Comparative efficacy of graded doses of diaminazine aceturate and fixed doses of iron dextran and vitamin B complex in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei
Abstract Trypanosomosis is a disease of both domestic animals and man. Trypanosomosis continues to be a menace in the livestock industry in Nigeria despite the agelong attempt to control the disease. The comparative effects of graded doses of diaminazine aceturate (DA) and fixed doses of iron dextran and vitamin B complex were experimentally investigated in the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected albino mice. A total of 40 albino mice were used and were randomly divided into eight groups of five mice each. All the mice in all the groups except group H were infected with T. brucei brucei, but group H se...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Experimental study on blood gases and acid-base parameter changes following oral administration of injectable enrofloxacin 5 % to the horses
This study showed that 3 weeks of oral administration of enrofloxacin 5 % had no significant effect on blood gases and electrolyte parameters even at high doses (15 mg/kg). This study showed the lack of drug effect on producing gastrointestinal mucosal ulcers and colic pain in the drug-treated horses. It was recommended that the drug enrofloxacin should not preferably be used in foals and also in mature horses for long duration, because of the possible joint disorder, and its usage should be with caution. (Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 20, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Diagnostic efficacy of abattoir meat inspection for detecting bovine tuberculosis at Adama municipal abattoir, Ethiopia
Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopia and like other developing countries in Africa. Ethiopia has limited laboratory and other diagnostic facilities. Therefore, abattoir inspection still remains the only option for monitoring BTB prevalence in domestic animals. However, information regarding the efficacy of such routine abattoir (RA) inspection is limited. The present study was conducted on 500 slaughtered cattle heads, slaughtered at the Adama municipal abattoir, Ethiopia from December 2009 to April 2010 to elucidate the efficacy of RA inspection with respect to the detailed abattoir (DA) insp...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Serum anti-HSP27 antibody titers in patients with metabolic syndrome, with or without diabetes mellitus
Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by clustering of clinical, physiological, biochemical, and metabolic factors that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Immune response to heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has been suggested to be implicated in atherogenesis. We aimed to investigate the association between serum anti-Hsp27 antibody concentrations and type 2 diabetes in patients with MetS. This was a cross-sectional observational study on groups of MetS and healthy subjects. The population sample was derived from MASHAD STUDY, a national c...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 15, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Hematological reference values for stray colony cats of northern Italy
The objectives of this study are to determine hematological reference intervals (RIs) from a large population of stray cats in northern Italy, to establish whether published RIs for the general pet feline population are valid in stray cats and to evaluate the effects of age and sex on hematological parameters. Hematological data were analyzed retrospectively from the database of a trap-neuter-release program (performed in 2008–2010 in northern Italy) to generate normal RIs. RIs were determined and compared with established pet cat RIs according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard guidelines and...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 12, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Biochemical profile of polo horses in training phase and those players of official competition
Abstract Training is essential to prepare the body for intense changes occurring in athletic performance. The effect of training depends on the duration, type, frequency, and intensity of athletic training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of proteins, metabolites, minerals, and enzymes of polo horses in training and those that participate regularly in official competitions. Blood samples were collected from 82 thoroughbred horses. A single collection was performed in the morning, before training the horses. They were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of training horses, which have not ye...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Relationships between follicular fluid steroid concentrations and uterine infections in ovarian cystic cows
Abstract The present study aimed to determine the relationships among uterine bacterial infection, ovarian cysts, and endometritis. A total of 21 genital tracts with ovarian cysts were collected from the abattoir. Cystic fluids were aspirated from ovarian cysts (follicular cysts, n = 10; luteal cysts, n = 11) and eight large follicles (
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Reference intervals for hematological and blood biochemistry reference values in healthy mules and hinnies
In this study, hinnies and mules showed results that were closer to those of horses than those of donkeys. Some differences recorded in hinnies may be related to age: RBC, WBC, MCH, MCV, eosinophils, magnesium, total bilirubin, creatinine, and AST. Findings may help establish new, relevant hematological and biochemical parameters which may prevent medical misdiagnosis. Additional research is needed with larger populations of healthy mules and hinnies. (Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Biochemical and morphological changes in rats exposed to platinum nanoparticles
This study evaluated the toxicity potential of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles in Wistar rats. Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 193 g were randomly assigned into four groups. Animals in group 1 served as the control and received distilled water. Those in groups 2, 3, and 4 were administered with 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of Pt nanoparticles, respectively. At the end of treatments, the rats were fasted for 24 h and sacrificed under mild anesthesia. The blood and vital organs were collected and used for the biochemical and histopathological examinations. Pt nanoparticles caused significant alterations ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 5, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Hematology and serum biochemistry values in greylag geese ( Anser anser ) in Southeast Iran
