of sentinel mice in our facility to murine T lymphotrophic virus (MTLV) positivity led to our identification of a novel murine astrovirus that we designated murine astrovirus 2 (MuAstV-2). During our investigation, MuAstV-2 was found to be a contaminant of the T helper cell line (D10.G4.1) that was used to generate the MTLV antigen that we included in the multiplex fluorometric immunoassay (MFIA) that we used for sentinel screening. We eventually determined that cross-reactivity with the astrovirus generated a positive result in the MTLV assay. A confirmatory immunofluorometr...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Ricart Arbona RJ, Kelly S, Wang C, Dhawan RK, Henderson KS, Shek WR, Williams SH, Altan E, Delwart E, Wolf F, Lipman NS Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Mulberry Heart Disease and Hepatosis Dietetica in Farm Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a Research Setting.
Abstract Perioperative complications and deaths occurred while developing a novel surgical model of pediatric kyphosis in 10 to 12 kg male farm-raised Yorkshire piglets. All piglets appeared clinically normal preoperatively. Intraoperative complications included tachycardia, respiratory acidosis, and death. Postoperatively, clinical signs included posterior paresis, head pressing, prolonged anesthetic recovery, difficulty rising, and sudden death. Necropsies were performed on all piglets. Some morbidityand mortality were accurately attributed to the spinal surgery. However, the index piglet for this report died su...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Helke KL, Wolfe AM, Smith AC, Swagel R, Gross RH, Yao H, McCrackin MA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Mite Burden and Immunophenotypic Response to Demodex musculi in Swiss Webster, BALB/c, C57BL/6, and NSG Mice.
Abstract Detection methods for Demodex musculi were historically unreliable, and testing was rarely performed because its prevalence in laboratory mice was underestimated. Although infestations are unapparent in most mouse strains, D. musculi burdens are higher and clinical signs detected in various immunodeficient strains. The parasite's influence on the immune system of immunocompetent mice is unknown. We characterized mite burden (immunocompetent and immunodeficient strains)and immunologic changes (immunocompetent strains only) in naïve Swiss Webster (SW; outbred), C57BL/6NCrl (B6; Th1 responder), BALB/cAn...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Morris MG, Ricart Arbona RJ, Daniels K, Gardner R, Easthausen I, Boteler WL, Baseler GP, Pastenkos G, Perkins CL, Henderson KS, Schietinger A, Lipman NS Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Searching for a Bacteriophage Lysin to Treat Corynebacterium bovis in Immunocompromised Mice.
Abstract Corynebacterium bovis is the causative agent of Corynebacterium-associated hyperkeratosis in immunocompromised mice. The resulting skin pathology can be profound and can be associated with severe wasting, making the animals unsuitable for research. Although the administration of antibiotics is effective in resolving clinical symptoms, antibiotics do not eradicate the offending bacterium. Furthermore, antibiotic use may be contraindicated as it can affect tumor growth and is associated with Clostridioides difficile enterotoxemia in highly immunocompromised murine strains. Lysins, which are lytic enzymes ob...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Cheleuitte-Nieves C, Heselpoth RD, Westblade LF, Lipman NS, Fischetti VA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Automated and Continuous Monitoring of Animal Welfare through Digital Alerting.
Abstract A primary goal in preclinical animal research is respectful and responsible care aimed toward minimizing stress and discomfortwhile enhancing collection of accurate and reproducible scientific data. Researchers use hands-on clinical observationsand measurements as part of routine husbandry procedures or study protocols to monitor animal welfare. Although frequentassessments ensure the timely identification of animals with declining health, increased handling can result in additional stress on the animal and increased study variability. We investigated whether automated alerting regarding changes in behavi...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 15, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Do JP, Defensor EB, Ichim CV, Lim MA, Mechanic JA, Rabe MD, Schaevitz LR Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Outbreaks of Typhlocolitis Caused by Hypervirulent Group ST1 Clostridioides difficile in Highly Immunocompromised Strains of Mice.
