Suspected Anaphylactic Reaction to Ketamine in 3 Yucatan Swine (Sus scrofa).
Abstract This case series describes the clinical courses of 3 juvenile Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa) that experienced a suspectedanaphylactic reaction to ketamine hydrochloride during premedication for protocol-related surgery. All 3 swine rapidly developed diffuse erythema shortly after injection with ketamine-containing drug combinations. Clinical signs ranged from tachycardia and erythema alone to tachycardia and erythema followed by respiratory and cardiac arrest. Ketamine was considered the most likely cause of these reactions because it was the only agent in the premedication sedation combination that...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 4, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Wallace CK, Bell SE, LaTourette Ii PC, Miedel EM, Carty AJ, Philips BH Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of Ertapenem in Sheep (Ovis aries) with Experimentally Induced Urinary Tract Infection.
The objective of this study was to report the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in sheep after single and multiple dosing. In addition, we explored the effects of an immunomodulatory drug (Zelnate) on the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in sheep. Eight healthy ewes (weight, 64.4 ± 7.7 kg) were used in an ovine bacterial cystitis model of human cystitiswith Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After disease confirmation, each ewe received 1 g of ertapenem intravenously once every 24 h for 5 administrations. Blood was collected intensively (14 samples) during 24 h after the first and last administration. After multiple-dose administrati...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 3, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Smith JS, Borts DJ, Slagel CC, Rajewski SM, Bousquet-Melou A, Ferran AA, Plummer PJ, Mochel JP Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Analytic and Interpretational Pitfalls To Measuring Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Laboratory Rats and Mice.
Abstract Minimization and alleviation of stress are generally viewed as desirable aspects of laboratory animal management and use. However, achieving that goal requires an unambiguous and valid measure of stress. Glucocorticoid concentrations are commonly used as a physiologic index of stress. Measurement of glucocorticoids in blood, serum or plasma clearly reflects many types of both acute and chronic stress. However, the rapid rise in concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids that occurs even with relatively simple manipulations such as handling has led to the increased use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 2, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Rowland NE, Toth LA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Female- and Intruder-induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations in C57BL/6J Mice as Proxy Indicators for Animal Wellbeing.
Abstract Female urine-induced male mice ultrasonic vocalizations (FiUSV) are ultrasonic vocalizations produced by adult male mice after presentation of adult female urine, whereas intruder-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (IiUSV) are produced by resident adult female mice when interacting with an intruder female mouse. These affiliative behaviors may be reduced when mice have decreased wellbeing or are in pain and distress. To determine whether FiUSV and IiUSV can be used as proxy indicators of animal wellbeing, we assessed FiUSV produced by male C57BL/6J mice in response to female urine and IiUSV produced by fema...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 2, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Smith BJ, Bruner KEP, Kendall LV Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Diet-induced Generalized Periodontitis in Lewis Rats.
Abstract Periodontitis is an important public health concern worldwide. Because rodents from the genus Rattus are resistant to spontaneous periodontitis, experimental periodontitis must be initiated by mechanical procedures and interventions. Due to their exacerbated Th1 response and imbalanced Th17 regulatory T-cell responses, Lewis rats are highly susceptible to inducible inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that feeding Lewis rats a diet high in sucrose and casein(HSC) would alter the oral microenvironment and induce inflammation and the development of periodontitis lesions without mechanical i...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 1, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Messer JG, La S, Kipp DE, Castillo EJ, Yarrow JF, Jorgensen M, Wnek RD, Kimmel DB, Aguirre JI Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Influence of Pain and Analgesia on Orthopedic and Wound-healing Models in Rats and Mice.
Abstract The surgical stress response and resulting physiologic changes can lead to postoperative complications and negatively impact animal welfare. Although appropriate pain management is crucial to reduce the pain and stress response to surgery,analgesic choice can significantly affect bone and wound healing. This review aims to summarize data from rat and mouse studies and to provide recommendations for integrating analgesia into orthopedic and wound healing models in these species. Data from other species, such as humans, rabbits and other rodents, is included, where available. From these data, we conclude th...