Abstract Greylag geese (Anser anser) migrate to the different parts of Iran including Sistan region, southeastern Iran. It breeds in Hamun lake in Sistan region. The current study was conducted to establish normal values of serum biochemistry and hematology parameters in greylag geese. Nineteen serum biochemistry and nine hematology parameters were measured in 31 healthy adult greylag geese from both genders (16 males and 15 females). With the exception of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), serum biochemistry and hematology values did not vary significantly by sex. Graylag geese ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Ethanol effects on histobiochemical parameters of suckling pups borned from alcoholic rat mothers
This study was designed to investigate the effects of consuming different doses of ethanol during lactation on enzymatic and tissue changes and growth indices in suckling rat pups. Forty-five lactating Wistar rats with nine lactating pups each were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The two treatment groups received 2 and 4 % v/v ethanol, while the third group was the control on distilled water for 24 days. On day 25 after birth, 30 newborn rats were randomly selected from each group and serum activity of liver enzyme markers, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and creatine phospho...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 2, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Development of RFLP-PCR and simple multiplex PCR assays for detection and differentiation of two species of hemotropic mycoplasmas in naturally infected dogs
In this study, the occurrence and differentiation of both causative agents in dogs that originated from southern Iran were investigated by employing restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR and simple multiplex PCR methods based on RNase P RNA (rnpB) and 16S rDNA markers, respectively. The results showed that the prevalence of Mhc and CMhp among 100 examined samples were 6.0 and 4.0 %, respectively. Both PCR assays provide valuable molecular tools for the differentiation of CMhp and Mhc DNA in canine blood samples compared to 16S rDNA sequencing results. Also, sequence analysis of the genes (rnpB and 16S rD...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 25, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The efficacy of zymosan in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by peritoneal macrophages of melanoma-bearing mice
Abstract Zymosan, a polysaccharide derived from yeast cell wall, has been widely applied as a macrophage-activating factor. Application of immunomodulatory compounds as cancer therapeutics has emerged in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of zymosan in the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in melanoma-bearing mice. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups of seven mice including zymosan (Z group), melanoma (M group), zymosan treated melanoma-bearing mice (ZM group), and control (C group). Mice were treated with zymosan (10 μg) for four continuous days. At the end of the ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 25, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Experimental infection with Trypanosoma evansi in rams: presence of parasite in semen, investigation of sexual transmission, hematological, and biochemical alterations
Abstract The aims of this study were to investigate Trypanosoma evansi venereal transmission in ewes and its presence in ram’s semen and hematological and biochemical alterations. Three adult rams and six ewes were used as follows: one uninfected ram was used as control (R1), and two rams (R2 and R3) were intravenously infected by T. evansi trypomastigotes. Semen samples were collected weekly for PCR analyses that have detected the presence of T. evansi. Blood samples were collected, and it was observed that the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were reduced in infected rams on day 14 po...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pathology of emphysematous reticulitis in cattle: report of two cases and comparative overview of similar or identical conditions
Abstract Inflammatory forestomach disorders other than those of viral, bacterial, mycotic, parasitic, chemical, or plant poisoning origin are uncommon in the bovine species. Spontaneous focal emphysematous lesions were grossly identified in the reticulum—the second part of the forestomach—of two adult Holstein-Friesian cattle (one 2-year-old steer, the other 3-year-old dairy cow). Both cattle, which appeared to be clinically normal without evidence of apparent forestomach dysfunction or other significant abnormalities on physical examination, were slaughtered conventionally for human consumption. At po...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 21, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pre- and post-partum seric biochemical variables of Lacaune ewes naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites
Abstract The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical profile of the Lacaune ewes naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites in the pre- and post-partum period. Ewes with similar age and weight, primiparas in the final stage of gestation, totaling 24 animals were selected. Sampling days were 10 and 2 for pre-partum and 2, 6, and 12 days for post-partum to evaluate total proteins, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea levels, in addition to thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Feca...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 15, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

VIP-loaded PLGA as an anti-asthma nanodrug candidate
Abstract Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer, can effectively protect encapsulated peptides from enzymatic degradation. PLGA was approved by FDA as a safe drug delivery system suitable for inhalation administration. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino-acid peptide, displays anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic effects, which can be considered as a new therapeutic option to control and treat asthma. Because of in vivo enzymatic degradation of VIP including in the lung, there is a need for an applicable delivery system. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to prepare V...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 14, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The effect of Iresine herbstii Hook on some haematological parameters of experimentally induced anaemic rats