We report on 2 outbreaks of diarrhea associated with C. difficile in mice. In outbreak 1, 182 of approximately 2, 400 NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and related strains of mice became clinically ill after cessation of a 14-d course of 0.12%amoxicillin feed to control an increase in clinical signs associated with Corynebacterium bovis infection. Most mice had been engrafted with human tumors; the remainder were experimentally naïve. Affected animals exhibited 1 of 3 clinical syndromes: 1) peracute death; 2) severe diarrhea leading to euthanasia or death; or 3) mild to moderate diarrhea followed by recovery. A g...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 13, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Ma KGL, Lertpiriyapong K, Piersigilli A, Dobtsis I, Wipf JRK, Littmann ER, Leiner I, Pamer EG, Ricart Arbona RJ, Lipman NS Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Cause and Treatment of Exophthalmos in Aged Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus).
Abstract Aged cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from an established breeding colony displayed signs of spontaneous exophthalmos. Of a total of 118 colony animals that were older than 6 mo of age, 37 (31%) displayed signs of exophthalmos. These rats were clinically healthy and had no other signs of disease. Ophthalmic exams, molecular and microbiologic testing, and histopathology were performed to determine the cause of the exophthalmos and to provide appropriate treatment. Environmental monitoring records were also reviewed for vivarium rooms in which the cotton rats were housed. Histopathology findings supported th...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 13, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Harder OE, Emmer KM, Sparks AE, Miller EJ, Gemensky-Metzler AJ, Coble DJ, Niewiesk S, La Perle KMD Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Sarcocystis Infection in Laboratory Rabbits.
Abstract Sarcocystosis, presumably caused by Sarcocystis cuniculi, was diagnosed in 2 purpose-bred, SPF Dutch belted laboratoryrabbits from a class A breeder. The rabbits were purchased by a research facility and conventionally housed individuallyin stainless-steel suspended caging. At necropsy and tissue harvest, gross lesions were not observed in the muscles. Uponhistologic examination, sarcocysts were found in the eyelid of one rabbit and the tongue of the other. To our knowledge, thisreport is the first description of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in laboratory rabbits. PMID: 32384940 [PubMed - as supplie...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Serfilippi LM, Saladino BH, Spainhour CB Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Comparative Behavioral Assessment of Lewis and Nude Rats after Peripheral Nerve Injury.
Abstract Cell therapy has shown potential in the field of peripheral nerve repair, and research using rodents is a critical and essentialstep toward clinical development of this approach. Traditionally, most experimental peripheral nerve injuries are conductedin inbred Lewis or outbred Sprague-Dawley strains. However, transplantation of xenogeneic cells such as human-derivedcells typically triggers rejection in these animals. An alternative approach is to use immunodeficient animals, such as athymic nude rats. The lack of functional T cells in these animals renders them more accommodating to foreign cells from a d...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Alawadhi E, Chu TH, Midha R Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Retrospective Study of Intercalated Disk Defects Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Atrial Thrombosis, and Heart Failure in BALB/c Mice Deficient in IL4 Receptor α.
This report underscores the importance of carefully monitoring genetically modified mice colonies for unexpected phenotypes that may result from spontaneous or unintended mutations or enhanced strain background pathology. PMID: 32384942 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Gozalo AS, Zerfas PM, Elkins WR, Gieseck Iii RL Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Assessment of Semi-automated Computed Tomographic Measures of Segmental Perfusion Defects in a Swine Model (Sus scrofa) of Intermediate Coronary Lesions.