Source: Comparative Medicine - September 27, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Huss MK, Felt SA, Pacharinsak C Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Influence of Daytime LED Light Exposure on Circadian Regulatory Dynamics of Metabolism and Physiology in Mice.
Abstract Light is a potent biologic force that profoundly influences circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral regulation inanimals. Previously we examined the effects of light-phase exposure of rats to white light-emitting diodes (LED), which emit more light in the blue-appearing portion of the visible spectrum (465 to 485 nm) than do broad-spectrum cool white fluorescent (CWF) light, on the nighttime melatonin amplitude and circadian regulation of metabolism and physiology. In the current studies, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to blue-enriched LED light at day (bLAD), compared withCWF, promotes the...
Source: Comparative Medicine - September 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Dauchy RT, Blask DE, Hoffman AE, Xiang S, Hanifin JP, Warfield B, Brainard GC, Anbalagan M, Dupepe LM, Dobek GL, Belancio VP, Dauchy EM, Hill SM Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Characterization of a Porcine Model for Von Willebrand Disease Type 1 and 3 Regarding Expression of Angiogenic Mediators in the Nonpregnant Female Reproductive Tract.
In conclusion, severely reduced VWF seems to evoke angiodysplasia in the porcine uterus. Varying distribution and expression of angiogenic factors suggest that this large animal model is promising for investigation of influence of VWF on angiogenesis in larger groups. PMID: 31526432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - September 16, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Allerkamp H, Lehner S, Ekhlasi-Hundrieser M, Detering C, Pfarrer C, von Depka Prondzinski M Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Allelic Diversity in the Serum Amyloid A2 Gene and Amyloid A Amyloidosis in a Breeding Colony of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata).
Abstract A high incidence of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was observed in the research breeding colony of zebra finches at our institution. Some birds with hepatic AA amyloidosis were asymptomatic for comorbid conditions frequently associated with the development of AA amyloidosis, whereas other birds with comorbid conditions failed to develop AA amyloidosis, suggesting a potential genetic component to the disease. Sequencing the SAA2 gene from 20 birds yielded 18 distinct sequences that coded for 5 isoforms of the protein. Most of the amino acid substitutions are unlikely to affect the protein's structure or functi...
Source: Comparative Medicine - August 28, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Shientag LJ, Cabrera OA, Pazour GJ Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Ethical and IACUC Considerations Regarding Analgesia and Pain Management in Laboratory Rodents.
This article focuses on 3 areas of concern: the limits of veterinary "professional judgment" when the animal model's degree of pain and the efficacy of pain medications are not yet known; the review of proposals with known, unalleviated significant pain and distress (that is, Category E experiments);and the attempt to review the balance between animal welfare harms and scientific objectives. I propose no new regulations, standards, or ethical norms herein but rather explore some of the implications when existing ethical principles are applied to evolving scientific knowledge (and vice versa). I conclude that appl...
Source: Comparative Medicine - August 27, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Carbone L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Safety Evaluation of a 405-nm LED Device for Direct Antimicrobial Treatment of the Murine Brain.
This study focused on 405-nm 'true violet' light-which has been shown to kill multiple clinically relevant bacterial species in vitro yet leave mammalian cells unscathed-and its effect on the murine brain. We built a 405-nm LED array, validated its power and efficacy against a clinical bacterial isolate in vitro, and then, at the time of craniotomy, treated mice with various doses of 405-nm light (36, 45, and 54 J/cm2). The selected doses caused no behavioral derangements postoperatively or any observable brain pathology as determined postmortem by histologic evaluation and immunofluorescence staining for caspase 3 and gli...
Source: Comparative Medicine - August 6, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Thurman CE, Muthuswamy A, Klinger MM, Roble GS Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Experimental Infection of Mice with Veronaea botryosa as a Model for Human Phaeohyphomycosis.