Abstract Iresine herbstii is fed to livestock in South-eastern Nigeria in the belief that it boosts their blood supply. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the methanolic extract of I. herbstii Hook on some blood parameters of experimentally induced anaemic albino rats. For acute toxicity study, graded doses of the methanolic leaf extract of I. herbstii at 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg were administered orally to rats randomly allotted to six groups of three animals each and signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h. To evaluate its haematological effects, 100, 200, an...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 14, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Abnormal gene expression leads to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients in Bihar
Abstract With its highest mortality rate, the breast cancer outruns other gynecological cancers. For a long time, the breast cancer was associated with poor prognosis. But with the advent of analysis of expression level of different protein receptors (ER/PR and Her-2/neu) with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC) has ushered us to a new era of treatment of cancer called immunotherapy. Tissues sampled from 167 breast cancer patients at pathology labs of Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Center, S S Hospital and Research Institute and NMCH, Patna, Bihar, India, were processed by a routine protocol. ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Removal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from in vitro culture modulates testosterone synthesis in bovine
Abstract Niche cells, encompassing spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and controlling their development are believed to have a reciprocal communication with SSCs. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the elimination of SSCs on testosterone production and genes contributing to testosterone synthesis. Following isolation, bovine testicular cells were cultured for 12 days on extracellular matrix-coated plates. In the germ cell-removed group, the SSCs were removed from the in vitro culture using differential plating; however, in the control group, no intervention in the culture was performed. T...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 12, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pustular rumenitis associated with epithelial akeratosis, dyskeratosis, and parakeratosis in steers: report of two cases
Abstract Although occurrence of inflammatory lesions of the rumen due to a variety of factors is relatively common in the bovine species, there are a limited number of actually published reports on ruminal pustules. In order to deepen knowledge of the pathological process involving inflammatory rumen disorders in this species, histopathological investigations were performed on ruminal pustules in two 2-year-old steers which were slaughtered conventionally for food. On postmortem gross examination of the steers’ rumen, the mucosal surface of the ventral sac revealed focal areas of irregular arrangement, disco...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for attenuation of CNS by aqueous extract from Citrus aurantium (CaL) flowers in rat
Abstract Anxiety disorders have a relatively high prevalence in most countries. Chemical drugs used to treat anxiety have some unwanted side effects. Therefore, using medicinal plants is useful. Citrus aurantium L. (CaL) flowers are used in Iran to treat anxiety as a folk medicine. We investigated its anxiolytic and sedative effects. We used elevated plus maze and pentobarbital sodium sleeping time tests to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effects of CaL flowers on CNS, respectively. In addition, by using extracellular single unit recording technique, we evaluated the depressant action of CaL on neuronal activ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 6, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Factors affecting the molluscicidal activity of Asparagus densiflorus and Oreopanax guatemalensis plants and Difenoconazole fungicide on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails
Abstract Many factors may enhance or suppress the molluscicidal activity regardless of their origin. The present study aims to determine the molluscicidal activity of two plants, namely Asparagus densiflorus and Oreopanax guatemalensis besides, Difenoconazole fungicide against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, miracidia and cercariae. The most effective agent was Difenoconazole followed by A. densiflorus and O. guatemalensis against B. alexandrina snails, where the LC90 values after 24 h of exposure reached 2.5, 102, and 188 ppm, respectively. Toxicity of tested agents was more pronounced at high temperat...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 5, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Jimson weed ( Datura stramonium L.) alkaloid extracts modulate cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activities in vitro: possible modulatory effect on neuronal function
This study examined the effect of alkaloid extracts from the leaf and fruit of Jimson weed on critical enzymes of the monoaminergic [monoamine oxidase (MAO)] and cholinergic [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] systems of neurotransmission. Alkaloid extracts were prepared by solvent extraction method and their interaction with the activities of MAO, AChE, and BChE were assessed (in vitro). Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) characterization of the extracts was also carried out. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited the activity of the enzymes assayed for in a con...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sorghum stem extract modulates Na + /K + -ATPase, ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and acetylcholinesterase activities
This study sought to assess the antioxidant activity and effects of phenolic extract from sorghum stem (Sorghum bicolor) on some cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) and purinergic (Na+/K+-ATPase and ecto-5′-nucleotidase) enzymes associated with neurological conditions. Phenolic-rich extract was prepared using methanol: 1 N HCl (1:1, v/v) mixture and characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). In vitro tests were used to investigate the effects of the phenolic extract on AChE, Na+/K+-ATPase, and ecto-5′-nucleotidase activities. Furthermore, the hydroxyl ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Porcine circovirus type 2 expression in the brain of neonatal piglets with congenital tremor