In this study, we examined the accuracy with which the transmuralperfusion ratio (TPR) derived through semiautomated CTP analysis reflected segmental perfusion defects associated with intermediate coronary artery lesions in swine. Lesions (diameter stenosis, 65% ± 11%) of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were created in 10 anesthetized female swine (weight, 47.5 ± 1.9 kg) by using a pneumatic occlusion device implanted on the LAD. Occluder inflation pressures were adjusted to maintain fractional flow reserve (FFR, 74.3 ± 1.7) during adenosine infusion (140ug/kg/min). Static CTP imagin...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Ramsey BC, Field AE, Thomas DM, Pickett CA, Leon AJ, Rubal BJ Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effects of Colonization of Gnotobiotic Swiss Webster Mice with Helicobacter bilis.
Abstract Helicobacter bilis (Hb) causes hepatitis in some strains of inbred mice. The current study confirmed that Hb directly causesportal hepatitis in outbred gnotobiotic Swiss Webster (SW) mice, as we previously reported for conventional SW mice. Hb monoassociated SW mice also developed mild enterocolitis, expanded gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and tertiarylymphoid tissue in the lower bowel. At 1 and 10 mo after infection, Hb-induced GALT hyperplasia exhibited well-organized,ectopic germinal centers with increased mononuclear cell apoptosis, MHC class II antigen presentation, and pronouncedendothelial ...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Whary MT, Wang C, Ruff CF, DiVincenzo MJ, Labriola C, Ge L, Feng Y, Ge Z, Bakthavatchalu V, Muthupalani S, Horwitz BH, Fox JG Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Quantitation of Gait and Stance Alterations Due to Monosodium Iodoacetate-induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Yucatan Swine.
Abstract Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of chronic pain worldwide, and several animal models have been developedto investigate disease mechanisms and treatments to combat associated morbidities. Here we describe a novel method for assessment of locomotor pain behavior in Yucatan swine. We used monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to induce osteoarthritis in the hindlimb knee, and then conducted live observation, quantitative gait analysis, and quantitative weight-bearing stance analysis. We used these methods to test the hypothesis that locomotor pain behaviors after osteoarthritis induction would be...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: LaVallee KT, Maus TP, Stock JD, Stalder KJ, Karriker LA, Murthy NS, Kanwar R, Beutler AS, Unger MD Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Functional Deficits in Mice Expressing Human Interleukin 8.
Abstract We showed previously that inflammatory mediators, including IL8, in intervertebral disc tissues from patients with discogenicback pain may play a key role in back pain. To investigate the molecular mechanism of IL8 signaling in back pain, we generated a mouse model that conditionally expresses human (h) IL8. We hypothesized that hIL8 levels affect mouse activity and function. Briefly, hIL8 cDNA was inserted into the pCALL2 plasmid, linearized, and injected into mouse embryos. Resulting pCALL2-hIL8 mice were then bred with GDF5-Cre mice to express the transgene in cartilage and intervertebral disc(IVD) tis...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 20, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Brent JM, Tian Z, Yao L, Huang J, Markova DZ, Shofer FS, Brice AK, Qin L, Scanzello CR, Vitale F, Chen D, Zhang Y Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

The AALAS Journals: 2019 in Review.
PMID: 32220261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Toth LA, Compton SR, Tolwani RJ, Dawson VK, Farrar JD Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Reproductive Outcomes in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) with Naturally-acquired Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.
Abstract Chagas disease is a zoonotic vector-borne disease caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is found in Latin America and the Southern United States, where it infects many species, including humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). NHPs are susceptible to natural infection and can develop clinical symptoms consistent with human disease, including Chagasic cardiomyopathy, gastrointestinal disease and transplacental transmission, leading to congenital infection. Due to evidence of Chagas transmission in Texas, this study hypothesized T. cruzi infection was present in a closed, ...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 17, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Kendricks AL, Gray SB, Wilkerson GK, Sands CM, Abee CR, Bernacky BJ, Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME, Craig SL, Jones KM Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Clinical and Pathologic Features of Spontaneous Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in 9 Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).
