[PERSPECTIVES] Hepatitis D Virus Coinfection and Superinfection
HDV is a defective RNA pathogen requiring the simultaneous presence of HBV to complete its life cycle. Two major specific patterns of infection have been described: the coinfection with HDV and HBV of a susceptible, anti-HBs-negative individual, or the HDV superinfection of a chronic HBV carrier. Coinfection mostly leads to the eradication of both agents, whereas the majority of patients with HDV superinfection evolve to chronic HDV infection and hepatitis. Chronic HDV infection worsens the preexisting HBV-related liver damage. HDV-associated chronic liver disease (chronic hepatitis D) is characterized by necroinflammation...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Negro, F. Tags: Hepatitis B and Delta Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Must an Inventor "Possess" an Invention to Patent It?
The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. (Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine)
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Woessner, W. D., Chadwick, R. A. Tags: Intellectual Property in Molecular Medicine PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Antifungal Clinical Trials and Guidelines: What We Know and Do Not Know
This article will review some of the major advances, as well as significant challenges that remain in the management of invasive mycoses. (Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine)
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Pappas, P. G. Tags: Human Fungal Pathogens PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Fungal Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Concomitant with the increased prevalence of immunocompromised persons, invasive fungal infections have become considerably more frequent in the last 50 years. High mortality rates caused by invasive mycoses and high morbidity because of intractable mucosal infections have created an unmet need for innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against fungal pathogens. Several immunotherapeutics and vaccines are in development to address this need, although one has yet to reach the clinic. This review focuses on past and current immunotherapeutic and vaccine strategies being tested to either prevent or treat fungal in...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Santos, E., Levitz, S. M. Tags: Human Fungal Pathogens PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Manipulation of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Over the past 20 years, there has been an emerging appreciation about the role of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) to control and eradicate pathogens. Likewise, there have been significant advances in dissecting the mechanisms involved in the microbial subversion of MPS cells, mainly affecting their differentiation and effector functions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial pathogen that represents an enigma to the field because of its remarkable ability to thrive in humans. One reason is that M. tuberculosis renders a defective MPS compartment, which is perhaps the most ingenious strategy for survival ...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Lugo-Villarino, G., Neyrolles, O. Tags: Tuberculosis PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Autophagy in Tuberculosis
Autophagy as an immune mechanism controls inflammation and acts as a cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An equally significant role of autophagy is its anti-inflammatory and tissue-sparing function. This combination of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions prevents active disease in animal models. In human populations, genetic links between autophagy, inflammatory bowel disease, and susceptibility to tuberculosis provide further support to these combined roles of autophagy. The autophagic control of M. tuberculosis and prevention of progressive disease provide...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Deretic, V. Tags: Tuberculosis PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Curing Color Blindness--Mice and Nonhuman Primates
It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates,...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Neitz, M., Neitz, J. Tags: Retinal Disorders: Genetic Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Gene Therapy for PRPH2-Associated Ocular Disease: Challenges and Prospects
The peripherin-2 (PRPH2) gene encodes a photoreceptor-specific tetraspanin protein called peripherin-2/retinal degeneration slow (RDS), which is critical for the formation and maintenance of rod and cone outer segments. Over 90 different disease-causing mutations in PRPH2 have been identified, which cause a variety of forms of retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. Given the disease burden associated with PRPH2 mutations, the gene has long been a focus for preclinical gene therapy studies. Adeno-associated viruses and compacted DNA nanoparticles carrying PRPH2 have been successfully used to mediate improvement in t...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Conley, S. M., Naash, M. I. Tags: Retinal Disorders: Genetic Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Desmosomes: Regulators of Cellular Signaling and Adhesion in Epidermal Health and Disease
Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that mediate cell–cell adhesion and anchor the intermediate filament network to the plasma membrane, providing mechanical resilience to tissues such as the epidermis and heart. In addition to their critical roles in adhesion, desmosomal proteins are emerging as mediators of cell signaling important for proper cell and tissue functions. In this review we highlight what is known about desmosomal proteins regulating adhesion and signaling in healthy skin—in morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis, wound healing, and protection against environmental damage. We also disc...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Johnson, J. L., Najor, N. A., Green, K. J. Tags: The Skin and Its Diseases PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Dermatology: Potentials, Advances, and Limitations
The discovery of methods for reprogramming adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has raised the possibility of producing truly personalized treatment options for numerous diseases. Similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs can give rise to any cell type in the body and are amenable to genetic correction by homologous recombination. These ESC properties of iPSCs allow for the development of permanent corrective therapies for many currently incurable disorders, including inherited skin diseases, without using embryonic tissues or oocytes. Here, we review recent progress and limitations of iPSC r...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Bilousova, G., Roop, D. R. Tags: The Skin and Its Diseases PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] How to Make a Heart Valve: From Embryonic Development to Bioengineering of Living Valve Substitutes
Cardiac valve disease is a significant cause of ill health and death worldwide, and valve replacement remains one of the most common cardiac interventions in high-income economies. Despite major advances in surgical treatment, long-term therapy remains inadequate because none of the current valve substitutes have the potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth of native structures. Valve development is coordinated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways and environmental cues that cause disease when perturbed. Cardiac valves develop from endocardial cushions that become populated by valve precursor mesenchyme f...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: MacGrogan, D., Luxan, G., Driessen-Mol, A., Bouten, C., Baaijens, F., de la Pompa, J. L. Tags: The Biology of Heart Disease PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

[PERSPECTIVES] Genetic Networks Governing Heart Development
Animal genomes contain a code for construction of the body plan from a fertilized egg. Understanding how genome information is deciphered to create the complex multilayered regulatory systems that drive organismal development, and which become altered in disease, is one of the greatest challenges in the biological sciences. The development of methods that effectively represent and communicate the complexity inherent in gene regulatory networks remains a major barrier. This review introduces the philosophy of systems biology and discusses recent progress in understanding the development of the heart at a systems biology lev...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Waardenberg, A. J., Ramialison, M., Bouveret, R., Harvey, R. P. Tags: The Biology of Heart Disease PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research