Abstract The present study demonstrates the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen in the brains of neonatal piglets with congenital tremor. Piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor were collected from a commercial swine herd for post-mortem examination. Brain tissue was collected from the piglets and was fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and 4-μm thick sections were obtained. The PCV2 antigens were identified in the paraffin-embedded brain tissue sections by immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. The piglet preweaning mortality rates from birth to 14 ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of two medicinal plant species, Mentha piperita and Stevia rebaudiana , cultivated in Iran
Abstract Mentha piperita (peppermint) and Stevia rebaudiana (stevia) are now widespread in cultivation worldwide. However, reports about the contents of these two plant species are scarce. To establish the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity of these plants by ferric ion-reducing activity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, local plants were harvested in flowering stage. Samples without any previous treatments were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the polyphenolic contents. Also, their antioxidant properties were determined usi...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Report of diabetes mellitus remission in a cat by orally administered glibenclamide
Abstract Clinical remission of diabetes mellitus which is one of the most commonly encountered endocrine diseases in cats is not very frequent. A 3-year-old male castrated Russian Blue cat with a history of excessive water intake and urination as well as weight loss, lethargy, and unkempt hair coat was referred to us. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed based on clinical signs of laboratory findings in this cat. The cat was completely treated in six weeks by orally administered glibenclamide. Based on previously reported studies many factors are involved in the remission of diabetes. Most of these are due to th...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Evaluation of hepatic markers and body weight gain in growing and finishing steers
Conclusions These findings suggest that hepatic markers in steers are influenced by production stages and improve the knowledge about the effect of growing and finishing phases on their hepatic markers. Furthermore, it underlies the importance of monitoring body weight gain in order to obtain a maximizing profitability. (Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The β-1,3-glucan alleviated the hepatotoxicity induced by combination of fipronil and lead in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)
In this study, we tested the β-1,3-glucan role against fipronil and lead-induced hepatotoxicity in Cyprinus carpio. Two hundred seventy C. carpio were divided into six groups: control, β-1,3-glucan (0.1 %), fipronil (0.0428 mg/L), lead nitrate (7.3 mg/L), coadministered (fipronil and lead), and coadministered β-1,3-glucan treated. Macrocytic hypochromic anemia with significant decrease in the hepatic antioxidant activities (catalase—CAT, superoxide dismutase—SOD, and glutathione—GSH) and significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was observed in fipronil, lead, a...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Changes in reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease
The objective of this study was to determine oxidative stress in CKD cats by measuring changes in reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thirteen clinically normal client-owned aged-matched cats and 23 naturally occurring CKD cats were included. Completed blood count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, GSH, GPx, GSSG, and GSH/GSSG ratio were measured on the first day of diagnosis. The results showed that CKD cats had significantly lower GSH, GPx, and GS...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The histomorphometric and histopathologic effect of methionine on the epidermis and dermis layers of skin in rat
Abstract The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of epidermis (the outermost layer of cells consisting mainly of keratinized, stratified, squamous epithelium) and dermis (a layer of connective tissue composed of cells and fibrils such as collagen bundles). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of excess methionine on the histomorphology and histomorphometry of collagen bundles in these layers. Eighty, 9–10-week old, male rats were randomly allocated into eight equal groups. Each group received one of the following treatments: L-methionine (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg B.W.), vitamin C...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Effects of disinfection of the umbilical cord of piglets on healing and albumin levels
The objective was to assess the effects of using drying powder and iodine solution during navel cords disinfection handling on performance and blood variables (total protein, albumin, and globulin) in newborn piglets. Four treatments were used: (1) tie, cut, and iodine (TCI); (2) tie, cut, and spread drying powder (TCDP); (3) tie, cut, iodine, and drying powder (TCIDP); and (4) no navel cord handling (NNCH). There were five sow used and from each one, eight piglets were chosen within each parturition, with two piglets by treatment (one male and one female), totaling 10 repetitions per treatment. During the first, second, a...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 18, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The protective effects of the methanolic root bark extract of Afzelia africana on conception and fetal development in diabetic female rats
This study was carried out to determine the protective effect of methanolic root bark extract of Afzelia africana on conception and fetal development in alloxan-induced diabetic female rats. Twenty-four female rats were used in this study and were assigned into four groups of six rats each using random sampling. Diabetes was induced in groups 1, 2, and 3 but not induced in group 4. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 250 mg/kg of the extract and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg), respectively while groups 3 and 4 were treated with distilled water (10 ml/kg). From the study, there were significant increases (p &thi...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Is Wilms’ tumor gene 1 a useful biomarker for detecting minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia (BCR-ABL1-p210-positive) patients?