This report summarizes the clinical and postmortem findings associated with this pathogen in 9 rhesus macaques and compares these results with the disease outcomes reported for humans. In these cases, K. pneumoniae infection was confirmed through culture or PCR testing or both. In our experience, when this bacterium does cause clinical signs, the disease is rapidly progressive and severe. At necropsy of NHP, the findings are strikingly similar to opportunistic Klebsiella-associated syndromes described in humans and includeliver abscesses, meningoencephalitis, and endophthalmitis. In addition, many of the affected macaques ...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Keesler RI, Colagross-Schouten A, Reader JR Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Retinal Features in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) Assessed by Using Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.
Abstract Cynomolgus macaques are an important and commonly used species in preclinical toxicology studies, but structural reports of in vivo retinal findings are rare in this species. The purpose of this study was to diminish this gap and document optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging data in the healthy posterior pole of cynomolgus monkeys' eyes at predose examinations. The current study is a retrospective assessment of baseline spectral domain OCT data obtained from the 768 eyes of 384 cynomolgus monkeys (192 males and 192 females) of Mauritian origin. The data set was obtained f...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 12, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Denk N, Maloca PM, Steiner G, Booler H, Freichel C, Niklaus S, Schnitzer TK, Hasler PW Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Severe Periocular Edema after Intraarterial Carboplatin Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma in a Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Model.
Abstract Endovascular microcatheter-based intraarterial (ophthalmic artery) chemotherapy is becoming widely used for the clinical treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma due to its apparent increased efficacy compared with traditional intravenous chemotherapy; however local ocular complications are not uncommon. Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in both intravenous and intraarterial chemotherapy. We used rabbits to assess pharmacokinetics and ocular and systemic toxicity after intraarterial carboplatin infusion. Subsequent to unilateral intraarterial administration of carboplatin, severe unilateral or b...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Oatess TL, Chen PH, Daniels AB, Himmel LE Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Influence of Genetic Background and Sex on Gene Expression in the Mouse (Mus musculus) Tail in a Model of Intervertebral Disc Injury.
In conclusion, mouse tail IVD showed sex- and strain-related changes in gene expression and histology after needle puncture. The magnitude of change in gene expression differed with regard to genetic background and, to a lesser degree, sex. PMID: 32156324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Brent JM, Tian Z, Shofer FS, Martin JT, Yao L, Archete C, Chen YH, Qin L, Enomoto-Iwamoto M, Zhang Y Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Spontaneous Ocular Abnormalities in Sprague-Dawley Rats.
Abstract We collected historical control data derived from pretreatment ophthalmologic examinations of young (4 to 7 wk of age) Sprague-Dawley (Crl:CD[SD]) male, (2033, 42 lots) and female (1322, 32 lots) rats used in toxicity studies at our facility from 2004 through 2015. Ophthalmologic examination of male and female rats by using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and slit lamp revealed high incidences of corneal opacity (61% and 60%, respectively), lenticular opacity (43% and 47%), persistent hyaloid artery (21% and 17%), and retinal folds (27% and 27%). All other ocular abnormalities of the globe, conjunctiv...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 2, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Morita J, Yamashita H, Sugihara K, Wakamatsu M, Sasaki M Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Comparative Analysis of Cellular Immune Responses in Conventional and SPF Olive Baboons (Papio anubis).
In this study, we compare normal immunologic changes of PBMC subsets, and their function in age-matched conventional and SPF baboons. Our results revealed that both groups have comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets, but phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T-cell subsets are more pronounced in CD4+T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the conventional and SPF baboons, PBMC from the conventional group showed greater proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen and higher numbers of IFNγ-producing cells after stimulation with concanavalin A or pokew...
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 3, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Magden ER, Nehete BP, Chitta S, Williams LE, Simmons JH, Abee CR, Nehete PN Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Histologic Comparison of the Dura Mater among Species.