In this study, we inoculatedimmunocompetent heterozygotic (nu/+) and immunodeficient homozygotic (nu/nu) Hsd:Athymic Nude-Fox1nu mice subcutaneously or through orogastric gavage with 1 of 3 representative V. botryosa strains that had been recovered from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), and human hosts and typed by using rep-PCR analysis. Daily mortality and morbidity were recorded, and dissemination of the fungus was investigated through culture ofsplenic samples and histologic analysis of the injection site, regional lymph nodes, salivary gland, spleen, liver, mesentericlymph no...
Source: Comparative Medicine - August 6, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Brownlee RD, Imai DM, Coleman DJ, Ardeshir A, Abdelrazek SM, Soto E Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Transmissible Cancers and Immune Downregulation in Tasmanian Devil (Sacrophilus harrisii) and Canine Populations.
Abstract Known as devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) and canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), transmissible cancer occurs in both Tasmanian devil and canine populations, respectively. Both malignancies show remarkable ability to be transmitted as allografts into subsequent hosts. How DFTD and CTVT avoid detection by immunocompetent hosts is of particular interest, given that these malignancies are rarely seen in other species in nature. Both of these transmissible cancers can downregulate the host immune system, enabling proliferation. DFTD is characterized by epigenetic modifications to the DNA promoterregi...
Source: Comparative Medicine - August 6, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Chale RS, Ghiam N, McNamara SA, Jimenez JJ Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Colony of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Macaques.
The objective of this study was to characterize MRSA carriage in a representative research colony of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques through a cross-sectional analysis of 300 animals. MRSA carriage was determined by using nasal culture. Demographic characteristics of carriers and noncarriers were compared to determine factors linked to increased risk of carriage, and MRSA isolates were analyzed to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type, and multilocus sequence type (ST). Culture results demonstrated MRSA carriage in 6.3% of thestudy population. Animals with grea...
Source: Comparative Medicine - August 2, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Greenstein AW, Boyle-Vavra S, Maddox CW, Tang X, Halliday LC, Fortman JD Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effects of Corynebacterium bovis on Engraftment of Patient-derived Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Cells in NSGS Mice.
Abstract Modeling chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) in immunodeficient NSGS mice relies on unique human CMML specimens and consistent murine engraftment. Only anecdotal comments have thus far supported the notion that research data may be altered by Corynebacterium bovis, an opportunistic cutaneous pathogen of immunodeficient mice. C. bovisdisseminated by asymptomatic and clinically affected mice with hyperkeratotic dermatitis, resulting in resilient facilitycontamination and infectious recurrence. Herein we report that, compared with C. bovis PCR-negative counterparts, C. bovisPCR-positive NSGS mice develope...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 26, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Vedder AR, Miedel EL, Ragland NH, Balasis ME, Letson CT, Engelman RW, Padron E Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Cadaveric Porcine Spines as a Model for the Human Epidural Space.
Abstract Most patients who undergo epidural anesthesia are pregnant and thus a protected population, which has limited investigations of the human epidural space. Among the several species studied as models for the human spine, the porcine spine has been used as a model for spine instrumentation. Although the spread of colored dye within the porcine epidural space has been investigated, no model has demonstrated in situ spread by using radiopaque contrast dye. To this end, we here used 10 Yorkshire swine cadavers through an approved tissue sharing agreement. Epidural catheters were placed by using alandmark-based ...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 24, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Cole JH, Fishback JE, Hughey SB Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Influence of Pain and Analgesia on Cancer Research Studies.
Abstract Mice and rats are valuable and commonly used as models for the study of cancer. The models and methods of experimentation have the potential to cause pain to some degree, and all charged with ensuring animal welfare must determine how to manage it. A commonly posed question, especially from investigators and IACUC, is whether the provision of analgesic agents will render the model invalid. Left untreated, pain is a stressor and has negative consequences, most notably immune system perturbations. In addition, analgesic agents in the opioid and NSAID drug classes exhibit immunomodulatory activity and influe...
Source: Comparative Medicine - July 17, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Taylor DK Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of Hybrid Surgical Access Approaches for Pulmonary Valve Implantation in an Acute Swine Model.