Abstract Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by the presence of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Wilms’ tumor gene 1 (WT1) plays an important role in leukemogenesis and can be useful as a molecular marker to detect minimal residual disease (MRD). The goal of this study was to evaluate WT1 expression and compare it with BCR-ABL1 expression in peripheral blood (PB) of CML patients, in order to explore the utility of WT1 as an alternative marker for MRD detection. Eighteen newly diagnosed CML patients (BCR-ABL1-p210-positive), 16 chronic CML patients with a his...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 15, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Blood biochemistry responses of ducks infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus
This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), KUDU 113 strain. One hundred ducklings were used for the study. The ducks were obtained at a week old and randomly divided into three groups. One group was vaccinated against NDV with La Sota vaccine at 3 weeks of age. The vaccinated and unvaccinated groups of 30 ducks each were subsequently challenged with the velogenic NDV after 6 weeks of brooding, while the control group of 40 ducks was not vaccinated and not challenged. Blood samples w...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 10, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Myiasis caused by Cephalopina titillator (Diptera: Oestridae) in camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) of semi-arid areas in Iran: distribution and associated risk factors
Abstract Cephalopina titillator is a common obligate parasite of camel in Africa and Asia. Camel bot fly causes severe economic losses to the camel such as reduction of milk production and fertility, diminution of physiological functions, difficulty in breathing, and tissue damage. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of C. titillator infestation in camels slaughtered in the abattoir of Yazd, center of Iran. Three hundred slaughtered camels were accurately inspected for presence of C. titillator larvae. The last abdominal ring of larvae was carefully sectio...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Metabolic adaptation after experimental clinical pregnancy toxemia in ewes
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of induction of clinical ketosis or pregnancy toxemia (PT) and subsequent effects on serum biochemical factors. Seven native pregnant ewes aged 3–4 years, 45–50 kg weight with BCS of 3.5–4 on a 0–5 scale were selected. The pregnancy of ewes was confirmed by ultrasound examination. Blood samples were harvested from the jugular vein before and after the induction of PT by food deprivation. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), BUN, glucose, calcium, total protein, and cortisol concentrations were measured. Serum...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Herbal remedies against gastric cancer in experimental rats
Abstract Gastric cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer worldwide, which claims more than 700,000 lives every year. However, the current chemical and surgical management of this mortal cancer remains far from successful. A recent safe approach to preventing or treating tumorigenesis has been the re-introduction of traditional herbal medicine, taking advantage of efficient, yet natural healthy products. In this review, we have focused on a number of such popular agents, mostly introduced by the Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which have exhibited highly significant preventive/therapeutic effects against var...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Postpartum pathology in Yankasa ewes experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi during pregnancy
(Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 3, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Serum protein electrophoresis in Galgos
Abstract The Galgo is a member of the sighthound family and is one of the most popular breeds in Spain. Several sighthound breeds have laboratory values that are outside the reference intervals established for the general population of dogs. Serum protein electrophoresis has not been studied in Galgos and they are often interpreted as if they were Greyhounds. However, recent studies suggest that each sighthound breed presents its own specific laboratory features, and the extrapolation of the information described in Greyhounds to other sighthound breeds could lead to misdiagnoses. The aims of this study were as f...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a potential biomarker for early detection of acute renal failure
The objective of this research was to assess the ability of NGAL as a biomarker of acute renal failure by comparing the levels of serum urea and creatinine in rats with induced acute renal failure. Twelve male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), 2 months of age with a body weight (BW) of 150–200 g, were allocated into two groups. Group I (n = 2), as the control group, were injected with sterile distilled water 10 mL/kg BW intramuscularly and group II (n = 10) were injected with 50 % glycerol 10 mL/kg BW intramuscular, the rats in all group had been fasting 12 h b...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Anesthetic effect of xylazine and benzocaine on hematological parameters and stress indicators of juvenile grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)