Abstract The biocompatibility, biodegradation, feasibility, and efficacy of medical devices like dural sealants and substitutes are often evaluated in various animal models. However, none of these studies explain the rationale for choosing a particular species, and a systematic interspecies comparison of the dura is not available. We hypothesized that histologic characteristics of the dura would differ among species. We systematically investigated basic characteristics of the dura, including thickness, composition, and fibroblast orientation of the dura mater, in 34 samples representing 10 animal species and compa...
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 3, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Kinaci A, Bergmann W, Bleys RL, van der Zwan A, van Doormaal TP Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effect of Chronic Vitamin D Deficiency on the Development and Severity of DSS-Induced Colon Cancer in Smad3-/- Mice.
Abstract Both human epidemiologic data and animal studies suggest that low serum vitamin D increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and consequently IBD-associated colorectal cancer. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by using an established CAC mouse model, 129-Smad3tm1Par/J(Smad3-/-) mice, which have defective transforming growth factor β-signaling and develop colitis and CAC after the administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). After determining a dietary regimen that induced chronic vitamin D deficiency in Smad3...
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 3, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Meeker SM, Seamons A, Treuting PM, Paik J, Brabb T, Hsu CC, Grady WM, Maggio-Price L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Hypoglycemia after Bariatric Surgery in Mice and Optimal Dosage and Efficacy of Glucose Supplementation.
Abstract The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) mouse model is a vital tool for studying the pathophysiology of bariatric surgery and contributes greatly to research on obesity and diabetes. However, complications including postsurgical hypoglycemia can have profoundly negative effects. Unlike in humans, blood glucose (BG) is not typically managed in postoperative rodents, despite their critical role as translational models; without this management, rodents can experience hypoglycemia, potentially impairing wound healing, decreasing survivability, complicating interpretation of research data, and limiting translation...
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 3, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Hsi ZY, Stewart LA, Lloyd KCK, Grimsrud KN Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Analysis of Cell-free Fetal RNA in the Amniotic Fluid of Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus).
Abstract NHP are important translational models for understanding the genomic underpinnings of growth, development, fetal programming, and predisposition to disease, with potential for the development of early health biomarkers. Understanding how prenatal gene expression is linked to pre- and postnatal health and development requires methods for assessing the fetal transcriptome. Here we used RNAseq methodology to analyze the expression of cell-free fetal RNA in the amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS) of vervet monkeys. Despite the naturally high level of degradation of free-floating RNA, we detected more than 10,000...
Source: Comparative Medicine - January 22, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Jasinska AJ, Rostamian D, Davis AT, Kavanagh K Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Role of the δ-Opioid Receptor in 2 Murine Models of Colitis.
Role of the δ-Opioid Receptor in 2 Murine Models of Colitis. Comp Med. 2020 Jan 22;: Authors: Bobo TR, Fitzpatrick LR, Whitcomb TL, Cooper TK, Raiciulescu S, Smith JP Abstract Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, the etiology of IBD is unknown, and immunosuppressive therapies have become the standard of care to reduce the inflammation; however, these agents only induce remission 50% of the time in patients and can have serious side effects. Recently, endogen...
Source: Comparative Medicine - January 22, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Bobo TR, Fitzpatrick LR, Whitcomb TL, Cooper TK, Raiciulescu S, Smith JP Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Markers as Early Endpoint Criteria in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) when Testing Tuberculosis Vaccine Candidates.
Abstract The guinea pig model of tuberculosis is used extensively to assess the efficacy of novel tuberculosis vaccines. There are established parameters to determine vaccine efficacy in this model, but the science community currently lacks established biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of experimental disease in guinea pigs. To define a set of biomarkers that could be used as benchmarks for disease progression and early endpoint criteria, we assessed serum biochemical and hematology parameters in 2 groups of guinea pigs-one vaccinated with the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine strain (BCG) and one...
Source: Comparative Medicine - January 17, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Williams WR, Troudt J, Creissen E, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Johnston MS, Kendall LV, Izzo AA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Cranial Vena Cava Syndrome in Guinea Pigs with Chronic Jugular Vein Catheters.