Abstract Percutaneous implantation of the pulmonary valve through peripheral vascular access can be limited due to poor venous access, low patient weight, hemodynamic or rhythmic instability, and size constraints related to the valve. In such cases,hybrid procedures may provide alternatives. Because the most commonly used median sternotomy is unsuitable for chronic trials in large animals, we evaluated several hybrid approaches for pulmonary valve replacement in a swine model. We tested the feasibility of hybrid pulmonary valve implantation in pigs by using inhouse-generated valves containing bare-metal ornitinol ...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Thalmann R, Merkel EM, Akra B, Bombien R, Kozlik-Feldmann RG, Schmitz C Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

The Influence of Pain and Analgesia in Rodent Models of Sepsis.
Abstract Sepsis is a multifaceted host response to infection that dramatically affects patient outcomes and the cost of health care. Animal models are necessary to replicate the complexity and heterogeneity of clinical sepsis. However, these models entail a high risk of pain and distress due to tissue trauma, inflammation, endotoxin-mediated hyperalgesia, and other mechanisms. Several recent studies and initiatives address the need to improve the welfare of animals through analgesics and standardize the models used in preclinical sepsis research. Ultimately, the goal is to provide high-fidelity, humane animal mode...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 18, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Carpenter KC, Hakenjos JM, Fry CD, Nemzek JA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Interacting Influences of Sleep, Pain, and Analgesic Medications on Sleep Studies in Rodents.
Abstract This overview provides a brief summary of the complex interactions that link sleep, pain, and analgesic medications. Sleepscientists and clinicians are well aware of these relationships and understand that maintaining healthy pain-free subjects in a stable environment is essential to generating interpretable data and valid conclusions. However, these concepts and the data that support bidirectional interactions between sleep and pain may be less known to those who are not sleep scientists yet need such information to protect and advance both animal wellbeing and research validity (for example, veterinaria...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 18, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Toth LA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Embryonic Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a Model of Cardiac Biology and Development.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease remains one of the top contributors to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Increasingevidence suggests that many processes, pathways, and programs observed during development and organogenesis are recapitulated in adults in the face of disease. Therefore, a heightened understanding of cardiac development and organogenesis will help increase our understanding of developmental defects and cardiovascular diseases in adults. Chicks have long served as a model system in which to study developmental problems. Detailed descriptions of morphogenesis, lowcost, accessibility, ease o...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Vilches-Moure JG Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Prolonged Anesthetic Recovery after Continuous Infusion of Midazolam in 2 Domestic Cats (Felis catus).
Abstract Two healthy research cats involved in a randomized, blinded prospective pharmacodynamics study evaluating midazolamcontinuous-rate infusion as a means to decrease sevoflurane concentrations experienced unexpectedly prolonged recoveries.Midazolam loading doses, infusion rates, and the targeted plasma midazolam concentrations at steady-state were determinedby pharmacokinetic modeling based on the results of a preliminary pharmacokinetic study using a single dose of midazolam. In the pharmacodynamics study, cats remained oversedated after recovery from anesthesia, and plasma concentrations of midazolam and i...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Dholakia U, Seddighi R, Odunayo A, Cox SK, Jones EH, Pypendop BH Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Growth and Behavior of Congenitally Anophthalmic Lee-Sung Pigs.
This study investigated the growth and daily behavior patterns of Lee-Sung pigs with congenital anophthalmia.Growth in 5 Lee-Sung pigs (LSP) with congenital anophthalmia (LSP-A) and 10 normally developed pigs (LSP-N) was assessed when they were 1 through 6 mo old. Behavioral studies using digital video recording were completed in 6 sexually mature LSP (3 LSP-A and 3 LSP-N). MRI showed that LSP-A lose their vision because of a lack of retinal input and optic chiasm development. LSP-N and LSP-A did not differ in body weight or size at 2, 4, and 6 mo of age. Behavior and activity pattern studies showed that both LSP-A and LSP...