In this study, we investigated the efficacies of two anesthetics agents, xylazine and benzocaine, then compared hematological parameters and biochemical indices under optimum concentrations of two anesthetics with clove oil on juvenile grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The optimum concentrations were determined as 0.3 mg/l for xylazine and 50 mg/l for benzocaine. Significant increases in hematological parameters including white blood cell, red blood cell, and hematocrit were observed for the two anesthetics agents compared to clove oil. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations increased significant...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The identification of bacterial flora in oral cavity of snakes
This study was carried out to determine bacterial agents existing in the oral cavity of venomous and non-venomous snakes in Kashan, Iran. Using sterile swabs, the samples were obtained in two stages from the oral cavity of 11 venomous and non-venomous snakes before feeding and 3 weeks later. Then, they were cultured on Mac Conkey blood agar mediums. Gram staining of all samples was performed. Appropriate mediums and tests were fulfilled to determine gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The highest rate of infection belonged to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (34.5 %) and the lowest rate was for Pseudomonas...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - March 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Ontogenetic study of enteric xanthine oxidase in the chick embryos: focus on the late embryogenesis
Abstract Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a member of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) enzyme system that catalyses the terminal reactions of purine degradation to uric acid (UA). The synthesis of both antioxidant (i.e. UA) and numerous free radicals makes XO an important regulator of the cellular redox potential involved in normal foetal development. The aim of this study was to investigate ontogenetic changes of enteric XO activity and UA content during the last week of chick embryonic development. Fertilized eggs (n = 180) of layer-breeder (Bovans White) and broiler-breeder hens (Ross 308) were incubated at ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Effect of lactation induction on milk production and composition, oxidative and antioxidant status, and biochemical variables
This study aimed to induce lactation in Lacaune sheep and to verify its influence on milk production and composition, oxidative/antioxidant profile, and biochemical variables in serum and milk. A group of ewes (group A, n = 7) was induced with estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)) and progesterone (1.25 mg/kg BW) on days 1 to 7, bovine somatotropin (BST; 250 mg/animal) on days 11 and 40, as well as dexamethasone (16 mg/day) on days 19, 20, and 21. For comparison, another group of pregnant ewes was used as control (group B, n = 5). Blood and milk samples were collected for bi...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - February 27, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Biochemical profiles of Indian donkey population located in six different agro-climatic zones
This study indicated that normal biochemical values of different indices for a particular population should not be used as such for disease prognosis, diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of other donkey population belonging to other agro-climatic zone having different nutritional and managemental practices. (Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - February 27, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Hematological and biochemical reference intervals for Bothrops asper and Crotalus simus (Serpentes: Viperidae), maintained in captivity for venom extraction
This study presents hematological and biochemical reference intervals (RIs) for two species of viper snakes (Bothrops asper and Crotalus simus), which are the first of their type particularly for these two species maintained in captivity and for extraction of venom purposes. A total of 77 snakes were used in developing the study; specifically 39 B. asper and 38 C. simus snakes. Blood samples were obtained by puncturing the caudal vein, and hematological tests were performed manually by two independent technicians. Plasma biochemistry parameters were determined by an automatized analyzer. There are hematological differences...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - February 25, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Haematological and acute-phase response of dogs with experimental skin Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection to treatment with antibiotic and parthenolide
Abstract Changes in white blood cells, leukogram patterns, the positive acute-phase protein (APP) fibrinogen and negative APPs (albumin and arylesterase) were monitored to evaluate their potential as sensitive indicators throughout the course of therapy in canine skin Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The study was performed on 15 male mixed-breed dogs, divided in three groups of 5 dogs each. Dogs from group A were injected subcutaneously with P. aeruginosa bacterial culture (1 × 108 CFU/mL) at a dose of 0.3 mL/kg and treated with enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, s.c.) on post infection ho...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - February 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of goat milk caseins
In this study, peptide fragments were produced from goat milk casein by proteolytic enzymes trypsin and ficin and combination of both enzymes, and their antimicrobial activity was investigated. After enzymatic treatments, antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was enhanced. The hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration. The obtained hydrolysate by ficin (molecular weight (MW)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - February 20, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research