Abstract Guinea pigs are a premier small animal model for infectious disease research, and chronic indwelling venous access portsmay be used to facilitate various procedures. Here we report catheter-related lesions in 5 uninfected Dunkin-Hartley guineapigs with chronic jugular vein catheters used for imaging studies. Three guinea pigs were found dead with no premonitorysigns. At necropsy, there was severe bilateral pulmonary atelectasis due to 20 to 29 mL of pleural effusion resulting fromcatheter-related thrombosis and cranial vena cava syndrome. In addition, one of these 3 guinea pigs had a polymicrobialcatheter...
Source: Comparative Medicine - January 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Cooper TK, Byrum RA, Cooper K, Evans DeWald L, Aiosa NM, Feuerstein IM, St Claire MC Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Lack of Effect of Murine Norovirus Infection on the CD4+CD45RBhigh T-cell Adoptive Transfer Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Abstract Murine norovirus (MNV) infection is highly prevalent in laboratory mice. Although MNV infection does not typically induce clinical disease in most laboratory mice, infection may nonetheless affect mouse models of disease by altering immune responses. We previously reported that MNV altered the bacterial-induced mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) using Helicobacter-infected Mdr1a-/- mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that MNV infection would exacerbate another mouse model of IBD, the T-cell adoptive transfer (AT) model. In this model, Helicobacter infection is used to accelerate theprogression of...
Source: Comparative Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Hsu CC, Patil K, Seamons A, Brabb TL, Treuting PM, Paik J, Meeker SM, Maggio-Price L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

A Review of the Effects of Pain and Analgesia on Immune System Function and Inflammation: Relevance for Preclinical Studies.
Abstract One of the most significant challenges facing investigators, laboratory animal veterinarians, and IACUCs, is how to balanceappropriate analgesic use, animal welfare, and analgesic impact on experimental results. This is particularly true for in vivo studies on immune system function and inflammatory disease. Often times the effects of analgesic drugs on a particular immune function or model are incomplete or don't exist. Further complicating the picture is evidence of the very tight integration and bidirectional functionality between the immune system and branches of the nervous system involved innocicept...
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: DeMarco GJ, Nunamaker EA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

A Review of Pain Assessment Methods in Laboratory Rodents.
Abstract Ensuring that laboratory rodent pain is well managed underpins the ethical acceptability of working with these animals in research. Appropriate treatment of pain in laboratory rodents requires accurate assessments of the presence or absence of pain to the extent possible. This can be challenging some situations because laboratory rodents are prey species that may show subtle signs of pain. Although a number of standard algesiometry assays have been used to assess evoked pain responses in rodents for many decades, these methods likely represent an oversimplification of pain assessment and many require anim...
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Turner PV, Pang DS, Lofgren JL Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Defining and Managing Pain in Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Research.
Abstract Neurologic conditions such as stroke and traumatic brain injury are challenging conditions to study in humans. Animal models are necessary to uncover disease processes and develop novel therapies. When attempting to model these or other neurologic diseases, the accompanying anesthesia and analgesia create variables that are not part of the onset of the clinical disease in the human population but are critical components of the postinjury care both in humans and animals. To maximize model validity, researchers must consider whether the disease process or a novel therapy is being studied. Damage to the neur...
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Larson CM, Wilcox GL, Fairbanks CA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

The Study of Pain in Rats and Mice.
Abstract Pain is a clinical syndrome arising from a variety of etiologies in a heterogeneous population, which makes successfully treating the individual patient difficult. Organizations and governments recognize the need for tailored and specific therapies, which drives pain research. This review summarizes the different types of pain assessments currently being used and the various rodent models that have been developed to recapitulate the human pain condition. PMID: 31822322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Larson CM, Wilcox GL, Fairbanks CA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Clinical Management of Pain in Rodents.