Source: Comparative Medicine - June 6, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Ju YT, Pan YT, Tu CF, Hsiao J, Lin YH, Yu PJ, Yu PH, Chi CH, Liu IL Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Pain as a Clinical Factor and Experimental Variable in Research Rodents.
Abstract It is broadly accepted that, as part of the humane care and use of animals in research, the pain experienced by animals should be minimized to the extent possible, consistent with the goals of the research. In some cases, pain may be the subject under study, whereas in other cases, the use of some types of analgesics may interfere with the experimental objectives of the work. This issue of Comparative Medicine provides reviews related to the recognition and treatment of pain, the interaction of pain and pain relief on experimental outcomes, and ethical perspectives on the need to reduce pain in research r...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 30, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Suckow MA, Turner PV Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Treatment of Chytridiomycosis in Laboratory Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Rough-skinned Newts (Taricha granulosa).
Abstract Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungal species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans and has been implicated in the population decline of amphibian species worldwide. This case report describes a successful treatment protocol for chytridiomycosis in laboratory-maintained colonies of axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa). Over 12 mo, axolotls (n = 12) in a laboratory-reared colony developed multifocal erythematous dermatitis, mainly on the distal limbs and tails. Wild-caught newts handled by the same labpersonnel we...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 29, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Del Valle JM, Eisthen HL Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Hepatic Hemangiosarcoma in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).
Abstract An experimentally naïve, 9-y-old, intact male cynomolgus macaque was reported for bleeding from an unidentified site. Sedated physical examination indicated mild gingival separation from the lingual aspect of the upper right canine tooth as the source of the hemorrhage. Physical exam revealed a firm mass adhered to the left zygomatic arch, 2 subcutaneous nodules on the chest, and a large mass in the cranial abdomen. Radiographs revealed a large soft-tissue mass in the cranial abdomen and multifocal nodules in the caudal lung fields. On ultrasonography, the liver was grossly enlarged and contained a c...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 29, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Bright LA, Gardiner KL, Veeder CL, Brice AK Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Relationships between Cytokine Levels and Disease Parameters during the Development of a Collagen-induced Arthritis Model in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
Abstract In rheumatoid arthritis research, NHP models of collagen-induced arthritis are important because these species share manyimmunologic and pathologic features with humans. In addition, serum levels of various cytokines in patients with rheumatoidarthritis have been studied as immune markers for disease prediction, early diagnosis, and effective therapeutic management. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in cytokine levels that occur during the development of collagen-induced arthritis in female cynomolgus macaques (n = 8) and to assess the relationships between these changes and various diseas...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 8, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Choi EW, Kim S Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effects of Pregnancy, Outdoor Access, and Antifungal Medication on Hair Loss in Breeding-age Female Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina).
Abstract Over 18 mo, adult female pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) housed at a breeding facility in Arizona were monitoredevery 6 mo for alopecia. The study period coincided with the movement of a majority of animals from primarily outdoor housing to continuous indoor housing and a corresponding decrease in available space. These changes were made due to the newly recognized prevalence of coccidioidomycosis at this site. The effects of pregnancy status, changes in outdoor access orspace, and administration of fluconazole for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis on alopecia were explored. In this group ofpigta...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Kroeker R, Chichester L, Lee GH, Worlien JM Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

The AALAS Journals: 2018 in Review.
PMID: 30967169 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 1, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Toth LA, Compton S, Tolwani R, Farrar J Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computed Tomography Using 99mTc-labeled Leukocytes for Evaluating Infection Associated with a Cranial Implant in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).
Abstract An adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) that was enrolled in a study evaluating cognition and memory presented with suppurative exudate along the margins of a long-standing cranial implant that included a stainless-steel head post, plastic left-sided recording cylinder, and acrylic over a previously placed right-sided recording cylinder. Both cylinders were located at the level of the prefrontal cortex. After treatment comprising systemic antibiotics and daily cleaning with povidone-iodine for several months, the macaque underwent single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography(SPECT-...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 1, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Guerriero KA, Wilson SR, Sinusas AJ, Saperstein L, Zeiss CJ Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Incidence of Neoplasia in Pigs and Its Relevance to Clinical Organ Xenotransplantation.
Abstract As clinical pig organ xenotransplantation draws closer, more attention is being paid to diseases that affect pigs and thosethat provide a potential risk to human recipients of pig organs. Neoplasia arising from the pig organ graft is one such concern.Various tumors and other neoplastic diseases are well known to show increased incidence in organ allotransplant recipientsreceiving immunosuppressive therapy. Whether this effect will prove to be the case after xenotransplantation has not yetbeen established. Malignant tumors in young pigs are rare, with lymphosarcoma, nephroblastoma, and melanoma being the m...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 25, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Jagdale A, Iwase H, Klein EC, Cooper DK Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Atresia Ani with Imperforate Anus in a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
Abstract In November 2015, an 83-d-old juvenile male common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in good body condition was founddead in his family cage with no previous premonitory signs. Necropsy revealed a gas-distended abdomen, feces-distendedlarge bowel, and a full-thickness distal colonic perforation resulting in fecal peritonitis. The distal colon ended in a blindpouch at 7 mm prior to the expected anal opening, consistent with atresia ani. Here we present this case, briefly discuss thehuman and veterinary literature regarding correction of anorectal malformations, and highlight the importance of identifyingsuch d...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 22, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Werts AD, Pate NM, Metcalf Pate KA, Garrett CM Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Serum Cobalamin and Folate Concentrations in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with Chronic Lymphocytic Enteritis.
Abstract Serum cobalamin and folate concentrations can serve as surrogate markers of gastrointestinal disease in dogs and cats, wherethey can have diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. Chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly chronic lymphocytic enteritis (CLE), occurs frequently in captive common marmosets. The aims of this study were to validate a commercially available assay for measuring serum cobalamin and folate concentrations in common marmosets, to establish reference intervals for these analytes in healthy marmosets, and to measure serum concentrations in common marmoset...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 22, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Parambeth JC, Ross CN, Miller AD, Austad SN, Lidbury JA, Suchodolski JS, Steiner JM Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Genotoxic Escherichia coli Strains Encoding Colibactin, Cytolethal Distending Toxin, and Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor in Laboratory Rats.
This study isolated and characterized genotoxin-encoding E. coli from laboratory rats obtained from 4 academic institutions and 3 vendors. A total of 69 distinct E. coli isolates were cultured from feces, rectal swab, nares, or vaginal swab of 52 rats and characterized biochemically. PCR analysis for cyclomodulin genesand phylogroup was performed on all 69 isolates. Of the 69 isolates, 45 (65%) were positive for pks, 20/69 (29%) were positive for cdt, and 4 (6%) were positive for cnf. Colibactin was the sole genotoxin identified in 21 of 45 pks+ isolates (47%), whereas cdt or cnf was also present in the remaining 24 isolat...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 22, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Kurnick SA, Mannion AJ, Feng Y, Madden CM, Chamberlain P, Fox JG Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Effect of Age on Diabetogenicity of Alloxan in Ossabaw Miniature Swine.
This study supports previous research that the effects of alloxan are dependent on the developmental maturity of the animal. PMID: 30894246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 20, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Badin JK, Progar V, Pareddy A, Cagle J, Alloosh M, Sturek M Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Poxvirus Infection in a Colony of Laboratory Pigeons (Columba livia).
Abstract Pigeons (Columba livia) are used in biomedical research for studies of vision, cognition, neuronal pathways, and spatialorientation. Because there are few commercial laboratory sources, research pigeons are typically acquired from local fancierbreeders or bred onsite. For acquired pigeons, the health and vaccine status is often unknown. A juvenile pigeon, born onsiteand living in an enclosed outdoor loft, presented with small, bleeding, wart-like lesions on the medial aspects of digits 1and 4. Topical treatment was initiated. Within a week, 4 fledglings were reported for small, dark papular lesions on the...