Abstract The use of effective regimens for mitigating pain remain underutilized in research rodents despite the general acceptance of both the ethical imperative and regulatory requirements intended to maximize animal welfare. Factors contributing to this gap between the need for and the actual use of analgesia include lack of sufficient evidence-based data on effective regimens, under-dosing due to labor required to dose analgesics at appropriate intervals, concerns that the use of analgesics may impact study outcomes, and beliefs that rodents recover quickly from invasive procedures and as such do notneed analge...
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Foley PL, Kendall LV, Turner PV Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

A Review of Strain and Sex Differences in Response to Pain and Analgesia in Mice.
Abstract Pain and its alleviation are currently a highly studied issue in human health. Research on pain and response to analgesia has evolved to include the effects of genetics, heritability, and sex as important components in both humans and animals. The laboratory mouse is the major animal studied in the field of pain and analgesia. Studying the inbred mouse to understand how genetic heritable traits and/or sex influence pain and analgesia has added valuable information to the complex nature of pain as a human disease. In the context of biomedical research, identifying pain and ensuring its control through anal...
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Smith JC Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effective Prophylactic Therapy for Exposure to Monkey B Virus (Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1).
Abstract Zoonotic monkey B virus (Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1; BV) infections are extremely serious and usually fatal. Drugs currently used for treatment were developed for the treatment of herpes simplex virus but are less effective against BV. Effective suppression of viral replication in the skin could prevent the virus from invading the nervous system. To test this hypothesis, the efficacy of topical administration of several drugs against lethal BV infection was evaluated in female BALB/c mice that were infected by scarification. Drugs were then applied to the site of inoculation. As 3% preparations, most dru...
Source: Comparative Medicine - December 6, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Maxwell LK, Black DH, Wright GE, Breshears MA, Eberle R Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

In vitro and In vivo Susceptibility of Baboons (Papio sp.) to Infection with and Apparent Antibody Reactivity to Simian Betaretrovirus (SRV).
In conclusion, the data indicate that even though baboon cells can be infected experimentally with high doses of tissue culture grown SRV, baboons that are repeatedly SRV antibody positive and PCR negative are unlikely to be infected with exogenous SRV and thus are unlikely to transmit a virus that would threaten the SPF status of captive baboon colonies. PMID: 31747991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - November 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Yee JL, Grant RF, Van Rompay KKA, Roberts JA, Kuller L, Cunningham JL, Simmons JH, Papin JF Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Spontaneous Pituitary Adenomas in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).
Abstract On postmortem examination, 2 geriatric captive male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were found to have pituitary masses that were unassociated with previous experimental manipulation. Both animals were euthanized due to apparently unrelated clinical reasons. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining classified these tumors as thyrotrophic and corticotrophic pituitary adenomas. These cases represent the first reports of this tumor type in squirrel monkeys. PMID: 31747992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - November 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Daggett GJ, Wood JS, Gumber S, Pinelli CJ Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Betamethasone Treatment for Atopic Dermatitis in Gut Microbiota Transplanted Mice.
Abstract Gut microbiota composition correlates strongly with essential disease parameters in the oxazolone-induced mouse model for atopic dermatitis. The phenotype of this model can be transferred to germ-free mice with a gut microbiota transplant to achieve high and low responding mice. Therefore, the production of high responding mice through gut microbiota transplantation may be seen as a tool to reduce group sizes or increase power in intervention studies by increasing effect size. We sought to determine whether high responding mice respond to a common treatment in the same way as low responding mice. We hypot...
Source: Comparative Medicine - November 19, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Debes KP, Evdina NA, Laigaard A, Larsen JM, Zachariassen LF, Hansen CHF, Hansen AK Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effect of Feeding Hay on Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Appetite-suppressed Pregnant New Zealand White Rabbits.