Source: Comparative Medicine - March 18, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: Hibl BM, Blackwood RS, Simons BW, Collins DE Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

The AALAS Journals: 2017 in Review.
PMID: 29631650 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Toth LA, Compton S, Tolwani R, Farrar J Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Animal Models of Aspergillosis.
Abstract Aspergillosis is an airborne fungal disease caused by Aspergillus spp., a group of ubiquitous molds. This disease causes high morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals. The growing importance of this infection over recent decades has created a need for practical and reproducible models of aspergillosis. The use of laboratory animals provides a platform to understand fungal virulence and pathophysiology, assess diagnostic tools, and evaluate new antifungal drugs. In this review, we describe the fungus, various Aspergillus-related diseases in humans and animals and various experimental animal model...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Desoubeaux G, Cray C Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Comparative Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans and Nonhuman Primates.
The objective of this review is to provide a complete report of the prevalences of AMR among zoonotic bacteria that present the greatest threats to NHP, occupational, and public health. High prevalences of AMR exist among Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia, including resistance to antimicrobials important to public health, such as macrolides. Despite improvements in regulations, standards, policies, practices, and zoonotic awareness, occupational exposures to and illnesses due to zoonotic pathogens continue to be reported and, given the documented prevalences of AMR, constitute an occupational and public health risk. Ho...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kim J, Coble DJ, Salyards GW, Habing GG Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Cohousing Male Mice with and without Segmental Bone Defects.
Abstract Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents). Thus, the unique spaceflight laboratory on the International Space Station presents the opportunity to test bone healing agents during weightlessness. We are collaborating with NASA and the US Army to study bone healing in spaceflight. Given the unique constraints of spaceflight, study design optimization was required. Male mice were selected primarily because their femur is larger than females', allowing for more reprodu...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Rytlewski JD, Childress PJ, Scofield DC, Khan F, Alvarez MB, Tucker AT, Harris JS, Peveler JL, Hickman DL, Chu TG, Kacena MA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Brain Iron Distribution after Multiple Doses of Ultra-small Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Particles in Rats.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of high cumulative doses of ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) used in neuroimaging studies. We intravenously administered 8 mg/kg of 2 USPIO compounds daily for 4 wk to male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD). Multiecho gradient-echo MRI, serum iron levels, and histology were performed at the end of dosing and after a 7-d washout period. R2* maps and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) were generated from multiecho gradient-echo data. R2* maps and QSM showed iron accumulation in brain ventricles on MR images acquired at the 4- and 5-wk time poin...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Gorman AW, Deh KM, Schwiedrzik CM, White JR, Groman EV, Fisher CA, Gillen KM, Spincemaille P, Rasmussen S, Prince MR, Voss HU, Freiwald WA, Wang Y Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

EZH2 Expression in Naturally Occurring Canine Tumors.
Abstract Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) shows upregulated expression in tumors and is an important driver of tumor development and progression. However, the mechanism underlying the mediation of tumor aggressiveness by EZH2 remains unclear. We here investigated the levels of EZH2 in various normal and tumorous dog tissues and compared these patterns with those of the corresponding human tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining for EZH2 in 76 of 82 cases of canine tumors, whereas low or negligible staining occurred in normal tissues and other canine tumors, including hepatocellular adenoma...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Choi HJ, Lee HB, Park HK, Cho SM, Han HJ, Lee SJ, Lee JY, Nam SJ, Cho EH, Son WC Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Using the Oculocardiac Reflex to Characterize Autonomic Imbalance in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Valvular Insufficiency.
In this study, we investigated cardiac autonomic control in a naturally occurring canine model of mitral insufficiency by means of individual responses to oculocardiac reflex. Indices of heart rate variability were calculated from 5-min ECG tracings obtained before and after ocular compression. After compression, significant increases in the standard deviation of RR intervals, root mean square of the successive differences in RR intervals, and vasovagal tonus index were documented in healthy control animals. In addition, these indices were increased in asymptomatic dogs with remodeled hearts, but no variation occurred in s...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: BrĂ¼ler BC, Vieira TC, Wolf M, Lucina SB, Montiani-Ferreira F, Sousa MG Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Longitudinal Anthropometric Assessment of Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Huntington Disease.