Abstract Pregnant rabbits are a common nonrodent model for reproductive safety evaluation in preclinical drug development. During reproductive toxicology studies, rabbits are prone to decreased food consumption and anorexia. When persistent or severe, this condition can lead to hepatic lipidosis and pregnancy toxemia, which may confound the interpretation of study results. Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFAs) have been used in veterinary production medicine to evaluate the impact of diet on the energy balance of pregnant animals. In the current study, sustained-release buprenorphine was used to suppress the appetite...
Source: Comparative Medicine - November 19, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Veenstra JW, Filgo AJ, Denham SC Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Suspected Anaphylactic Reaction to Ketamine in 3 Yucatan Swine (Sus scrofa).
Abstract This case series describes the clinical courses of 3 juvenile Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa) that experienced a suspectedanaphylactic reaction to ketamine hydrochloride during premedication for protocol-related surgery. All 3 swine rapidly developed diffuse erythema shortly after injection with ketamine-containing drug combinations. Clinical signs ranged from tachycardia and erythema alone to tachycardia and erythema followed by respiratory and cardiac arrest. Ketamine was considered the most likely cause of these reactions because it was the only agent in the premedication sedation combination that...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 4, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Wallace CK, Bell SE, LaTourette Ii PC, Miedel EM, Carty AJ, Philips BH Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of Ertapenem in Sheep (Ovis aries) with Experimentally Induced Urinary Tract Infection.
The objective of this study was to report the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in sheep after single and multiple dosing. In addition, we explored the effects of an immunomodulatory drug (Zelnate) on the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in sheep. Eight healthy ewes (weight, 64.4 ± 7.7 kg) were used in an ovine bacterial cystitis model of human cystitiswith Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After disease confirmation, each ewe received 1 g of ertapenem intravenously once every 24 h for 5 administrations. Blood was collected intensively (14 samples) during 24 h after the first and last administration. After multiple-dose administrati...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 3, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Smith JS, Borts DJ, Slagel CC, Rajewski SM, Bousquet-Melou A, Ferran AA, Plummer PJ, Mochel JP Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Analytic and Interpretational Pitfalls To Measuring Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Laboratory Rats and Mice.
Abstract Minimization and alleviation of stress are generally viewed as desirable aspects of laboratory animal management and use. However, achieving that goal requires an unambiguous and valid measure of stress. Glucocorticoid concentrations are commonly used as a physiologic index of stress. Measurement of glucocorticoids in blood, serum or plasma clearly reflects many types of both acute and chronic stress. However, the rapid rise in concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids that occurs even with relatively simple manipulations such as handling has led to the increased use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 2, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Rowland NE, Toth LA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Female- and Intruder-induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations in C57BL/6J Mice as Proxy Indicators for Animal Wellbeing.
Abstract Female urine-induced male mice ultrasonic vocalizations (FiUSV) are ultrasonic vocalizations produced by adult male mice after presentation of adult female urine, whereas intruder-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (IiUSV) are produced by resident adult female mice when interacting with an intruder female mouse. These affiliative behaviors may be reduced when mice have decreased wellbeing or are in pain and distress. To determine whether FiUSV and IiUSV can be used as proxy indicators of animal wellbeing, we assessed FiUSV produced by male C57BL/6J mice in response to female urine and IiUSV produced by fema...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 2, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Smith BJ, Bruner KEP, Kendall LV Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Diet-induced Generalized Periodontitis in Lewis Rats.
Abstract Periodontitis is an important public health concern worldwide. Because rodents from the genus Rattus are resistant to spontaneous periodontitis, experimental periodontitis must be initiated by mechanical procedures and interventions. Due to their exacerbated Th1 response and imbalanced Th17 regulatory T-cell responses, Lewis rats are highly susceptible to inducible inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that feeding Lewis rats a diet high in sucrose and casein(HSC) would alter the oral microenvironment and induce inflammation and the development of periodontitis lesions without mechanical i...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 1, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Messer JG, La S, Kipp DE, Castillo EJ, Yarrow JF, Jorgensen M, Wnek RD, Kimmel DB, Aguirre JI Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research