This study focuses on longitudinal body measurements in HD macaques from infancy through adulthood. The growth of HD macaques was assessed through head circumference, sagittal and transverse head, and crown-to-rump ('height') measurements and BMI. The animals were measured monthly from 0 to 72 mo of age and every 3 mo from 72 mo of age onward. A mixed-effect model was used to assess subject-specific effects in our nonlinear serial data. Compared with WT controls, HD macaques displayed different developmental trajectories characterized by increased BMI, head circumference, and sagittal head measurements beginning around 40 ...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Hunter CE, Pongos AL, Chi TY, Payne C, Stroud FC, Chan AWS Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Retrospective Review of Surgical Outcomes and Pair-housing Success in Vasectomized Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).
Abstract Providing social housing for adult male macaques can be challenging. One successful strategy for long-term social housing of adult male macaques is to pair them with adult females; however, unwanted breeding must be prevented by sterilization of the male or female. Vasectomy is a simple, highly effective, and minimally invasive method of contraception that is used at our institution to facilitate social housing. We performed a retrospective review to analyze the surgical outcomes and rate of postoperative complications after vasectomy of adult rhesus macaques at our research facility. In addition, we eval...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ekanayake-Alper DK, Wilson SR, Scholz JA Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Repair of a Large Ventral Hernia in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) by Using an Abdominal Component Separation Technique.
Abstract Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Skin breakdown was noted with areas of exposed mesh through the skin with associated acute on chronic infection. Clinically, the animal was lethargic, not eating, and failing to thrive. The present surgical treatment included midline c...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kempton SJ, Israel JS, Capuano Iii S, Poore SO Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Silicon Foreign Body in the Cerebrum of a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).
Abstract A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery. MRI indicated a 1×2-cm ovoid cerebrocortical cystic lesion immediately subjacent to the right hemisphere craniotomy and recording chamber. Transdural aspiration of sterile transudate and resultant decompression resolved the hemiparesis, and follow-up MRI at 1 mo indicated resolution of the lesion. Subsequently, necropsy at study end revealed a cerebrocortical foreign body composed of silicon. The at...
Source: Comparative Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Doane CJ, Zimmerman PE, Putnam PT, Gothard KM, Besselsen DG Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Comparative Medicine Unveils New Cover Concept.
PMID: 29460715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative Medicine)
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Toth L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in Humanized NSG Mice.
Abstract Chronic infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). In contrast, infection with HTLV2 does not lead to leukemia, potentially because of distinct virus-host interactions and an active immune response that controls virus replication and, therefore, leukemia development. We created a humanized mouse model by injecting human umbilical-cord stem cells into the livers of immunodeficient neonatal NSG mice, resulting in the development of human lymphocytes that cannot mount an adaptive immune response. We used these mice to compare the ability of molecular cl...
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Huey DD, Bolon B, La Perle KMD, Kannian P, Jacobson S, Ratner L, Green PL, Niewiesk S Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Strain-specific Differences in the Effects of Lymphocytes on the Development of Insulin Resistance and Obesity in Mice.
Abstract Obesity is characterized as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease owing to the infiltration of the adipose tissue by macrophages. Although the role of macrophages in this process is well established, the role of lymphocytes in the development of obesity and metabolism remains less well defined. In the current study, we fed WT and Rag1-/- male mice, of C57BL/6J and BALB/c backgrounds, high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 15 wk. Compared with WT mice, Rag1-/- mice of either of the examined strains were found less prone to insulin resistance after HFD, had higher metabolic rates, and used lipids more e...
Source: Comparative Medicine - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kodela E, Moysidou M, Karaliota S, Koutmani Y, Tsakanikas P, Kodella K, Karavia EA, Kypreos KE, Kostomitsopoulos N, Karalis KP Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research